Science.gov

Sample records for allergic reactions caused

  1. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  2. [Allergic reactions caused by latex: warning to health workers].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Lopes, M H

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a bibliographic survey is made of all articles, published during the last few years, dealing with allergic reactions to latex. The first article on allergic reactions associated with latex was published in Britain, in 1979. Since then, the number of cases reported have increased (Barton, 1993). Type I allergic reaction (immediate reaction) and Type IV (delayed reaction) are part of the latex allergic process (Steelman, 1995). Contact allergy is due to inadequate washing during manufacture, which results in the retention of water-soluble proteins that cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. A wide variety of allergic reactions that vary from contact dermatitis to anaphylatic shock are described in literature. These finding show that a health team must know the probable implications of latex allergy.

  3. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  4. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary.

  5. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is right for you. In many instances, allergy immunotherapy in the form of shots or tablets is an effective, cost-efficient long term treatment approach. While there is not yet ... Healthy Tips • Allergy symptoms are the result of a chain reaction ...

  6. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  7. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Medications and drug allergic reactions TTR Share | Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions This article has been ... by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Everyone reacts to medications differently. One person may develop a rash while ...

  8. [Can cross-allergic reactions to food antigens be the cause of recurrent pancreatitis in children with food allergies?].

    PubMed

    Subbotina, O A; Geppe, N A; Primak, E A; Surikova, O A; Orekhova, V P

    2014-01-01

    Drug and food allergy in 80% of cases are the cause of duodenal inflammation disrupting the function of the pancreatic ducts. However, in some cases, elimination diet in patients with food allergy does not provide a sufficient effect. The article shows the effect of cross-allergic reactions on recurrent pancreatitis in 28 children with food allergy (mean age 11.7 +/- 2.9 years). As an additional diagnostic criterion the coefficient of degranulation of mast cell in the intestinal mucosa (the ratio of degranulated forms to granulated) was determined, through which the effect of cross-allergic reactions (between food antigens and drugs of animal origin) on the duration and frequency of exacerbations of chronic pancreatitis in children with food sensitization has been shown. The exception of enzyme preparations for children with sensitization to pork and exception of eubiotics prepared using sucrose-gelatin-milk medium for children with sensitization to cow's milk and beef led to feel better in a shorter time (2-3 days) and to reduce the frequency of relapses. Catamnesis observation for 3 years showed that the incidence of recurrent exacerbations of the disease in 11 children with excepted cross-allergic reactions in the first year of follow-up was 9.1%, in the second year--9.1% and in the third year--0%, while in control group (17 children) the frequency of exacerbations was respectively 23.5; 35.3; 35.3%. In patients of the main group there was a slight overall increase of mast cells in the intestinal mucosa from 211.7 to 230.2 mm2 (p > 0.05) with decreasing of degranulated forms from 163.6 to 138.71 mm2 (p > 0.05) and significant increase of granulated forms from 47.41 to 91.51 mm2 (p < 0.05), resulting in a significant decrease in mast cells degranulation coefficient from 3.2 +/- 0.62/mm2 to 1.24 +/- 0.26/mm2 (p < 0.0001). Thus, duodenal etiology of recurrent pancreatitis caused by exposure to food antigens or cross-allergic reactions can be diagnosed with an

  9. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    PubMed

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus.

  10. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  11. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy.

  12. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  13. [Expression of allergic reactions to oxaliplatin].

    PubMed

    Arii, Daisuke; Ikeno, Yohei; Murooka, Kunihiko; Nojima, Michio; Kidokoro, Akio

    2012-04-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP), a platinum-containing antineoplastic agent, is a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, it is often difficult to continue with its treatment because of the expression of allergic reactions. This study was an investigation of the expression of allergic reactions resulting from administration of L-OHP. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing therapeutic regimens including L-OHP, from April 2009 to November 2010 in Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital. The results showed that allergic reactions were expressed in 15 out of 81 patients (18. 5%). A high correlation was found between the time from administration until expression of the allergic reaction, and the number of treatment courses (r=-0. 521, p=0. 047). When patient characteristics were compared between the allergic reaction group and the no-reaction group, it was suggested that differences due to the regimen or the presence or absence of liver metastasis, which is considered to be related to drug metabolism, had no effect. Items showing significant differences were sexual difference(p=0. 022)and the effect of changes depending on the dose form of L-OHP(p=0. 003). It was possible to continue treatment with L-OHP in six patients even after expression of allergic reactions. Anti-allergy measures such as additional administration of steroids or antihistamines were suggested to be useful for continuing treatment.

  14. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  15. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  16. Diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Joseph A; Parekh, Nirav N; Desai, Naman S

    2014-10-01

    Wound closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey USA) has recently increased in popularity across a wide spectrum of physicians ranging from surgeons to emergency medicine practitioners. Generally, very few complications are associated with Dermabond and are usually related to application techniques. Uncommonly, patients present with allergic reactions to the adhesive compounds; these allergies are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis or another infectious process, and are incorrectly treated. This report describes a rare case of a diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond following its use to close a surgical incision, its prompt identification, and treatment after presentation to an emergency department.

  17. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  18. Scratching the surface of allergic transfusion reactions

    PubMed Central

    Savage, William J; Tobian, Aaron AR; Savage, Jessica H; Wood, Robert A; Schroeder, John T; Ness, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) are a spectrum of hypersensitivity reactions that are the most common adverse reaction to platelets and plasma, occurring in up to 2% of transfusions. Despite the ubiquity of these reactions, little is known about their mechanism. In a small subset of severe reactions, specific antibody has been implicated as causal, although this mechanism does not explain all ATRs. Evidence suggests that donor, product, and recipient factors are involved, and it is possible that many ATRs are multi-factorial. Further understanding of the mechanisms of ATRs is necessary so that rationally designed and cost-effective prevention measures can be developed. PMID:22998777

  19. Oral Muscle Relaxant May Induce Immediate Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Gyu-Young; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Moon, Jae-Young; Ye, Young-Min; Shim, Jae-Jeong; Kang, Kyung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Eperisone and afloqualone act by relaxing both skeletal and vascular smooth muscles to improve circulation and suppress pain reflex. These drugs are typically prescribed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as painkillers. However, there have been no reports on serious adverse reactions to oral muscle relaxants; and this is the first report to describe three allergic reactions caused by eperisone and afloqualone. All three patients had histories of allergic reactions after oral intake of multiple painkillers, including oral muscle relaxants and NSAIDs, for chronic muscle pain. An open-label oral challenge test was performed with each drug to confirm which drugs caused the systemic reactions. All patients experienced the same reactions within one hour after oral intake of eperisone or afloqualone. The severity of these reactions ranged from laryngeal edema to hypotension. To confirm that the systemic reaction was caused by eperisone or afloqualone, skin prick testing and intradermal skin tests were performed with eperisone or afloqualone extract in vivo, and basophil activity tests were performed after stimulation with these drugs in vitro. In one patient with laryngeal edema, the intradermal test with afloqualone extract had a positive result, and CD63 expression levels on basophils increased in a dose-dependent manner by stimulation with afloqualone. We report three allergic reactions caused by oral muscle relaxants that might be mediated by non-immunoglobulin E-mediated responses. Since oral muscle relaxants such as eperisone and afloqualone are commonly prescribed for chronic muscle pain and can induce severe allergic reactions, we should prescribe them carefully. PMID:22665359

  20. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  1. [Allergic reactions to implant materials].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2003-01-01

    The extent of the immune response upon implantation of metallic devices depends on the individual reactivity and on material characteristics. If specific T-cellular sensitization occurs or an allergy to metal preexists, hypersensitive reactions to implant components may develop. They include eczema, impaired wound healing, and sterile osteomyelitis. The existence of allergy-induced implant loosening is still an open question. Further improvement of clinical allergological diagnostics, better understanding of peri-implantar immune reactions, and interdisciplinary collection of epidemiological data concerning allergy to implants will contribute to a better knowledge about tolerance of implant material in humans.

  2. Allergic Reactions to Dental Materials-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Radhika; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Utility of various dental materials ranging from diagnosis to rehabilitation for the management of oral diseases are not devoid of posing a potential risk of inducing allergic reactions to the patient, technician and dentist. This review aims to develop a systematic approach for the selection and monitoring of dental materials available in the market thereby giving an insight to predict their risk of inducing allergic reactions. Materials and Methods Our data included 71 relevant articles which included 60 case reports, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The source of these articles was Pub Med search done with the following terms: allergies to impression materials, sodium hypochlorite, Ledermix paste, zinc oxide eugenol, formaldehyde, Latex gloves, Methyl methacrylate, fissure sealant, composites, mercury, Nickel-chromium, Titanium, polishing paste and local anaesthesia. All the relevant articles and their references were analysed. The clinical manifestations of allergy to different dental materials based on different case reports were reviewed. Results After reviewing the literature, we found that the dental material reported to cause most adverse reactions in patients is amalgam and the incidence of oral lichenoid reactions adjacent to amalgam restorations occur more often than other dental materials. Conclusion The most common allergic reactions in dental staff are allergies to latex, acrylates and formaldehyde. While polymethylmethacrylates and latex trigger delayed hypersensitivity reactions, sodium metabisulphite and nickel cause immediate reactions. Over the last few years, due to the rise in number of patients with allergies from different materials, the practicing dentists should have knowledge about documented allergies to known materials and thus avoid such allergic manifestations in the dental clinic. PMID:26557634

  3. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  4. Prevention of allergic reactions in anesthetized patients.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Crisafulli, G; Cardinale, F; Peroni, D G; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions during perioperative period are increasing and may be potentially life-threatening. Therefore, major emphasis is given to prevention. We perform a review to examine which measures should be taken to prevent reactions to products used in elective and emergency surgery. Any patient with a history of previous anaphylaxis or severe reaction during anaesthesia should be referred to allergist for detection of the offending compound. However, the identification of the triggering agent is not always feasible because of the low accuracy of diagnostic tests. In these cases and when emergency surgery is required, it should be considered to replace all drugs administered before the onset of the reaction with alternatives. Furthermore, any cross-reacting agent and latex, especially in patients belonging to populations at-risk for latex allergy should be avoided. In susceptible patients, premedication with antihistamines and corticosteroids might reduce the severity of reaction to drugs or contrast material while it is unclear whether pre-treatment decreases incidence of anaphylactic reactions. There is no evidence that premedication prevents allergic reactions to latex. Overall, physicians should not rely on the efficacy of premedication.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  6. Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumiya

    2013-02-01

    Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

  7. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  8. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible.

  9. Acute allergic reaction due to milk proteins contaminating lactose added to corticosteroid for injection.

    PubMed

    Eda, Asuka; Sugai, Kazuko; Shioya, Hiromi; Fujitsuka, Asako; Ito, Setsuko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Funabiki, Tetsunori

    2009-03-01

    We encountered two patients with severe cow's milk allergy who reacted strongly to an injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Sol-Medrol 40 mg Pfizer, Japan). They came to our hospital because of an asthmatic attack or urticaria and were treated with Sol-Medrol 40 mg. After the injection, the allergic reaction was immediate. Skin prick tests demonstrated that the beta-lactoglobulin contaminating the lactose of the drug preparation caused the immediate allergic reaction.

  10. A Rare Case of Recurrent Pacemaker Allergic Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Muhammed; Shah, Pooja; Elkhalili, Walid; Suleiman, Addi; Shaaban, Hamid; Shah, Pradip A.; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to pacemaker device components are uncommon. However, when they occur, they usually mimic pacemaker infection, which results in multiple device replacements and increased morbidity burden. Here we present a 40-year-old female with pacemaker insertion due to complete heart block and who had multiple device replacements because of allergic sensitivity to various pacemaker component-encasing materials, confirmed by allergic testing to these materials. She had complete resolution of her symptoms after replacement with gold-plated device, to which she was not allergic. PMID:26240735

  11. Clinical characteristics of an allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Liebermann, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions to dental impression materials may occur throughout dental treatment, with diverse manifestations from slight redness to severe pain and a burning mouth with total stomatitis. Patients are often unaware of these allergic reactions, which makes early identification of the cause almost impossible. In addition, symptoms usually begin after 24 hours and mostly in patients with a preexisting history of allergic responses. This report describes a patient with a suspected allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material during prosthetic rehabilitation associated with a mandibular telescopic denture. Although instances of such occurrence are rare, clinicians need to be aware of these symptoms and select materials carefully for patients with a history of allergy.

  12. Hymenopterid bites, stings, allergic reactions, and the impact of hurricanes on hymenopterid-inflicted injuries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Unrecognized anaphylactic reactions to hymenopterid stings by apids, or bees, and vespids, or wasps, are a significant cause of sudden and unanticipated deaths outdoors in young people, with and without atopic histories. Insect bites and stings, often complicated by allergic reactions or skin infections, by community-acquired pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are common sources of morbidity following hurricanes, tropical storms, and prolonged flooding. This article will review and critically analyze the descriptive epidemiology and outcomes of hymenopterid bites, stings, and allergic reactions, especially following hurricanes and prolonged flooding disasters; stratify the immunologic reactions to hymenopterid stings by clinical severity and outcomes; and present current recommendations for management, prophylaxis, and prevention of hymenopterid stings and reactions.

  13. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  14. Dissociation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis protective effect and allergic side reactions in tolerization with neuroantigen.

    PubMed

    Lichtenegger, Felix S; Kuerten, Stefanie; Faas, Susan; Boehm, Bernhard O; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V

    2007-04-15

    Administration of autoantigens under conditions that induce type 2 immunity frequently leads to protection from T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Such treatments, however, are inherently linked to the induction of IgG1 Abs and to the risk of triggering anaphylactic reactions. We studied the therapeutic benefit vs risk of immune deviation in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis of SJL mice induced by MP4, a myelin basic protein-proteolipid protein (PLP) fusion protein. MP4 administration in IFA induced type 2 T cell immunity, IgG1 Abs, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis protection, and all three were enhanced by repeat injections. Despite high Ab titers, anaphylactic side reactions were not observed when MP4 was repeatedly injected in IFA or as soluble Ag s.c. In contrast, lethal anaphylaxis was seen after s.c. injection of soluble PLP:139-151 peptide, but not when the peptide was reinjected in IFA. Therefore, the Ab response accompanying the immune therapy constituted an anaphylactic risk factor only when the autoantigen was not retained in an adjuvant and when it was small enough to be readily disseminated within the body. Taken together, our data show that treatment regimens can be designed to boost the protective type 2 T cell response while avoiding the risk of Ab-mediated allergic side effects.

  15. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in domestic environments (Domestic allergic alveolitis) caused by mouldy tapestry

    PubMed

    Schwarz; Wettengel; Kramer

    2000-03-27

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis often occures as bird fancier's lung or is caused by occupational treatment with antigenic materials. In housing environments antigens of allergic alveolitis are also found, especially mould fungi. lf a source of antigens is absent in the anamnesis and the clinical picture as well as the clinical findings are ambiguous, the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolits is delayed or unobtained. The following example shows that in spite of a detailed allergic anamnesis the source of antigens may remain occult and only an inspection of the dwelling rooms leads to an elucidation. - A sixty-one year old non-smoking women was twice admitted to hospital with a temperature of more than 39 degrees C, intense dyspnea on exertion and a strong dry cough under the persumed diagnosis pneumonia. The laboratory values showed nonspecific signs of inflammation, the blood gas analysis was changed to a heavy hypoxemia (pO subset2 49.2 mmHg) and in the chest x-ray there were seen miliary and partly reticular alterations. The chest computed tomography showed extensive densities in both upper and lower parts of the lungs and the pulmonary function test corresponded with a low-grade to middle-grade restriction (VC subsetin = 67%, TLC = 69%). A high dose of corticosteroids produced an improvement of the radiological findings and of the pulmonary function. Also the specialized diagnostic in a hospital for pulmonary diseases yielded no new knowledge, and an interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed. Only the new formation of an acute pneumonic clinical picture on the day of returning to the patients own habitation suggested a noxious substance in the domestic environment. The inspection of the rooms finally showed the source of antigen to be from a condensation water soaked, moulded tapestry on the embrasure of a small unopenable window in the bedroom just on the head of the bed. The nutritive mediums left in the rooms furnished evidence of the mould-species Penicillium

  16. Early stent thrombosis secondary to food allergic reaction: Kounis syndrome following rice pudding ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tzanis, Georgios; Bonou, Maria; Mikos, Nikolaos; Biliou, Smaragda; Koniari, Ioanna; Kounis, Nicholas G; Barbetseas, John

    2017-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of coronary spasm, acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis, with allergic reactions in the setting of mast-cell and platelet activation. In this report Kounis syndrome manifesting as stent thrombosis with left ventricular thrombus formation was triggered by a food-induced allergic reaction. The allergic reaction to food was confirmed by oral rice pudding ingredients challenge test while skin tests were inconclusive. To our knowledge, this is first report of early stent thrombosis secondary to food allergic reaction in a 70-year-old man patient who was found to have left ventricular thrombus and undiagnosed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  17. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  18. Autoinjectors Preferred for Intramuscular Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ronna L.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Motosue, Megan S.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Rudis, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. We surveyed emergency department (ED) healthcare providers regarding two methods of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine administration (autoinjector and manual injection) for the management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions and identified provider perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery. Methods This observational study adhered to survey reporting guidelines. It was performed through a Web-based survey completed by healthcare providers at an academic ED. The primary outcomes were assessment of provider perceptions and identification of the preferred IM epinephrine administration method by ED healthcare providers. Results Of 217 ED healthcare providers invited to participate, 172 (79%) completed the survey. Overall, 82% of respondents preferred the autoinjector method of epinephrine administration. Providers rated the autoinjector method more favorably for time required for training, ease of use, convenience, satisfaction with weight-based dosing, risk of dosing errors, and speed of administration (p<0.001 for all comparisons). However, manual injection use was rated more favorably for risk of provider self-injury and patient cost (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Three participants (2%) reported a finger stick injury from an epinephrine autoinjector. Conclusion ED healthcare providers preferred the autoinjector method of IM epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. Epinephrine autoinjector use may reduce barriers to epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis in the ED. PMID:27833688

  19. Consensus document on the approach to children with allergic reactions after vaccination or allergy to vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Zudaire, Luis A; Ortigosa-del Castillo, Luis; Alonso-Lebrero, Elena; Álvarez-García, Francisco J; Cortés-Álvarez, Nuria; García-Sánchez, Nuria; Martorell-Aragonés, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is identified as having had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, subsequent immunisations will probably be suspended - with the risks such a decision implies. The incidence of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5 and 1 cases/100,000 doses. Rather than the vaccine antigens as such, the causes of allergic reactions to vaccines are often residual protein components of the manufacturing process such as gelatine or egg, and less commonly yeasts or latex. Most vaccine reactions are mild and circumscribed to the injection site; although in some cases severe anaphylactic reactions can be observed. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected at vaccination, or if a child with allergy to some of the vaccine components is scheduled for vaccination, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergic process must be made. The usual vaccine components must be known in order to determine whether vaccination can be safely performed.

  20. [Consensus position document on the child with an allergic reaction after vaccination or an allergy to vaccine components].

    PubMed

    Echeverría Zudaire, L; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Alonso Lebrero, E; Álvarez García, F J; Cortés Álvarez, N; García Sánchez, N; Martorell Aragonés, A

    2015-07-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is labeled to have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, the next immunizations will probably be suspended in that child, with the risks involved in this decision. The rate of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5-1/100,000 doses. The causes of allergic reactions to vaccines, more than the vaccine itself, are often due to residual protein components in the manufacturing process, such as gelatin or egg, and rarely to yeast or latex. Most of vaccine reactions are mild, localized at the site of injection, but in some circumstances, severe anaphylactic reactions can occur. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected when vaccinating, or a child allergic to some of the vaccine components has to be vaccinated, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergy has to be made. The usual components of each vaccine should be known, in order to determine if vaccination can be performed safely on the child.

  1. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food: physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    PubMed Central

    van Os‐Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G.; Blom, W. Marty; Houben, Geert F.; Knulst, André C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get more insight into the frequency of exposure to cofactors and how often cofactors are associated with more severe symptoms in food allergic patients. Methods A questionnaire was completed by patients visiting the Allergology outpatient clinic. Patients with food allergy were included. Outcome measures were the frequency of medication use of medication groups that might act as cofactor and the frequency that physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of analgesics are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. Results Four hundred ninety‐six patients were included in the study. The frequency with which patients used one or more types of medication that might act as cofactors was 7.7%: antacids/acid neutralizing medication (5%), NSAIDs (2%), beta blockers (0.6%), angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (0.6%), and angiotensin receptor blockers (0.2%). Of all patients, 13% reported more severe symptoms to food after involvement of one or more of the cofactors: physical exercise (10%), alcohol consumption (5%), and use of analgesics (0.6%). Sixty‐five percent did not know if these cofactors caused more severe symptoms; 22% reported that these cofactors had no effect. Conclusions Only a small percentage of patients (7.7%) used medication that might aggravate food allergic reactions. Physical exercise and alcohol consumption were the most frequently reported cofactors, but occurring still in only 10% or less. PMID:27980774

  2. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  3. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin. Causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis is caused by an allergic reaction to ... affects people older than age 15. Often, the cause of the problem cannot be found even with ... vasculitis may look like necrotizing vasculitis , which can ...

  4. Barrier dysfunction caused by environmental proteases in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshiro; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2011-03-01

    Skin barrier dysfunction has emerged as a critical driving force in the initiation and exacerbation of atopic dermatitis and the "atopic march" in allergic diseases. The genetically determined barrier deficiency and barrier disruption by environmental and endogenous proteases in skin and epithelium are considered to increase the risk of sensitization to allergens and contribute to the exacerbation of allergic diseases. Sources of allergens such as mites, cockroaches, fungi, and pollen, produce or contain proteases, which are frequently themselves allergens. Staphylococcus aureus, which heavily colonizes the lesions of atopic dermatitis patients and is known to trigger a worsening of the disease, also produces extracellular proteases. Environmental proteases can cause barrier breakdown in the skin, not only in the epithelium, and stimulate various types of cells through IgE-independent mechanisms. Endogenous protease inhibitors control the functions of environmental and endogenous proteases. In this review, we focus on the barrier dysfunction caused by environmental proteases and roles of endogenous protease inhibitors in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Additionally, we examine the subsequent innate response to Th2-skewed adaptive immune reactions.

  5. Allergic contact granuloma: an uncommon reaction to pierced earrings in a child.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Lee, Jason B; Hyde, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis associated with pierced earrings typically presents as erythematous patches and plaques, with prominent spongiosis histologically. The most common inciting metal is nickel. Allergic contact granulomatous reactions to pierced earrings are rare, and are often more nodular in appearance and associated with metals other than nickel. We hereby report the first case of allergic contact granulomas associated with pierced earrings in a child.

  6. Adverse drug reactions in Sjögren's syndrome. Frequent allergic reactions and a specific trimethoprim-associated systemic reaction.

    PubMed

    Antonen, J A; Markula, K P; Pertovaara, M I; Pasternack, A I

    1999-01-01

    Trimethoprim-associated systemic reactions, including aseptic meningitis, have been reported to be very rare adverse drug reactions. Patients with Sjögren's syndrome have been overrepresented, but no epidemiological surveys of the reaction have been conducted. To study the overall frequency of adverse drug reactions, and especially trimethoprim-associated reactions, we interviewed 85 primary Sjögren's syndrome patients and compared the results with those of 45 similarly interviewed osteoarthritis patients. Antimicrobial allergy was more common among Sjögren's syndrome patients than in osteoarthritis patients (46% vs. 27%). Eleven Sjögren's syndrome patients (13%), but no osteoarthritis patient, had experienced at least a partial, non-allergic systemic reaction with trimethoprim. Of them five (6%) had had a full-blown systemic reaction including both chills/fever and headache/backache and at least one of the following: malaise, vomiting, dizziness, confusion or meningeal irritation. Our findings confirm that allergic reactions to antimicrobials are frequent in Sjögren's syndrome. In addition to allergic reactions Sjögren's syndrome patients are prone to a specific trimethoprim-associated systemic reaction. This should be remembered when prescribing antimicrobials.

  7. First report on Ambisome-associated allergic reaction in two Sudanese leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Maowia; Aboud, Mona; Kheir, Musa; Bakhiet, Sahar; Abdullah, Nazik; Ali, Ahmed; Hassan, Nadia; Elamin, Elwaleed; Elagib, Atif

    2011-10-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) are serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani parasites in Sudan. Although pentavalent antimonys are used as the first line of treatment of all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, persistent PKDL and ML patients are treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) as a second-line drug. In this work, we report the development of allergic reactions by a PKDL and a ML Sudanese patient to Ambisome. The findings warrant future close supervision of patients to be treated with the drug.

  8. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    PubMed

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  9. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  10. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Tomoko; Oiso, Naoki; Hirao, Ayaka; Kawada, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition. PMID:21173928

  11. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. The aetiology is unknown, but chemical related respiratory symptoms have been found associated with positive patch test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing and the two most severe groups of self-reported sensitivity to airborne chemicals. When adjusting for confounding, associations were weakened, and only non-allergic cutaneous reactions were significantly associated with individuals most severely affected by inhalation of airborne chemicals (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0.006). Our results suggest that individuals with self-reported chemical sensitivity show increased non-allergic cutaneous reactions based on day 2 readings of patch tests.

  12. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions.

  13. Post-marketing surveillance of immediate allergic reactions: polygeline-based versus polygeline-free pediatric TBE vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zent, Olaf; Hennig, Renald

    2004-12-16

    Scattered cases of immediate allergic reactions occurred in the nineties after widespread use of the original (polygeline-based) pediatric tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine and were reported to Pharmacovigilance, Chiron Vaccines. Although, still indicating a very rare frequency of about two cases per 100,000 doses sold, the benefit/risk assessment resulted in its withdrawal from the market in early 1998. An intensive evaluation revealed that polygeline used as a vaccine stabilizer was the most probable cause of the reported allergic reactions. Consequently, an improved pediatric TBE vaccine, free of polygeline and other protein-derived vaccine stabilizers, was developed. A post-marketing surveillance analysis covering the first two vaccination seasons after the introduction of this new pediatric TBE vaccine in early 2002 reveals a very low reporting rate of immediate allergic reactions post immunization (within the range as noted for other widely used vaccines for childhood immunization), i.e., 0.08-0.24 cases per 100,000 doses sold depending on case definition and medical assessment. In conclusion, this analysis provides post-marketing surveillance evidence that the change in the vaccine formulation, with regards to the potential risk of immediate allergic reactions, has led to an intended improvement in the vaccine's safety profile.

  14. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  15. Propylene glycol: an often unrecognized cause of allergic contact dermatitis in patients using topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Al Jasser, M; Mebuke, N; de Gannes, G C

    2011-05-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is considered to be a ubiquitous formulary ingredient used in many personal care products and pharmaceutical preparations. It is an organic compound commonly found in topical corticosteroids (CS). Cutaneous reactions to PG are mostly irritant, but allergic contact dermatitis to PG is well-documented. Cosensitization to PG and topical CS can occur, making it challenging to choose the appropriate topical CS in a PG-allergic patient. This review is aimed at guiding clinicians in the selection of a suitable topical corticosteroid when presented with patients allergic to PG.

  16. Safety of meropenem in patients reporting penicillin allergy: lack of allergic cross reactions.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Hamid, N S; Krol, V; Eisenstein, L

    2008-04-01

    Over the years, meropenem has become the mainstay of empiric therapy for serious systemic infections in critically ill patients. Although we have had extensive clinical experience since 1996 using meropenem safely in treating hundreds of patients with reported allergic reactions to penicillin without any adverse events, we have not published our experience. This study was conducted to document our clinical practice experience. Accordingly, over a 12-month period we prospectively monitored 110 patients treated with meropenem reporting penicillin allergic reactions for that 12-month period. Since early empiric therapy in such patients is essential, there is often no time for penicillin skin testing. Penicillin skin testing was not done in this "real world" clinical study. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the nature of their penicillin allergic reactions. During a 12-month period, 110 patients with non-anaphylactic (59) and anaphylactic (51) penicillin allergic reactions tolerated prolonged meropenem therapy (1-4 weeks) safely without any allergic reactions. Based on these data and our previous clinical experience, there appears to be little/no potential cross reactivity between meropenem and penicillins even in patients with a definite history of anaphylactic reactions to penicillins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study demonstrating that meropenem may be safely given to patients with known/unknown allergic reactions to penicillin, including those with anaphylactic reactions, without penicillin skin testing. We conclude that meropenem may be given safely to patients reporting a history of non-anaphylactic or anaphylactic allergic reactions to penicillins without penicillin skin testing.

  17. [Clinical and immunological analysis of 1,047 allergic reactions to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Girard, J P; Cuevas, M

    1975-07-26

    Of 1047 patients who had had an allergic reaction to penicillin established by clinical and laboratory findings, 224 were given penicillin therapy again later. One third of these patients developed a second allergic reaction to penicillin. In patients experiencing a second allergic reaction the most striking feature is a dramatic increase in the immediate reactions and especially of the anaphylactic type, and less markedly, an increase in the serum-sickness type of reaction. All the patients were skin tested with penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) and benzylpenicillin (BPO). Circulating hemagglutinating antibodies were determined and in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed in all cases. Skin tests show little change for several years. In contrast, circulating hemagglutinating antibodies disappear in half the cases within 6 months. Finally, lymphocyte stimulation with penicillin was positive in only 50% three months after onset of the allergic reaction, whereas one year later there was a 73% positive response. The best test for prediction of an allergic reaction to penicillin appears to be determination of the (high) and (low) reactors among patients with a positive skin test to PPL and BPO.

  18. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation in children.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Salvatore; Pecoraro, Rossella; Filippelli, Martina; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa; Stringari, Giovanna; Ricò, Sonia; La Rosa, Mario; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on hypersensitivity reactions after inhalation of food particles as primary cause for food allergy. This is an increasingly recognized problem in children. Reactions are commonly diagnosed in children who develop symptoms when the food is ingested. Some children tolerate the food when it is eaten but they experience reactions to airborne food particles such as peanut, cow's milk, and fish. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. Usually, respiratory manifestations include rhinoconjunctivitis, coughing, wheezing, and asthma, but in some cases even anaphylaxis has been observed. Practical approaches concerning diagnosing clinical reactivity including skin tests, serum IgE antibodies, specific provocation tests, and management have been identified. Studies are warranted to establish the accuracy of diagnostic tests as well as incidence, prevalence, and natural history of food allergy through inhalation route.

  19. Oxidized cellulose binding to allergens with a carbohydrate-binding module attenuates allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Shani, Nir; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Mruwat, Rufayda; Shoseyov, David

    2011-01-15

    Grass and mite allergens are of the main causes of allergy and asthma. A carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) represents a common motif to groups I (β-expansin) and II/III (expansin-like) grass allergens and is suggested to mediate allergen-IgE binding. House dust mite group II allergen (Der p 2 and Der f 2) structures bear strong similarity to expansin's CBM, suggesting their ability to bind carbohydrates. Thus, this study proposes the design of a carbohydrate-based treatment in which allergen binding to carbohydrate particles will promote allergen airway clearance and prevent allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to identify a polysaccharide with high allergen-binding capacities and to explore its ability to prevent allergy. Oxidized cellulose (OC) demonstrated allergen-binding capacities toward grass and mite allergens that surpassed those of any other polysaccharide examined in this study. Furthermore, inhalant preparations of OC microparticles attenuated allergic lung inflammation in rye grass-sensitized Brown Norway rats and OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Fluorescently labeled OC efficiently cleared from the mouse airways and body organs. Moreover, long-term administration of OC inhalant to Wistar rats did not result in toxicity. In conclusion, many allergens, such as grass and dust mite, contain a common CBM motif. OC demonstrates a strong and relatively specific allergen-binding capacity to CBM-containing allergens. OC's ability to attenuate allergic inflammation, together with its documented safety record, forms a firm basis for its application as an alternative treatment for prevention and relief of allergy and asthma.

  20. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  1. World Allergy Organization Systemic Allergic Reaction Grading System: Is a Modification Needed?

    PubMed

    Cox, Linda S; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Lockey, Richard F

    There is no universally accepted grading system to classify the severity of systemic allergic reactions (SARs), including anaphylaxis. Although a consensus definition for anaphylaxis was established in 2005, the signs and symptoms required to define a reaction as anaphylaxis are inconsistently applied in research and clinical practice. As a result, it is difficult to compare and evaluate safety outcomes in surveys, clinical practice and trials, and pharmacovigilance data. In 2010, the World Allergy Organization (WAO) proposed a uniform grading system to classify allergen immunotherapy SARs. The basis of the grading system is the organ system(s) involved and reaction severity. The final grade is determined by the physician/health care professional after the event is over. Although the 2010 WAO grading system was developed to classify allergen immunotherapy SARs, with appropriate modifications, it can be used to classify SARs from any cause. The purpose of this Rostrum is to present a proposed modification of the 2010 WAO SAR grading system that will make it applicable to all SARs due to any cause. The modified grading system allows for classification of less severe SARs, which may be underreported or overreported in clinical trials and surveillance studies, depending on the criteria specified for adverse event reporting. The universal use of the proposed modified SAR grading system will allow for better safety comparisons across different venues and treatment protocols.

  2. A paragonimiasis patient with allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole: successful treatment after desensitization to praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Sun Young; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae-Ik; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2011-03-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. This trematode can be treated successfully with praziquantel in more than 90% of the cases. Although praziquantel is generally well tolerated, anaphylactic reactions to this drug have been reported in a few cases. We report here a 46-year-old Korean female with paragonimiasis, presumed to be due to Paragonimus westermani, who displayed an allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole treatment. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel following a rapid desensitization procedure. Desensitization to praziquantel could be considered when no alternative drugs are available.

  3. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation

  4. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  5. Allergic reaction induced by dermal and/or respiratory exposure to low-dose phenoxyacetic acid, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Harada, Takanori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2009-07-10

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acid, and carbamate have a high risk of affecting human health, causing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma-like diseases. We used our long-term sensitization method and a local lymph node assay to examine the allergic reactions caused by several types of pesticides. BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (9 times in 3 weeks), then challenged dermally or intratracheally with 2,4-D, BRP, or furathiocarb. One day post-challenge, the mice were processed to obtain biologic materials for use in assays of total IgE levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within regional lymph nodes (LNs); and, ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs. 2,4-D-induced immune responses characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE levels in both serum and BALF; an influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1beta) in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells IgE and MHC class II production) in both auricular and the lung-associated LNs; and increased Th2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) in both auricular and the lung-associated LN cells. In contrast, BRP and furathiocarb treatment yielded, at most, non-significant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. BRP and furathiocarb induced marked proliferation of MHC Class II-positive B-cells and Th1 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) in only auricular LN cells. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a respiratory allergen and BRP and furathiocarb are contact allergens. As our protocol detected classified allergic responses to low-molecular-weight chemicals, it thus may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related allergy.

  6. Transfusion and component characteristics are not associated with allergic transfusion reactions to apheresis platelets

    PubMed Central

    Savage, William J.; Tobian, Aaron A.R.; Savage, Jessica H.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Borge, P. Dayand; Kaufman, Richard M.; Ness, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-related characteristics have been hypothesized to cause allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) but they have not been thoroughly studied. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication with the incidence and severity of ATRs. A secondary objective is to compare the risk of these attributes relative to the previously reported risk factor for aeroallergen sensitization in transfusion recipients, as measured by an aeroallergen-specific IgE antibody screen. Study Design and Methods Clinical and transfusion-related data were collected on subjects with reported ATRs and uneventful (control) apheresis platelet transfusions over a combined 21 month period at two academic medical centers. Control transfusions were selected as the next uneventful transfusion after an ATR was reported. Logistic regression, Mann-Whitney and t tests were used to assess associations with ATRs. Previously reported aeroallergen-specific IgE screening data was incorporated into a multivariable logistic regression. Results 143 ATRs and 61 control transfusions were evaluated among 168 subjects, ages 2-86 years. Infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication showed no statistically significant association with ATRs (P>0.05). Neither infusion rate nor infusion volume increased the risk of anaphylaxis vs. mucocutaneous only ATRs. Aeroallergen sensitization has previously been associated with ATRs. After controlling for transfusion-related covariates, aeroallergen sensitization remained statistically significantly associated with ATRs (OR 2.68, 95%CI: 1.26-5.69). Conclusions Transfusion and component-specific attributes are not associated with ATRs. An allergic predisposition in transfusion recipients is associated most strongly with ATR risk. PMID:25209730

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future.

  8. New occupational and environmental causes of asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Fishwick, David

    2012-12-01

    Asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) remain prevalent respiratory diseases and the cause of a significant disease burden. This article reviews the recent occupational and environmental causes described for these conditions. Even over the limited time spam addressed by this article, novel agents and new data relating to already suggested causes have been described. Various types of work tasks or exposures are described that appear to cause both asthma and EAA. Isocyanates, the best example of dual potential to cause asthma and EAA are discussed, as is the new understanding of the role metal-working fluids play when causing respiratory diseases.

  9. Cross-allergic reactions to legumes in lupin and fenugreek-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Vinje, N E; Namork, E; Løvik, M

    2012-10-01

    Several legumes may induce allergy, and there is extensive serological cross-reactivity among legumes. This cross-reactivity has traditionally been regarded to have limited clinical relevance. However, the introduction of novel legumes to Western countries may have changed this pattern, and in some studies cross-allergy to lupin has been reported in more than 60% of peanut-allergic patients. We wanted to explore cross-reactions among legumes using two newly established mouse models of food allergy. Mice were immunized perorally with fenugreek or lupin with cholera toxin as adjuvant. The mice were challenged with high doses of fenugreek, lupin, peanut or soy, and signs of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Cross-allergic mechanisms were investigated using serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), antibody responses, immunoblotting and ex vivo production of cytokines by spleen cells. Signs of cross-allergy were observed for all the tested legumes in both models. The cross-allergic symptoms were milder and affected fewer mice than the primary allergic responses. The cross-allergy was reflected to a certain extent in the antibody and T-cell responses, but not in serum MMCP-1 levels. Cross-allergy to peanut, soy, fenugreek and lupin was observed in lupin-sensitized and fenugreek-sensitized mice. Differences in serological responses between primary allergy and cross-allergy might be due to mediation through different immune mechanisms or reflect different epitope affinity to IgE. These differences need to be further investigated.

  10. Comparison of allergic reactions to intravenous and intramuscular pegaspargase in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, William C; Clark, Dana; Senn, Stacy L; Cash, W Thomas; Gillespie, Scott E; McCracken, Courtney E; Keller, Frank G; Lew, Glen

    2014-05-01

    Pegaspargase (PEG) is a standard component of therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because PEG preparations are bacterially derived, they are highly immunogenic. PEG has traditionally been delivered intramuscularly (IM), but over the last several years, more PEG has been given intravenously (IV) in order to provide a less painful and more convenient means of delivery. However, there are limited data comparing allergic reactions between IV and IM PEG recipients, especially in a large cohort of patients. We reviewed the charts of pediatric ALL patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 who received PEG at our institution and compared the incidence, time to onset of symptoms, reaction grade, and hospitalization rate for patients who had allergic reactions to PEG. Of 318 evaluable patients, 159 received IV and 159 received IM PEG. Thirty-one (19.5%) IV patients had an allergic reaction, compared to 17 (10.7%) IM patients (P = .028). Time to onset of symptoms was ≤ 30 minutes for 26 of 27 evaluable IV patients (96.3%) versus only two of 11 evaluable IM patients (18.2%; P < .001). Four of 31 IV patients (12.9%) and six of 17 IM patients (35.5%) required hospitalization (P = .134). There is increased incidence of allergy in patients who received IV PEG compared to IM. Grade of reaction was similar between IV and IM, but allergic reactions to IV PEG had a more rapid onset. While the risk of allergy may be increased, IV delivery appears to have an acceptable safety profile for administration in ALL patients.

  11. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA analysis is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding analysis, and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and additional therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA molecules. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with reduction in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.

  12. Tinea faciei by Microsporum gypseum mimicking allergic reaction following cosmetic tattooing of the eyebrows.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Sumiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Suzaki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Ninomiya, Junya; Tanaka, Masaru; Harada, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji; Uchida, Hinako

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old healthy female patient presented with well defined itchy erythematous lesions on the area of her eyebrows. Her eyebrows had been tattooed two months before her visit to us. The lesions had previously been treated by application of steroid ointment and anti-histamine and steroid tablets by mouth without success. We suspected the lesions to be contact dermatitis caused by some metal element contained in the dye used for tattooing. Treatment was continued for two weeks, but the lesions spread to her cheeks and forehead. No fungal element was found from the lesions by direct microscopy at this stage. The patch-testing to 20 metal substances on her skin showed no allergic reaction. After one more week of treatment, we reexamined the scale taken from the lesions by direct microscopy, and fungal elements were found at that time. Microsporum (M.) gypseum was isolated from the scale taken from the lesions. The lesions cleared after treatment of 11 weeks' oral intake of itraconazole 100mg daily. It was found that the patient was accustomed to sleep with her dog, a Chihuahua. On examination by a veterinarian, no skin lesions were found on the dog. We speculate that the paws of the dog might have carried soil contaminated by M. gypseum, a geophilic fungus, to the area of her eyebrows which had minor trauma after being tattooed.

  13. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by acrylic monomer in a denture.

    PubMed

    Koutis, D; Freeman, S

    2001-08-01

    A 71-year-old edentulous man developed a severely painful red mouth at sites of contact with a new denture. Patch testing showed allergy to samples of the denture material and to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Patch testing to methyl methacrylate was negative. Prolonged boiling of the denture resulted in reversal of his symptoms and samples of this fully cured denture material produced negative patch tests. While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms. Material safety data sheets are unreliable in providing information regarding the type of acrylate present in the material. Hence, patch testing should be performed with a battery of acrylate allergens as well as with small samples of the denture material.

  14. Update on vaccination guidelines for allergic children.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2009-11-01

    Children with allergic or atopic diseases require immunization just like non-atopic children. However, vaccination of such children requires some special considerations and precautions. Children may be allergic to specific vaccine constituents such as gelatin or egg. Children who have suffered an apparent allergic reaction to a vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist to determine the culprit allergen and to make recommendations regarding future vaccination. In rare circumstances, certain vaccines may cause acute exacerbations of allergic diseases, but the contention that vaccination causes allergic disease is not substantiated by any available evidence.

  15. Psychological stress with long-standing allergic dermatitis causes psychodermatological conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Hideki; Hiyama, Hidetaka; Kitazawa, Toshiki; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    Psychological factors have long been assumed to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases. The effects of psychological stress on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been experimentally well investigated; however, the effects of ACD on stress responses are largely unknown. Here, we report that preceding chronic ACD dramatically affects the behavioral and physiological stress responses to social isolation (a psychological stressor). In male BALB/c mice, social isolation combined with long-standing (>2 months) ACD by repeated hapten application caused characteristic symptoms, including chronic dermatitis from persistent self-scratching, behavioral changes related to fear/anxiety, and elevated serum IgE levels. The symptoms were maintained by social isolation alone without further hapten application after the onset, and were improved by resocialization. Treatment with topical corticosteroids exacerbated chronic scratch dermatitis, whereas it was effective for chronic ACD. These results show that the symptoms represent a de novo development of a specific disease state and not a mere exacerbation of a preexisting allergic inflammation. With this experimental protocol, similar results were obtained in several other strains of mice. This murine model provides a tool for investigating the pathogenesis and treatment of allergic skin disease with psychodermatological aspects.

  16. Severe Allergic Reactions to Food in Norway: A Ten Year Survey of Cases Reported to the Food Allergy Register

    PubMed Central

    Namork, Ellen; Fæste, Christiane K.; Stensby, Berit A.; Egaas, Eliann; Løvik, Martinus

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Food Allergy Register was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2000. The purpose of the register is to gain information about severe allergic reactions to food in Norway and to survey food products in relation to allergen labelling and contamination. Cases are reported on a voluntary basis by first line doctors, and submitted together with a serum sample for specific IgE analysis. The register has received a total of 877 reports from 1 July, 2000 to 31 December, 2010. Two age groups, small children and young adults are over-represented, and the overall gender distribution is 40:60 males-females. The legumes lupine and fenugreek have been identified as two “new” allergens in processed foods and cases of contamination and faults in production of processed foods have been revealed. The highest frequency of food specific IgE is to hazelnuts and peanuts, with a marked increase in reactions to hazelnuts during the last three years. The Food Allergy Register has improved our knowledge about causes and severity of food allergic reactions in Norway. The results show the usefulness of population based national food allergy registers in providing information for health authorities and to secure safe food for individuals with food allergies. PMID:21909296

  17. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  18. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Koo, H N; Myung, N I; Shin, M K; Kim, J W; Kim, D K; Kim, K S; Kim, H M; Lee, Y M

    2001-02-01

    The crude drug "Siberian Ginseng (SG)" has long been used in empirical Oriental medicine for the nonspecific enhancement of resistance in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell cultured SG by oral administration in mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. SG dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic allergy with doses of 10(-2) to 1 g/kg 1 h before oral administration. Of special note, SG inhibited systemic allergy with the dose of 1 g/kg by 25%. SG (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous allergic reaction by 51%. SG dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When SG (0.01 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 in antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody-stimulated mast cells was inhibited 39.5% and 23.3%, respectively. In addition, SG inhibited anti-DNP IgE antibody-stimulated TNF-alpha protein expression in mast cells. Our studies provide evidence that SG may be beneficial in the treatment of various types of allergic diseases.

  19. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis.

  20. Role of CCL7 in Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions in Murine Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chuan-Hui; Collins, Andrea M.; Boettner, Douglas R.; Yang, YanFen

    2017-01-01

    Molecules that are necessary for ocular hypersensitivity reactions include the receptors CCR1 and CCR3; CCL7 is a ligand for these receptors. Therefore, we explored the role of CCL7 in mast cell activity and motility in vitro and investigated the requirement for CCL7 in a murine model of IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. For mast cells treated with IgE and Ag, the presence of CCL7 synergistically enhanced degranulation and calcium influx. CCL7 also induced chemotaxis in mast cells. CCL7-deficient bone marrow–derived mast cells showed decreased degranulation following IgE and Ag treatment compared with wild-type bone marrow–derived mast cells, but there was no difference in degranulation when cells were activated via an IgE-independent pathway. In vivo, CCL7 was upregulated in conjunctival tissue during an OVA-induced allergic response. Notably, the early-phase clinical symptoms in the conjunctiva after OVA challenge were significantly higher in OVA-sensitized wild-type mice than in control challenged wild-type mice; the increase was suppressed in CCL7-deficient mice. In the OVA-induced allergic response, the numbers of conjunctival mast cells were lower in CCL7-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that CCL7 is required for maximal OVA-induced ocular anaphylaxis, mast cell recruitment in vivo, and maximal FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation in vitro. A better understanding of the role of CCL7 in mediating ocular hypersensitivity reactions will provide insights into mast cell function and novel treatments for allergic ocular diseases. PMID:27956527

  1. [The pilot study of type Ⅰ allergic reaction in Meniere's disease patients].

    PubMed

    Pan, T; Zhao, Y; Ding, Y J; Lu, Z Y; Ma, F R

    2017-02-07

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between type Ⅰ allergic reaction and pathogenesis of Meniere's disease. Methods: A total of 35 (10 male vs. 25 female) patients aged between 21-66 years diagnosed with Meniere's disease were recruited to this study, mean age of them was (47.3±13.6) years. The control group consisted of 15 inpatients (5 male vs. 10 female) with pharyngolaryngeal diseases but without otologic and rhinologic abnormity, mean age was 45.4±12.8 years. Allergic prevalence, serous total immunoglobulin E( tIgE ) levels, serous specific immunoglobulin E( sIgE ) levels and subtypes of T lymphocytes were measured and compared in patients with Meniere's disease and the control group. Severity of vertigo, tinnitus and sensation of fullness were compared between Meniere's disease patients with or without allergy. Results: Allergic prevalence were significantly different (Pearson chi-square 5.832, P<0.05) between patients with Meniere's disease and the control group(57.1% vs. 20.0%). Patients with Meniere's disease report higher level of serous tIgE compared with controls, the difference is statistically significant (Z=168.000, P<0.05). However, positive rates of sIgE of food allergens and inhalant allergens were not significantly different between patients with Meniere's disease and the control group. Scores of vertiginous severity, dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) were significantly different between Meniere's disease patients with or without allergy (P<0.05). Treg and Treg/Th17 levels (Z=26.000) were much higher in Meniere's disease patients with allergy than in the controls(P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with Meniere's disease report higher rate of allergy than the control group. Type Ⅰ allergic reaction is thought to be one of the possible reasons that may induce endolymphatic hydrops and lead to Meniere's disease.

  2. Allergic reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... t bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... Common allergens include: Animal dander Bee stings or stings from other insects Foods, especially nuts, fish, and shellfish Insect bites Medicines Plants Pollens

  3. Sonographic appearance of angioedema in local allergic reactions to insect bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ee Tein; Tsung, James W

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue infections and angioedema from insect bites and stings may be difficult to differentiate by inspection. We present sonographic findings of 4 cases of soft tissue swelling from insect bites and stings suggestive of angioedema. Sonographic features of soft tissue angioedema consist of thickened subcutaneous tissue layers with multiple linear, horizontal, striated, and hypoechoic lines following the tissue planes between soft tissue layers. In addition to the history and physical examination, sonographic findings may assist in differentiating between local allergic reactions and cellulitis in patients with insect bites and stings. Further study is warranted for clinical application.

  4. Towards a European registry of severe allergic reactions: current status of national registries and future needs.

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Timmermans, F; Moneret-Vautrin, A; Muraro, A; Malmheden Yman, I I; Lövik, M; Hattersley, S; Crevel, R

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of severe allergic reactions is largely unknown and information about triggering allergens, aggravating factors, demography of patients and medical care is lacking. A European wide registry could provide a powerful tool to improve the management of severe allergic reactions from both a medical and a public health perspective. Analysis of existing registries regarding the type and quality of data being collected was used to develop a plan for a pan-European registry, including the type of system to be used and the range of data to be entered. Surveillance will provide evidence for the efficacy of risk management measures and may identify the emergence of new allergenic foods, and aid monitoring of novel foods, ingredients and technologies. Patients need a clear indication of factors that may increase their risk of having an adverse reaction, which such a registry can help compile. Based on the collected data, food businesses will be able to develop educational programmes for allergen risk assessment and allergen risk communication. Finally, and most importantly preventive measures can be developed and government agencies receive population based data which may be relevant for legislative purposes.

  5. Type I allergic hypersensitivity reactions due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters in patients with thalassaemia: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Belen, Burcu; Polat, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas used in sterilisation of heat sensitive medical devices, such as infusion sets, cannulae, intubation materials, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, dialysis catheters and stents. Allergic reactions due to EO have been reported in haemodialysis patients, patients undergoing extracorporeal photopheresis and donors of plasmapheresis. Clinical manifestations vary considerably and generally do not allow differentiation between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. We report four patients with thalassaemia who experienced anaphylaxis during transfusion due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that frequently transfused patients can have allergic reactions due to EO particles left in leucocyte filters. PMID:25725028

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  7. Sensitization and elicitation of an allergic reaction to wheat gliadins in mice.

    PubMed

    Bodinier, M; Leroy, M; Ah-Leung, S; Blanc, F; Tranquet, O; Denery-Papini, S; Wal, J-M; Adel-Patient, K

    2009-02-25

    We developed a mouse model of allergy to wheat flour gliadins, a protein fraction containing major wheat allergens. We compared the antibody responses (i.e., specific IgE and IgG1) and the profiles of cytokines secreted by reactivated splenocytes induced after intraperitoneal injections of gliadins in three strains of mice, namely, Balb/cJ, B10.A, and C3H/HeJ. The intensities of the allergic reactions elicited by intranasal challenge were also compared. Both the sensitization and elicitation were the highest in Balb/cJ mice, whereas weak or no reaction was observed in the others strains. Interestingly, the specificity of the mouse IgE against the different gliadins (i.e., alpha-, beta-, gamma-, omega 1,2-, and omega 5-gliadin) was similar to that observed in children allergic to wheat flour. Balb/cJ mice may thus provide a relevant model for the study of sensitization and elicitation by wheat gliadins and for improving our understanding of the specific role and mechanisms of action of the different classes of gliadins.

  8. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation.

  9. Mosla dianthera inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun . E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of Mosla dianthera (Maxim.) (AEMD) on the mast cell-mediated allergy model and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. AEMD inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. AEMD decreased immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AEMD attenuated intracellular calcium level and release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80. Furthermore, AEMD attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-{alpha}, IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of AEMD on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. AEMD decreased PMA and A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. Our findings provide evidence that AEMD inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  10. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum from the water reservoir of a steam iron.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Engelhart, S; Rolke, M; Sennekamp, J

    2005-09-01

    A case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum is described. The symptoms were associated with the use of a steam iron. The water reservoir was heavily contaminated with S. spiritivorum (10(6) CFU ml(-1)). This is the first report of S. spiritivorum as a causative agent of EAA.

  11. Mediator profiles in tears during the conjunctival response induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The allergic reaction occurring primarily in the nasal mucosa can induce a secondary conjunctival response of an immediate (SICR), late (SLCR), or delayed (SDYCR) type in some patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Objectives To investigate the concentration changes of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), leukotrienes (LTB 4, LTC4, LTE4), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5) in tears during the SICR, SLCR, and SDYCR. Methods In 32 patients with AC, 11 SICR (p<0.01), 13 SLCR (p<0.001), and eight SDYCR (p<0.01) to nasal challenges with allergens (NPTs), the NPTs and 32 control tests with PBS were repeated and supplemented with the determination of these factors in tears. Results The SICRs were associated with significant concentration changes in tears (p<0.05) of histamine, tryptase, ECP, LTC4, and IL-4. The SLCRs were accompanied by significant changes in concentrations of histamine, ECP, LTB4, LTC4, MPO, IL-4, and IL-5. The SDYCRs were associated with significant concentration changes in tears (p<0.05) of LTB4, MPO, IFN-γ, and IL-2. No significant changes in these factors were recorded in tears during the 32 PBS controls (p>0.1) or in the ten control patients (p>0.1). Conclusions These results provide evidence for causal involvement of nasal allergy in some patients with AC, inducing secondary conjunctival response of immediate (SICR), late SLCR, or delayed SDYCR type, associated with different mediator, cytokine, and cellular profiles in the tears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also emphasize the diagnostic value of nasal allergen challenge combined with monitoring of the conjunctival response in some patients with AC. PMID:23869165

  12. [Asthma, alveolitis, aspergillosis, berylliosis. What to do when there is allergic reaction of the lung?].

    PubMed

    Vier, H; Protze, M; Brunner, R; Gillissen, A

    2003-03-06

    Among the major allergic pulmonary disorders are bronchial asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, allergic aspergillosis and berylliosis. Asthma is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms (wheezing, respiratory distress, tight chest, coughing) and lung function tests possibly supplemented by allergic and provocative testing. Asthma treatment is differentiated into long-term medication and as-required medication. Specific immunotherapy is considered the sole causal therapy. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is work- or hobby-related (farmer's/cheese worker's/bird-fancier's lung) and manifests as diffuse pneumonitis with dyspnea, coughing and fever. For the diagnosis, the antigen provocative test in particular plays a major role. In the main, treatment comprises strict avoidance of allergens. The diagnosis of allergic pulmonary aspergillosis is based on the history, clinical findings, skin tests, serology and radiography. Treatment is stage-related by means of immunosuppressive agents. In terms of radiographic and pulmonary function findings, berylliosis is similar to sarcoidosis. Here, too, immunosuppressive agents are to the fore.

  13. [Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K; Finis, D; Meller, S; Buhren, B A; Wagenmann, M; Geerling, G

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) as well as intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis are widespread diseases. Because a combined occurrence of ocular and nasal symptoms is very common the summarising term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is frequently used. SAC and PAC representing the two acute forms of allergic conjunctivitis account for more than 90 % of all cases of allergic conjunctivitis. Compared to the chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis their course of disease is milder. Nevertheless because of their high prevalence and the proven influence on patients' quality of life they possess clinical and socioeconomic relevance. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is caused by a type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is provoked by aeroallergens in the majority of cases. The pathognomonic sign is itching. Besides, typical ocular findings are chemosis, conjunctival injection, watery secretion and lid swelling. Otorhinolaryngologists' findings include rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and sneezing. Problems in breathing through the nose resulting from nasal obstruction can cause impaired nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence. In addition to a reduction of allergen exposure by modification of environment and life style factors, in mild forms of SAC and PAC artificial tears are recommended. Topical antihistamines can generate rapid relief from acute symptoms and itching. Topical mast cell stabilisers however provide long-term effects. Dual action drugs that combine antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers show increased patient compliance due to reduced application frequency. Use of topical steroids should be cautious and only temporary. For prolonged treatment periods unpreserved anti-allergic eye-drops should be preferred. Combined topical antihistamines and new-generation topical nasal steroids often used by otorhinolaryngologists demonstrate a good safety profile without systemic side effects. In summary

  14. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2014. Studies on food allergy suggest worrisomely high rates of peanut allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations. Evidence is mounting to support the theory that environmental exposure to peanut, such as in house dust, especially with an impaired skin barrier attributed to atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene, is a risk factor for sensitization and allergy. Diagnostic tests are improving, with early studies suggesting the possibility of developing novel cellular tests with increased diagnostic utility. Treatment trials continue to show the promise and limitations of oral immunotherapy, and mechanistic studies are elucidating pathways that might define the degree of efficacy of this treatment. Studies have also provided insights into the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis and insect venom allergy, such as suggesting that baseline platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity levels are related to the severity of reactions. Advances in drug allergy include identification of HLA associations for penicillin allergy and a microRNA biomarker/mechanism for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Research identifying critical events leading to skin barrier dysfunction and the polarized immune pathways that drive AD have led to new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and management of AD.

  15. Late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges.

    PubMed

    Saleh-Langenberg, J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; AlAgla, N; Kollen, B J; Dubois, A E J

    2016-07-01

    The time during which children are observed following a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) varies in clinical practice. There are little data on late reactions (LRs) following DBPCFCs. Therefore, we determined the prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics of late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after DBPCFC, and ascertained which factors are associated with, and may predict, LRs. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate which factors were associated with LRs and to develop the association and prediction models. A total of 1142 children underwent DBPCFCs (child-test combinations). Of these 1142 child-test combinations, 400 reported LRs following the DBPCFC. LRs in food-allergic children after DBPCFC are poorly predictable and are generally not severe. All LRs, including those on the placebo day, are more frequently reported in younger children. Children who do not experience severe immediate reactions may be safely discharged home 2 h after a DBPCFC.

  16. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  17. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2007.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2008-06-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2007. Advances in diagnosis include possible biomarkers for anaphylaxis, improved understanding of the relevance of food-specific serum IgE tests, identification of possibly discriminatory T-cell responses for drug allergy, and an elucidation of irritant responses for vaccine allergy diagnostic skin tests. Mechanistic studies are discerning T-cell and cytokine responses central to eosinophilic gastroenteropathies and food allergy, including the identification of multiple potential therapeutic targets. Regarding treatment, clinical studies of oral immunotherapy and allergen vaccination strategies show promise, whereas several clinical studies raise questions about whether oral allergen avoidance reduces atopic risks and whether probiotics can prevent or treat atopic disease. The importance of skin barrier dysfunction has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), particularly as it relates to allergen sensitization and eczema severity. Research has also continued to identify immunologic defects that contribute to the propensity of patients with AD to have viral and bacterial infections. New therapeutic approaches to AD, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported, including use of sublingual immunotherapy, anti-IgE, and a kallikrein inhibitor.

  18. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified.

  19. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  20. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

  1. Effect of pollen-mediated oxidative stress on immediate hypersensitivity reactions and late-phase inflammation in allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Choudhury, Barun K.; Sur, Sanjiv; Boldogh, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic eye diseases are complex inflammatory conditions of the conjunctiva that are becoming increasingly prevalent and present an increasing economic burden because of direct and indirect health expenditures. Objective We sought to identify factors that may synergize with antigen-induced allergic inflammation and lead to allergic conjunctivitis. We used a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis to test the effect of oxidative stress generated by pollen oxidases using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NAD[P]H) as an electron donor present in pollen grains. Methods Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by hydrated Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen (short ragweed pollen; RWP) grains was determined by using 2′-7′-dihydro-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and Amplex Red assay. The RWP-induced changes in intracellular ROS levels were examined in A549 cells, human primary bronchial epithelial cells, and murine conjunctiva. Results Ragweed pollen grains contain NAD(P)H oxidase activity, which is diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive and quinacrine-sensitive and sodium azide-resistant. These NAD(P)H oxidases generate a superoxide anion that can be converted to H2O2 by pollen grain–associated superoxide dismutase. These diffusible oxygen radicals from pollen grains increase intracellular ROS levels in cultured epithelial cells and murine conjunctiva. Similar phenomena were observed in sensitized and naive mice, indicating that the RWP-induced oxidative stress in conjunctival epithelium is independent of adaptive immunity. Inactivation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity in RWP decreases the immediate-type hypersensitivity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the conjunctiva. Conclusion Our data suggest that ROS generated by NAD(P)H oxidases in pollen grains intensify immediate allergic reactions and recruitment of inflammatory cells in murine conjunctiva. PMID:16210058

  2. Allergic reactions to oral drugs: A case/non-case study from an Italian spontaneous reporting database (GIF).

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola Maria; Leone, Roberto; Confortic, Anita; Moretti, Ugo; Motola, Domenico; Tuccori, Marco; Caputi, Achille Patrizio

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wide number of studies investigating on drug-induced allergy, limited data focused on allergies associated with orally administered drugs are available. The aim of the study is to evaluate allergic drug reactions associated with oral drug use, using an Italian spontaneous reporting database of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spontaneous reports associated with oral drugs retrieved from seven Italian regions (GIF research group), collected from 1988 to 2006, were analysed. Association between drugs and allergic adverse reactions was assessed using the case/non-case method, calculating the ADR reporting odds ratio (ROR) as a measure of disproportionality. Overall, 27,175 reports of adverse reactions related to oral drug use were analysed; of these, 3143 (11.6%) were judged as allergy cases. Paediatric patients (allergic reactions with oral antibiotics and NSAIDs, although more data are needed. Given the widespread use of these drug classes (some of them being purchased as over the counter drugs), awareness should be raised among patients and prescribers about these risks.

  3. Severe adverse reactions caused by omeprazole: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Meiling; Qian, Jianghua; Guo, Daohua; Li, Li; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital following development of a whole-body rash for 10 days, diarrhea for 7 days, and unconsciousness and oliguria for 1 day. The patient had developed stomach discomfort following the oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the exact nature of which was unknown, for the treatment of arthritic pain for >1 month. The patient was then prescribed omeprazole enteric-coated tablets (20 mg twice daily) for treatment of this symptom. However, the patient developed a whole-body rash 7 days after administering omeprazole, 10 days prior to admission. This symptom was followed by severe diarrhea with nausea and vomiting after 10 days, then shock. The shock occurred after administering omeprazole for 16 days. The patient developed a whole body rash 7 days after administering omeprazole, then 3 days later (after administering omeprazole for 10 days) severe diarrhea with nausea and vomiting occurred. The shock remained until administering omeprazole on the 16th day, with severe diarrhea with nausea and vomiting occurring 6 days later. The patient's condition did not improve following treatment for allergies, low blood pressure and oliguria in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) department at Suzhou Municipal Hospital. For further diagnosis and treatment, the patient was admitted to the ICU department of The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College and was given a fluid infusion, antibiotics and phlegm-reducing treatment, a plasma infusion, blood filtration, and anti-diarrheal and anti-allergy treatment. The patient's vital signs were stable, with a normal temperature and hemogram results, and improved kidney function and deflorescence. Genetic screening revealed that the patient poorly metabolized omeprazole. Therefore, severe adverse reactions (allergic shock, rash and diarrhea) experienced by the patient were caused by the accumulation of omeprazole metabolites resulting from its slow metabolism in

  4. [Roentgenographic pattern of interstitial pneumonia and allergic alveolitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stender, H S

    1977-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the lungs permits diagnosis of inflammatory and allergic pulmonary disease with predominantly interstitial and less alveolar involvement in which pulmonary fibrosis may develop. Reaction of the sensitised lung to allergic exposure causes typical roentgenological patterns. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in interstitial lung disease can be prevented be early cortison therapy.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  6. Intranasal Coadministration of Live Lactococci Producing Interleukin-12 and a Major Cow's Milk Allergen Inhibits Allergic Reaction in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Ah-Leung, Sandrine; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Corthier, Gérard; Wal, Jean-Michel; Langella, Philippe; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2007-01-01

    The Th1/Th2 balance deregulation toward a Th2 immune response plays a central role in allergy. We previously demonstrated that administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis strains expressing bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, partially prevents mice from sensitization. In the present study, we aimed to improve this preventive effect by coadministration of L. lactis BLG and a second recombinant L. lactis strain producing biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12). This L. lactis strain producing IL-12 was previously used to enhance the Th1 immune response in a tumoral murine model (L. G. Bermúdez-Humarán et al., J. Immunol. 175:7297-7302, 2005). A comparison of the administration of either BLG alone or BLG in the presence of IL-12 was conducted. A BLG-specific primary Th1 immune response was observed only after intranasal coadministration of both L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis, as demonstrated by the induction of serum-specific immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) concomitant with gamma interferon secretion by splenocytes, confirming the adjuvanticity of IL-12-producing L. lactis. Immunized mice were further sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of purified BLG, and the allergic reaction was elicited by intranasal challenge with purified BLG. Mice pretreated with BLG in either the presence or the absence of IL-12 were rendered completely tolerant to further allergic sensitization and elicitation. Pretreatment with either L. lactis BLG or L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis induces specific anti-BLG IgG2a production in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Although specific serum IgE was not affected by these pretreatments, the levels of eosinophilia and IL-5 secretion in BAL fluid were significantly reduced after BLG challenge in the groups pretreated with L. lactis BLG and L. lactis BLG-IL-12-producing L. lactis, demonstrating a decreased allergic reaction. Our data demonstrate for the first time (i) the

  7. Intranasal coadministration of live lactococci producing interleukin-12 and a major cow's milk allergen inhibits allergic reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G; Ah-Leung, Sandrine; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Corthier, Gérard; Wal, Jean-Michel; Langella, Philippe; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2007-03-01

    The Th1/Th2 balance deregulation toward a Th2 immune response plays a central role in allergy. We previously demonstrated that administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis strains expressing bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, partially prevents mice from sensitization. In the present study, we aimed to improve this preventive effect by coadministration of L. lactis BLG and a second recombinant L. lactis strain producing biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12). This L. lactis strain producing IL-12 was previously used to enhance the Th1 immune response in a tumoral murine model (L. G. Bermúdez-Humarán et al., J. Immunol. 175:7297-7302, 2005). A comparison of the administration of either BLG alone or BLG in the presence of IL-12 was conducted. A BLG-specific primary Th1 immune response was observed only after intranasal coadministration of both L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis, as demonstrated by the induction of serum-specific immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) concomitant with gamma interferon secretion by splenocytes, confirming the adjuvanticity of IL-12-producing L. lactis. Immunized mice were further sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of purified BLG, and the allergic reaction was elicited by intranasal challenge with purified BLG. Mice pretreated with BLG in either the presence or the absence of IL-12 were rendered completely tolerant to further allergic sensitization and elicitation. Pretreatment with either L. lactis BLG or L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis induces specific anti-BLG IgG2a production in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Although specific serum IgE was not affected by these pretreatments, the levels of eosinophilia and IL-5 secretion in BAL fluid were significantly reduced after BLG challenge in the groups pretreated with L. lactis BLG and L. lactis BLG-IL-12-producing L. lactis, demonstrating a decreased allergic reaction. Our data demonstrate for the first time (i) the

  8. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  9. Effect of cinnarizine on IgE antibody-mediated experimental allergic reactions in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagai, H; Yamada, H; Yakuo, I; Inagaki, N; Choi, S H; Koda, A; Daikoku, M

    1987-02-01

    The anti-allergic activity and mechanism of cinnarizine was investigated in guinea pigs. Nifedipine, a calcium antagonist, and tranilast, a potent, orally active anti-allergic agent, were used as comparative drugs. Cinnarizine protected against fatal systemic anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs passively sensitized with IgE antibody. Cinnarizine reduced many of the features of severe respiratory disorders. Nifedipine and tranilast showed similar effects. Cinnarizine and nifedipine inhibited the contractile response to antigen of sensitized tracheal smooth muscle when the challenge was carried out at low antigen concentrations. Tranilast showed a tendency to inhibit the antigen-induced contraction of tracheal smooth muscle. Cinnarizine and nifedipine inhibited Ca-induced contraction in potassium-depolarized tracheal smooth muscle, tranilast had no effect. Cinnarizine showed antagonistic action to the contraction by histamine or leukotriene D4 (LTD4) of tracheal muscle. Nifedipine showed similar antagonistic action, although its potency is lower than cinnarizine. Tranilast showed slight antagonistic action to LTD4. Antigen-induced release of histamine and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from sensitized lung tissues was inhibited by nifedipine and tranilast but not by cinnarizine. The release of histamine and SRS-A from lung tissues by calcium ionophore A23187 was inhibited by nifedipine and tranilast but not by cinnarizine. These results suggest that the anti-allergic action of cinnarizine is mainly due to the antagonistic action to allergic mediators and not by interfering with the release of mediators. Cinnarizine's mechanism seems to be related to its antagonistic action to Ca in smooth muscle, but not to the transport of Ca in releasing the anaphylactic chemical mediators in mast cells and other target cells.

  10. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…

  11. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae allergy in allergic rhinitis caused by cross-reactivity not dual-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Liao, En-Chih; Ho, Chau-Mei; Lin, Meei-Yn; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2010-11-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are causative factors for the development of airway hypersensitivity. The main objective in this study was to identify the cross-reactive allergens between T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus and investigate their sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis. The prevalence of sensitization to mites was determined by skin prick tests and histamine release assays. Both immunoblot and ELISA inhibition assays were performed by using the recombinant allergens of T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus. The cross-reactive allergens were identified by using IgE-binding inhibition analysis. The correlations of specific IgE between T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus to group 2 and group 3 mite allergens were compared. A total of 117 allergic rhinitis patients, aged between 16 and 40 years old were recruited to be included in this study. The results showed that 70% (82/117) of allergic rhinitis subjects had skin test positive reactions to D. pteronyssinus or T. putrescentiae. Among these mite-sensitive subjects, there were 81 subjects (81/82) sensitive to D. pteronyssinus and 34 subjects (34/82) sensitive to T. putrescentiae. Among the T. putrescentiae hypersensitive subjects, 97% (33/34) were also sensitized to D. pteronyssinus. In the IgE-binding inhibition analysis, 59% (13/22) subjects had IgE-binding activity of T. putrescentiae that was completely absorbed by D. pteronyssinus, especially components with MW at 16 kDa. In ELISA inhibition testing, 69% of IgE-binding was inhibited by rTyr p 2, and 45% inhibited by rTyr p 3. The titers of IgE antibodies to rTyr p 2 and rDer p 2 were well correlated, but not rTyr p 3 and rDer p 3. In conclusion, most T. putrescentiae sensitized subjects were also sensitized to D. pteronyssinus in young adult allergic rhinitis patients. The complete absorption of IgE binding activity by D. pteronyssinus indicates that T. putrescentiae hypersensitivity might be due to the

  12. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5–50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153

  13. Pustular psoriasis and the Kobner phenomenon caused by allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Ho-Sun; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2005-03-01

    Zinc pyrithione is a shampoo ingredient that has been shown to be safe and effective for dandruff and scalp psoriasis. It is thought to decrease the cell turnover rate in hyperproliferative dermatoses such as psoriasis, and also has fungistatic and antimicrobial activity, although its exact mode of action is unknown. In psoriasis, external factors, such as trauma, infection and drugs, may provoke aggravated manifestations of psoriatic skin lesions. Rarely, irritant or allergic mechanisms are likely causes of psoriatic flare and Kobnerization. A patient had had stable psoriasis for 25 years and no any other skin disease. Within 20 days, she developed an aggravated scaly erythematous patch on the scalp, where a shampoo had been applied, and simultaneously developed pustular psoriasis on both forearms. Patch testing showed a relevant sensitization to zinc pyrithione, and we observed symptomatic aggravation by provocation testing with zinc pyrithione shampoo. We report a rare case of psoriasis aggravated by the induction of allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione after using antidandruff shampoo.

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  15. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have symptoms worsen if she's exposed to specific allergens (things that cause an allergic reaction). In fact, ... type, which specifically recognizes and attaches to the allergen when the body is exposed to it. When ...

  16. Allergic reactions to iodinated contrast media: premedication considerations for patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Jennifer G; Iyer, Ramesh S; Wang, Carolyn L; Petscavage, Jonelle M; Paladin, Angelisa M; Bush, William H; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this article are to review allergy-type reactions to iodinated contrast media and the protocols utilized to prevent or reduce the occurrence of these adverse reactions in high-risk patients. We will begin by discussing the types or classifications of the adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. We will then discuss reaction mechanisms, identify the patients at highest risk for adverse reactions, and clarify common misperceptions about the risk. Finally, we will discuss the actions of the medications used to help reduce or prevent allergy-type reactions to iodinated contrast media, the protocols used to help reduce or prevent contrast reactions in high-risk patients, and the potential side effects of these medications. We will also discuss the high-risk patient who has received premedication due to a prior index reaction and discuss the risk of having a subsequent reaction, termed "breakthrough reaction." Identifying patient at high risk for an "allergy-type" reaction to contrast media is an essential task of the radiologist. Prevention of or reduction of the risk of an adverse reaction is critical to patient safety. If an examination can be performed without contrast in a patient at high risk for an allergy-type reaction, it may be appropriate to avoid contrast. However, there are situations where contrast media is necessary, and the radiologist plays a vital role in preventing or mitigating an allergy-type reaction.

  17. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever; Nasal allergies; Seasonal allergy; Seasonal allergic rhinitis; Allergies - allergic rhinitis; Allergy - allergic rhinitis ... an allergen that also trigger symptoms. ALLERGY SHOTS Allergy shots ... are sometimes recommended if you cannot avoid the ...

  18. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics.

  19. Allergic conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Conjunctivitis - allergic seasonal/perennial; Atopic keratoconjunctivitis; Pink eye - allergic ... bumps on the inside of the eyelids (papillary conjunctivitis) Positive skin test for suspected allergens on allergy ...

  20. [Allergic reactions to the house-dust mite in children with obstructive disease of the respiratory tract (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Richter, I; Kriebel, I

    1975-09-12

    160 children with obstructive allergic disease of the respiratory tract were tested with the modified pricktest. 58 showed positive reactions to the house-dust mite. Typically, in the case history of these children, is the presence of the complaints throughout the year, especially at night and not in particular seasons. Although, the modified pricktest could be negative in children under 4 years of age, in later years an allergen could be found. Children who have typical-complaints in their case-history, but show weak cutaneous reactions, are admitted in hospital, and a bronchial provocationtest is carried out to study the action of the allergen on the affected organ. 28 of the 58 children with house-dust mite allergy showed only weak positive cutaneous reactions and had mild complaints. Avoidance measurements brought in almost 80 p.c. of these cases good results. We recommended specific hyposensibilisation for the remaining 30 patients; in 22 of these cases the recommendation was carried out. The positive effect of the specific hyposensibilisation was proved when compared to a controll series.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  2. Nickel sensitization and dietary nickel are a substantial cause of symptoms provocation in patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Soana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Data in literature seem to show that, in patients with contact allergic dermatitis, dietary nickel might be a cause of systemic dermatitis, but little information exists in literature about the role of nickel sensitization and dietary nickel in patients with allergic-like chronic dermatitis syndromes. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with chronic allergic-like, non-IgE-mediated skin diseases, and the possible impact of dietary nickel on symptom provocation and persistence has been assessed in the present retrospective study on a case series of 1726 patients referred to our allergy unit for chronic allergic-like skin diseases. IgE-mediated pathogenesis and other differential diagnoses excluded, patients were patch tested. Nickel-positive patients underwent an elimination diet and double-blind placebo-controlled nickel challenge (DBPCNC) test. A total of 339 (20%) tested nickel-positive. Fifty-two patients (15%) recovered by avoiding sources of nickel contact and 29 (10%) dropped out. Out of the remaining nickel-sensitized patients, 277 (80%) achieved complete or near complete recovery with low-nickel content diet, and 185 of them (89%) were positive to DBPCNC. We conclude that nickel sensitization and dietary nickel seem to be the chief trigger for provocation and persistence of symptoms in an important part (∼11%) of patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes. PMID:25747857

  3. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by a titanium nitride-coated implant abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Lee, Kwang-Min; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    A patient developed contact mucositis after being treated with a titanium nitride implant abutment. Patch testing disclosed a positive reaction to titanium nitride. After removal of the titanium nitride-coated abutment and placement of an uncoated abutment, all signs and symptoms disappeared. This clinical report suggests that titanium nitride-coated abutments may be a potential allergen in some patients.

  4. Evidence of Allergic Reactions and Cardiopulmonary Impairments among Traders Operating from Foodstuff Warehouses

    PubMed Central

    Egbosionu, Viola; Ibeneme, Georgian; Ezuma, Amarachi; Ettu, Theresa; Nwankwo, Joseph; Limaye, Dnyanesh; Nna, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Foodstuff traders operating from warehouses (FTFW) are potentially exposed to dangerous rodenticides/pesticides that may have adverse effects on cardiopulmonary function. Methods. Fifty consenting male foodstuff traders, comprising 15 traders (21–63 years) operating outside warehouses and 35 FTFW (20–64 years), were randomly recruited at Ogbete Market, Enugu, in a cross-sectional observational study of spirometric and electrocardiographic parameters. Seventeen FTFW (21–57 years) participated in focus group discussions. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed thematically and with independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at p < 0.05, respectively. Results. Most FTFW experienced respiratory symptoms, especially dry cough (97.1%) and wheezing (31.4%) with significant reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) (t = −2.654; p = 0.011), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (t = −2.240; p = 0.030), maximum expiratory flow rate (FEF200–1200) (t = −1.148; p = −0.047), and forced end-expiratory flow (FEF75–85) (t = −1.11; p = 0.007). The maximum mid-expiratory flow (FEF25–75) was marginally decreased (p > 0.05) with a significantly prolonged (p < 0.05) QTc interval. Conclusion. Allergic response was evident in the FTFW. Significant decrease in FVC may negatively impact lung flow rates and explains the marginal decrease in FEF25–75, which implies a relative limitation in airflow of peripheral/distal airways and elastic recoil of the lungs. This is consistent with obstructive pulmonary disease; a significant decrease in FEF75–85/FEV1 supports this conclusion. Significant decrease in FEF200–1200 indicates abnormalities in the large airways/larynx just as significantly prolonged ventricular repolarization suggests cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:28116288

  5. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu . E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

  6. Anti-Allergic Action of Aged Black Garlic Extract in RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA2, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  7. Allergic reaction to epinephrine preparation in 2% lidocaine: two case reports.

    PubMed Central

    Kohase, Hikaru; Umino, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hypersensitivity to an epinephrine preparation in local anesthetics which were found by skin tests for local anesthetics. Both patients had uncomfortable episodes to local anesthetics at dental treatment. In both cases, the skin tests showed positive reactions to 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Furthermore drug lymphocyte stimulation test revealed positive reaction to epinephrine hydrochloride, epinephrine bitartrate in case 1, whereas in case 2, the drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed positive response to epinephrine bitartrate. Attention should be paid to exogenous epinephrine preparations that have the potential to induce hypersensitivity during dental treatment. PMID:15675262

  8. Allergic response to metabisulfite in lidocaine anesthetic solution.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. R.; Maestrello, C. L.; Campbell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    True allergies to local anesthetics are rare. It is common for practitioners to misdiagnose a serious adverse event to local anesthetics as an allergic reaction. The most likely causes for an allergic response are the preservative, antioxidant, or metabolites and not the anesthetic itself. This case report illustrates the need for practitioners to understand the many potential allergens in local anesthetics and to correctly diagnose patients that are truly allergic to the local anesthetic. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figures 4 and 5 PMID:11495401

  9. [Immediate allergic reaction to natural latex with special reference to surgical gloves].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Wahl, R

    1992-07-15

    There is an increasing incidence of contact urticaria (CU) and systemic reactions to rubber products. 34 patients are presented: Most were atopic (22/34) and women (29/34). 24 worked in the medical field. 13 patients showed signs of hand dermatitis. In 31 patients, rub and/or pricktests with liquid latex in different dilutions and with latex gloves led to positive reactions. The allergen(s) appear in part to be watersoluble: 23 of 31 patients revealed positive test reactions to an aqueous glove extract. In two patients, urticarial test reactions to TMTD, Mercapto-Mix, and PPD-mix were considered as possible contributing factor of CU. Scratch tests with corn-starch were negative in all patients. 17 of 29 sera showed RAST (radioallergosorbent test) class 0 using latex allergen disks. SDS-PAGE (sodiumdodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide-electrophoresis) determined protein bands of less than or equal to 14 kD (not allergen specific) and approximately 28 kD. The Western Blot detected the 28 kD protein as allergen in the sera of three patients. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) proved no protein bands. Immunoprinting performed with sera of five patients presented allergen bands in an pH range between 3.8 and 4.55. This shows that radiostaining (immunoprint) is more sensitive than the Coomassie Blue staining. Although three sera showed RAST class 0, immunoblotting detected allergen bands. In these cases the immunoblot appears to be more sensitive than the RAST. A cross reactivity between latex and banana could not be established. Alternative gloves are Neolon (neoprene) or Elastyren (styrene-butadiene polymer).

  10. Etiologic aspect of sarcoidosis as an allergic endogenous infection caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine: co-reactions or cross-reactions?

    PubMed

    Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2004-09-01

    We present the case of a patient with facial dermatitis caused by sensitization to cocamidopropyl betaine. The patient also had positive patch-test reactions to cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine. The presence of 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine as an impurity in all of these substances can be hypothesized to explain these simultaneous reactions.

  12. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  13. Schisandra chinensis and Its Main Constituent Schizandrin Attenuate Allergic Reactions by Down-Regulating Caspase-1 in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hee-Yun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (SC) and its main constituent, schizandrin (SCH) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. Allergic and inflammatory reactions are aggravated via caspase-1 signaling pathway. However, the regulatory effects of SC and SCH on caspase-1 activation have not been clarified yet. In this study, we aimed to clarify the anti-allergic effects of SC and SCH using an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice and anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies-stimulated splenocytes. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, or interleukin (IL)-4 in serum of OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], and IL-1[Formula: see text] in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly suppressed the expression of caspase-1 and receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-2 in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. In activated splenocytes, SC or SCH significantly decreased the expression of caspase-1 and RIP-2 as well as the production of IL-6 and TNF-[Formula: see text]. We suggest that SC and SCH exert an anti-allergic effect by down-regulating caspase-1 signaling.

  14. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  15. Allergic Rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... out what I'm allergic to?Is my allergy seasonal?I am allergic to _____. Am I at risk for any other allergies?What changes can I make at home to ... org editorial staff Tags: allergen, allergic rhinitis, allergies, allergy, ... ragweed, seasonal rhinitis Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, ...

  16. Concerning the Crossed Allergic Reactions Caused by Conjugates of Dinitrophenol with Protein, and Their Specific Inhibition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    than the same intravenous injection of DNCB in TWEEN - 80 . The depression of dermatitis is expressed (visually and histologically) the less the period between the hyposensitizing introduction of allergen and testing.

  17. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  18. [Blatella germanica as a sensiting factor, and cause of allergic rhinitis in a group of our patients].

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Most up-to-data data from the literature, as well as our experience gained during the routine clinical practice, led us to investigate the incidence of sensibilization on the cockroaches, as well as its role in development of allergic rhinitis. The study included 46 patients with chronic rhinitis. Out of that number, 11 were sensibilized to cockroach extract, while in another 8 senzibilized patients, allergic rhinitis, induced by the same allergen, was evidenced as well. According to this study, we have concluded that in our conditions, cockroach is to be considered significant factor of sensibilization which is to be included into the standard set of inhalation allergens for skin tests.

  19. 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Min Jong; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Choi, Young-Ae; Baek, Moon-Chang; Lee, Byungheon; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Hae Ran; Shin, Tae-Yong; Lee, Soyoung; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Rae; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic reactions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis. Vanillic acid, a natural product, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-allergic inflammatory effects of ortho-vanillic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, o-VA) that was a derivative of vanillic acid isolated from Amomum xanthioides. In mouse anaphylaxis models, oral administration of o-VA (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and IgE-mediated cutaneous allergic reactions such as hypothermia, histamine release, IgE production and vasodilation; administration of o-VA also suppressed the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis. In cultured mast cell line RBL-2H3 and isolated rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro, pretreatment with o-VA (1–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited DNP-HSA-induced degranulation of mast cells by decreasing the intracellular free calcium level, and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-4. Pretreatment of RBL-2H3 cells with o-VA suppressed DNP-HSA-induced phosphorylation of Lyn, Syk, Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. In conclusion, o-VA suppresses the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory response by blocking the signaling pathways downstream of high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on the surface of mast cells. PMID:27890918

  20. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  1. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Juan Carlos; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aída; Cariño-Cartagena, Diego Antonio; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  2. Mastocytosis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, P; Lombardo, C; Zanotti, R

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, mainly skin and bone marrow. It can cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations-other than urticaria pigmentosa-that can lead to inappropriate release of mediators by mast cells. The most severe manifestation is anaphylaxis. The triggers of anaphylaxis in adults with mastocytosis are numerous, but Hymenoptera stings seem to be the most frequent, followed by foods and drugs. Therefore, to prevent severe reactions, it is very important to recognize and avoid potential triggers; in addition, venom-allergic patients must receive lifelong immunotherapy, which has proven very effective. Given that published data on drug anaphylaxis in patients with mast cell disorders are scarce, it is not currently possible to provide clear recommendations. The risk of systemic reactions during general anesthesia can be reduced by assessing risk on an individual basis (previous reaction to a drug or reaction during surgery) and by avoiding specific trigger factors (patient temperature changes, infusion of cold solution, tissue trauma, friction, and other mechanical factors).

  3. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  4. Types of Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Allergies and Dentistry Ensure You Have an Allergy-Free Dental Visit ... Terms and Conditions © 1996-2017 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... others. People with allergies to insect bites and stings, foods, or certain medications are most at risk ... an Allergy Emergency Shellfish Allergy Bug Bites and Stings Nut and Peanut Allergy My Friend Has a ...

  6. A study for characterization of IgE-mediated cutaneous immediate and late-phase reactions in non-allergic domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Seals, Shanna L; Kearney, Michael; Del Piero, Fabio; Hammerberg, Bruce; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2014-05-15

    Immunoglobulin-E (IgE) mediated reactions can be induced by intradermal injection of anti-IgE antibodies in both humans and dogs. These reactions grossly and histologically mimic changes seen in naturally occurring allergic dermatitis in these species. Similar studies have not been conducted in the cat. Purified polyclonal rabbit-origin IgG specific for canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) were injected intradermally in 7 non-allergic laboratory colony cats. Wheal measurements were obtained and biopsies collected before injection and at injection sites after 20 min, 6, 24, and 48 h. Injection of anti-IgE induced an immediate wheal response which was significantly larger than that seen after injection of rabbit IgG. Anti-IgE injected skin was also significantly thicker than IgG-injected skin. This corresponded with a significant increase in number of visibly degranulated mast cells in anti-IgE samples when compared to IgG samples. Injection of anti-IgE was associated with the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to the injected dermis. The number of inflammatory cells and mononuclear cells were significantly elevated after the injection of anti-IgE when compared to IgG-injected skin. Both eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly increased in anti-IgE samples relative to IgG, although neutrophils were only transiently increased. The high eosinophil and relatively low neutrophil cell counts in these samples were consistent with previously documented histologic features of naturally occurring feline allergic skin disease. Immunohistochemistry identified a significantly overall increased CD1a(+) cells after the intradermal injection of anti-IgE when compared to IgG and non-injected skin. CD3(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+) were also significantly increased overall in anti-IgE injected skin relative to IgG injected skin. These data document the gross and cellular response to injection of anti-IgE in the skin of healthy, non-allergic cats and support a

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce immune reaction in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Liu, Yanjuan; Liang, Hongfeng; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Object: To determine the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for immunomodulatory mechanism in mice model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods: BMSCs were isolated and the surface markers and stemness were analyzed. The effect of BMSCs was evaluated in BALB/c mice that were randomly divided into three groups (control group, ovalbumin (OVA) group, OVA+BMSCs group). BMSCs were administered intravenously to OVA sensitized mice on days 1, 7, 14 and 21, and subsequent OVA challenge was conducted daily from days 22 to 35. Several parameters of allergic inflammation were assessed. Results: Mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully isolated from bone marrow of mice. Intravenous injection of BMSCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms, eosinophil infiltration, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine profile (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10). In addition, level of Th1 (IFN-γ) was significantly increased. Conclusion: Administration of BMSCs effectively reduced allergic symptoms and inflammatory parameters in the mice model of AR. BMSCs treatment is potentially an alternative therapeutic modality in AR. PMID:28078033

  8. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  9. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  10. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  11. Successful Re-administration of Low-dose of Methimazole (MMI) in Graves' Disease Patients Who Experienced Allergic Cutaneous Reactions to MMI at Initial Treatment and Had Received Long-term Propylthiouracil (PTU)

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective When patients with Graves' disease show severe allergic cutaneous reactions, physicians often suggest that they undergo radioiodine therapy instead of receiving propylthiouracil (PTU), another antithyroid drug, because anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis can occur with PTU, especially with long-term use. However, some patients refuse radioiodine therapy and chose PTU. Sometimes PTU treatment may be prolonged. Since the frequency of adverse effects of methimazole (MMI) is dose-related, there is a possibility that we can re-administer a low dose without adverse effects to patients well-controlled with PTU who once experienced an allergic reaction to MMI. Methods I prospectively re-administered a low dose of MMI to patients who previously experienced an allergic reaction to MMI at initial treatment. The dose of re-administered MMI ranged from 5 mg twice a week to 5 mg daily. Patients Nine patients with Graves' disease who developed urticaria at initial treatment with MMI and had been treated with PTU for 6 to 21 years were recruited. Results Eight of the 9 patients were successfully controlled with MMI without allergic cutaneous reactions. Only one patient felt itchiness 2 days after switching to MMI. However, skin change was not observed. Conclusion If the patients show allergic cutaneous reactions as a side effect of MMI at the initial treatment for Graves' disease, then there is a strong possibility that such patients can tolerate a low dose of MMI without adverse effects after the disease activity has subsided. PMID:27853063

  12. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  13. The Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Samuel O.

    1964-01-01

    Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, like other atopic disorders, occurs primarily as the result of an antigenantibody reaction between external allergens and circulating skin-sensitizing antibodies. In addition, the disease process is frequently complicated by bacterial or viral infection. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis, therefore, consists of: (1) changing the patient's environment in order to remove the offending allergens, (2) removing the patient from his environment, (3) altering the patient's response to environmental allergens by means of hyposensitization injections, (4) suppressing the allergic reaction with drugs, and (5) eliminating bacterial infection. Usually more than one of these therapeutic measures is required for the individual patient. PMID:14175878

  14. Bed bug saliva causes release of monocytic inflammatory mediators: plausible cause of cutaneous bite reactions.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome; Hasenkampf, Nicole; Edwards, Kristine T; de Shazo, Richard; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs may cause mild to severe cutaneous reactions. We studied the ability of bed bug salivary extract (SGE) to induce inflammatory reactions responsible for cutaneous manifestations and found that SGE stimulated the production of several potent chemokines and cytokines from macrophages. Chemokines induced by SGE included those known to recruit eosinophils (eotaxin), attract neutrophils [interleukin (IL)-8] or induce their survival and proliferation (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor). Cytokines involved in cell-mediated immunity, including IL-7, IL-10 and IL-12, were also induced. Saliva of bed bugs contains protein and non-protein molecules that have pleotropic effects on macrophages, orchestrating the immune response in the skin after bed bug bites.

  15. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjunctivitis is not contagious.Some common allergens include:Pollen fromtrees, grass and ragweedAnimal skin andsecretions such as ... symptoms. For example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold ...

  16. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Margaret M.; Day, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the result of an immediate hypersensitivity immune response of the nasal mucosa to one or more allergens. Clinical features may be indistinguishable from non-allergic rhinitis. Accurate diagnosis demands specialized laboratory investigations, meticulous history and careful physical examination. Management includes control of allergen and irritant exposures, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Recent development of intranasal corticosteroid aerosols has significantly reduced morbidity. Modified allergens for immunotherapy show promise but require further study. PMID:21286562

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  18. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  19. Clinical evaluation of fifty-six patients referred with symptoms tentatively related to allergic contact stomatitis.

    PubMed

    van Loon, L A; Bos, J D; Davidson, C L

    1992-11-01

    During a 7-year period, 56 patients were referred to the Department of General Pathology and Internal Medicine and the Department of Dental Materials, University of Amsterdam, to determine whether contact allergic reactions to dental materials were the cause of their complaints. On the first consultation with the patient a detailed history focusing on the complaints themselves, general medical history, and special clinical history of allergic skin reaction was obtained. Oral examinations were performed, and all patients were referred to the allergy clinic at the department of dermatology for skin tests. There was a strong female predominance in the referred group. Most of the patients with allergic contact stomatitis mentioned a burning sensation in the mouth. In only 16 of the 56 patients could the diagnosis of allergic contact stomatitis be established. From this study it can also be concluded that the combination of a positive allergic history and positive allergic skin reactions with or without visible oral signs are important for the diagnosis of allergic contact stomatitis.

  20. Urticaria: "You're Probably Just Allergic to Something".

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Urticaria is a common symptom seen in pediatric patients, and it has multiple allergic and nonallergic causes. Unfortunately, it is far too common that when children present acutely for urticaria, they are told that it is an "allergy." This statement often leads to increased anxiety while the patient waits to be evaluated by an allergist/immunologist. This article discusses the frequency that allergic reactions are involved in urticaria and provides examples of potential nonallergic causes. Additionally, the article discusses approaches to treatment that may be appropriate to initiate in the pediatrician's office or acute setting. This article is intended to provide a broader understanding of urticaria and its management in the outpatient or emergency setting so that we are able to tell our patients more than"you're probably just allergic to something." [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(11):e399-e402.].

  1. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common causes of allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor ... may seem drastic, but it often helps ease seasonal symptoms. True False False. It's hard to escape allergy triggers. Many forms of pollen (especially grasses) and ...

  2. Allergic reaction to biodegradable interference poly-L-lactic acid screws after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft.

    PubMed

    Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Paessler, Hans H

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of a systemic allergic reaction to biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. A 30-year-old patient complained of certain symptoms, such as an inability to focus mentally, rash on the right femur, chronic fatigue, decreased sex drive, and localized alopecia, 3 months after ACL reconstruction in the right knee. Two biodegradable PLLA interference screws had been used for proximal and distal graft fixation. Allergy testing showed a value of 7 in PLLA antigen. After removal of 1 screw in August 2000, the patient reported marked improvement, but some symptoms remained. In July 2001 he underwent arthroscopic revision ACL reconstruction with hamstrings via an implant-free technique with intensive debridement of the tunnels and removal of all scar tissue and screw rests. All symptoms disappeared, and the PLLA antigen number fell from 3 to "concentrate" 2 months postoperatively.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  5. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-12-16

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10-20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

  6. [Anaphylactic reaction caused by the performance of skin tests: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Eleuterio González, J; Leal de Hernández, L; González Spencer, D

    1997-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis following skin tests for airborne allergens in a 25-year-old female patient diagnosed with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis, is presented. The purpose of this paper is to alert against severe systemic reactions related to skin tests. The reaction occurred 15 minutes after administration of various airborne allergens (pollens, air molds, and house dust), and the symptoms were: hypogastric pain, transvaginal bleeding, generalized urticaria, and bronchospasm. Immediate treatment consisted of antihistamines, bronchodilatators and steroids; the symptoms subsided in 12 hours. We conclude that skin testing can give rise to severe systemic reactions which should be identified and treated immediately by trained physicians and ancillary personnel, and that these tests should be avoided when pregnancy is suspected.

  7. On Immuno-Allergic Reactions of Patients with Mycoses due to Trichophyton rubrum and to Some Zoophilic Fungi,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Allergy and autoimmune processes were found in patients with onychomycosis caused by Tr. rubrum and with mycoses caused by Tr. gypseum and Tr...with experimental mycoses caused by Tr. gypseum and onychomycosis caused by Tr. rubrum.

  8. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction.

  9. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  10. Recent advances in understanding the roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Kyoko; Orihara, Kanami; Emi-Sugie, Maiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disorders commonly involve both chronic tissue inflammation and remodeling caused by immunological reactions to various antigens on tissue surfaces. Due to their anatomical location, vascular endothelial cells are the final responders to interact with various exogenous factors that come into contact with the epithelial surface, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and antigens. Recent studies have shed light on the important roles of endothelial cells in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. For instance, endothelial cells have the greatest potential to produce several key molecules that are deeply involved in allergic inflammation, such as periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17). Additionally, endothelial cells were recently shown to be important functional targets for IL-33--an essential regulator of allergic inflammation. Notably, almost all endothelial cell responses and functions involved in allergic inflammation are not suppressed by corticosteroids. These corticosteroid-refractory endothelial cell responses and functions include TNF-α-associated angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion, IL-33-mediated responses and periostin and TARC production. Therefore, these unique responses and functions of endothelial cells may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various allergic disorders, especially their refractory processes. Here, we review recent studies, including ours, which have elucidated previously unknown pathophysiological roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation and discuss the possibility of endothelium-targeted therapy for allergic disorders.

  11. Anaphylactic reaction caused by neoallergens in heated pecan nut.

    PubMed

    Malanin, K; Lundberg, M; Johansson, S G

    1995-12-01

    An atopic girl experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating cookies containing pecan nuts. Investigations revealed that she had developed IgE antibodies exclusively specific against allergenic determinants present in aged or heated pecan nuts, but not in fresh pecans. These neoallergenic determinants were located on protein(s) with a molecular weight of approximately 15 kDa. Neoallergens appearing during heating or storing of foods may be important in some anaphylactic reactions.

  12. Suppression of allergic reactions by dehulled adlay in association with the balance of TH1/TH2 cell responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bi-Fong; Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Wenchang

    2003-06-18

    Dehulled adlay is known as a natural Chinese medicine having antiallergic activity, although its mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the effects of dehulled adlay on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production. Mice were immunized three times with ovalbumin (OVA) in alum adjuvant. It was found that oral administration of dehulled adlay in mice suppressed the production of IgE against OVA antigen. Serum anti-OVA IgG(2a) antibody levels were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of dehulled adlay. Furthermore, the production of IL-2 by OVA-stimulated splenocytes was augmented in dehulled adlay-fed mice. Although dehulled adlay had no effect on the serum anti-OVA IgG(1) antibody levels, it had a great capacity to reduce IL-5 secretion by means of OVA-stimulated splenocytes. Hydrothermal processes, including steaming and extrusion cooking, did not change the capacity of dehulled adlay to suppress IgE production. Three fractions of dehulled alday, including methanolic extract, warm water extract, and residue, were obtained. The methanolic extract exhibited the greatest capacity to reduce anti-OVA IgE production. These results suggest that dehulled adlay has a modulating ability to shift the balance from Th2 to Th1 dominance in the T cell mediated immune system and may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  13. Infection with Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) induces protective Th2 immune responses and influences ovalbumin-induced allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Michels, Chesney; Goyal, Prem; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; Brombacher, Frank

    2006-10-01

    Infections with pinworms are common in rodent animal facilities. In this study, we show the consequence of an outbreak in a transgenic barrier facility of infection by Syphacia obvelata, a murine pinworm gastrointestinal nematode. Immune responses were defined in experimental infection studies with BALB/c mice. Infection with S. obvelata induced a transient Th2-type immune response with elevated interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 cytokine production and parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). In contrast, BALB/c mice deficient in IL-13, IL-4/13, or the IL-4 receptor alpha chain showed chronic disease, with a >100-fold higher parasite burden, increased gamma interferon production, parasite-specific IgG2b, and a default Th2 response. Interestingly, infected IL-4-/- BALB/c mice showed only slightly elevated parasite burdens compared to the control mice, suggesting that IL-13 plays the dominant role in the control of S. obvelata. The influence that pinworm infection has on the allergic response to a dietary antigen was found to be important. Helminth-infected mice immunized against ovalbumin (Ova) elicited more severe anaphylactic shock with reduced Ova-specific IL-4 and IL-5 than did noninfected controls, demonstrating that S. obvelata infection is able to influence nonrelated laboratory experiments. The latter outcome highlights the importance of maintaining mice for use as experimental models under pinworm-free conditions.

  14. My patient is allergic to eggs, can i use propofol? A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Tashkandi, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    Rather than other drugs, propofol is more likely to be used for induction of anesthesia to cause an allergic reaction. Propofol is becoming the most common intravenous agent used for induction as well as maintenance of anaesthesia. Allergy to propofol is rarely reported. We present a case of 4–year-old boy presented for elective adenotonsillectomy with past medical history of eczema and multiple allergies to food. He developed what seems to be an allergic reaction to propofol. We concluded that anaesthetists should be alerted when using propofol in patients with history of atopy or several drug allergies. Current evidence suggests that egg allergic patients are not more likely to develop anaphylaxis when exposed to propofol. If reactions to drugs occurred, it is always advisable to ascertain the exact allergen in each individual case before deciding causality. Serum tryptase, skin prick, intradermal testing, or serologic testing should be done to confirm the diagnosis of an anaphylactic reaction. PMID:21189862

  15. Nasal sodium cromoglycate (Lomusol) modulates the early phase reaction of mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mite: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Margaux; Lefebvre, Philipe P; Delvenne, Philippe; El-Shazly, Amr E

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical improvement of patients with mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) due to mono-sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen, by sodium cromoglycate nasal spray (Lomusol 4%). Lomusol was used as a single agent treatment, and its anti-inflammatory effects, in the early phase reaction were evaluated. Herein we showed that Lomusol significantly improved the subjective nasal symptom scores especially nasal obstruction. This was associated with significant and specific reduction in neutrophils influx in nasal cytology but had no effect on other cell types. This selective anti-inflammatory effect on nasal cytology was associated with significant reduction in the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and histamine in nasal secretions but had no effect on PGD2, LTC4 or CysLt levels. Lomusol was also able to induce significant reduction in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in nasal secretions without altering the percentage of eosinophil influx in nasal cytology. Taken collectively, we showed the first evidence that nasal sodium cromoglycate possesses a selective inhibition on neutrophil recruitment into nasal cytology in the early phase reaction of AR patients mono-sensitized to HDM. This may be attributed to the ability of Lomusol to significantly reduce the amount of PAF recovered in nasal secretion. These results were associated with significant improvement in subjective symptom scores especially nasal obstruction that may in addition, be due to the ability of Lomusol to down-regulate eosinophil degranulation activity as well.

  16. Cheonggukjang Ethanol Extracts Inhibit a Murine Allergic Asthma via Suppression of Mast Cell-Dependent Anaphylactic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cheonggukjang (CGJ), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exerts immunomodulatory effects. Asthma is the most common chronic allergic disease to be associated with immune response to environmental allergens. In the pathogenesis of asthma, histamine is one of the important inflammatory mediators released from granules of mast cells. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of CGJ on a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma via the suppression of histamine release. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of OVA or a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control and then challenged with OVA inhalation. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with either 70% ethanol-extracted CGJ (CGJE) (100 mg/kg/day) or equivalent PBS. Asthma-related inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. To elucidate the mechanisms of asthma inhibition by CGJE treatment, we also examined degranulation and histamine release of compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). Treatment with CGJE downregulated the number of eosinophils and monocytes in the lungs of mice challenged with OVA and suppressed histopathological changes, such as eosinophil infiltration, mucus accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen fiber deposits. Moreover, CGJE alleviated compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation and histamine release from RPMCs through inhibition of calcium (Ca2+) uptake as well as ear swelling by infiltration of inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrated that CGJE can be used as an antiasthmatic dietary supplements candidate for histamine-mediated asthma. PMID:24456365

  17. Pulmonary reactions caused by welding-induced decomposed trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, B.P.; Plato, N.; Alexandersson, R.; Eklund, A.; Falkenberg, C. )

    1991-01-01

    This is the report of a welder who performed argon-shielded electric arc welding in an atmosphere containing trichloroethylene. He developed immediate respiratory symptoms, pulmonary edema 12 hours after exposure, and recurring dyspnea ten days after exposure. These pulmonary reactions might be explained by inhalation of decomposition products of trichloroethylene such as dichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene.

  18. Phototoxic and contact toxic reactions of the exocarp of sweet oranges: a common cause of cheilitis?

    PubMed

    Volden, G; Krokan, H; Kavli, G; Midelfart, K

    1983-05-01

    Irritant skin reactions were produced within 1 h after application of the exocarp of sweet oranges or alcoholic extracts therefrom. Such reactions faded within 48 h. The exocarp, or extracts thereof, induced phototoxic reactions which were strongest at 72 h after exposure. The phototoxic reactions were only induced in natural blondes and only with some oranges. The in vivo phototoxic reactions were confirmed in vitro, causing a slight but clear photo-inhibition of Candida albicans. Only some oranges inhibited growth.

  19. Differential activation of dendritic cells by toll-like receptors causes diverse differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells from allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Deifl, S.; Kitzmüller, C.; Steinberger, P.; Himly, M.; Jahn-Schmid, B.; Fischer, G. F.; Zlabinger, G. J.; Bohle, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background To avert the differentiation of allergen-specific Th2 cells in atopic individuals is a major goal in the prevention and therapy of IgE-mediated allergy. We aimed to compare different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists regarding their effects on antigen-presenting cells and the differentiation of naïve T cells from allergic patients. Methods Monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDC) from allergic patients were stimulated with Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 ligand), FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand), monophosphoryl lipid (MPL)-A, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, both TLR4 ligands), and flagellin (TLR5 ligand). Allergen uptake and upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD58, CCR7 and PD-L1 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Functional maturation of mdDC was tested in mixed leukocyte reactions, and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and members of the IL-12 family was assessed. TLR-ligand-activated mdDC were used to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells, and cytokine responses were assessed in supernatants and intracellularly. Results All TLR ligands except flagellin enhanced allergen uptake. All TLR ligands induced functional maturation of mdDC with differential expression of surface molecules and cytokines and promoted the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing T cells. LPS-matured mdDC exclusively induced Th1-like responses, whereas mdDC stimulated with the other TLR ligands induced both Th1- and Th0-like cells. Pam3CSK4 and flagellin additionally induced Th2-like cells. Th1-like responses were associated with higher expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules, PD-L1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12p70. None of the TLR-ligand-stimulated mdDC induced IL-10- or IL-17-producing T cells. Conclusion Different TLR ligands differently influence T-cell responses due to varying activation of the three signals relevant for T-cell activation, that is, antigen presentation, co-stimulation and cytokine milieu. PMID:25093709

  20. Allergic contact reaction to dexpanthenol: lymphocyte transformation test and evidence for microsomal-dependent metabolism of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Röseler, S; Fritzsche, R; Schneider, R; Merk, H F

    1993-02-01

    In a patient with contact dermatitis, dexpanthenol was found to be the causative allergen. There was a positive reaction to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Controls did not show any positive reactions to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Additionally, an LTT was performed. After preincubation with dexpanthenol-modified microsomes, we observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation to dexpanthenol, in comparison to dexpanthenol without microsomes, suggesting that microsomal metabolism plays a rôle in the pathogenesis of dexpanthenol sensitization, because microsomes are known to possess drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450.

  1. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  2. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Etsuko; Uchio, Eiichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shoji, Jun; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as "a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms." Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  3. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products.

  4. [Allergic vasculitis in brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Mérad-Boudia, A; Ghernaout-Benchouk, S

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram negative bacillus of the Brucella gender. Skin manifestations have been reported in 1.5 to 11 p. 100 of the cases. Allergic vasculitis is rare. Recently a 24-year-old man was hospitalized for signs of infection. He had been treated with tetracycline. The clinical picture was suggestive of brucellosis and the Wright test was positive at 1/1,280. There were violet and purpuric papulae on the limbs, arthritis of the knee and ankle joints and renal involvement (haematuria, proteinuria). Histology revealed fibrinoid and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the small veinules of the subpapillary plexus. Outcome was favourable with rifampicin, doxycycline and adjuvant dapsone, together with bed rest. Several types of skin manifestations have been reported in brucellosis although cases of allergic vasculitis are rare.

  5. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  6. Omalizumab Is Equally Effective in Persistent Allergic Oral Corticosteroid-Dependent Asthma Caused by Either Seasonal or Perennial Allergens: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Christian; Pomares, Xavier; Navarro, Albert; Rudi, Núria; Sogo, Ana; Dávila, Ignacio; Mirapeix, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab is marketed for chronic severe asthma patients who are allergic to perennial allergens. Our purpose was to investigate whether omalizumab is also effective in persistent severe asthma due to seasonal allergens. Thirty patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were treated with Omalizumab according to the dosing table. For each patient with asthma due to seasonal allergens, we recruited the next two consecutive patients with asthma due to perennial allergens. The dose of oral methyl prednisolone (MP) was tapered at a rate of 2 mg every two weeks after the start of treatment with omalizumab depending on tolerance. At each monthly visit, a forced spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement were performed and the accumulated monthly MP dose was calculated. At entry, there were no differences between groups in terms of gender, body mass index or obesity, year exacerbation rate, monthly dose of MP, FeNO and blood immunoglobuline E (IgE) values, or spirometry (perennial: FVC: 76%; FEV1: 62%; seasonal: FVC: 79%; FEV1: 70%). The follow-up lasted 76 weeks. One patient in each group was considered a non-responder. Spirometry did not worsen in either group. There was a significant intragroup reduction in annual exacerbation rate and MP consumption but no differences were detected in the intergroup comparison. Omalizumab offered the same clinical benefits in the two cohorts regardless of whether the asthma was caused by a seasonal or a perennial allergen. These results strongly suggest that allergens are the trigger in chronic asthma but that it is the persistent exposure to IgE that causes the chronicity. PMID:28264494

  7. A review of food allergy and nutritional considerations in the food-allergic adult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, the prevalence of adults with food allergies is approximately 2 percent to 3 percent. Theoretically, any food can cause an allergic reaction; however, some foods are clearly more allergenic than others are. In adults, peanuts, tree nuts, finned fish, crustaceans, fruit, and veg...

  8. The allergic march: can we prevent allergies and asthma?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    The allergic march is a progression of atopic disease from eczema to asthma, and then to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. It appears to be caused by a regional allergic response with breakdown of the local epithelial barrier that initiates systemic allergic inflammation. Genetic and environmental factors predispose to developing the allergic march. There are data to support 4 possible interventions to prevent the allergic march from progressing to asthma: (1) supplements of dietary probiotics, (2) exclusive breast feeding during the first few months of life, or, alternatively (3) use of extensively hydrolyzed infant formulas, (4) treatment with inhalant allergen immunotherapy by either subcutaneous or sublingual methods.

  9. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  10. [The allergic child at school. What do we need to know?].

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Allergy is a multisystem disease in children that often occurs with the coexistence of diverse clinical manifestations that cause great impact on quality of life and academic performance due to sleep disorders arising from the disease or treatment, and absenteeism that children may experience. Because of the time spent in school, there is a possibility that allergic reactions may occur first in these facilities, where a lack of staff knowledge has been found regarding how to proceed in allergy crisis situations. Cooperative action among health teams, community, parents, and school authorities is essential to ensure that the school can prevent, recognize, and ensure quick access to emergency services (if needed) and treatment protocols for allergic reactions, thus allowing allergic children to be better protected in the school environment, which should be considered an extension of the home environment and an important arm in proper management to control the disease.

  11. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sonia N; Judson, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by an exaggerated T(H)2 response to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA develops in a small fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis and asthma, suggesting that intrinsic host defects play a major role in disease susceptibility. This article reviews current understanding of the immunopathology, clinical and laboratory findings, and diagnosis and management of ABPA. It highlights clinical and laboratory clues to differentiate ABPA from cystic fibrosis and asthma, which are challenging given clinical and serologic similarities. A practical diagnostic algorithm and management scheme to aid in the treatment of these patients is outlined.

  12. Safety First: Preventing Allergic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2015-01-01

    All elementary teachers should be aware of their students' allergies especially when they are planning to use plants or animals in the classroom or interacting with them in the field. This knowledge is essential because allergy symptoms can range from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock. This column shares safety information for the science…

  13. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologic agents, or, finally, immunotherapy. Successful treatment requires accurate assessment of the offending agent and proper use of the above-mentioned modalities. PMID:21263880

  14. Low doses of allergen and probiotic supplementation separately or in combination alleviate allergic reactions to cow β-lactoglobulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Thang, Cin L; Boye, Joyce I; Zhao, Xin

    2013-02-01

    Probiotic supplementation and oral tolerance induction can reduce certain types of food allergy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of probiotics (VSL#3) and/or oral tolerance induction via low doses of an allergen supplementation in β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-sensitized mice. Three-week-old, male BALB/c mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 8/group): sham-sensitized negative control (CTL-), BLG-sensitized positive control (CTL+), oral tolerance-induced and BLG-sensitized group (OT), probiotic-supplemented OT group (OTP), probiotic-supplemented CTL- (PRO), and probiotic-supplemented and BLG-sensitized (PROC) groups. Mice were i.p. sensitized with BLG and alum and then orally challenged with BLG. Immunological responses were assessed by monitoring hypersensitivity scores and measuring levels of BLG-specific serum Igs, total serum IgE and fecal IgA, and cytokines from serum and spleen lysates. Hypersensitivity scores were significantly lower in the PROC (2.00 ± 0.53), OT (0.75 ± 0.46), and OTP mice (1.00 ± 0.53) than in the CTL+ mice (2.63 ± 0.52) as were BLG-specific serum IgE concentrations (34.3 ± 10, 0.442 ± 0.36, 3.54 ± 3.5, and 78.5 ± 8.7 μg/L for PROC, OT, OTP, and CTL+, respectively). Our results suggest that supplementation of VSL#3 suppressed the allergic reaction mainly through increased intestinal secretary IgA (sIgA) in PROC mice, and oral tolerance offered allergen-specific protective effects to BLG-induced allergy, probably through CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell-mediated active suppression. In OTP mice, probiotics did not induce a further reduction of hypersensitivity score compared with OT mice but may provide additional protection to unforeseen nonspecific challenges through increased intestinal sIgA.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  16. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  17. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  18. Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Gabric, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied. PMID:25883811

  19. Allergic contact stomatitis from bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate during application of composite restorations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Johns, Dexton A; Hemaraj, Sajna; Varoli, Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins have revolutionized the field of esthetic dentistry. They are safe to use and usually do not cause any untoward reactions. Allergies to composites are rare, but they do occasionally occur as patients are briefly exposed to the resin before it is polymerized and becomes non-allergenic. Here, we present a case of allergic contact stomatitis due to bis-GMA.

  20. An instability of acoustic waves caused by radiation and the influence of chemical reactions on it

    SciTech Connect

    De Jagher, P.C. )

    1990-06-20

    In a gas which absorbs radiation an acoustic wave can be unstable. This instability is caused by the fact that the irradiant energy is absorbed preferentially in the high density region of the wave. If in the gas the chemical equilibrium AB {r reversible} A + B is maintained by photo dissociation balancing the reactions due to collisions, the instability increases. This is due to the density dependence of the reaction rate of the reverse reaction. It is argued that this process may explain the excitation or amplification of disturbances in the upper atmosphere.

  1. A rare cause of breast mass that mimics carcinoma: Foreign body reaction to amorphous surgical material.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Burhan; Sever, Ali Riza; Mills, Philippa; Fish, David; Jones, Susan; Jones, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A breast mass caused by foreign body type granulomatous reaction to surgical material is a very rare lesion and may mimic carcinoma. Reported foreign materials have included suture materials, silicone, paraffin, gunpowder and carbon particles used for localization of a nonpalpable breast lesions. To our knowledge, a foreign body reaction to gauze sponge has not been reported previously. A 58-year-old woman who had an enlarging mass that mimicked breast carcinoma, due to foreign body reaction to gauze sponge is presented here, and relevant literature is reviewed.

  2. Severe exfoliative dermatitis caused by strontium ranelate: two cases of a new drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma V; Shipley, Debbie R V

    2010-05-01

    Strontium ranelate is a relatively new drug used as a second-line treatment for osteoporosis, often targeted at older patients. It is known to cause skin rash and rarely drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, but there are no reports of exfoliative dermatitis as a reaction in the literature. We present the first two cases of this adverse effect of the drug, combined with eosinophilia but no systemic symptoms. We illustrate the significant morbidity involved and use of systemic steroid treatment required, highlighting the need for awareness of this reaction in medical and particularly in elderly care communities.

  3. Dissimilar allergic disease in identical twins; a study of psychosomatic aspects.

    PubMed

    CREDE, R H; CARMAN, C T; WHALEY, R D; SCHUMACHER, I C

    1953-01-01

    Identical twins with bronchial asthma were studied. One had the first attack of the disease in late adolescence, the other not until he was adult. Both were demonstrated by immunologic means to be sensitive to house dust and certain foods. Yet, of itself, the factor of exposure to a known allergen seemed not enough to precipitate clinical allergic reaction in either of them. It is believed that emotional stress is accompanied by physiologic changes which facilitate increased reactions to antigenic agents that in normal circumstances would not cause clinical disease.The twins were widely different with regard to emotional development and in their reaction to situations of stress. In both of them allergic manifestations were associated with periods of emotional conflict.The dissimilar clinical manifestations of allergy in these identical twins may be explained by differences in personality and therefore in reactions to stress situations.

  4. Skin reactions to sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R L; Frowen, K E; Lewis, A E

    1997-06-01

    Sunscreen reactions are said not to be uncommon. A population referred to a patch testing clinic was evaluated for reactions to sunscreen by questionnaire initially and then, if relevant, by patch testing to sunscreen products and their components. Irritant reactions were more common than allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic reactions to sunscreens were less common than to non-sunscreen chemicals present in sunscreen products.

  5. Reaction Time and Mortality from the Major Causes of Death: The NHANES-III Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Deary, Ian J.; Davies, Carolyn A.; Weiss, Alexander; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies examining the relation of information processing speed, as measured by reaction time, with mortality are scarce. We explored these associations in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Participants were 5,134 adults (2,342 men) aged 20–59 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–94). Results Adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic minority status, a 1 SD slower reaction time was associated with a raised risk of mortality from all-causes (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.12, 1.39) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.17, 1.58). Having 1 SD more variable reaction time was also associated with greater risk of all-cause (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.19, 1.55) and CVD (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.33, 1.70) mortality. No associations were observed for cancer mortality. The magnitude of the relationships was comparable in size to established risk factors in this dataset, such as smoking. Interpretation Alongside better-established risk factors, reaction time is associated with increased risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease. It is a candidate risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24489645

  6. Current management of allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Georgalas, Christos; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Fokkens, Wytske

    2010-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, including the discovery of new inflammatory mediators, the link between asthma and allergic rhinitis ('one airway-one disease' concept) and the introduction of novel therapeutic modalities. These new insights have been documented in the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines and have led to the creation of evidence-based management algorithms. We now understand the importance of a common strategy for treating allergic inflammation of the upper and lower airway as a way of improving outcome, reducing hospital admissions, providing better quality of life and perhaps, altering the natural course of the 'allergic march'. A therapeutic ladder is suggested: Whereas for mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, allergen avoidance should be the first line of treatment with subsequent addition of a second generation topical or oral antihistamine, nasal saline or cromoglycate, in cases of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis, a nasal steroid is the treatment of choice. If a patient with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis fails to improve after 4 wk of adequate treatment, patient compliance or the diagnosis must be re-assessed. In such cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, a careful clinical examination including nasal endoscopy is mandatory to assess for other potential causes of nasal obstruction. In children who suffer from concomitant allergic rhinitis and asthma, a management algorithm that addresses concurrently asthma and allergic rhinitis is vital, both from a theoretical and from a practical point of view: Parents overwhelmingly prefer a single strategy for the treatment of their child's upper and lower airway symptoms; however, the overall quality of life in children with severe asthma can be significantly improved if rhinitis is adequately addressed.

  7. Provocative use tests in CAPB-allergic subjects with CAPB-containing product.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Diepgen, T L; Kuhn, M; Basketter, D A

    1999-07-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been identified as a cause of contact allergy in personal care products. Furthermore, it has been suggested that chemicals responsible are impurities, especially dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA). However, skin contact concentrations with these impurities, especially DMAPA, are very low. The aim of the study was to analyse whether subjects with previous positive patch tests to CAPB would react in provocative use tests of a product containing CAPB. 10 individuals with a clinical history of contact allergy to CAPB (by positive patch test and history) took part in a ROAT which used a CAPB-based shower gel at 25% (DMAPA concentration < 1 ppm). None of the subjects showed positive allergic reactions. 1 of the test subjects did experience a flare of atopic dermatitis at the treatment site. Later, all 10 subjects were patch tested to 3 different concentrations of CAPB and DMAPA (0.1%, 0.3%, 1%) to verify the threshold that was capable of inducing a positive test reaction. 5/10 showed clear + reactions to 1% CAPB (typically at D3), whilst a further 3 gave marginal and/or irritant reactions. Only 1 of the subjects showed an allergic reaction to DMAPA. Finally, in uncontrolled use testing with the shower gel, none of the test subjects reported any adverse skin reactions. Thus, the study confirmed that CAPB-sensitive individuals can use a CAPB-based rinse-off product without the risk of experiencing an allergic reaction to CAPB.

  8. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients' and their family's quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  9. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success. PMID:28243068

  10. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be “mild” and “natural” are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to “stronger” allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  12. Allergic axillary dermatitis due to hydrogenated castor oil in a deodorant.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Kathy; Tatnall, Frances; Orton, David

    2008-03-01

    We present a case of axillary dermatitis caused by hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) in a commercially available deodorant. Patch testing with constituents obtained from the manufacturer showed allergic reaction to HCO 'as is', whereas there was no reaction to HCO 30% in pet. Testing 10 controls with HCO 'as is' did not cause irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis to non-HCO in cosmetics has been described previously but sensitization to HCO seems to be rare. Most common allergens identified in deodorants are fragrances, and this case illustrates that HCO is another possible allergen found in this group of personal care products. It is important that it is tested 'as is' to avoid false-negative results.

  13. Modeling of transmittance degradation caused by optical surface contamination by atomic oxygen reaction with adsorbed silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2000-09-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicon producing SiOx (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic asthma have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes ... eczema ( atopic dermatitis ), followed by food allergies, then hay fever, and finally asthma. However, not all individuals with ...

  15. The epitopes that cause cross-reactions between peanuts and tree nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many peanut allergic individuals also have allergies to tree nuts. Our previous work has shown that there are epitopes with different amino acid sequences, but similar physical and chemical properties are recognized by the same IgE molecule. Anti-Ara h 2 monoclonal antibodies were produced. They we...

  16. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  17. Delayed and immediate allergy caused by methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Hyry, H; Jolanki, R; Hytönen, M; Estlander, T

    1997-01-01

    Epoxy resin compounds (ERC) include a large number of chemicals, such as epoxy resins (ER), reactive diluents and hardeners. Many hardeners, e.g., aliphatic polyamines, are well-known sensitizers. Another type of ER hardeners are the phthalic anhydrides, such as methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), which have been reported as causing immunologically-mediated respiratory diseases and contact urticaria, but not allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we present a horizontal boring-machine worker who developed allergic contact dermatitis, as well as allergic rhinitis and an immediate contact skin reaction from MHHPA. Patch testing with a dilution series of MHHPA in pet. elicited the following results: 2%, 1% and 0.5%, +2; 0.25% and 0.125%, + (3- to 6-day readings). An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study also indicated that the patch test reactions were conventional-delayed allergic reactions. Interleukin 8 was observed in the epidermal cells, whereas interleukin 4 immunoreactivity was detected in the dermal cells. Immunoreactivity to-interleukin 5, granulocyte/macrophage-colophony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or eosinophil cationic protein was not seen. In conclusion, the patient developed both Type I and Type IV allergy to MHHPA. The clinical data, patch test results, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic observations indicated that the MHHPA allergy detected by the patch test reaction was a conventional delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The patient also had an allergic patch test reaction to para-phenylenediamine and diaminodiphenylmethane, possibly representing occupational sensitization.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.

  19. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  20. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  2. Latex-specific proteins causing immediate-type cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, and systemic reactions.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, D; Kleinhans, D; Czuppon, A B; Baur, X

    1992-03-01

    We examined 70 patients reporting hypersensitivity reactions caused by latex articles. All patients suffered from urticaria, 36 from rhinitis, 31 from conjunctivitis, 22 from dyspnea, and 17 from systemic reactions, and four patients developed severe systemic complications during surgery. By means of inhalative challenge tests with powdered latex gloves, it could be demonstrated that the glove powder (cornstarch) obviously functions as a carrier for latex allergens, which then become airborne. Five of 18 patients undergoing such challenge tests demonstrated a significant increase of specific airway resistance; 17, acute rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis; and two, a systemic reaction. Sixty-two percent of the patients demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to natural latex, 58% to an irradiatively cross-linked, so-called, "hypoallergenic" latex preparation, and 46% to commercial-latex RAST disks (Pharmacia). No specific antibodies to cornstarch or a mixture of rubber chemicals were found. A good correlation (82%) exists between latex IgE RAST and latex skin prick test, as revealed in a subgroup of 45 subjects. By means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the latex allergen appears to be a mixture of proteins in a molecular weight range from 10 to 67 kd.

  3. Delayed Foreign Body Reaction Caused by Bioabsorbable Plates Used for Maxillofacial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Bae; Gu, Ja Hea; Oh, Sang Ah

    2016-01-01

    Background Bioabsorbable plates and screws are commonly used to reduce maxillofacial bones, particularly in pediatric patients because they degrade completely without complications after bone healing. In this study, we encountered eight cases of a delayed foreign body reaction after surgical fixation with bioabsorbable plates and screws. Methods A total of 234 patients with a maxillofacial fracture underwent surgical treatment from March 2006 to October 2013, in which rigid fixation was achieved with the Inion CPS (Inion, Tampere, Finland) plating system in 173 patients and Rapidsorb (Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA) in 61 patients. Their mean age was 35.2 years (range, 15-84 years). Most patients were stabilized with two- or three-point fixation at the frontozygomatic suture, infraorbital rim, and anterior wall of the maxilla. Results Complications occurred in eight (3.4%) of 234 patients, including palpable, fixed masses in six patients and focal swelling in two patients. The period from surgical fixation to the onset of symptoms was 9-23 months. Six patients with a mass underwent secondary surgery for mass removal. The masses contained fibrous tissue with a yellow, grainy, cloudy fluid and remnants of an incompletely degraded bioabsorbable plate and screws. Their histological findings demonstrated a foreign body reaction. Conclusions Inadequate degradation of bioabsorbable plates caused a delayed inflammatory foreign body reaction requiring secondary surgery. Therefore, it is prudent to consider the possibility of delayed complications when using bioabsorbable plates and surgeons must conduct longer and closer follow-up observations. PMID:26848444

  4. New treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tkachyk, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:10349070

  5. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  7. Modeling of Transmittance Degradation Caused by Optical Surface Contamination by Atomic Oxygen Reaction with Adsorbed Silicones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce; Miller, Sharon; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2001-01-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicone producing SiO(x), (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  8. Allergic enteritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Gawryjołek, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development. The diagnosis of allergic enteritis is based on the clinical examination and the results of additional tests including an endoscopy of the lower digestive tract with histopathological assessment. Cow’s milk proteins are the most common nutrition proteins responsible for the development of the symptoms of allergic enteritis. The most essential method of treating allergic enteritis is the elimination diet. The symptoms should subside within 1–2 weeks from the beginning of the diet. PMID:28337229

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  10. Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, S; Puigdemont, A; Della Valle, M F; Fusco, M; Verde, R; Allarà, M; Aveta, T; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encoding for N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA), were treated with adelmidrol or azelaic acid, and the concentrations of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and related mediators (PEA and oleoylethanolamide) were measured. The mRNA expression of PEA catabolic enzymes (NAAA and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), and biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1, was also measured. Brain or HEK-293 cell membrane fractions were used to assess the ability of adelmidrol to inhibit FAAH and NAAA activity, respectively. HaCaT cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), was measured in the presence of adelmidrol. Adelmidrol increased PEA concentrations in canine keratinocytes and in the other cellular systems studied. It did not inhibit the activity of PEA catabolic enzymes, although it reduced their mRNA expression in some cell types. Adelmidrol modulated the expression of PEA biosynthetic enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in HaCaT cells, and inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-2 from stimulated HaCaT cells. This study demonstrates for the first time an 'entourage effect' of adelmidrol on PEA concentrations in keratinocytes and suggests that this effect might mediate, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound in veterinary practice.

  11. Occupational generalised urticaria and allergic airborne asthma due to anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Scala, E; Giani, M; Pirrotta, L; Guerra, E C; Cadoni, S; Girardelli, C R; De Pità, O; Puddu, P

    2001-01-01

    Anisakis simplex (AS), a fish and cephalopodes parasite, may cause allergic reactions in humans on eating and/or handling contaminated fish. We present a case of occupational hypersensitivity to AS in a woman employed in a frozen-fish factory. She showed both generalised urticarial rash and asthmatic symptoms after work place exposure. All these symptoms immediately disappeared after work place exposure was ceased. The presence of a positive skin prick test and high specific IgE values confirmed a hypersensitivity to anisakis. This is the first case reported of both occupational generalised urticaria and allergic airborne asthma due to AS in the same patient. We suggest that AS could be an important cause of occupational asthma and/or urticaria in the fish industry.

  12. Epigenetics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 7 million children in the United States. Epidemiological evidence supports the idea that the inception of allergic diseases is typically before the pre-school years, even when chronic symptoms do not emerge until adulthood. The role of epigenetic mechanisms (particularly DNA methylation) in allergic disease is under active investigation because these mechanisms are known to be at the interface among gene regulation, environmental stimuli and developmental processes, all of which are essential for the pathogenesis for asthma and allergy. This article specifically reviews genome-wide DNA methylation studies in allergic disease. Recent findings Differential DNA methylation at specific regions appears to be associated with concurrent allergic disease. A few studies have identified methylation signatures predictive of disease. Summary DNA methylation signatures have been shown be associated with several allergic disease phenotypes, typically concurrently with disease. The few that have been found to precede diagnosis are especially interesting because they highlight an early trajectory to disease. PMID:26418323

  13. [Stress reactions and stress fractures in the high performance athlete. Causes, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Geyer, M; Sander-Beuermann, A; Wegner, U; Wirth, C J

    1993-02-01

    From 1987 until July 1991 70 athletes with stress reactions or stress fractures were treated in the orthopaedic department of the Hannover Medical School. The average age of the 42 male and 28 female athletes was 22.6 years. The number of athletes involved in track and field sports was 29 (41.4%), in gymnastics 9 (12.9%) and in soccer 5 (7.1%). The most common bone injured was the tibia in 29 (41.4%), followed by the tarsal navicular in 21 (30.0%), the midfoot in 17 (24.3%) and the fibula in 4 (5.7%) athletes. In three cases double stress fractures were found in adjacent locations; in one case a stress fracture of the opposite navicular occurred after the initial tarsal navicular stress fracture had healed, and in another case the tarsal navicular was found to be fractured again. Thirty-seven percent of the athletes claimed sudden increase in training intensity was the cause; 33% felt that the increased sprinting and jump activities were the reason for their complaints. In some athletes pain started after an ankle sprain. Standard diagnostic procedure consisted in X-rays in two planes and three-phase bone scanning. In tarsal navicular or tibial locations additional tomograms were performed. MRI and CT scans were reserved for unclear findings and to exclude the possibility of a tumorous or inflammatory process. A new grading system was introduced that covers all forms of stress reactions from periostitis to pseudarthrosis. Clinical symptoms, sport disabilities, radiological and bone scan findings were graded from A to D. Using a modified Wilson classification, all radiologically recognizable stress reactions could be classified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Occlusive irritant dermatitis: when is "allergic" contact dermatitis not allergic?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sara; Helms, Amy; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    CASE 1: A 38-year-old teacher presented with a 3- to 4-week history of a linear, erythematous, vesicular, and pruritic eruption of her left wrist. She had been wearing a new elastic bracelet for 4 weeks before the onset of her eruption. Although there was no history of allergy to rubber products or jewelry, an allergic contact dermatitis to rubber was suspected. Patch testing to rubber chemicals and the elastic bracelet revealed no reactions at 48, 72, and 96 hours. She stopped wearing the bracelet and used a corticosteroid cream with rapid resolution of the problem. The patient resumed wearing the bracelet, and there has been no recurrence in the past 2 months. CASE 2: A 12-year-old boy presented with a 1-month history of an itchy, scaly, erythematous 1-cm patch over the midline of his lower lip. The patient complained of tiny blisters initially with persistent erythema, mild scaling, and associated pruritus. The patient plays the saxophone and he had been practicing more intensely (3 to 4 h/d) for a musical competition. Allergic reaction to his wood reed was suspected, but patch testing with a moistened portion of his reed and reed shavings in a drop of water revealed no reaction at 48 and 72 hours. Treatment with hydrocortisone 1% cream bid for 3 days led to complete resolution of the dermitis and pruritus. Playing the saxophone 1 h/d has not led to any recurrence. CASE 3: A 33-year-old woman presented with erythema, scaling, and pruritus of 1 month's duration beneath her engagement and wedding rings, which were worn together on her left fourth finger (Figure 3). Although she had no history of previous sensitivity to earrings, watch clasp, blue jean rivets, or other jewelry, allergic contact dermatitis to nickel was suspected. Patch testing was performed to the common metal allergens nickel, cobalt, chromium, and gold. Readings at 48 hours and 1 week revealed no positive reactions. The patient wore her rings on the right hand for 1 week and used fluocinonide 0

  15. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  16. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Conk-Dalay, Meltem; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing globally due to various causes. It affects the quality life of a large group of people in all around the world. Allergic rhinitis still remains inadequately controlled with present medical means. The need of continuous medical therapy makes individuals anxious about the side effects of the drugs. So there is a need for an alternative strategy. Effects of spirulina, tinospora cordifolia and butterbur were investigated recently on allergic rhinitis in just very few investigations. Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. This double blind, placebo controlled study, evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Spirulina consumption significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placebo (P < 0.001***) including nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. Spirulina is clinically effective on allergic rhinitis when compared with placebo. Further studies should be performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this effect.

  17. Tregs and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas S.; Larché, Mark; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect up to 15% of populations in Westernized countries. The description of Tregs as T cells that prevent development of autoimmune disease led to considerable interest in whether these Tregs were also normally involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens and whether it might be possible to manipulate Tregs for the therapy of allergic disease. Current data suggest that Th2 responses to allergens are normally suppressed by both CD4+CD25+ Tregs and IL-10 Tregs. Furthermore, suppression by these subsets is decreased in allergic individuals. In animal models, Tregs could be induced by high- or low-dose inhaled antigen, and prior induction of such Tregs prevented subsequent development of allergen sensitization and airway inflammation in inhaled challenge models. For many years, allergen-injection immunotherapy has been used for the therapy of allergic disease, and this treatment may induce IL-10 Tregs, leading to both suppression of Th2 responses and a switch from IgE to IgG4 antibody production. Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. PMID:15545986

  18. Impacts of allergic airway inflammation on lung pathology in a mouse model of influenza A virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Ohara, Yuki; Takahashi, Kenta; Sato, Yuko; Ainai, Akira; Nagata, Noriyo; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus is the respiratory pathogen responsible for influenza. Infection by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus caused severe lower airway inflammation and pneumonia. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that affects the entire brachial tree, and was one of the commonest underlying medical conditions among patients hospitalized with the 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection. Although respiratory virus infections are the major causes of asthma exacerbation, the mechanism by which influenza exacerbates asthma is poorly understood. Animal models of disease comorbidity are crucial to understanding host-pathogen interactions and elucidating complex pathologies. Existing murine models of influenza virus infection in asthmatics show that asthmatic mice are highly resistant to influenza virus infection, which contradicts clinical observations in humans. Here, we developed a murine model of influenza virus/asthma comorbidity using NC/Nga mice, which are highly sensitive to allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis and allergic airway inflammation. This model was then used to examine the impact of allergic airway inflammation on lung pathology in the 2009 pandemic influenza virus infected mice. The results showed that induction of acute allergic airway inflammation in pre-existing influenza virus infection had additive effects on exacerbation of lung pathology, which mirrors findings in human epidemiological studies. In contrast, pre-existing allergic airway inflammation protected from subsequent influenza virus infection, which was compatible with those of previous murine models of influenza virus infection in asthmatic mice. These variable outcomes of this murine model indicate that the temporal relation between allergic airway inflammation and influenza virus infection might play a critical role in asthma and influenza comorbidity. Thus, this murine model will further our understanding of how influenza virus infection affects an

  19. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with allergy to intraoral metals.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia; Zerboni, Roberto; Somalvico, Francesco; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2014-10-15

    Contact (allergic) dermatitis is a skin disorder related to natural exposure to various allergens. Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) describes a cutaneous eruption in response to systemic exposure to an allergen. The exact pathologic mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we describe a 36-year-old woman with symmetric systemic allergic contact dermatitis, unresponsive to conventional treatment, associated with dental alloy-contact hypersensitivity. We did skin patch testing and the blood lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) from the dental allergen series to assess contact allergy to restorative dental materials. On patch testing, positive allergic contact dermatitis reactions to metals occurred (nickel, potassium dichromate, and gold). Nickel hypersensitivity was confirmed by LTT, which also revealed silver-amalgam sensitization. Our case report highlights the need to consider adverse reactions to base-metal dental alloys in the differential diagnosis of cases of systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

  20. [Prevention of allergic diseases in childhood: from theory to reality].

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Allergic diseases have an increasing worldwide prevalence and a great impact on the health related costs. The research is focused on the study of etiological and risk factors of allergic diseases that can potentially be modified with primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies. Many of these measures do not have a definitively proven effect taking place in a controlled context different to what happens in real life. This paper aims to review the latest evidence on prevention of allergic diseases considering certainties and unresolved issues and focuses mainly on environmental, dietary, pharmacological and immunological preventive strategies for different levels of prevention. It is imperative to have a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that cause allergic diseases to optimize preventive measures that are effective in reversing the increasing trend in the prevalence of allergic illnesses in childhood.

  1. Aseptic meningitis caused by Leptospira spp diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eliete Caló; Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; Yasuda, Paulo Hideki

    2010-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the pathogenic Leptospira spp. The clinical presentations are diverse, ranging from undifferentiated fever to fulminant disease including meningeal forms. The neurological leptospirosis forms are usually neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate leptospirosis as the cause of aseptic meningitis using different diagnostic techniques including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirty-nine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients presenting with meningeal abnormalities, predominance of lymphocytes and negative results by traditional microbiological tests were processed by leptospiral culture, anti-leptospiral antibody response and PCR. Leptospira spp DNA was detected in 23 (58.97%) of the CSF samples. Anti-leptospiral antibodies were found in 13 (33.33%) CSF samples. Twelve CSF samples were positive by PCR assay and negative by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) assay. Two CSF samples were positive by MAT and negative by PCR. The positive and negative agreement between both tests was 11 and 14, respectively. CSF samples from six cases of unknown diagnosis were positive by PCR assay. Eight cases showed positive results using PCR and MAT. Leptospirosis could be detected by PCR assay from the 3rd-26th day after illness onset. The sensitivity of the PCR was assessed with confirmed cases of leptospirosis (by MAT) and found to be 89.5%. All CSFs were negative by culture. PCR was found to be a powerful tool for diagnosing meningitis cases of leptospirosis. We recommend that it may be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool, especially in the early stages of the disease, when other diagnostic techniques such as serology are not sensitive.

  2. [Apoptosis in allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas Ramos, E; Martínez Jiménez, N E; Martínez Aguilar, N E; Garfias Becerra, J

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis (cell programmed death) it is a mechanism that implicate a physiological suicide, to keep the cellular homeostasis in big amount of tissues. Fas (APO-1; CD95) system is one of the most important cellular responsible via to induce apoptosis on different tissues. Eosinophillia on peripheral blood and tissues are the main characteristics on allergic like asthma. Eosinophil apoptosis is upper regulated in those diseases by IL-5 y GM-CSF. Corticoids, teophyllin and some macrolids have been used like apoptosis inductors on eosinophills, these could be a novel mechanism to promote a better solution on inflammatory allergic diseases.

  3. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.

  4. Allergic contact gingivostomatitis from a temporary crown made of methacrylates and epoxy diacrylates.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Alanko, K; Estlander, T

    1999-12-01

    Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates is common in dental personnel, whereas dental acrylic fillings and crowns have rarely been reported to cause problems in dental patients. Here we report on a 48-year-old woman who developed gingivitis, stomatitis, and perioral dermatitis after a temporary crown made of restorative, two-component material had been inserted. The manufacturer stated that the temporary crown base paste and catalyst contained three (meth)acrylates, namely, a proacrylate, which is a modification of 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BIS-GMA); a tricyclate, which is a saturated, aliphatic, tricyclic methacrylate; and urethane methacrylate. The manufacturer refused to give more exact information on the (meth)acrylates. Patch testing revealed that the patient was highly allergic to BIS-GMA, other epoxy diacrylates, and (meth)acrylates, as well as to the base paste and catalyst of the temporary crown. Accordingly, it was concluded that the allergic reaction was caused by BIS-GMA, or a cross-reacting (meth)acrylate, or other (meth)acrylates in the temporary crown.

  5. Low-dose ethanol aggravates allergic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Ogino, Hirofumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Okuno, Tomofumi; Ueno, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol injures dendritic cells and suppresses cellular immunity, while some evidence indicates that drinking alcohol aggravates allergic asthma. This study investigated the effect of low doses of ethanol in enhancing allergic reactions in the skin of mice. Liquid food containing alcohol was administered to conventional NC/Nga mice to induce alcoholic hepatic steatosis, and spontaneous dermatitis was evaluated. BALB/c mice were administered approximately 1 g/kg body weight of ethanol by gavage, and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA) was induced. Spleens were collected 24 h after the elicitation of CHS and mRNA expressions of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diet exaggerated spontaneous dermatitis in conventional NC/Nga mice and contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administered by gavage for 5 days enhanced contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administration with gavage also enhanced ACA of BALB/c mice. Ethanol did not affect mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-4, but did enhance IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 mRNA expression. Histological evaluation revealed an absence of hepatic steatosis in mice administered ethanol by gavage for 5 days. In ethanol-administered mice, inflamed areas presented as lesions or a local extreme accumulation of mononuclear cells in the epidermis. These findings suggest that ethanol enhances the expression of inflammatory cytokines independently from T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine phenotypes, causing abnormalities in the epidermis resulting in exacerbated allergic reactivity.

  6. The burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Ozdoganoglu, Tunis; Songu, Murat

    2012-02-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common health problems that cause major illness and disability worldwide. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is estimated to range from 10% to 20% in the USA and Europe. Multiple factors contribute to the wide range of reported prevalence rates. These include type of prevalence rate reported (current or cumulative), study selection criteria, age of participants, differences in survey methods, varied geographic locations and socioeconomic status, any of which are significant enough to confound direct comparison between studies. There is no standard set of diagnostic criteria for allergic rhinitis. In most studies, the criteria for diagnosis are based on the subject's reporting, solely by questionnaire and rarely confirmed by skin testing. In addition, most studies focus on hay fever, leaving perennial allergic rhinitis underestimated. Sinus imaging is generally not performed and, therefore, rhinosinusitis not differentiated. Some investigators report 'current' prevalence while others report 'cumulative' or 'lifetime' prevalence. Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that asthma and rhinitis often coexist in the same patients. The prevalence of asthma is <2% in subjects without rhinitis while it varies from 10% to 40% in patients with rhinitis. Furthermore, the majority of patients with asthma experience rhinitis, which is a factor in the risk for asthma. Despite recognition that allergic rhinitis and asthma are global health problems, there are insufficient epidemiologic data and more data are needed with regard to their etiologic risk factors and natural history. This aim of this review is to enable the reader to discuss prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  7. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  8. Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doo Hee

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment options for allergic rhinitis (AR) include allergen avoidance and environmental control, pharmacotherapy, nasal surgery and immunotherapy. Among these, immunotherapy is the only therapeutic option that modifies fundamental immunologic mechanism by inducing desensitization. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been used for 1 century since 1911 and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been demonstrated to be effective in asthma and AR. However, SCIT has several disadvantages such as inconvenience, invasiveness and potentially severe systemic reactions. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has recently received much attention around the world as a treatment for AR and is now widely used to replace the subcutaneous route. SLIT has recently been introduced in Korea and is now available for AR treatment in the Asia-Pacific region. This review offers better understanding of SLIT for AR by summarizing published articles and our previous works regarding proposed mechanisms, indication and efficacy, safety and adverse events, and compliance. PMID:22053308

  9. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  10. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  11. Case of allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-butylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Atsuko; Ito, Akiko; Masui, Yukiko; Ito, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Butylene glycol (1,3-BG) is widely used in cosmetics, including low-irritant skin care products and topical medicaments, as an excellent and low-irritation humectant. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-BG. A 28-year-old woman suffered from an itchy erythematous eruption on her face. By 2 days of closed patch testing, her own cosmetics and many of the hypo-irritant skin care products showed positive results. A second patch testing showed positive reaction to 1,3-BG (1% and 5%). 1,3-BG was a common component in most of the products that had elicited a positive reaction in the first patch testing. Although allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-BG is not so common, we have to consider 1,3-BG as a possible contact allergen in the patients presenting with allergic contact dermatitis due to various cosmetics.

  12. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions as a cause of admission to a paediatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    MARTÍNEZ-MIR, I.; GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, M.; PALOP, V.; FERRER, J. M.; ESTAÑ, L.; RUBIO, E.; MORALES-OLIVAS, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    1A total of 512 consecutive paediatric hospital admissions of children 2 years old or less were evaluated to assess the extent and pattern of admission caused by suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The proportion of suspected ADRs related to hospital admissions was 4.3%. 2The organ-systems most commonly implicated were the central nervous system (40.5%), digestive system (16.7%), and skin and appendages (14.3%). Together, they accounted for 71.5% of admissions attributed to ADRs. The most common clinical manifestations inducing admission were convulsions (4 cases), dizziness (4), vomiting (3), and tremor, fever, itching and apnoea (2 cases each). 3The four classes of drugs most frequently suspected in admissions due to ADRs were respiratory drugs (35%), anti-infective agents (25%), drugs active on the central nervous system (15%) and drugs used in dermatology (10%). The most common drugs related to ADRs were a combination of chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, phenylephrine, guaiphenesin and salicylic acid (4 cases), followed by fenoterol, adrenaline, paracetamol, DTP vaccine and antipolio vaccine (2 cases each). 4There were no significant differences between children older and younger than 1 year (odds ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.37–2.17) or between the sexes as regards hospital admittance due to suspected ADRs (odds ratio 1.94; 95% CI 0.72–5.42). 5The results of this kind of study may be influenced by patterns of drug utilization. Nevertheless, the lack of specific studies of drug effects in young children makes it desirable to carry out pharmacoepidemiological studies in this age group. PMID:8877022

  13. Pulmonary mycotic infections; allergic and immunologic factors.

    PubMed

    KEENEY, E L

    1954-12-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated.Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions-precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction-the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections-for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed.

  14. [Allergic hypersensitivity to antiretroviral drugs: etravirine, raltegravir and darunavir].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Olivas, Manuel Anastacio; Valencia-Zavala, Martha Patricia; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Sánchez-Olivas, Jesús Alberto; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo; Sepúlveda-Velázquez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    All antiretroviral drugs can have both short-term and long-term adverse events. The risk of specific side effects varies from drug to drug, from drug class to drug class, and from patient to patient. A better understanding of the adverse effects of antiretroviral agents is of interest not only for HIV specialists, but also for other physicians who care allergy reactions in HIV-positive patients. Each antiretroviral medication is associated with its own specific adverse effects or may cause problems only in particular circumstances. In this article some adverse allergic effects of HAART therapy in the treatment of HIV from a patient are reviewed. Our aim is to gain a working knowledge of these adverse effects, promoting the early recognition and reversal of potentially serious adverse effects, and reducing the potential for adverse drug interactions.

  15. Ancillary therapy of intranasal T-LysYal® for patients with allergic, non-allergic, and mixed rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Taliente, S; Fiorella, M L; Quaranta, N; Ciancio, G; Russo, C; Mola, P; Ciofalo, A; Zambetti, G; Caruso Armone, A; Cantone, E; Ciprandi, G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated pathogenesis. Frequently, patients have the two disorders associated: such as mixed rhinitis (MR). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a fundamental component of the human connective tissue. HA may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities. Recently, an intranasal HA formulation was proposed: a supramolecular system containing lysine hyaluronate, thymine and sodium chloride (T-LysYal®). This randomized study investigated whether intranasal T-LysYal® (rinoLysYal®, Farmigea, Italy) was able to reduce symptom severity, endoscopic features, and nasal cytology in 89 patients (48 males and 41 females, mean age 36.3±7.1 years) with AR, NAR, and MR. Patients were treated with intranasal T-LysYal® or isotonic saline solution as adjunctive therapy to nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine for 4 weeks. Patients were visited at baseline, after treatment and after 4-week follow-up. Intranasal T-LysYal® treatment significantly reduced the quote of patients with symptoms, endoscopic features, and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that intranasal T-LysYal® is able, as ancillary therapy, to significantly improve patients with AR, NAR, and MR, and its effect is long lasting.

  16. [Occurrence of drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Pastorello, E; Qualizza, R M; Luraghi, M T; Ispano, M; Villa, A M; Ortolani, C; Zanussi, C

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of allergic reactions to drugs compared to other kinds of medical emergencies admitted to the main Hospital in Milan during a 6 months period. At the same time we drew a list of drugs most frequently involved in allergic reactions, and a list of the most frequent symptoms. Using special forms, the medical staff collected patients' data: age, history of atopy, identification of the drug causing the reaction, and any previous reactions. Among 11,407 cases of medical emergencies, we found 163 (1.43%) patients showing drug reactions: the mean age was 27.3; 58.90% were female; atopy was present in 16.56%. The drugs most frequently involved were: pyrazon group (22%); ASA (20.86%); penicillin and derivatives (9.20%); sulfa drugs (6.14%); group B vitamins (4.30%); tetanus toxoid (4.30%); hyposensitizing extracts (3.68%); propionic acid derivatives (2.46%); paracetamol (1.84%); indomethacin (1.23%); rifampicin (1.23%); erythromycin (1.23%); glafenine (1.23%); others (17.80%). Urticaria and/or angioedema were the most frequent symptoms (86.51%), then anaphylactic shock (9.81%) and asthma (3.68%) with regard to anaphylactic shock only 6.20% of the patients had had a previous reaction to the same drug. From these data we can see that the incidence of drug reactions is very low compared to other medical emergencies; penicillin evidenced fewer reactions than expected, while the pyrazon group and ASA confirmed the data from literature.

  17. [Contact allergy-induced tracheal stenosis caused by vulcanization accelerators in the endotracheal tube?].

    PubMed

    Niehaus, H H; Enzmann, H

    1995-07-01

    Tracheal stenoses occur mainly under iatrogenic conditions: they develop specially after long-term intubation, but also after tracheotomy. Etiological-pathogenic relevant factors include the mechanical irritation of mucosa, perichondrium and cartilage in addition to infected tracheal secretions. An allergic cell-mediated reaction in the respiratory tract has been already described. It is seldom recognized. The possibility of such a hyperergic, allergic, delayed reaction (Type IV Coombs-Gell response) with subsequent tracheal stenosis caused by rubber chemicals (accelerators) found in endotracheal tubes is presented in the following case report.

  18. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented. PMID:22776751

  19. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  20. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  1. Goldschlager allergy in a gold allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T; Stork, C M; Cantor, R M

    1999-08-01

    We describe the case of gold allergy after ingestion of GOLDSCHLAGER, a gold-containing liquor, in a patient with a previous allergy to gold jewelry. The patient was not aware that genuine gold particles were contained in the schnapps liquor and that ingestion could result in a reaction similar to that experienced by individuals sensitive to gold jewelry. Clinicians should be familiar with the presence of gold particles in GOLDSCHLAGER liquor and the potential for allergic reactions to occur in those so predisposed.

  2. Management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Solelhac, Geoffroy; Charpin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke.

  3. Allergic Inflammation—Innately Homeostatic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Laurence E.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  4. Foreign body reaction after PLC reconstruction caused by a broken PLLA screw.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kwon; Jeong, Tae-Wan; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2014-12-01

    Foreign body reactions may occur in patients who receive bioabsorbable implants during orthopedic surgery for fractures and ligament repair. The authors describe a 34-year-old man who presented with a palpable tender mass on the lateral aspect of the left knee of 1 month's duration. He underwent posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner reconstruction 3 years earlier. Physical examination showed a 1×1-cm soft, nontender mass without localized warmth on the lateral epicondyle of the distal femur. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a broken screw fragment surrounded by a cyst-like mass. Under general anesthesia, the surgeon excised the screw fragment and the fibrotic mass, enclosing it in the subcutaneous tissue at the lateral epicondyle, the site at which a poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screw had been inserted to fix the graft for posterolateral corner reconstruction. Histologic evaluation showed a foreign body reaction to the degraded screw particles. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first description of a patient presenting with a delayed foreign body reaction to a broken poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screw at the lateral femoral epicondyle after posterolateral corner reconstruction. Because delayed foreign body reactions can occur at any site of poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screw insertion, care should be taken to avoid screw protrusion during ligament reconstruction because it can lead to screw breakage and delayed foreign body reaction.

  5. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  6. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  7. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  8. Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mara L; Leeder, J Steven

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a concern for all clinicians who utilize medications to treat adults and children; however, the frequency of adult and pediatric adverse drug reactions is likely to be under-reported. In this age of genomics and personalized medicine, identifying genetic variation that results in differences in drug biotransformation and response has contributed to significant advances in the utilization of several commonly used medications in adults. In order to better understand the variability of drug response in children however, we must not only consider differences in genotype, but also variation in gene expression during growth and development, namely ontogeny. In this article, recommendations for systematically approaching pharmacogenomic studies in children are discussed, and several examples of studies that investigate the genomic and developmental contribution to adverse drug reactions in children are reviewed. PMID:21121777

  9. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  10. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  11. The nitrated fatty acid 10-nitro-oleate attenuates allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Dornadula, Sireesh; Pinni, Sudheer; Rampa, Dileep R; Reddy, Raju C

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is a serious, growing problem worldwide. Inhaled steroids, the current standard therapy, are not always effective in this chronic inflammatory disease and can cause adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that nitrated fatty acids (NFAs) may provide an effective alternative treatment. NFAs are endogenously produced by nonenzymatic reaction of NO with unsaturated fatty acids and exert anti-inflammatory actions both by activating the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and via PPAR-independent mechanisms, but whether they might ameliorate allergic airway disease was previously untested. We found that pulmonary delivery of the NFA 10-nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) reduced the severity of murine allergic airway disease, as assessed by various pathological and molecular markers. Fluticasone, an inhaled steroid commonly used to treat asthma, produced similar effects on most end points, but only OA-NO2 induced robust apoptosis of neutrophils and their phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. This suggests that OA-NO2 may be particularly effective in neutrophil-rich, steroid-resistant severe asthma. In primary human bronchial epithelial cells, OA-NO2 blocked phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and enhanced inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. Our results indicate that the NFA OA-NO2 is efficacious in preclinical models of allergic airway disease and may have potential for treating asthma patients.

  12. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    PubMed

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  13. “Metal-free” catalytic oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom- doped graphene is caused by trace metal impurities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2013-12-16

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of high industrial importance. There is a large body of literature showing that metal-based catalytic nanoparticles (e.g. Co, Mn, Fe or hybrid Mn/Co-based nanoparticles) supported on graphene act as efficient catalysts for the ORR. A significant research effort is also directed to the so-called “metal-free” oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom-doped graphene surfaces. While such studies of the ORR on nonmetallic heteroatom-doped graphene are advertised as “metal-free” there is typically no sufficient effort to characterize the doped materials to verify that they are indeed free of any trace metal. Here we argue that the claimed “metal-free” electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom-doped graphene is caused by metallic impurities present within the graphene materials.

  14. Synergistic Degradation of a Hyperuricemia-Causing Metabolite Using One-Pot Enzyme-Nanozyme Cascade Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Secheon; Kwon, Inchan

    2017-01-01

    Multi-enzyme cascade reactions are frequently found in living organisms, in particular when an intermediate should be eliminated. Recently, enzyme-mimic nanomaterials (nanozymes) received much attention for various applications, because they are usually more stable and cost-effective than enzymes. However, enzyme-nanozyme cascade reations have not been yet extensively exploited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated one-pot enzyme-nanozyme cascade reactions using urate oxidase (UOX) and catalase-mimic gold nanoparticle nanozyme (AuNP) with the ultimate goal of treatment of hyperuricemia. UOX degrades hyperuricemia-causing uric acid, but also generates hydrogen peroxide raising several health concerns. We successfully demonstrated that one-pot UOX-AuNP cascade systems degrade uric acid more than five times faster than UOX alone, by eliminating potentially cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide, similar to enzyme-enzyme reactions. PMID:28287162

  15. Galangin attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Bae, Yunju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. In this study, we investigated anti-allergic inflammatory effect of galangin and underlying mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo models. Galangin inhibited histamine release by the reduction of intracellular calcium in phorbol 12-mystate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Galangin decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and IL-8. The inhibitory effect of galangin on theses pro-inflammatory cytokines was related with c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, and caspase-1. Furthermore, galangin attenuated IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and the expression of histamine receptor 1 at the inflamed tissue. The inhibitory effects of galangin were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Our results showed that galangin down-regulates mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In light of in vitro and in vivo anti-allergic inflammatory effects, galangin could be a beneficial anti-allergic inflammatory agent.

  16. Oscillatory reaction cross sections caused by normal mode sampling in quasiclassical trajectory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Tibor; Vikár, Anna; Lendvay, György

    2016-01-07

    The quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method is an efficient and important tool for studying the dynamics of bimolecular reactions. In this method, the motion of the atoms is simulated classically, and the only quantum effect considered is that the initial vibrational states of reactant molecules are semiclassically quantized. A sensible expectation is that the initial ensemble of classical molecular states generated this way should be stationary, similarly to the quantum state it is supposed to represent. The most widely used method for sampling the vibrational phase space of polyatomic molecules is based on the normal mode approximation. In the present work, it is demonstrated that normal mode sampling provides a nonstationary ensemble even for a simple molecule like methane, because real potential energy surfaces are anharmonic in the reactant domain. The consequences were investigated for reaction CH{sub 4} + H → CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2} and its various isotopologs and were found to be dramatic. Reaction probabilities and cross sections obtained from QCT calculations oscillate periodically as a function of the initial distance of the colliding partners and the excitation functions are erratic. The reason is that in the nonstationary ensemble of initial states, the mean bond length of the breaking C–H bond oscillates in time with the frequency of the symmetric stretch mode. We propose a simple method, one-period averaging, in which reactivity parameters are calculated by averaging over an entire period of the mean C–H bond length oscillation, which removes the observed artifacts and provides the physically most reasonable reaction probabilities and cross sections when the initial conditions for QCT calculations are generated by normal mode sampling.

  17. Ammonium deficiency caused by heterogeneous reactions during a super Asian dust episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Celine Siu Lan; Huh, Chih-An; Shaheen, Robina; Lin, Fei-Jan; Liu, Shaw Chen; Liang, Mao-Chang; Tao, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Mineral dust particles exert profound impacts on air quality, visibility, and ocean biogeochemistry. Interactions between dust particles and other anthropogenic pollutants modify not only the size spectrum and morphology but also physicochemical properties of dust particles, thereby affecting their radiative properties and ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei and in turn their impact on climate. Here we report field observations on the surface chemical transformations in a super Asian dust plume captured in coastal areas of China and the adjacent marginal seas. The dust plume showed enhanced concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and calcium along with a decrease in ammonium. The percentages of total Ca in water-soluble form increased from an intrinsic value of ~5% to 25-40% at four stations along the path of the dust plume. From these increases, we estimated the extent to which carbonate was modified by heterogeneous reactions and calculated that the enhanced sulfate and nitrate could account for 40-60% of the observed concentrations. Our observation suggests that the formation of ammonium sulfate via the H2SO4-NH3-H2O ternary system was impeded by heterogeneous reactions in the marine boundary layer when dust loads exceeded a certain threshold. A conceptual model is proposed to elucidate the heterogeneous reactions during the super Asian dust event and their impacts on atmospheric chemistry.

  18. Long-Term Implanted cOFM Probe Causes Minimal Tissue Reaction in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hochmeister, Sonja; Asslaber, Martin; Kroath, Thomas; Pieber, Thomas R.; Sinner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the histological tissue reaction to long-term implanted cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM) probes in the frontal lobe of the rat brain. Most probe-based cerebral fluid sampling techniques are limited in application time due to the formation of a glial scar that hinders substance exchange between brain tissue and the probe. A glial scar not only functions as a diffusion barrier but also alters metabolism and signaling in extracellular brain fluid. cOFM is a recently developed probe-based technique to continuously sample extracellular brain fluid with an intact blood-brain barrier. After probe implantation, a 2 week healing period is needed for blood-brain barrier reestablishment. Therefore, cOFM probes need to stay in place and functional for at least 15 days after implantation to ensure functionality. Probe design and probe materials are optimized to evoke minimal tissue reaction even after a long implantation period. Qualitative and quantitative histological tissue analysis revealed no continuous glial scar formation around the cOFM probe 30 days after implantation and only a minor tissue reaction regardless of perfusion of the probe. PMID:24621608

  19. Anomalous Doppler broadening caused by exothermic reactions: application to hydrogen Balmer lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, J.; Amorim, J.

    2011-08-01

    The three- and one-dimensional velocity distributions of a product species created by an exothermic reaction are calculated using the energy conservation, with the aim of evaluating the impact of such processes on the anomalous broadening of Doppler lines. The calculations are performed to the reaction H{2/+} + H2 → H{3/+} + H, in which according to Christoffersen (1964) an amount of 1.56 eV is transferred to the product species. It is shown that the deviations relatively to Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions are significant as the internal energy defect ΔE increases, even within energies lower than 1.56 eV, and hence the profiles of excited H∗ atoms, associated with the emission of hydrogen Balmer lines, created in the sequence of H( n = 1) produced by the above reaction are not of Gaussian-type. The profiles are markedly flatter and squarer than Gaussian distributions. The validity of the species temperature determined from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the lines, as well as the fit of the lines by multimodal Gaussian functions, is then analyzed.

  20. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  1. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  2. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Morris, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Waern, Ida; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Page, Clive; Schmidt, Eric P; Wernersson, Sara; Li, Jin-Ping; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/-) mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT) control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil) recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  3. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  4. Voice change in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Bende, Mats; Brynnel, Moa; Johansson, Inger; Kappel, Sofi; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-07-01

    Voice problems are seldom reported in pollen allergy, although the allergic reaction involves the entire airways. The objective of this study was to investigate voice dysfunction during the pollen season in patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty patients with verified birch pollen allergy and 30 controls were investigated twice, during the pollen season and outside the pollen season. Both times they scored respiratory and voice symptoms, the latter with the validated questionnaire Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and performed standardized voice recordings. These recordings were analyzed in a controlled manner by a professional voice therapist. During the allergy season, patients reported more respiratory and voice symptoms compared with controls. Those with blinded scored voice dysfunction scored their voice quality during springtime as 31 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-42 mm), compared with 13 mm (95% CI 6-21 mm for participants without voice dysfunction (P<0.01). Furthermore, the group with experienced voice dysfunction scored significantly higher on the VHI in the functional and physical domains and in the total VHI score. Although voice problems during the pollen season are rarely discussed, in allergic rhinitis the larynx may also be involved. These findings support that some patients experience voice change, an experience which can be objectively confirmed.

  5. Case of anaphylaxis caused by ingestion of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Mirei; Aoki, Mikako; Kawana, Seiji

    2008-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe form of allergic disease. Royal jelly is widely consumed in Japan, but a few cases of anaphylaxis caused by royal jelly have been reported. We encountered a 26-year-old Japanese woman who developed anaphylaxis after drinking a beverage of crude royal jelly including honey. She had a history of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy (abalone). Prick tests were performed with the beverage of crude royal jelly including honey and with two other beverages including honey. Only the crude royal jelly beverage showed a positive reaction. An oral challenge test with the crude royal jelly beverage was not performed, but a similar test with a beverage including honey caused no symptoms. A positive response to the beverage of crude royal jelly was not observed in normal volunteers. A positive diagnosis of anaphylaxis due to royal jelly was made based on the positive prick test, systemic clinical symptoms and the negative prick tests in healthy volunteers. Moreover, the patient had no symptoms when taking lemon and orange, which were present as essences in the crude royal jelly beverage, and also had no response to honey after anaphylaxis. Increased consumption of royal jelly in health food supplements may increase the incidence of royal jelly-related allergic reactions. Therefore, royal jelly should be considered as a causative allergen in food-induced anaphylaxis.

  6. Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

    While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

  7. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious.

  8. A small amount of tetrachloroethylene ingestion from drinking water accelerates antigen-stimulated allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Seo, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Takeo; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ikeda, Koji; Satoh, Masahiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we observed that tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) increased histamine release and inflammatory mediator production from antigen-stimulated mast cells. In this study, we examined the enhancing effect of low concentrations of PCE in drinking water on antigen-stimulated allergic responses. After exposure of Wistar rats to PCE in drinking water for 2 or 4 weeks, we performed a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction. PCE exposure for 4 weeks enhanced PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In pathological studies, PCE exposure for 2 weeks exacerbated inflammation characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and accumulation of mast cells around the vessel. Non-purified mast cells (NPMCs) from rats treated with 1mg/L PCE in drinking water for 2 weeks increased antigen-stimulated histamine release. Furthermore, the leukocytes of rats treated with PCE in drinking water for 4 weeks showed increased interleukin (IL)-4 expression. The mechanism of enhancing the PCA reaction is assumed to be that PCE increases IL-4 production and PCE causes T helper (Th) 1/Th2-type helper T-cell imbalance and increases histamine release from excessively accumulated mast cells. The results suggest that the intake of PCE in drinking water, even at a low concentration, leads to the initiation and acceleration of allergic diseases.

  9. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway.

  10. [Leukotrien antagonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Leukotrienes comprise a family of products of the 5-lipoxigenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. The cysteinil leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4 account for the biologic activity that was previously termed "slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis". The proinflammatory effects of cysteinil leukotrienes (cys LTs) have been well described in asthma and rhinitis. The cys LTs induce broncospasm (1,000 times more potent than histamine), edema, mucus, hypersecretion, attract inflammatory cells like eosinophils, increase airway hyperreactivity, vascular leakage, and stimulate takikinins. The leukotriene synthesis can be inhibited in two different places; through inhibition of 5 lipooxigenase activating protein (FLAP) in the 5 lipooxigenase pathway, with the drug Zyleuton, or blocking the cysLT1 receptor with the drugs Montelukast, Pranlukast, Zafirlukast. The cysLTs play an important role in pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and comorbid diseases like rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Antileukotrienes are prescribed in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a complex IgE inflammatory disease of the upper airways. It is the most common allergic disease ocurring in 10 to 20% of adults and up to 30% of children. It may be seasonal or perennial, intermittent or persistent. Sneezing, itching, watery rhinorrea and nasal obstruction are classic symptoms. Ocular itching, lacrimation and redness also occur frequently as almost 50% of the patients also have allergic conjunctivitis. Allergic rhinitis may be mild, moderate or severe disease. It may impair cognition, school and work performance. It affects productivity, behavior and mood changes, causes sleep disturbance and diminish the patient's quality of life. Allergic rhinitis is a common comorbid condition with asthma, sinusitis, otitis media, nasal polyposis and recurrent respiratory infections. The purpose of this rewiew article is to know the importante of leukotrienes, its receptors and the clinical

  11. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  12. Revisiting the roles of mast cells in allergic rhinitis and its relation to local IgE synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, R; Yamagishi, S; Yagi, T

    2000-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in the immediate-phase allergic reaction. However, in recent years much evidence has accumulated on the versatile role of mast cells in allergic inflammation. The present article is an overview of the roles of mast cells in allergic inflammation, especially in light of the local production of IgE and the IgE-IgE receptor network. Although both nasal mast cells (NMC) and T cells in allergic rhinitics are important sources of Th2-type cytokines like IL-4 and IL-13, and can induce IgE synthesis, we report here that antigen-activated NMC can secrete greater levels of IL-4/IL-13 and induce increased levels of IgE synthesis than antigen-activated nasal T cells. Furthermore, IgE production can occur locally in the nasal mucosa (target organ) and IgE itself can enhance the Fc epsilon RI expression and subsequent mediator release from NMC, thus contributing to the perpetuation of on-going allergic inflammation. Again, mast cells can contribute to the late-phase allergic reaction not only via the upregulation of adhesion molecules like VCAM-1, but also through the interactions of NMC with the extracellular matrix proteins, and interaction of NMC with nasal epithelial cells (NEC). Thus, it is increasingly evident that mast cells are not only important for the genesis of the allergic reaction, but also contribute to the late-phase allergic reaction and on-going allergic inflammation.

  13. Humic substances cause fluorescence inhibition in real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sidstedt, Maja; Jansson, Linda; Nilsson, Elin; Noppa, Laila; Forsman, Mats; Rådström, Peter; Hedman, Johannes

    2015-10-15

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the cornerstone of DNA analysis, enabling detection and quantification of minute nucleic acid amounts. However, PCR-based analysis is limited, in part, by the presence of inhibitors in the samples. PCR inhibition has been viewed solely as failure to efficiently generate amplicons, that is, amplification inhibition. Humic substances (HS) are well-known inhibitors of PCR amplification. Here we show that HS from environmental samples, specifically humic acid (HA), are very potent detection inhibitors, that is, quench the fluorescence signal of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding dyes. HA quenched the fluorescence of the commonly used qPCR dyes EvaGreen, ResoLight, SYBR Green I, and SYTO 82, generating lowered amplification plots, although amplicon production was unaffected. For EvaGreen, 500 ng of HA quenched nearly all fluorescence, whereas 1000 ng of HA completely inhibited amplification when applying Immolase DNA polymerase with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements showed that HA quenching was either static or collisional and indicated that HA bound directly to the dye. Fulvic acid did not act as a qPCR detection inhibitor but inhibited amplification similarly to HA. Hydrolysis probe fluorescence was not quenched by HA. Detection inhibition is an overlooked phenomenon that needs to be considered to allow for development of optimal qPCR assays.

  14. Allergic respiratory diseases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bom, A Todo; Pinto, A Mota

    2009-11-01

    In industrialized countries there has been a significant increase in life expectancy, but chronic diseases are still important causes of death and disability in the elderly. Individuals over 65 years of age have a decrease in organic functions and lungs can lose more than 40% of their capacity. Although asthma and allergic rhinitis are more common in young people their prevalence in the elderly is increasing and the mortality reported in these patients is high. Asthmatic airways show an accumulation of activated eosinophils and lymphocytes determining structural changes of the bronchi. Local allergic inflammation, changes in T cell phenotypes and in apoptosis contribute to systemic inflammation. An increased risk of respiratory infections and neoplasic diseases has been recognized. These patients have increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic diseases are associated with an impairment of lung function and with systemic inflammation. Summing up older asthmatic patients have an increased risk to premature disability and death. A proper therapeutic approach to asthma can minimize this evolution. To identify the triggers is an important goal that allows reducing medication needs. Corticosteroids dampen allergic inflammation; therefore, they are the first choice in the treatment of patients with persistent asthma and rhinitis. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have reduced side effects and can be used if necessary. The elderly may have difficult access to health care. They should be educated about their disease and receive a written treatment plan. This information improves the quality of life, socialization and disease outcome in older people.

  15. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  16. IGRA tests perform similarly to TST but cause no adverse reactions: pediatric experience in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Tavast, Esko; Salo, Eeva; Seppälä, Ilkka; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Background Two commercial interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in Tube and T SPOT®-TB) to detect a contact with M. tuberculosis have recently become available. The majority of studies agree that the sensitivity and specificity of these methods are superior to the Tuberculin Skin Tests (TSTs) in detecting an exposure to bacteria in latently infected individuals and in clinical tuberculosis. However, the data in children remains limited. Findings Consecutively collected samples from children (n = 99) representing age range from zero to 18 years were analyzed in a retrospective non-blinded study. The two IGRAs were modified and adapted to the needs of Finland, a country of a low tuberculosis incidence. For 27 children, both tests were performed simultaneously and compared with the TST and clinician's diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both IGRAs was determined. QuantiFERON TB Gold and T SPOT-TB performed (respectively) as follows: sensitivities 0.92 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.67–0.99) and 0.85 (0.64–0.95); specificities 0.91 (0.77–0.97) and 1.00 (0.93–1.00); accuracies 0.91 (0.80–0.97) and 0.96 (0.88–0.99). This compares favorably to the TST whose known figures are 0.90, 0.95, and 0.95, respectively. The agreement between the IGRAs was high, k = 0.89. Finally, both methods agreed well with the TST, k = 0.86 for TST/QuantiFERON-TB Gold and k = 0.76 for TST/T SPOT-TB. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of IGRA methods compares well with the TST without the inconveniences and complications associated with TST, including exaggerated delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. These properties place them as acceptable substitutes for TST. PMID:19146687

  17. Reaction wood – a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic cell wall biomass to deconstruction varies greatly in angiosperms, yet the source of this variation remains unclear. Here, in eight genotypes of short rotation coppice willow (Salix sp.) variability of the reaction wood (RW) response and the impact of this variation on cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification was considered. Results A pot trial was designed to test if the ‘RW response’ varies between willow genotypes and contributes to the differences observed in cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification in field-grown trees. Biomass composition was measured via wet chemistry and used with glucose release yields from enzymatic saccharification to determine cell wall recalcitrance. The levels of glucose release found for pot-grown control trees showed no significant correlation with glucose release from mature field-grown trees. However, when a RW phenotype was induced in pot-grown trees, glucose release was strongly correlated with that for mature field-grown trees. Field studies revealed a 5-fold increase in glucose release from a genotype grown at a site exposed to high wind speeds (a potentially high RW inducing environment) when compared with the same genotype grown at a more sheltered site. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a new concept concerning variation in the recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis of the stem biomass of different, field-grown willow genotypes (and potentially other angiosperms). Specifically, that genotypic differences in the ability to produce a response to RW inducing conditions (a ‘RW response’) indicate that this RW response is a primary determinant of the variation observed in cell wall glucan accessibility. The identification of the importance of this RW response trait in willows, is likely to be valuable in selective breeding strategies in willow (and other angiosperm) biofuel crops and, with further work to dissect the nature of RW

  18. An IgE immediate reaction to thiocolchicoside.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, D; Caviglioli, S; Raschetti, R; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions due to muscle relaxant drugs may be related either to a nonspecific release of allergic mediators or to allergic reactions induced by the molecules themselves. Rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions have been associated to thiocolchicoside, and no case of IgE-mediated immediate reaction has actually been reported to date. We report the first documented case of immediate anaphylaxis to thiocolchicoside.

  19. [Allergic rhinitis. Coexistent diseases and complications. A review and analysis].

    PubMed

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is rarely found in isolation and needs to be considered in the context of systemic allergic disease associated with numerous comorbid disorders, including asthma, chronic middle ear effusions, sinusitis, and lymphoid hypertrophy with obstructive sleep apnea, disordered sleep, and consequent behavioral and educational effects. The coexistence of allergic rhinitis and asthma is complex. First, the diagnosis of asthma may be confused by symptoms of cough caused by rhinitis and postnasal drip. This may lead to either inaccurate diagnosis of asthma or inappropriate assessment of asthma severity with over treatment of the patient. The term "cough variant rhinitis" is therefore proposed to describe rhinitis that manifest itself primarily as cough that results from postnasal drip. Allergic rhinitis, however, has also a causal role in asthma; it appears both to be responsible for exacerbating asthma and to have a role in its pathogenesis. Postnasal drip with nasopharyngeal inflammation leads to a number of other conditions. Thus sinusitis is a frequent extension of rhinitis and is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses. Allergen exposure in the nasopharynx with release of histamine and other mediators can cause Eustachian tube obstruction possibly leading to middle ear effusions. Chronic allergic inflammation of the upper airway causes lymphoid hypertrophy with prominence of adenoidal and tonsillar tissue. This may be associated with poor appetite, poor growth, obstructive sleep apnea, mouth breathing, pharyngeal irritation and dental abnormalities. Allergic rhinitis is therefore part of a spectrum of allergic disorders that can profoundly affect the well being and quality of life of a child. Prospective cohort studies are required to assess the disease burden caused by allergic rhinitis in childhood, its consequences due to delay in diagnosis and treatment, and to further assess the potential educational impairment that may result. Because

  20. SEROLOGICAL REACTIONS WITH A VIRUS CAUSING RABBIT PAPILLOMAS WHICH BECOME CANCEROUS

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, John G.; Beard, J. W.; Rous, Peyton

    1936-01-01

    A method has been devised for serological tests with a virus producing rabbit papillomas that become carcinomatous. The discrete character of the growths caused by the virus when suitably diluted fits it notably for quantitative experimentation. It shows no tendency to lie latent in domestic rabbits though it does so on occasion in cottontails, the natural hosts. Sera which partially neutralize it do not alter its character, or attenuate it, but merely cut down the number of its effective entities. The serum of normal domestic rabbits is ordinarily devoid of neutralizing influence on the virus, but that of animals carrying the papillomas usually exhibits neutralizing power soon after these appear. The rate at which this power increases depends in general upon the amount of papillomatous tissue developing, but exceptions to the rule occur, the presence of fairly large growths being compatible with a lack of such powers in demonstrable amount. Even when the antiviral power is great it has no evident influence on the course of established papillomas, other factors determining whether these enlarge or retrogress. It acts to prevent successful reinoculation of the animal, however. PMID:19870523

  1. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  2. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  3. Allergic rhinitis and genetic components: focus on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhiwei; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2010-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting 10% to 25% of the population worldwide. Over the years, studies have found that allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, are associated with immunological responses to antigens driven by a Th2-mediated immune response. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses to a broad variety of antigens, the association between polymorphisms of TLRs and allergic diseases has been the focus in many animal and human studies. Although the etiology of allergic rhinitis is still unknown, extensive research over the years has confirmed that the underlying causes of allergic diseases are due to many genetic and environmental factors, along with the interactions among them, which include gene–environment, gene–gene, and environment–environment interactions. Currently, there is great inconsistency among studies mainly due to differences in genetic background and unique gene–environment interactions. This paper reviews studies focusing on the association between TLR polymorphisms and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, which would help researchers better understand the role of TLR polymorphisms in the development of allergic rhinitis, and ultimately lead to more efficient therapeutic interventions being developed. PMID:23776356

  4. [Allergic rhinitis: evaluation of prick test positivity for German and American cockroaches (Blatella Germanica, Periplaneta Americana)].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, M; Salami, A; Cordone, G; Sovatzis, A; Mora, F; Cordone, M P; Mora, R; Yoo, T J

    2002-06-01

    Allergies are a widespread phenomenon and one that is in continuous expansion, especially in large cities. A heretofore underestimated allergen, at least in Italy, is the cockroach. Between April and June 2000, we administered a prick test (including the cockroach antigen in the allergen kit) to 163 patients. The prick test was executed utilizing histamine as the positive control and a normal diluent as the negative control; both indoor allergens (including dermatophagoids and dog and cat epithelium) and outdoor allergens (including trees, grasses, pollens and spores) were employed. The results obtained were evaluated by comparing the reaction provoked by these allergens to that of the histamine. About 20% of the patients who reacted to the other indoor allergens also tested positive to the cockroach antigen. Also on the basis of experiences previously carried out in other countries (United States, Korea, Japan, Turkey), the cockroach must be borne in mind as a possible significant cause of allergic reactions in Italy, too.

  5. FROZEN RAW FOODS AS SKIN-TESTING MATERIALS—Further Studies of Use in Cases of Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Giacomo R.; Schumacher, Irwin C.

    1954-01-01

    In further studies on the use of frozen raw food as skin-testing material in patients with allergic disorders, the results of previous work were confirmed in a greater number of subjects using a larger number of foods: Tests with frozen raw foods by the scratch method induce true positive reactions of a larger size and in greater frequency than the corresponding commercial extracts by either the scratch or the intracutaneous method. Storage in the frozen state for several years does not affect the antigenic potency of the materials. The frozen preparations have caused no harmful effects in the subjects, are free from irritant properties, and are not urticariogenic. PMID:13126823

  6. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V

    2012-01-01

    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  7. Hyperresponsiveness in the human nasal airway: new targets for the treatment of allergic airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P J; Foreman, J C

    1999-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a condition which affects over 15% of the population in the United Kingdom. The pathological process involves two stages: nasal inflammation, and the development of nasal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen and a number of other stimuli. This results in the amplification of any subsequent allergic reaction, contributing to the chronic allergic state. A number of different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of AHR, including a role for eosinophil-derived proteins, free radicals and neuropeptides. While there may be a number of independent pathways which can result in AHR, evidence obtained from both animal models and in vivo experiments in humans indicate that some mediators may interact with one another, resulting in AHR. Further research into these interactions may open new avenues for the pharmacological treatment of chronic allergic rhinitis, and possibly other allergic airway diseases. PMID:10704051

  8. Compressive Optic Neuropathy from Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jessica; Jefferson, Niall; Chaganti, Joga; Fraser, Clare L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ophthalmic manifestations of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) are rare, but can occur in advanced disease. A 32-year-old man with advanced AFS presented with severe bilateral vision loss and restricted ocular motility. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis confirmed active chronic AFS. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed, with adjunctive steroid therapy. Although AFS is a reasonably well-recognised entity, severe disease causing bilateral visual deficits is rarely encountered. This can confound the diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Ophthalmologists should thus be aware of compressive optic neuropathy as a complication of advanced AFS to prompt early treatment and mitigate visual loss. PMID:27928361

  9. Comparative analysis of cluster versus conventional immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qijun; Liu, Xuejun; Gao, Jinjian; Huang, Saiyu; Ni, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus standardized extract administered in conventional and cluster immunotherapy regiments for patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. A total of 60 patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis caused by dust mites were treated for 1 year with either conventional immunotherapy (n=30) or cluster immunotherapy (n=30). Nasal conjunctival symptoms and signs were assessed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the two regimens, and the incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions were also evaluated. The findings demonstrated that the cluster regimen reduced the duration between the initial and maintenance dose by >60%, and resulted in a significant improvement, as compared with the conventional regimen, after 6 weeks of observation (P<0.05). However, the incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions in the cluster regimen during the dose accumulation phase and the dose maintenance phase was not significantly different, as compared with the conventional immunotherapy regimen. These results suggest that cluster immunotherapy is efficacious and safe to treat patients who are clinically sensitive to dust mites. PMID:28352357

  10. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  12. Leukocyte Agglomeration Reaction in Diagnosis of Allergy Reactions from Antibiotics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    tested in a clinic on 80 patients with serious allergic anamnesis . The results of the studies indicate that the leukocyte agglomeration reaction is a highly sensitive immunological indicator of hypersensitivity to antibiotics.

  13. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A; Bush, Robert K; Demain, Jeffrey G; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    There remains a lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports, and an electronic survey was conducted of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 US physicians in the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology database of members and fellows, 245 health professionals (48%) had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE because 44.9% used ≥417 kU/L, whereas 42.0% used ≥1000 kU/L. Analysis of these findings suggests that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. With regard to pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids plus inhaled corticosteroids plus antifungal agent were used with 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited.

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  15. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy.

  16. Sinobronchial allergic aspergillosis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a less common co-existence.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Kant, Surya; Prakash, Ved; Saheer, S

    2014-11-04

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological pulmonary disorder that is characterised by a hyper-responsiveness of the airways to Aspergillus fumigatus. Although several other fungi may also present with similar clinical conditions, Aspergillus remains the most common fungal pathogen causing airway infections. Co-existence of ABPA with allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is an uncommon presentation. The concept of one airway/one disease justifies the co-existence of ABPA with AAS, but it does not always hold true. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of bronchial asthma. On further investigation, the radiological pattern showed fleeting shadows and CT scan showed central cystic bronchiectatic changes characteristic of ABPA. The nasal secretions were investigated for the presence of Aspergillus and were found to be positive. Hence a diagnosis of ABPA with AAS was established. The patient was treated with oral steroids and antifungal drugs.

  17. The management of the allergic child at school: EAACI/GA2LEN Task Force on the allergic child at school.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Clark, A; Beyer, K; Borrego, L M; Borres, M; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Carrer, P; Mazon, A; Rancè, F; Valovirta, E; Wickman, M; Zanchetti, M

    2010-06-01

    Allergy affects at least one-quarter of European schoolchildren, it reduces quality of life and may impair school performance; there is a risk of severe reactions and, in rare cases, death. Allergy is a multi-system disorder, and children often have several co-existing diseases, i.e. allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema and food allergy. Severe food allergy reactions may occur for the first time at school, and overall 20% of food allergy reactions occur in schools. Up to two-thirds of schools have at least one child at risk of anaphylaxis but many are poorly prepared. A cooperative partnership between doctors, community and school nurses, school staff, parents and the child is necessary to ensure allergic children are protected. Schools and doctors should adopt a comprehensive approach to allergy training, ensuring that all staff can prevent, recognize and initiate treatment of allergic reactions.

  18. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  19. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Balmaseda, Ivones Hernández; León, Alina Alvarez; Hernández, Belkis Cancio; Montiel, Lucía Márquez; Garrido, Gabino Garrido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Hernández, René Delgado

    2006-03-01

    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause.

  1. [Allergic contact eczema because of diethylthiourea in neoprene rubber].

    PubMed

    Buus, Sanne Krogsbøll; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-03-11

    Three cases are reported of acute allergic contact dermatitis caused by diethylthiourea in the neoprene rubber used in a diving suit and orthopedic braces. Patch testing should be done with the specific thiourea compounds, because testing with material from the suspected products may be negative. Cross-reactivity between thiourea compounds is uncommon.

  2. Hand dermatitis: a focus on allergic contact dermatitis to biocides.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa E; Lampel, Heather P; Bhutani, Tina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-07-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common disease of the skin resulting in significantly decreased quality of life. Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent cause of hand dermatitis. Recent studies have revealed that biocides used as preservatives are frequent allergens affecting the hands. This article reviews common biocides implicated in hand dermatitis.

  3. Takes your breath away--the immunology of allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    McSharry, C; Anderson, K; Bourke, S J; Boyd, G

    2002-04-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study.

  4. Protein expression profile of Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae causing horse gastric myiasis and characterization of horse immune reaction

    PubMed Central

    Roelfstra, Liselore; Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Buse, Christina; Membrez, Mathieu; Betschart, Bruno; Pfister, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the immunological aspect of parasitic Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera, Oestridae) larvae causing horse gastric myiasis. The objectives of this research were to analyze the protein content of larval crude extracts of the migrating second and third larvae (L2 and L3) of G. intestinalis in order to characterize the immune response of horses. Results The proteomic profile of L2 and L3, investigated by using one and two dimensional approaches, revealed a migration pattern specific to each larval stage. Furthermore, Western blots were performed with horse sera and with sera of Balb/c mice immunised with the larval crude extracts of L2 or L3, revealing a different immune reaction in naturally infected horses vs. artificially induced immune reaction in mice. The comparisons of the immunoblot profiles demonstrate that the stage L2 is more immunogenic than the stage L3 most likely as an effect of the highest enzymatic production of L2 while migrating through the host tissues. Fifteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusion This work provides further information into the understanding of the interaction between G. intestinalis and their host and by contributing a novel scheme of the proteomic profile of the main larval stages. PMID:19133133

  5. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  6. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human infestation to ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, cimex, fleas, mites and others agents may result in intensive allergic reaction with symptoms of itching, skin infection and severe irritation. In this case report, we present a case of dermatitis caused by cat flea. Case presentation: A three-member family referred to dermatology clinic in Babol due to dermal complications. They complained of irritation and the unrest caused by intense itching. Samples of tiny live insects were detected from their clothing which was recognized as C. felis (cat flea). Conclusion: This report highlights the importance of ectoparasites causing dermatitis. PMID:25489439

  7. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    PubMed

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments.

  8. Interstitial lung disease caused by TS-1: a case of long-term drug retention as a fatal adverse reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong-Min; Hwang, In Gyu; Suh, Suk-Won; Chi, Kyong-Choun

    2011-12-01

    TS-1 is an oral anti-cancer agent for gastric cancer with a high response rate and low toxicity. We report a case of long-term drug retention of TS-1 causing interstitial lung disease (ILD) as a fatal adverse reaction. A 65-year-old woman underwent a total gastrectomy with pathologic confirmation of gastric adenocarcinoma. She received 6 cycles of TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin for post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy followed by single-agent maintenance therapy with TS-1. After 8 months, the patient complained of a productive cough with sputum and mild dyspnea. A pulmonary evaluation revealed diffuse ILD in the lung fields, bilaterally. In spite of discontinuing chemotherapy and the administration of corticosteroids, the pulmonary symptoms did not improve, and the patient died of pulmonary failure. TS-1-induced ILD can be caused by long-term drug retention that alters the lung parenchyma irreversibly, the outcome of which can be life-threatening. Pulmonary evaluation for early detection of disease is recommended.

  9. Successful treatment of Aerococcus viridans endocarditis in a patient allergic to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Yu, Wen-Chung; Huang, Suang-Hao; Lin, Mei-Lin; Chen, Te-Li; Fung, Chang-Phone; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2012-04-01

    Aerococcus viridans is a rare human pathogen that occasionally causes endocarditis. Most of the reported cases of endocarditis have been treated with penicillin. Here we describe a patient who was allergic to penicillin and was successfully treated with cefotaxime.

  10. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  11. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  12. Complementary therapies in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Baykal, Bahadir; Ulusoy, Seckin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed.

  13. An important difference between "exposed" and "photodistributed" underscores the importance of identifying common reactions.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Breithaupt, Andrew D

    2009-09-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who was referred to dermatology for what was suspected to be a photosensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, a common culprit in photodrug reactions. Despite the patient's insistence to the contrary, the cause of her eruption was an airborne allergic contact dermatitis to chemicals she was exposed to during her longtime hobby of soap-making. This case serves as an important illustration of the anatomical differences between eruptions occurring in exposed and photodistributed areas. This article also discusses the causes of dermatitis that may mimic photodrug reactions.

  14. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon; Surh, Charles D

    2017-02-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota.

  15. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon

    2017-01-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota. PMID:28261020

  16. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  17. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  18. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  19. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D

    2006-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops.

  1. Effects of Exposure to Ozone on the Ocular Surface in an Experimental Model of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Tae-im

    2017-01-01

    surface caused by conjunctival allergic reactions, and further increases the inflammatory response in IL-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells. PMID:28046113

  2. Allergic Diseases and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Inchul; Kim, Inah; Park, Hye Jung; Roh, Jaehoon; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a clinical syndrome representing multi-organ and psychological symptoms caused by chronic exposure to various chemicals in low concentrations. We evaluated the prevalence and related factors of MCS targeting Korean adults using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI©). Methods A total of 446 participants were recruited from Severance Hospital. Participants underwent a questionnaire interview including questions on sociodemographic factors, occupational and environmental factors, allergic diseases, and the QEESI©. Among them, 379 participants completed the questionnaire and the QEESI©. According to the QEESI© interpretation results, participants were divided into very suggestive (VS) group and less suggestive (LS) group. Results The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher in allergic patients than non-allergic participants (19.7% and 11.3%, respectively, P=0.04). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, ages of 30-39 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.25-6.95) and those of 40-49 (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.02-6.21) were significantly related to MCS compared to those aged less than 30 years. Female sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.18), experience of dwelling in a new house (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03), and atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04-3.69) were also significantly related to MCS. However, only age of 30-39 in the allergic group was significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher among allergic patients than non-allergic participants. People with experience of dwelling in a new house and atopic dermatitis were more at risk of being intolerant to chemicals. Further studies to provide the nationally representative prevalence data and clarify risk factors and mechanisms of MCS are required. PMID:25228997

  3. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  4. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  5. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight(®) intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight(®) group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight(®) treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  6. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    PubMed

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  8. Phenotypic characterization in situ of inflammatory cells in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L

    1984-01-01

    The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938

  9. Pathophysiology of itching and sneezing in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Raap, U; Holz, M; Hörmann, K; Klimek, L

    2009-01-24

    Itching and sneezing represent two of the main bothersome symptoms, apart from nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea in allergic rhinitis. Apparently, activation of the central and peripheral nervous system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of this process. Sensory nerves of the afferent trigeminal system including myelinated Adelta-fibres and thin, non-myelinated C-fibres of the nasal mucosa transmit signals generating sensations, including itching and motor reflexes, such as sneezing. These nerves can be stimulated by products of allergic reactions and by external physical and chemical irritants. Via axon reflex inflammatory neuropeptides including the tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) and the calcitonin gene related peptide are released, leading to vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability (concept of "neurogenic inflammation"), glandular activation, leukocyte recruitment and differentiation of immune cells including mast cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. The present paper describes nasal (micro-) anatomy and innervation and explains the central and peripheral mechanisms initiating itching and sneezing in allergic rhinitis. Further, the role of neuropeptides and neurotrophins with regard to neuronal and immune cell activation which might play a key role in the future treatment of allergic rhinitis are discussed.

  10. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  11. Consensus document on allergic conjunctivitis (DECA).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, M C; Montero, J; Rondon, C; Benitez del Castillo, J M; Velázquez, E; Herreras, J M; Fernández-Parra, B; Merayo-Lloves, J; Del Cuvillo, A; Vega, F; Valero, A; Panizo, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, M L; González, R; Dordal, M T; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A

    2015-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammatory disease of the conjunctiva caused mainly by an IgE-mediated mechanism. It is the most common type of ocular allergy. Despite being the most benign form of conjunctivitis, AC has a considerable effect on patient quality of life, reduces work productivity, and increases health care costs. No consensus has been reached on its classification, diagnosis, or treatment. Consequently, the literature provides little information on its natural history, epidemiological data are scarce, and it is often difficult to ascertain its true morbidity. The main objective of the Consensus Document on Allergic Conjunctivitis (Documento dE Consenso sobre Conjuntivitis Alérgica [DECA]), which was drafted by an expert panel from the Spanish Society of Allergology and Spanish Society of Ophthalmology, was to reach agreement on basic criteria that could prove useful for both specialists and primary care physicians and facilitate the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of AC. This document is the first of its kind to describe and analyze aspects of AC that could make it possible to control symptoms.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern.

    PubMed

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-02

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  14. Anti-allergic properties of the bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum: inhibition of eosinophil activation and influx.

    PubMed

    Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Gomes, Gleice S; Zanon, Cristiane; Chedier, Luciana M; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Frutuoso, Válber S; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Weller, Peter F; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2005-12-01

    New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases can be aided by the development of agents capable of regulating eosinophilic leukocytes. Here, we evaluated the anti-allergic properties of a crude extract of the Brazilian bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum, focusing on its effects on allergic eosinophilia. By studying allergic pleurisy in actively sensitized C57Bl/6 mice, we observed that pretreatment with N. procerum (2 mg/kg; i.p.) reduced pleural eosinophil influx triggered by allergen challenge. N. procerum was also able to reduce lipid body numbers found within infiltrating eosinophils, indicating that N. procerum in vivo is able to affect both migration and activation of eosinophils. Consistently, pretreatment with N. procerum blocked pleural eosinophil influx triggered by PAF or eotaxin, key mediators of the development of allergic pleural eosinophilia. The effect of N. procerum was not restricted to eosinophils, since N. procerum also inhibited pleural neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx. Of note, N. procerum failed to alter the acute allergic reaction, characterized by mast cell degranulation, oedema, and cysteinyl leukotriene release. N. procerum also had direct effects on murine eosinophils, since it inhibited both PAF- and eotaxin-induced eosinophil chemotaxis on an in vitro chemotactic assay. Therefore, N. procerum may be a promising anti-allergic therapy, inasmuch as it presents potent anti-eosinophil activity.

  15. NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

  16. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-03

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  17. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from antioxidant amines in a dental technician.

    PubMed

    Conde-Salazar, Luis; Valks, Ruud; Acebes, Carmen García; Bertó, Josep

    2004-12-01

    We describe an 18-year-old dental technician who presented with dry hyperkeratotic lesions on his left palm that were limited to an area that was in contact with a container in which he had prepared the molds for a dental prosthesis. On patch testing, he had a positive reaction to black rubber mix and its components N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, N,N'-diphenyl-4-phenylenediamine, and N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, as well as to a piece of the rubber container. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of a piece of the rubber container confirmed the presence of the para-phenylenediamine mix. Results of patch-testing with TLC were positive after 48 and 96 hours. The lesions resolved when the patient stopped using the container. The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis. We also review the dermatoses caused by antioxidant amines.

  18. The role of shyness and self-focused attention for attribution of reactions in social situations to internal and external causes.

    PubMed

    Alm, Charlotte

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis that shyness would be associated with attribution of emotional reactions to stable internal causes rather than to less stable internal and external causes was tested in Study 1 (N = 60). In Study 2 (N= 112) the hypothesis that the explanatory power of shyness would decrease once the effect of self-focused attention on attribution to stable internal causes had been controlled for was tested. The results confirmed both hypotheses. Shyness correlated positively with attribution to stable internal causes, but non-significant with attribution to less stable internal and external causes. Shyness explained a lesser portion of the variance in attribution to both of the internal causes when controlling for self-focus. Even though the findings indicate that self-focus is central to the social cognitive processes of shy individuals, they also suggest that self-focus cannot fully explain attribution to internal causes in general and shy individuals' attributional pattern in particular.

  19. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  20. Report of Common Aeroallergens among Allergic Patients in Northeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi Oskouei, Yaghoub; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Ahanchian, Hamid; Jarahi, Lida; Ariaee, Nazila; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad

    2017-01-01

    is unavoidable in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders. Understanding the prevalence of the most common aeroallergens such as Russian thistle in 50.2% of people or other common aeroallergens can help patients and specialists to more easily identify suspected allergens, reduce costs, and support immunotherapy of allergic patients in this area. Moreover, it is helpful in avoiding pollens or cross-reactions. PMID:28393056

  1. 174 Reduction in Allergic Rhinitis Index by Decreasing Aero-Allergens and Malodor Causing Volatile Organic Compounds by Luna Air Purifiers Using Photo-Catalytic Oxidation (PCO) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Aguaiza, Cristina; Guzman, Alicia; Chudasama, Jay; Bennert, Jeff; Das, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    aeroallergen index and the frequency of inhalant allergy cases that showed reduction in allergic rhinitis index on using air purifiers.

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormones of iNOS origin play important roles in the allergic reactions of atopic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Orita, Kumi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Inoue, Masayasu

    2011-11-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of patients with allergic rhinitis, we used an animal model of atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by epicutaneous sensitization and analysed the differences in ear thickness, the frequency of scratching and plasma levels of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E (OVA-IgE), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) between control and iNOS(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old control and iNOS(-/-) male C57BL/6j mice were sensitized three times with OVA antigen. Before and after the last skin sensitization, the number of scratching incidents and the thickness of the ear were examined, and the plasma levels of OVA-IgE, α-MSH, ACTH, TGF-β and TNF-α were analysed by ELISA. Sensitization of mice with OVA resulted in increased plasma levels of OVA-IgE, α-MSH, ACTH, TGF-β and TNF-α in control, but not in iNOS(-/-) mice. The administration of l-nitro-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME) abolished all the above changes that occurred in the control mice. In addition, iNOS(-/-) mice given α-MSH exhibited a change similar to that seen in the control, whereas iNOS(-/-) mice given ACTH, TGF-β or TNF-α did not demonstrate any changes. These results indicate that symptoms of AD such as scratching can be exacerbated by α-MSH, which is induced by iNOS-derived NO.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. Results The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (<2+ reaction grade), extra serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. Conclusions ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do. PMID:28028997

  4. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis--rarely diagnosed disease].

    PubMed

    Lauková, D; Marget, I; Plutinský, J

    2009-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), known as hypersensitive pneumonitis, causes interstitial lung involvement by inhaled antigen. The clinical presentation of the disease has been defined as acute, subacute and chronic. The most often symptoms of the acute form of the disease are flu-like symptoms, dyspnoe and cough. The progressive dyspnoe in particullary is characterized for the chronic form of EAA. Dyspnoe is worsed, if the disease is combinied with usual respiratory infection or reexposition of inhaled antigen. It seems the diagnostic definition of EAA should be easy and prevalence of EAA relative high. The disease belongs to the group of interstitial lung diseases and it is underestimated as a matter of fact. The clinic, radiographic, laboratory and histologic abnormalities are results of inhaled antigen contact and support the diagnosis of EAA. Specific IgG antibodies against the offending antigen along with them are consedered to be detected (established) of EAA.

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  6. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  8. Comparison of effects of alcaftadine and olopatadine on conjunctival epithelium and eosinophil recruitment in a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Santa J; Lane, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antihistamines constitute the first line of therapy for allergic conjunctivitis, and are safe and effective in relieving the signs and symptoms of ocular allergy. Despite this, they are less effective than some other drugs in relieving delayed symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that changes in the conjunctival epithelium may underlie aspects of delayed reactions. In this study we compared two antihistamines, olopatadine and alcaftadine, for their ability to modify epithelial cell changes associated with allergic conjunctivitis at time points selected to reflect late-phase reactions. Methods: Studies employed a modified conjunctival allergen challenge model. Sensitized mice were challenged with topical allergen with or without drug treatments. Treatment groups were assayed for acute-phase (15 minutes) and delayed-phase (24 hours) responses. Groups were scored for allergy symptoms (redness, itch, tearing, and edema) and for conjunctival mast cell numbers. Delayed-phase groups were also examined for eosinophil numbers and for tight junctional protein expression. Results: Olopatadine-treated and alcaftadine-treated animals had similar efficacy profiles and mast cell numbers, suggesting both were effective at ameliorating symptoms of the acute phase. In contrast, alcaftadine-treated animals had significantly lower conjunctival eosinophil infiltration than either controls or olopatadine-treated animals. Allergen challenge caused a significant decrease in expression of the junctional protein, ZO-1, and this decrease was prevented by alcaftadine but not by olopatadine. Conclusion: Alcaftadine displays therapeutic properties beyond its antihistamine action. These include an ability to reduce conjunctival eosinophil recruitment, and a protective effect on epithelial tight junction protein expression. PMID:21340041

  9. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  10. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex H C; Barg, Stefani S N; Leung, Alexander K C

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are IgE-mediated, hypersensitivity conditions characterized by ocular pruritus, epiphora, and hyperemia. Proper diagnosis is usually made clinically based on history and physical examination. Diagnostic procedures are rarely necessary. Non-pharmacological measures, such as environmental modification and proper eye care, should be considered for all patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Pharmacological interventions may also be required. Milder cases can be treated with short-term topical ophthalmic therapy such as a decongestant/ antihistamine combination, a mast cell stabilizer, or a multi-action agent. Moderate to severe cases may require longer usage of the above agents and/or the addition of an oral antihistamine. Refractory cases may necessitate the use of topical ophthalmic corticosteroids and topical NSAIDs. Immunotherapy, whether via the subcutaneous route or the intranasal route, should be considered in the treatment of persistent severe cases refractory to conventional treatment. Despite all the available therapeutic agents, there continues to be a constant need to discover more effective ways to treat seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. This article also discusses recent patents related to the field.

  11. Microarray Technology Applied to Human Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    IgE antibodies serve as the gatekeeper for the release of mediators from sensitized (IgE positive) mast cells and basophils following a relevant allergen exposure which can lead to an immediate-type hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Purified recombinant and native allergens were combined in the 1990s with state of the art chip technology to establish the first microarray-based IgE antibody assay. Triplicate spots to over 100 allergenic molecules are immobilized on an amine-activated glass slide to form a single panel multi-allergosorbent assay. Human antibodies, typically of the IgE and IgG isotypes, specific for one or many allergens bind to their respective allergen(s) on the chip. Following removal of unbound serum proteins, bound IgE antibody is detected with a fluorophore-labeled anti-human IgE reagent. The fluorescent profile from the completed slide provides a sensitization profile of an allergic patient which can identify IgE antibodies that bind to structurally similar (cross-reactive) allergen families versus molecules that are unique to a single allergen specificity. Despite its ability to rapidly analyze many IgE antibody specificities in a single simple assay format, the chip-based microarray remains less analytically sensitive and quantitative than its singleplex assay counterpart (ImmunoCAP, Immulite). Microgram per mL quantities of allergen-specific IgG antibody can also complete with nanogram per mL quantities of specific IgE for limited allergen binding sites on the chip. Microarray assays, while not used in clinical immunology laboratories for routine patient IgE antibody testing, will remain an excellent research tool for defining sensitization profiles of populations in epidemiological studies. PMID:28134842

  12. Occupational eczema and asthma in a hairdresser caused by hair-bleaching products.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Majken G; Menné, Torkil; Søsted, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Occupational allergic contact eczema and asthma caused by bleaching agents is seen in hairdressers. Bleaching agents contain persulfate salts, which are known to induce immediate reactions such as rhinitis, asthma, contact urticaria, and anaphylaxis. The immunologic mechanism is not, however, fully understood. The specific inhalation challenge test is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing occupational asthma and rhinitis. However, this test is not always accessible. Therefore, the diagnosis of occupational allergic asthma caused by persulfate salts is made by combining a clinical history, a diagnosis of asthma, and a positive skin prick test (SPT). Standardized methods for performing SPT with persulfate salts are warranted. A case of a young hairdresser with occupational asthma and hand eczema caused by persulfate salts is presented, and the procedure for performing the SPT with ammonium persulfate and potassium persulfate is described in detail.

  13. [Actualities in extrinsic allergic alveolities or hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Soumah, M; Sow, M L

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances have been noticed in the pathogenesis and the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis during the last few years. Indeed the immune mechanism and the enabling conditions have been more precisely defined, the clinical stages and the diagnosis criterias clearly defined, new antigens incriminated and some etiological agents have been reclassified. The present pathogenic explanation insists on the type IV hypersensitivity reaction with sensitization of T lymphocytes, activation macrophages, the formation of IgG type antibodies and immune complexes, activation of complement and secretion of cytokines. The involvement of certain HLA classes (HLA2, DR3, DRB1, DQB1), interaction of genetics and environments factors, the role of infections agents and smoking have been demonstrated in several studies. The development of news clinical and biological diagnosis criteria have led the discovery of new extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the work places, a better knowledge of the prognostic elements and an appropriate adaptation of prevention measures.

  14. Anaphylaxis caused by honey: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Fátima Cabral; Mendes, Ana; Bartolomé, Borja; Barbosa, Manuel Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Honey allergy is a very rare, but serious health condition. In this study, we presented 1 patient who had anaphylaxis after the honey allergological investigation with skin prick-prick test with honey. Honey as a food has been associated to allergic reactions and as the increased consumption of honey in health food may increase the incidence of honey-related allergic reactions. PMID:28154806

  15. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Y.; Shen, C.

    2014-03-15

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300 keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  16. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis.

  17. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  18. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Horse Allergy: Curly Horses Allow Horse Allergic Riders To Ride Again.

    PubMed

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C; Niggemann, B

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that so called hypoallergenic horses (Curly horses) allow horse allergic riders to ride again, we investigated 40 horse allergic riders in a period of 37 months. Methods: We tested these patients (pts.) by skin prick test (SPT) with different non-curly and Curly horses and studied the riding hours and horse brushing by measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau tests (FEV1) as well as peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) over 12 months. The results in 37/40 pts. showed no relevant reactions of the lower airways or nasal flow. Only in 3/40 patients an initial significant fall of FEV1 was observed, reversed by a single inhalation of salbutamol and not repeated despite further riding contact. In contrast to other allergic events (e. g. baker's asthma) a further and regular contact with these horses abolished the mild allergic reactions of the start period of contact. This may be due to hypoallergenic properties of these horses, whose test material produces weaker reactions in the SPT than that of normal horses. After a period of three years, a loss of reactivity to normal horses could be confirmed in some of the riders. Conclusion: The tested purebreed Curly horses may be a suitable alternative for horse allergic riders if the methodological precautions of this study are followed.

  20. Anti-allergic effects of Lycopus lucidus on mast cell-mediated allergy model

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Kim, InKyeom; Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Chang-Duk; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lim, Jong-Pil; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-12-15

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the aqueous extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. (Labiatae) (LAE) decreases mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. The immediate-type allergic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. LAE has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, its specific mechanism of action is still unknown. LAE was anally administered to mice for high and fast absorption. LAE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. LAE decreased the local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. LAE dose-dependently reduced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Furthermore, LAE decreased the secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of LAE on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. LAE attenuated PMA plus A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and specifically blocked activation of p38 MAPK, but not that of c-jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our findings provide evidence that LAE inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, p38 MAPK, and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  1. Gut dysbiosis promotes M2 macrophage polarization and allergic airway inflammation via fungi-induced PGE₂.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Gi; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Totsuka, Naoya; Weinberg, Jason B; Núñez, Gabriel; Shibuya, Akira

    2014-01-15

    Although imbalances in gut microbiota composition, or "dysbiosis," are associated with many diseases, the effects of gut dysbiosis on host systemic physiology are less well characterized. We report that gut dysbiosis induced by antibiotic (Abx) treatment promotes allergic airway inflammation by shifting macrophage polarization in the lung toward the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages derived from Abx-treated mice was sufficient to increase allergic airway inflammation. Abx treatment resulted in the overgrowth of a commensal fungal Candida species in the gut and increased plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), which induced M2 macrophage polarization in the lung. Suppression of PGE₂ synthesis by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and celecoxib suppressed M2 macrophage polarization and decreased allergic airway inflammatory cell infiltration in Abx-treated mice. Thus, Abx treatment can cause overgrowth of particular fungal species in the gut and promote M2 macrophage activation at distant sites to influence systemic responses including allergic inflammation.

  2. Gut Microbiome and the Development of Food Allergy and Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Benjamin T.; Mandel, Mark J.; Nadeau, Kari; Singh, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases continues to rise within the industrialized world, yet the cause of this epidemic remains elusive. Environmental factors such as microbial exposures have more recently been implicated as one possible driving factor behind the increasing burden of allergic disease. The impact of gut microbiome on human development, nutritional needs, and disease has become evident with advances in our ability to study these complex communities of microorganisms, and there is a growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome in immune regulation. Several studies have examined associations between changes in the commensal microbiota and the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, but far less have evaluated the impact of the microbiome on the development of food allergy. In this article we review the human gastrointestinal microbiome, focusing on the theory and evidence for its role in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic diseases. PMID:26456445

  3. [The allergic risk in agriculture: current situation and specific high-risk areas].

    PubMed

    Previdi, M; Brambilla, G

    2012-01-01

    Contradictory aspects apparently coexist in relation to the causes of bronchial allergic inflammation in agriculture. It's worth notion that either exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxins or exposure to molecular patterns play a role in such a pathology; in particular endotoxins should protect against the onset of allergic diseases. Likewise, the exposure to pesticides would not lead to allergic asthma, but could facilitate the onset of pollinosis and contact dermatitis in gardeners. Moreover, the risk of anaphylaxis from bee sting would be lower in repeatedly bitten beekeepers if compared to sensitized and less exposed population, while atopy by itself is not evaluable as a risk factor for sensitization to hymenoptera. In conclusion either frequency and strength of exposure or distinctive feature of the subject are able to determine the occurrence of allergic disease in an almost different manner.

  4. [Recommendations for the management of the child with allergic diseases at school].

    PubMed

    Saranz, Ricardo J; Lozano, Alejandro; Mariño, Andrea; Boudet, Raúl V; Sarraquigne, María Paula; Cáceres, María Elena; Bandín, Gloria; Lukin, Alicia; Skrie, Víctor; Cassaniti, María Cristina; Agüero, Claudio; Chorny, Marta; Reichbach, Débora S; Arnolt, Roque Gustavo; Cavallo, Aldo

    2015-06-01

    Allergic diseases cause great impact on the health related quality of life in children and adolescents, resulting in increased school absenteeism and deficiencies in school performance. Although the bibliographic framework on allergic diseases is wide, in our country, there are no guidelines for proper management of the allergic child at school. It is necessary to establish guidelines for coordinated action among the educational community, the families, the pediatrician, the health team and governmental and non-governmental authorities. This position paper aims to provide information about the impact of allergic diseases on school activities, establish standards of competence of the various stakeholders at school and consider the legal framework for the intervention of the school staff about the child with allergies at school.

  5. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  6. [Tattoo skin reactions: Management and treatment algorithm].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2016-01-01

    So-called "allergic" reactions to ink or colouring agents constitute the main current complication associated with tattoos that lead individuals to consult. However, general practitioners are frequently at a loss about how to manage such complications. In order to assist clinicians in their daily practice, we propose an update of the modes of managing allergic reactions to tattoos, and we offer a therapeutic scale and a decision-making algorithm.

  7. A decade of vaccinating allergic travellers: a clinical audit.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Andrew D; Duncan, Christopher J A; MacDonald, Rona; Jones, Michael E

    2011-09-01

    Adverse reactions following vaccination are rare but may include potentially fatal anaphylaxis. This audit is a retrospective review of 38 patients with a history, or potential risk, of 'vaccine allergy' referred to an Infectious Diseases Unit for vaccination over a 10 year period. A total of 59 patient encounters were recorded, of which 89.8% were uneventful. Of the 6 adverse events, 3 patients had a local reaction, 1 patient developed urticaria and 1 patient had a vasovagal episode. Only 1 patient developed anaphylaxis secondary to vaccination, and she had no prior history of vaccine allergy. Of these patients 17 had a history suggesting the need for immunological investigation but only 7 had laboratory evidence of allergy. The differential diagnosis of anaphylaxis includes vasovagal reactions and non-specific mediator release and immunological work-up of such events can help avoid such patients being incorrectly labelled as allergic. The vast majority of immunisations are uncomplicated and patients with a history of allergic reactions to vaccination may be vaccinated safely in a controlled setting. Unduly conservative guidelines risk withholding vaccines providing protection against dangerous pathogens but which can be safely administered.

  8. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS.

  9. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes.

  10. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients.

  11. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  12. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  13. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Ozod; Petzold, Ursula; Haase, Hans; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Ellers-Lenz, Barbara; Hermann, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

  14. PULMONARY MYCOTIC INFECTIONS—Allergic and Immunologic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Edmund L.

    1954-01-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated. Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions—precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction—the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections—for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed. PMID:13209369

  15. An overview of parabens and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products. However, since the 1960s, controversy has surrounded its use and safety as a potential cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the cloud of suspicion that has hovered over parabens ever since, these ubiquitous compounds have withstood four decades of extensive skin testing conducted by a variety of organizations, both North American and European, and now, it seems parabens have shown to be one of the least sensitizing preservatives in commercial use. Of the very limited reports of paraben-induced allergic contact dermatitis, these cases are often attributable to the application of parabens on damaged skin.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  17. Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D

    2013-11-01

    Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  19. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  20. Intramolecular SN2 reaction caused by photoionization of benzene chloride-NH3 complex: direct ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2006-01-12

    Ionization processes of chlorobenzene-ammonia 1:1 complex (PhCl-NH3) have been investigated by means of full dimensional direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method, static ab initio calculations, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The static ab initio and DFT calculations of neutral PhCl-NH3 complex showed that one of the hydrogen atoms of NH3 orients toward a carbon atom in the para-position of PhCl. The dynamics calculation for ionization of PhCl-NH3 indicated that two reaction channels are competitive with each other as product channels: one is an intramolecular SN2 reaction expressed by a reaction scheme [PhCl-NH3]+-->SN2 intermediate complex-->PhNH3++Cl, and the other is ortho-NH3 addition complex (ortho complex) in which NH3 attacks the ortho-carbon of PhCl+ and the trajectory leads to a bound complex expressed by (PhCl-NH3)+. The mechanism of the ionization of PhCl-NH3 is discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.

  1. Anisakis simplex only provokes allergic symptoms when the worm parasitises the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gómez, Alicia; Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; López-Serrano, M Concepción; Suarez-de-Parga, Jose M; Daschner, Alvaro; Caballero, M Teresa; Barranco, Pilar; Cabañas, Rosario

    2004-08-01

    We analysed patients with allergic or digestive symptoms after seafood ingestion in order to assess a correct diet in Anisakis simplex sensitised individuals. A total of 120 patients who suffered allergic and/or digestive symptoms after marine food ingestion were studied. We performed skin prick tests for A. simplex and seafood, total serum and specific serum immunoglobulin E to A. simplex in the acute stage and 1 month later. A gastroscopy was carried out to find larvae in those patients with persistent abdominal pain. A challenge with non-infective larvae was performed to assess a correct diet. Some 96 patients were sensitised to A. simplex. Gastroscopy was performed in 47 and we detected larvae in 24. We compared symptoms, skin tests, total and specific IgE and the latency of appearance of symptoms in patients positive for Anisakis larvae, patients without larvae at gastroscopy and patients without digestive symptoms. There was no difference among the groups. We challenged 22 patients with frozen A. simplex larvae. After allowing deep-frozen seafood in the diet for more than 2 years, no patient suffered a reaction. At this time, we allowed all our patients well-frozen seafood without any allergic reaction occurring. Allergic symptoms are the most frequent manifestation of A. simplex parasitism. We could not find any patient allergic to the thermostable proteins of parasite.

  2. Allergic immune-regulatory effects of adlay bran on an OVA-immunized mice allergic model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Wenchang

    2012-10-01

    Allergy is an inflammation associated with an elevated T helper (Th) 2 lymphocyte responses to allergens and elevated serum IgE levels and cytokines. In one of our previous studies using a cell model, various flavonoids were found to be involved the anti-inflammatory effects of adlay bran. The present study investigated the effect of the ethyl-acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of adlay bran (ABE-EtOAc) in an ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized murine model. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice underwent OVA sensitization and were used as an allergy model. An orogastric gavage was used to force feed these mice with 240 mg/kg ABE-EtOAc from their sixth week through their twelfth week. Immune reactions were determined by measuring changes in Th2-type cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and production of antibodies. ABE-EtOAc was found capable of regulating the Th1/Th2 immune reaction through its regulation of IL-2 and IL-4. It also significantly reduced the production of anti-OVA IgE antibodies (10%), increased the secretion of IFN-γ and decreased the secretion of IL-6 (38%). These results suggest that adlay bran extract can reduce an allergic reaction by balancing Th1/Th2 immune responses and that it might be used in the treatment of this condition.

  3. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerloose, Katrien B; Robays, Lander J; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Tournoy, Kurt G; Joos, Guy F

    2006-01-01

    Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day) daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P < 0.05), while no inflammatory reaction was observed in the airways. Exposure to cigarette smoke did not induce IgE, but was characterized by a small but significant neutrophilic inflammatory reaction. Combining OVA with cigarette smoke not only induced a significant increase in OVA-specific IgE but also a distinct eosinophil and goblet cell enriched airway inflammation albeit that airway hyperresponsiveness was not evidenced. FACS analysis showed in these mice increases in dendritic cells (DC) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16571114

  4. Intraoperative Anaphylactic Reaction: Is it the Floseal?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David; Schloss, Brian; Beebe, Allan; Samora, Walter; Klamar, Jan; Stukus, David; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    When hemodynamic or respiratory instability occurs intraoperatively, the inciting event must be determined so that a therapeutic plan can be provided to ensure patient safety. Although generally uncommon, one cause of cardiorespiratory instability is anaphylactic reactions. During anesthetic care, these most commonly involve neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, or latex. Floseal is a topical hemostatic agent that is frequently used during orthopedic surgical procedures to augment local coagulation function and limit intraoperative blood loss. As these products are derived from human thrombin, animal collagen, and animal gelatin, allergic phenomenon may occur following their administration. We present 2 pediatric patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion who developed intraoperative hemodynamic and respiratory instability following use of the topical hemostatic agent, Floseal. Previous reports of such reactions are reviewed, and the perioperative care of patients with intraoperative anaphylaxis is discussed. PMID:27713677

  5. Association between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Control in Peruvian School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Uceda, Mónica; Ziegler, Otto; Lindo, Felipe; Herrera-Pérez, Eder

    2013-01-01

    Background. Asthma and allergic rhinitis are highly prevalent conditions that cause major illness worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma control in Peruvian school children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 children with asthma recruited in 5 schools from Lima and Callao cities. The outcome was asthma control assessed by the asthma control test. A score test for trend of odds was used to evaluate the association between allergic rhinitis severity and the prevalence of inadequate asthma control. A generalized linear regression model was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of inadequate asthma control. Results. Allergic rhinitis was present in 66.4% of the population with asthma. The trend analysis showed a positive association between allergic rhinitis and the probability of inadequate asthma control (P < 0.001). It was associated with an increased prevalence of inadequate asthma control, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.19−1.98). Conclusion. This study indicates that allergic rhinitis is associated with an inadequate level of asthma control, giving support to the recommendation of evaluating rhinitis to improve asthma control in children. PMID:23984414

  6. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: An initial form of presentation as a fever of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Peña Irún, A; García Pérez, M; González Santamaría, A

    2012-10-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is characterised by an inflammatory immune process with pulmonary impairment caused by inhalation of organic dust. It is considered an occupational disease and is a very significant cause of temporary and permanent disability that can be prevented. The diagnosis is not often easy, but it is important to make it in the early stages, when the disease is still reversible.

  7. Mitigating the allergic effects of fire ant envenomation with biologically-based population reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review is to describe current efforts to use biological control agents to reduce fire ant population levels, thus, ultimately reducing the number of human sting and allergic reaction incidents. Climate change and worldwide fire ant expansion will increase the frequency of human e...

  8. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  9. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  10. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  11. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  12. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  13. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  14. A Standardized Inoculation Protocol to Test Wheat Cultivars for Reaction to Head Blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (Triticum pathotype)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast, caused by the Triticum pathotype of M. oryzae (MoT), poses a significant threat to wheat production worldwide. Because this pathotype does not occur in the U.S., it is important to prepare for its possible introduction. As part of this preparation, over 500 U.S. wheat cultivars were tes...

  15. Cross-reactions in specific Brachyspira spp. PCR assays caused by "Brachyspira hampsonii" isolates: implications for detection.

    PubMed

    Aller-Morán, Luis M; Martínez-Lobo, F Javier; Rubio, Pedro; Carvajal, Ana

    2016-11-01

    An emerging novel spirochete in swine, provisionally designated "Brachyspira hampsonii," has been detected worldwide. It has been associated with swine dysentery and cannot be differentiated from B. hyodysenteriae, the classical etiologic agent of this disease, using standard phenotypic methods. We evaluated cross-reactions of "B. hampsonii" isolates recovered from avian species in some of the currently available species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the identification of swine Brachyspira species. Ten avian "B. hampsonii" isolates recovered from wild waterfowl were used. No false-positive results were recorded with a B. pilosicoli-specific PCR based on the amplification of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. However, the percentage of false-positive results varied, with a range of 10-80%, in the evaluated B. hyodysenteriae-specific assays based on the amplification of the 23S rRNA, nox, and tlyA genes. Similarly, results of the B. intermedia-specific PCR assays yielded poor specificity, with up to 80% of the "B. hampsonii" isolates tested giving false-positive results. Finally, 2 "B. hampsonii" avian isolates yielded a positive result in a B. innocens- and B. murdochii-specific PCR. This result should be interpreted very cautiously as these 2 isolates could represent a recombinant genotype.

  16. Allergic diseases in farmers' children.

    PubMed

    Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have reported lower rates of allergic sensitization and allergies in children living in rural as compared to urban communities. This has been attributed to the lower levels of air pollution in rural areas. The question arises whether other factors in the rural environment could explain the lower prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and hay fever. A first report from rural South Bavaria in Germany demonstrated that children living in a home where coal and wood were used for heating had a significantly lower risk of suffering from hay fever (odds ratio 0.57 (0.34-0.98)), of being sensitized to common allergens (OR 0.67 (0.49-0.93)) and of having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR 0.55 (0.34-0.90)) than their peers living in homes with other heating systems. Subsequently, the Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution (SCARPOL) tested the hypothesis that farming as parental occupation was associated with a lower risk of hay fever and atopy. A total of 1620 (86.0%) 6-15-year-old schoolchildren living in three rural communities of Switzerland were examined using a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents and IgE antibodies against six common aeroallergens in serum samples of 404 (69.3.0%) of the 13-15-year-olds. Farming as parental occupation was significantly associated with lower rates of reported hay fever symptoms and allergic sensitization. Comparing children from farming with those from non-farming environments, the adjusted OR was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.89) for sneezing attacks during the pollen season, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.73) for a sensitization to allergens. These results have recently been confirmed in a new and much larger survey in rural South Bavaria. Several alternative explanations have to be considered when interpreting these findings, namely, selection bias, the development of tolerance, increased microbial stimulation and a more traditional lifestyle (diet and housing

  17. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  18. [Allergic contact dermatitis to common ivy (Hedera helix L.)].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, C; Schneider, L A; Hinrichs, R; Staib, G; Weber, L; Weiss, J M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2003-10-01

    Common ivy (Hedera helix L.) is a ubiquitous plant in Europe whose major allergen falcarinol has moderate allergic potential. It is not related to poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.). There are no cross reactions between the allergens of common ivy (falcarinol) and poison ivy (urushiol). Contact with common ivy or falcarinol may lead to sensitization and then a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. There are only few cases described in the literature. We report on a male hobby gardener with appropriate clinical history and positive patch test. The pathogenic mechanism is a type IV reaction following a sensitization exposure. Gardeners and landscape architects with frequent exposure to common ivy and thus a high risk of sensitization should wear appropriate protective clothing.

  19. High-concentration topical capsaicin may abolish the clinical manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis by effects on induction and elicitation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin condition caused by a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction. Even though ACD is considered as a T-cell mediated disease, indications exists that peptidergic nerve fibers at the site of allergen exposure and associated with the draining lymph node play a prominent role in both induction and elicitation of ACD. This neuro-immune cross talk seems rely on neuropeptides such as Substance P secreted by nerve fiber terminals. It is hypothesized that local complete or partial cutaneous denervation/defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers in humans could be a feasible approach towards treating allergic contact dermatitis. Recently, human experimental protocols for prominent, temporary defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers have been published relying on prolonged application of 8% topical capsaicin patches. Combined with human experimental ACD models the importance of peptidergic nerve fibers in the induction and elicitation phases of ACD could be accurately established. Understanding the role of cutaneous peptidergic fibers in the pathogenesis and potentially of ACD and how contact sensitization can be modulated by topical defunctionalization of these fibers could lead to new approaches to treatment for ACD. In patients with localized ACD occurring to an allergen that is difficult or unfeasible to evade this would have particular relevance.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting.

  1. [Allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; In-Nami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Compression stockings are used for patients under general anesthesia to prevent occurrence of deep venous thrombosis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings. A 53-year-old house wife had a history of sensitivity like skin eruption and disstasis to rubber products such as rubber band. Left nephrectomy for rupture of renal angiomyolipoma was scheduled under general and epidural anesthesia. Further examination for gum allergy was not performed before the operation, although latex allergy was suspected. The operation was performed uneventfully under latex-safe environment in the operating room under guideline for latex allergy. Postoperatively, ringed edematous erythema and wheal occurred in her bilateral thighs compressed with the upper part of compression stockings. The skin symptoms continued for more than four days. After disappearance of the skin symptoms, she was discharged from the hospital on the ninth day after the operation. Synthetic rubber, neoprene, in the upper part of compression stockings to prevent slipping down might cause allergic contact dermatitis. We should take care of occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings in patients with rubber allergy.

  2. Developing Primary Intervention Strategies to Prevent Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Rueter, Kristina; Haynes, Aveni; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the developed world, now affecting up to 40 % of the population with no evidence that this is abating. If anything, the prevalence of early onset allergic diseases such as eczema and food allergy appears to be still increasing. This is almost certainly due to the changing modern environment and lifestyle factors, acting to promote immune dysfunction through early perturbations in immune maturation, immune tolerance and regulation. This early propensity to inflammation may also have implications for the rising risk of other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. Identifying risk factors and pathways for preventing early onset immune disease like allergy is likely to have benefits for many aspects of human health, particularly as many NCDs share similar risk factors. This review focuses on recent advances in primary intervention strategies for promoting early immune health and preventing allergic disease, highlighting the current evidence-based guidelines where applicable and areas requiring further investigation.

  3. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  4. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  5. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Proton Pump Inhibitors: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    PPIs are among the most commonly administered medications in the USA and are generally well tolerated. Immediate and delayed immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are rare but increasingly recognized adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can occur due to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to PPIs and can be evaluated by immediate hypersensitivity skin testing and oral provocation challenge testing. A desensitization protocol can be used when PPI use cannot be avoided in an allergic patient. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs have also been reported. Occupational exposures causing cutaneous reactions to PPIs are the most commonly reported delayed hypersensitivity reaction, followed by drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. This review presents a summary of the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs.

  6. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  7. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  8. Therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus Eye Ointment in Allergic Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shitole, Satish C; Bhagat, Nupur; Patil, Deepak; Sawant, Pawan; Patil, Kalpita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs) like Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) are chronic forms of ocular allergy that can cause severe visual complications. Pathogenesis of AODs is uncertain and treatment has been a challenge for ophthalmologists. Tacrolimus, a 23-member cyclic macrolide lactone derived from [streptomyces tsukubaensis] now in ointment form has been successfully used in AODs. Aim To study the therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment in patients with Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs). Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted on 36 patients with severe AOD and moderate cases not responding to conventional treatment. They were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus eye ointment twice daily for minimum three months in addition to conventional treatment and observed for a period of 6 months. Symptoms and signs after treatment were evaluated. Grades of clinical signs were assessed based on slit lamp clinical photographs; development of possible complications was assessed and analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Mean age of patients was 9.3±4.3 years and mean duration of AODs was 3.1±1.8 years. The scores on both the four point scales for signs and symptoms decreased significantly (p<0.0001) after 1 month of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment treatment. Itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief and conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. 88.88% of patients were successfully weaned off topical steroids in 6 months into Tacrolimus treatment. Even in patients unresponsive to 0.1% topical Cyclosporine, symptoms and signs scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (36.11%). Conclusion Topical 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment was found to be a safe and effective treatment in cases of AODs and also worked as steroid sparing and replacing agent. It was also found effective in patient

  9. Promethazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery ... red, watery eyes caused by allergies), allergic skin reactions, and allergic reactions to blood or plasma products. ...

  10. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet.

  11. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seok Cheol; Je, In-Gyu; Cui, Xun; Park, Hae Ran; Khang, Dongwoo; Park, Jeong-Suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disease is caused by exposure to normally innocuous substances that activate mast cells. Mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is closely related to a number of allergic disorders, such as anaphylaxis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. The discovery of drugs for treating allergic disease is an interesting subject and important to human health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti‑allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth (AEPC) (a member of the Labiatae family) using mast cells, and also to determine its possible mechanisms of action. An intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 or a serial injection of immunoglobulin E and antigen was used to induce anaphylaxis in mice. We found that AEPC inhibited compound 48/80‑induced systemic and immunoglobulin E-mediated cutaneous anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner. The release of histamine from mast cells was reduced by AEPC, and this suppressive effect was associated with the regulation of calcium influx. In addition, AEPC attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. The inhibitory effects of AEPC on pro-inflammatory cytokines were dependent on the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). AEPC blocked the PMACI-induced translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus by hindering the degradation of IκBα and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Our results thus indicate that AEPC inhibits mast cell‑mediated allergic inflammation by suppressing mast cell degranulation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines caused by reduced intracellular calcium levels and the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK.

  12. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  13. MicroRNA-26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 Loop Regulates Allergic Inflammation and Allergic Inflammation-promoted Enhanced Tumorigenic and Metastatic Potential of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yoojung; Kim, Youngmi; Eom, Sangkyung; Kim, Misun; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Hyuna; Noh, Kyeonga; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-05-29

    Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) knock-out mouse experiments showed that COX-2 was necessary for in vivo allergic inflammation, such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive systemic anaphylaxis, and triphasic cutaneous allergic reaction. TargetScan analysis predicted COX-2 as a target of miR-26a and miR-26b. miR-26a/-26b decreased luciferase activity associated with COX-2-3'-UTR. miR-26a/-26b exerted negative effects on the features of in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation by targeting COX-2. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and SNAIL, but not COX-2, to the promoter sequences of miR-26a and miR-26b. Cytokine array analysis showed that the induction of chemokines, such as MIP-2, in the mouse passive systemic anaphylaxis model occurred in a COX-2-dependent manner. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and COX-2 to the promoter sequences of MIP-2. In vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation was accompanied by the increased expression of MIP-2. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the expression of MIP-2. Allergic inflammation enhanced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells and induced positive feedback involving cancer cells and stromal cells, such as mast cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. miR-26a mimic and miR-26b mimic negatively regulated the positive feedback between cancer cells and stromal cells and the positive feedback among stromal cells. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the enhanced tumorigenic potential by allergic inflammation. COX-2 was necessary for the enhanced metastatic potential of cancer cells by allergic inflammation. Taken together, our results indicate that the miR26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 loop regulates allergic inflammation and the feedback relationship between allergic inflammation and the enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential.

  14. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea.

  15. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  16. Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro; Takayama, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to condoms: description of a clinical case and analytical review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, D; Antelmi, A; Conserva, A; Angelini, G

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 42-years-old non-atopic man who developed a severe eczematous reaction in the genital area some hours after the use of a condom (Settebello-Hatù Durex) containing a retarding cream. Patch test revealed a strong allergic reaction to the retarding cream and to benzocaine and paraben mix contained in the cream itself. Condoms with retarding cream should be avoided in man sensitized to local anestethetics.

  18. Laughter counteracts enhancement of plasma neurotrophin levels and allergic skin wheal responses by mobile phone-mediated stress.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Laughter caused by viewing a comic video (Rowan Atkinson's The Best Bits of Mr. Bean) reduced the plasma nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 levels, and allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic dermatitis, whereas viewing a nonhumorous video (weather information) failed to do so. In contrast, stress induced by writing mail on a mobile phone enhanced the plasma nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 levels, and allergic skin wheal responses. However, previewing the comic video counteracted mobile phone-mediated enhancement of plasma neurotrophins or allergic skin wheal responses, whereas previewing the weather information failed to do so. Taken together, these results suggest that, in patients with atopic dermatitis, writing mail on a mobile phone causes stress and enhances allergic responses with a concomitant increase in plasma neurotrophins that are counteracted by laughter. These results may be useful in the study of pathophysiology and treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  19. [. Oсumethyl in the treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, N R

    Treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva (conjunctivites and blepharoconjunctivites) often presents difficulties due to peculiarities of their pathogenesis - allergic and vascular reactions, disorder of lacrimal production, meibomian gland dysfunction, and possible bacterial contamination. It has been suggested to use Ocumethyl, which contains zinc sulfate (binding, drying, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic effect), diphenhydamine hydrochloride (an Н1-antihistamine that decreases capillary permeability and helps resolve conjunctival and eyelid edema), naphazoline hydrochloride (a sympathomimetic notable for its strong, rapid, and long-lasting vasoconstrictive effect), and methylene blue (antiseptic effect, disintoxication, and antioxidant activity). A total of 80 patients with chronic allergic conjunctivitis, blepharoconjuntivitis, or giant papillary conjunctivitis associated with contact lens wearing were treated with Ocumethyl instillations (3 times daily for 15-30 days). A clinically significant effect was obtained in 77-91% of patients depending on the disease entity.

  20. Contact sensitivity to nonoxynols as a cause of intolerance to antiseptic preparations.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Deveylder, H; de Alam, A G; Lachapelle, J M; Tennstedt, D; Degreef, H

    1989-10-01

    Twelve cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by antiseptic preparations are presented. The reactions resulted not from the active principles but rather from nonoxynols used in the offending substances as nonionic surface-active agents. Nonoxynols are ethoxylated alkyl phenols or nonylphenylethers that conform in general to the formula C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. They have emulsifying, wetting, foaming, and solubilizing properties and are used in a large number of industrial, household, agricultural, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. They also are used as spermicides. There are very few reports in the literature of skin problems caused by nonoxynols.

  1. Sublingual or subcutaneous immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis?

    PubMed

    Durham, Stephen R; Penagos, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and, unlike antiallergic drugs, has been shown to modify the underlying cause of the disease, with proved long-term benefits. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been the gold standard, whereas sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has emerged as an effective and safe alternative. Previous Cochrane systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed that both SLIT and SCIT are effective in patients with seasonal AR, whereas evidence for their efficacy in patients with perennial disease has been less convincing. Recent large, adequately powered trials have demonstrated reductions in both symptoms and use of rescue medication in patients with seasonal and those with perennial AR. Here we appraise evidence for SCIT versus SLIT based on indirect evidence from Cochrane reviews and recent well-powered double-blind, randomized controlled trials versus placebo and the limited direct evidence available from randomized blind head-to-head comparisons. At present, based on an overall balance of efficacy and side effects, the patient is in equipoise. Pending definitive comparative trials, choice might be determined largely by the local availability of SCIT and SLIT products of proved value and personal (patient) preference.

  2. The HRCT features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Thomas E

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to organic dusts can produce an immune-mediated inflammatory response in sensitized individuals. The pulmonary disease caused by this response has been called extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The clinical phases associated with this process have been termed acute, subacute, and chronic. There are corresponding imaging findings that are characteristic of each of these phases, although there is some overlap between the phases. The acute phase is characterized by confluent opacities that may mimic infection or edema. The subacute phase is characterized by centrilobular nodules, areas of ground-glass attenuation, a mosaic perfusion pattern, and air trapping on expiratory imaging. The chronic phase is characterized by subpleural irregular linear opacities with associated architectural distortion. Honeycombing may sometimes also be present. In the acute and subacute phases, the disease is predominantly in the lower lungs, whereas in chronic EAA the findings are predominant in the mid to upper lungs. Although the high-resolution computed tomography findings individually are nonspecific, the combination of the findings coupled with the distribution of the findings can often narrow the differential or allow a presumptive diagnosis of EAA to be made.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  4. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human.

  5. Acute Toxicity, Respiratory Reaction, and Sensitivity of Three Cyprinid Fish Species Caused by Exposure to Four Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L−1, 0.23 mg L−1, and 0.10 mg L−1, respectively; of Cu2+0.17 mg L−1, 0.09 mg L−1, and 0.12 mg L−1 respectively; of Cd2+6.5 mg L−1, 18.47 mg L−1, 5.36 mg L−1, respectively; and of Zn2+44.48 mg L−1, 31.37 mg L−1, and 12.74 mg L−1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg2+ and Cu2+ (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd2+. Zn2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L−1, 0.046 mg L−1, 2.142 mg L−1, and 0.633 mg L−1 for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

  6. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor.

  7. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  8. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, Ruby; Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets.

  9. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value.

  10. Adverse reactions to sunscreen agents: epidemiology, responsible irritants and allergens, clinical characteristics, and management.

    PubMed

    Heurung, Ashley R; Raju, Srihari I; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Sunscreen is a key component in the preventive measures recommended by dermatologists and public health campaigns aimed at reducing sunburn, early skin aging, and skin cancer. To maximize compliance, adverse reactions to sunscreens should be minimized. Although inactive ingredients cause many of these reactions, it is important for dermatologists to be aware of reactions to active ultraviolet filters. There are approximately 120 chemicals that can function as ultraviolet (UV) filters. This review focuses on the 36 most common filters in commercial and historical use. Of these, 16 are approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration. The benzophenones and dibenzoylmethanes are the most commonly implicated UV filters causing allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) reactions; benzophenone-3 is the leading allergen and photoallergen within this class. When clinically indicated, patch and photopatch testing should be performed to common UV filters.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

    2004-03-01

    A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical

  12. Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by acetaminophen featuring almost 100% skin detachment: Acetaminophen is associated with a risk of severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Kamiyama, Taisuke; Sasaki, Shun; Kobayashi, Kae; Fukuda, Kenichiro; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru; Sueki, Hirohiko

    2016-03-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an adverse reaction that can be induced by various drugs; the associated mortality rate is 20-25%. A previous report showed a weak association between TEN and acetaminophen. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration declared that acetaminophen is associated with a risk of serious skin reactions, including TEN. Here, we describe the case of a 43-year-old Japanese woman with TEN caused by acetaminophen. She had poorly controlled ulcerative colitis and was treated with high doses of prednisolone, infliximab, acetaminophen and lansoprazole. Nine days after administrating acetaminophen, targetoid erythematous and bullous lesions appeared on the patient's trunk, palms and the soles of her feet. The skin lesions expanded rapidly; within 3 weeks, skin detachment was detected across nearly 100% of the patient's body. However, no mucosal involvement of the eyes, oral cavity or genitalia was found. We performed lymphocyte transformation tests using various drugs; however, a high stimulation index was obtained only with acetaminophen. The patient recovered following treatment with plasmapheresis, i.v. immunoglobulin therapy, topical medication and supportive therapy. Acetaminophen is included in many prescription and over-the-counter products; thus, clinicians should monitor their patients for severe drug reactions, including TEN.

  13. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  14. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management.

  15. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  16. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  17. Immunoreactions involving platelets. III. Quantitative aspects of platelet agglutination, inhibition of clot retraction, and other reactions caused by the antibody of quinidine purpura.

    PubMed

    SHULMAN, N R

    1958-05-01

    Quantitative aspects of platelet agglutination and inhibition of clot retraction by the antibody of quinidine purpura were described. The reactions appeared to depend on formation of types of antibody-quinidine-platelet complexes which could fix complement but complement was not necessary for these reactions. Complement fixation was at least 10 times more sensitive than platelet agglutination or inhibition of clot retraction for measurement and detection of antibody activity. Although it has been considered that antibodies of drug purpura act as platelet lysins in the presence of complement and that direct lysis of platelets accounts for development of thrombocytopenia in drug purpura, the present study suggests that attachment of antibody produces a change in platelets which is manifested in vitro only by increased susceptibility to non-specific factors which can alter the stability of platelets in the absence of antibody. The attachment of antibody to platelets in vivo may only indirectly affect platelet survival. In contrast to human platelets, dog, rabbit, and guinea pig platelets, and normal or trypsin-treated human red cells did not agglutinate, fix complement, or adsorb antibody; and intact human endothelial cells did not fix complement or adsorb antibody. Rhesus monkey platelets were not agglutinated by the antibody but did adsorb antibody and fix complement although their activity in these reactions differed quantitatively from that of human platelets. Cinchonine could be substituted for quinidine in agglutination and inhibition of clot retraction reactions but quinine and cinchonidine could not. Attempts to cause passive anaphylaxis in guinea pigs with the antibody of quinidine purpura were not successful.

  18. [The efficacy of a new medication -- intranasal glucocorticoid mometasone furoate (Nasonex) -- in seasonal allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Chyrek-Borowska, S; Rogalewska, A M; Lenczewska, D; Buko, Z; Południewska, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this open study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new topical corticosteroid Nasonex (mometasone furoate) in allergic, seasonal rhinitis. The investigations were carried out on 30 patients with proven grass pollen allergy. Nasonex was administered intranasally during the pollen season, in a single dose 200 micrograms. During the 3 subsequent visits nasal and nonnasal symptom (total and individual) scores and patient reaction to the treatment were evaluated. Rhinomanometry and number of eosinophils in nasal smear were calculated before and after the treatment. Complete or marked relief of symptoms was observed in 24 patients, moderate improvement in 4 patients and no positive reaction in 2 cases. Nasonex markedly inhibited eosinophil influx to the nasal mucosa. No adverse reaction was observed during 2-week Nasonex treatment. We conclude that Nasonex aerosol is a very effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  19. Evaluation of drug-related hypersensitivity reactions in children.

    PubMed

    Martín-Muñoz, F; Moreno-Ancillo, A; Domínguez-Noche, C; Díaz-Pena, J M; García-Ara, C; Boyano, T; Ojeda, J A

    1999-01-01

    Patients with drug reactions are often referred to allergists for "allergy". Skin testing and clinical history seem to have a good negative predictive value, however, although drug challenge could be dangerous, it is the only way to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to demonstrate that most children with a history of non-life-threatening drug reactions do not have a true drug allergy and examined the use of drug challenge in childhood. Patients with reactions were referred to our clinic by pediatricians. In 1 year, 354 reactions were studied in 239 children. Patients were classified according to their positive or negative history of drug allergy. Skin prick testing was done in all cases. Exclusion criteria for challenge included drug anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, systemic reactions with severe concomitant illness, beta-inhibitor drug therapy or positive skin test to the implicated drug with a positive history. It was found that the beta-lactam antibiotics were involved in 50% of suspected reactions, aspirin in 10% and sulfonamides in 9%. Histories were considered positive only in 25%. Drug challenges confirmed only 4% of all reactions. It was concluded that drug challenge may be the gold standard for most childhood reactions that are considered to be allergic, non-life-threatening and drug-related. Only 4% of these suspected reactions were exclusively caused by drug allergy.

  20. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-κB and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Nonspecific provocation of target organs in allergic diseases: EAACI-GA(2)LEN consensus report.

    PubMed

    Bonini, S; Rasi, G; Brusasco, V; Carlsen, K-H; Crimi, E; Popov, T; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Gramiccioni, C; Bonini, M; Passali, D; Bachert, C; van Cauwenberge, P B; Bresciani, M; Bonini, S; Calonge, M; Montan, P G; Serapiao Dos Santos, M; Belfort, R; Lambiase, A; Sacchetti, M

    2007-06-01

    It is widely accepted that nonspecific tissue reactivity is a distinct pathophysiological hallmark of allergic diseases, influenced by genetic and environmental factors different from those involved in causing sensitization and allergen response of target organs. This consensus document aims at reviewing procedures currently used for nonspecific provocation of the bronchi, nose and eye and for measuring their responsiveness to nonspecific stimuli.

  2. A case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis; possibility of basidiomycetous fungi as a causative antigen.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    We herein report a case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis (SAM) caused by basidiomycetous (BM) fungi (probably Phanerochaete velutina). The patient with bronchial asthma that accompanied allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) fulfilled all 6 criteria for diagnosing SAM. In this case, the BM fungus may act as an allergen, reacting continually in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. The antifungal drug (itraconazole 50 mg/day) seemed to achieve a partial response. Basidiomycetous fungi may attract attention because of the possibility as a causative antigen in this new clinical concept of SAM.

  3. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Compare, D; Nardone, G

    2013-01-01

    Allergy is defined as a hypersensitivity reaction due to specific antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. Epidemiological studies are showing a dramatic increase of allergies in industrialized countries in the last few decades, while remaining stable in developing countries. In 1989 Strachan, hypothesized that the increase in allergic disorders was the result of a lack of infections in early infancy, and in 1998 Wold suggested that, rather than a decrease in viral or bacterial infections, an altered normal intestinal colonization pattern in infancy, could be responsible for the increase in allergies. Germ-free mice were shown to mount an exaggerated allergic airway reaction compared with that seen in colonized mice, indicating the important role of microbe-host interactions in the development of allergic diseases. Infants with food allergies are found to exhibit an imbalance between "beneficial"and potentially harmful bacteria, i.e., decreased Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus species and increased coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium species, suggesting that microbial inhabitants of the human body, may play either a pathogenic or protective role in allergies. Based on this data, many clinical trial addressing the use of probiotics in the context of allergic disorders, have been conducted in children. However, currently, no conclusive item may be drawn.

  4. [Annual change of the pet in allergic patients home for ten years].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Kudoh, M; Tomita, S; Hasegawa, M; Akiyama, K

    1999-01-01

    There are only few paper in Japan which reports the prevalence of pet keepers in the allergic population and also of the type of pets they keep. We made investigation on these points in 1337 allergic patients employing a questionnaire. Among 1337 patients, allergic conjunctivitis patients were found in 67, eczema patients in 118, allergic rhinitis patients in 368 and bronchial asthmatic patients in 1043. These number contained those who overlapped in symptoms. Approximately 43% of allergy patients are currently keeping the pet at present while 11.2% of the patient had kept the pet in the past. There were two peaks in the age when they began to keep a pet, 6 to 12 and 30 to 40 years of age. Trend in the past decade showed that both the dog and cat bred in foreign countries were increasing. About 80% of patients who own the foreign bred dogs keep them indoor. This ratio is increasing gradually. Another conspicuous change is the sharp increase in those who keep hamsters which occupied 20% of all the pet keeper in 1997. Percentages of the patient who recognizes the aggravation of their symptoms in eye, nose, skin and also as asthma often pet keeping is a about 10%. One out of 4 patients who keep the pet has a family member with rhinitis and/or asthma. We concluded that too many of the allergic patients keep the pet against their benefit and they must be informed that the pet could be the cause of allergy symptoms.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of oak dust exposure in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Määttä, Juha; Haapakoski, Rita; Lehto, Maili; Leino, Marina; Tillander, Sari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri

    2007-09-01

    Repeated airway exposure to wood dust has been reported to cause adverse respiratory effects such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. In our recent study, we found that exposure of mice to oak dust induced more vigorous lung inflammation compared to birch dust exposure. In the present study, we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of repeated intranasal exposure to oak dust both in nonallergic and in ovalbumin-sensitized, allergic mice. Allergen-induced influx of eosinophils and lymphocytes was seen in the lungs of allergic mice. Oak dust exposure elicited infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in nonallergic mice. Interestingly, oak dust-induced lung neutrophilia as well as oak dust-induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and chemokine CCL3 were significantly suppressed in allergic mice. On the other hand, allergen-induced expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in oak dust-exposed allergic mice. Finally, allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity to inhaled metacholine was significantly suppressed in oak dust-exposed allergic mice. The present results suggest that repeated airway exposure to oak dust can regulate pulmonary inflammation and airway responses depending on the immunological status of the animal.

  6. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  7. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  8. Allergic rhinitis and chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Rajati, Mohsen; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Khadivi, Ehsan; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Allergic inflammation in upper airways can act as a predisposing factor for infectious ear diseases. There are some evidences about the role of allergic rhinitis in chronic otitis media with effusion, but its role in establishing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has not been clearly shown. 68 adult patients with established CSOM, who were candidates for ear surgery, and 184 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for the presence of allergic rhinitis. Standard questionnaire was filled out for all participants. All patients and controls underwent skin prick test for 28 common regional aeroallergens, and serum total IgE was measured by means of ELISA method. Allergic rhinitis were defined as a positive responses to the questionnaire, positive skin prick test to at least one allergen, and/or high level of serum total IgE. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 20 (29.41%) and 41 (22.28%) of patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.241) (OR = 1.28, CI = 0.69-2.36). Outdoor allergens, especially grass pollen, were the most prevalent allergens among both groups, but indoor allergens like mites and molds have a low prevalence. The study did not show a significant difference in the prevalence of AR in the CSOM patients compared to the controls. The intermittent nature of allergy and other less known intervening factors in the etiopathogenesis of CSOM make such a conclusion difficult.

  9. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  10. Mast cells and basophils are essential for allergies: mechanisms of allergic inflammation and a proposed procedure for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Dong; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The current definition of allergy is a group of IgE-mediated diseases. However, a large portion of patients with clinical manifestations of allergies do not exhibit elevated serum levels of IgE (sIgEs). In this article, three key factors, ie soluble allergens, sIgEs and mast cells or basophils, representing the causative factors, messengers and primary effector cells in allergic inflammation, respectively, were discussed. Based on current knowledge on allergic diseases, we propose that allergic diseases are a group of diseases mediated through activated mast cells and/or basophils in sensitive individuals, and allergic diseases include four subgroups: (1) IgE dependent; (2) other immunoglobulin dependent; (3) non-immunoglobulin mediated; (4) mixture of the first three subgroups. According to our proposed definition, pseudo-allergic-reactions, in which mast cell or basophil activation is not mediated via IgE, or to a lesser extent via IgG or IgM, should be non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Specific allergen challenge tests (SACTs) are gold standard tests for diagnosing allergies in vivo, but risky. The identification of surface membrane activation markers of mast cells and basophils (CD203c, CCR3, CD63, etc) has led to development of the basophil activation test (BAT), an in vitro specific allergen challenge test (SACT). Based on currently available laboratory allergy tests, we here propose a laboratory examination procedure for allergy.

  11. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; Zaki, Rehab M.; Salama, Mervat A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT) using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4%) patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326) of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118) of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44) of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54) of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp.) with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products. PMID:25505988

  12. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animal dander are also called allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is another word often used for this problem. ... to ask your doctor about allergic rhinitis - child; Hay fever - what to ask your doctor - child; Allergies - what ...

  13. Inhibitory effects of Piper betle on production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wirotesangthong, Mali; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Thanakijcharoenpath, Witchuda; Nagai, Hiroichi

    2008-03-01

    The leaves of the Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) are used in traditional medicine and possess anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic and radioprotective activities. However, little is known about their anti-allergic activity. Therefore, the effects of P. betle ethanolic extract (PE) on the production of histamine and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by murine bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) and on the secretion of eotaxin and IL-8 by the human lung epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, were investigated in vitro. PE significantly decreased histamine and GM-CSF produced by an IgE-mediated hypersensitive reaction, and inhibited eotaxin and IL-8 secretion in a TNF-alpha and IL-4-induced allergic reaction. The results suggest that P. betle may offer a new therapeutic approach for the control of allergic diseases through inhibition of production of allergic mediators.

  14. Is vitamin E an anti-allergic compound?

    PubMed

    Caraffa, A L; Varvara, G; Spinas, E; Kritas, S K; Lessiani, G; Ronconi, G; Saggini, A; Antinolfi, P; Frydas, I; De Tommaso Morrison, M C; Conti, P

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin E is found in eight forms in nature which include four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and four tocotrianols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). The classic effect of vitamin E is to reduce and prevent oxygen damage to the tissue and is useful for the treatment of pain, inflammation and allergic reactions. In addition to antioxidant activity, vitamin E also has a number of different and related functions. It protects against cancer, improves immune response, lowers the incidence of infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and is protective in allergy and asthma risk, and other disorders. Vitamin E increases n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreases n-3 PUFA, an effect that diminishes asthma and allergic diseases. Moreover, vitamin E regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration through its oxidant and non-antioxidant effect. Furthermore, vitamin E modulates the endothelial function by altering VCAM-1-induced oxidative activation of endothelial cell PKCα. However, vitamin E is not consistently associated with asthma and/or allergy, and in some cases there are conflicting results on allergy and inflammatory diseases. The association of vitamin E and allergy appears to be very complex, and further study needs to clarify this dilemma.

  15. Primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Assa'ad, Amal H; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of atopic disease, primary prevention may play a role in reducing its burden, especially in high-risk infants. With this in mind, the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology was charged with the task of developing recommendations for primary care physicians and specialists about the primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions according to current available literature and expert opinion. Recommendations that are supported by data are as follows. Avoidance diets during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended at this time, but more research is necessary for peanut. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 and up to 6 months is endorsed. For high-risk infants who cannot be exclusively breast-fed, hydrolyzed formula appears to offer advantages to prevent allergic disease and cow's milk allergy. Complementary foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months of age. Because no formal recommendations have been previously provided about how and when to introduce the main allergenic foods (cow's milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish), these are now provided, and reasons to consider allergy consultation for development of a personalized plan for food introduction are also presented.

  16. Role of cockroach proteases in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen

    2012-10-01

    Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.

  17. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  18. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization.

  19. Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large

  20. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  1. Development of a Multiplex PCR-Ligase Detection Reaction Assay for Diagnosis of Infection by the Four Parasite Species Causing Malaria in Humans

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, David T.; Thomson, Jodi M.; Kasehagen, Laurin J.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of infections caused by Plasmodium species is critical for understanding the nature of malarial disease, treatment efficacy, malaria control, and public health. The demands of field-based epidemiological studies of malaria will require faster and more sensitive diagnostic methods as new antimalarial drugs and vaccines are explored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) assay that allows the simultaneous diagnosis of infection by all four parasite species causing malaria in humans. This assay exhibits sensitivity and specificity equal to those of other PCR-based assays, identifying all four human malaria parasite species at levels of parasitemias equal to 1 parasitized erythrocyte/μl of blood. The multiplex PCR-LDR assay goes beyond other PCR-based assays by reducing technical procedures and by detecting intraindividual differences in species-specific levels of parasitemia. Application of the multiplex PCR-LDR assay will provide the sensitivity and specificity expected of PCR-based diagnostic assays and will contribute new insight regarding relationships between the human malaria parasite species and the human host in future epidemiological studies. PMID:15184411

  2. Development of a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction assay for diagnosis of infection by the four parasite species causing malaria in humans.

    PubMed

    McNamara, David T; Thomson, Jodi M; Kasehagen, Laurin J; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    The diagnosis of infections caused by Plasmodium species is critical for understanding the nature of malarial disease, treatment efficacy, malaria control, and public health. The demands of field-based epidemiological studies of malaria will require faster and more sensitive diagnostic methods as new antimalarial drugs and vaccines are explored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) assay that allows the simultaneous diagnosis of infection by all four parasite species causing malaria in humans. This assay exhibits sensitivity and specificity equal to those of other PCR-based assays, identifying all four human malaria parasite species at levels of parasitemias equal to 1 parasitized erythrocyte/microl of blood. The multiplex PCR-LDR assay goes beyond other PCR-based assays by reducing technical procedures and by detecting intraindividual differences in species-specific levels of parasitemia. Application of the multiplex PCR-LDR assay will provide the sensitivity and specificity expected of PCR-based diagnostic assays and will contribute new insight regarding relationships between the human malaria parasite species and the human host in future epidemiological studies.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.

  4. Mechanisms of chemical-induced innate immunity in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Esser, P R; Weber, F C; Jakob, T; Freudenberg, M A; Schmidt, M; Goebeler, M

    2011-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most prevalent occupational skin diseases and causes severe and long-lasting health problems in the case of chronification. It is initiated by an innate inflammatory immune response to skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, skin-homing CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17 and CD4(+) Th1/Th17 cells. Following this sensitization step, T lymphocytes infiltrate the inflamed skin upon challenge with the same chemical. The T cells then exert cytotoxic function and secrete inflammatory mediators to produce an eczematous skin reaction. The recent characterization of the mechanisms underlying the innate inflammatory response has revealed that contact allergens activate innate effector mechanisms and signalling pathways that are also involved in anti-infectious immunity. This emerging analogy implies infection as a potential trigger or amplifier of the sensitization to contact allergens. Moreover, new mechanistic insights into the induction of ACD identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention. We summarize here the latest findings in this area of research.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to regenerated oxidized cellulose contained in a matrix employed for wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Conserva, Anna; Angelini, Gianni

    2007-07-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old non-atopic woman with recurrent leg ulcers because of the factor V Leiden mutation who developed a severe eczematous lesions of the skin surrounding an ulcer of the right leg after the use of a protease-modulating matrix (Promogran, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, Skipton, UK). The patient was patch tested with the SIDAPA (Italian Society of Allergological, Occupational and Environmental Dermatology) standard series, a piece of the device as is, of the bovine collagen (Zyderm, Collagen Corporation, Palo Alto, CA, USA) as is, a piece of the gauze containing only regenerated oxidized cellulose (Tabotamp, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, North Yorkshire, UK) and of a fold towels in pure cellulose (Foscart, Bassano del Grappa, Italy). Patch tests gave a positive reactions to nickel sulphate and Promogran as is. We showed that the sensitizing agent was regenerated oxidized cellulose, a substance the treatment of ulcers and as is in and in combination with collagen in surgery for intraoperative hemostasis. The case reported suggests that regenerated oxidized cellulose can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

  6. Generalized eczematous reaction after fractional carbon dioxide laser therapy for tattoo allergy.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; De Rie, Menno A; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2016-12-01

    Allergic tattoo reactions form a therapeutically difficult entity. Treatment with conventional quality-switched lasers does not completely remove the allergenic particles and may lead to generalized hypersensitivity reactions. Recently, ablative fractional laser therapy was introduced as a treatment for allergic tattoo removal. We present two cases of allergic reactions to red tattoo ink treated with 10,600-nm fractional CO2 laser. At the end of treatment, almost complete removal of red ink accompanied by a significant reduction of symptoms was observed in the first patient, whereas the second patient developed an acute generalized eczematous reaction after five treatments. These findings confirm that ablative fractional laser therapy is capable of significant removal of tattoo ink in an allergic tattoo reaction. However, it implies a risk of generalized hypersensitivity reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a generalized hypersensitivity reaction following treatment of tattoo allergy with the fractional CO2 laser.

  7. Safety aspects of Cluster immunotherapy with semi-depot allergen extracts in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Mösges, Ralph; Hörmann, Karl; Klimek, Ludger

    2010-02-01

    In addition to allergen avoidance and pharmaceutical medication, specific immunotherapy (SIT) stands for the third most important mainstay offered to allergic patients. SIT has been widely used in pollen-allergic rhinitis,and clinical efficacy has been validated in several controlled clinical trials. Classic SIT protocols begin with an initial dose-increase period (subcutaneous injections of gradually ascending dosages of the allergen extract in weekly intervals) followed by the dose-maintenance period.However, dosage schedules are not commonly standardized yet. Cluster-SIT is an accelerated procedure to achieve the maintenance dose after a shorter time interval by the application of 2-3 injections per treatment day.A total of 395 pollen-allergic patients (173 females,222 males) aging from 18 to 61 years (mean age 32.6 +/- 5.9 years) have been investigated using a Cluster schedule for Alutard SQ that allows up dosing up to 100,000 SQ-U in six treatment days (within 5 weeks). The schedule was investigated with regard to the side effects during dosage increase. The total number of systemic reactions was n = 148 or 2.05% of all injections. Of these,119 (80%) were classified as immediate reactions, 27(18%) were late-phase reactions and 2 (2%) were both immediate- and late-phase reactions. Of all systemic reactions, 124 (84%) were classified as grade 1 reactions,and 24 (16%) as grade 2. No reactions of grades 3 and 4 occurred. Age, gender and the type of the allergen used had no influence on the frequency or severity of local or systemic reactions. The appearance and amount of adverse side effects in Cluster-SCIT is comparable to those in conventional schedules. With respect to safety aspects, this accelerated dosage schedule could turn into an interesting alternative for dosage increase during subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT).

  8. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    Most of the time, medicines make our lives better. They reduce aches and pains, fight infections, and control problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is ...

  9. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, IL (interleukin)-1{beta}, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-{kappa}B and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. - Research Highlights: > Discovery of drugs for the allergic inflammation is important in human health. > Chrysin is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. > Chrysin

  10. Eyeglass frame allergic contact dermatitis: does tacrolimus prevent recurrences?

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tokio; Iijima, Masafumi; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-10-01

    A 35-year-old man developed well-demarcated, oedematous and erosive erythematous lesions on the nasal bridge and retroauricular regions bilaterally. His eyeglass frame was repaired by an optician 2 weeks prior to symptom onset. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to scrapings of nose pads and temples of the frame in petrolatum. Because the patient did not take our exhortation to change eyeglass frames, we advised him to cover their nose pads and temples with vinyl tape to prevent direct skin contact. Although topical corticosteroid therapy produced clinical resolution temporally, recurrences were not prevented. After starting tacrolimus ointment therapy, recurrence has not occurred for 9 months. Tacrolimus may be effective for allergic contact dermatitis patients who cannot avoid repeated allergen exposure, as it may not only reduce inflammation but inhibit recurrences.

  11. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut.

  12. Effect of oral and intravenous heparin tetrasaccharide on allergic airway responses: critical role of N-sulfation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tahir; Smith, Gregory; Abraham, William M

    2013-04-01

    We have shown that inhaled heparin (hep) oligosaccharides attenuate allergic airway responses in sheep and that this anti-allergic activity resides in a tetrasaccharide sequence. Here we determined: (a) the anti-allergic activity of oral and intravenous hep-tetrasaccharide on allergic airway responses in the sheep model of asthma; and (b) the role of N-sulfation in mediating this anti-allergic activity. Ascaris suum-induced early (EAR) and Late (LAR) airway responses and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to carbachol were measured in allergic sheep without and after treatment with different doses of oral or intravenous hep-tetrasaccharide. At doses of 0.06 mg/kg, 0.125 mg/kg, and 0.25 mg/kg, oral hep-tetrasaccharide caused a dose-dependent inhibition of EAR and LAR. Post-antigen AHR was also inhibited dose dependently. The same doses of intravenous hep-tetrasaccharide yielded comparable inhibition of EAR, LAR and AHR, confirming that orally delivered hep-tetrasaccharide has good bioavailability. The protection by hep-tetrasaccharide on EAR and LAR was dependent on N-sulfation, as N-desulfated/N-acetylated tetrasaccharide had a markedly reduced effect. However, inhibition of the post-antigen AHR was independent of N-sulfation. These results demonstrate that orally administered hep-tetrasaccharide inhibits allergic airway responses in the sheep model of asthma. Hep-tetrasaccharide has good oral bioavailability and its anti-allergic activity is critically dependent on N-sulfation of the glucosamine ring.

  13. [Thiamine diphosphate level and metabolism in allergic myocarditis and treatment with peloid].

    PubMed

    Leus, N F

    1986-01-01

    Enzymatic systems involved in thiamin metabolism were studied in experimental allergic myocarditis. Development of inflammation in myocardium was accompanied by a distinct activation of thiamin pyrophosphatase which catalyzed the most important step responsible for deterioration of the coenzyme functions. The stabilizing effect of peloid on the intracellular pool and compartmentalization of thiamin in myocarditis involved equilibration of the anabolic and catabolic reactions in the coenzyme metabolism, mainly due to selective inhibition of the thiamin pyrophosphatase activity stimulated under these conditions.

  14. Future treatments of allergic diseases and asthma.

    PubMed

    Stirling, R G; Chung, K F

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the inflammatory and immunological mechanisms of allergic diseases have illuminated many potential therapeutic strategies that may prevent or even reverse the abnormalities of allergic inflammation. As the roles of effector cells, and of signalling and adhesion molecules are better understood, the opportunities to inhibit or prevent the inflammatory cascade have increased. In addition, there have been advances in the synthesis of proteins, monoclonal antibodies and new small molecule chemical entities, which provide further valuable flexibility in the therapeutic approach to asthma. Such new approaches are aimed at prevention of T-cell activation; redressing the imbalance of T helper cell populations thus inhibiting or preventing Th-2-derived cytokine expression; and the inhibition or blockade of the downstream actions of these cytokines such as effects on IgE and eosinophils. Approaches such as these allow both broad and highly specific targeting, and may pave the way towards the prevention and reversal of the immunological and inflammatory processes driving asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The development of effective agents with effects beyond those provided by current therapies coupled with lesser side-effects will further address the unmet needs of allergic disease.

  15. [Allergic dermatitis: new concepts for old diseases].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, Martín; Ayala Balboa, Julio César; Mendoza Vázquez, Victor Cristóbal

    2003-01-01

    The skin is the largest body's organ, with a well defined functional lymphoid tissue. This organ can be the target of several hypersensitivity-mediated diseases, that are both, genetically determined and influenced by environmental factors. In this paper the main clinical features and the current treatment modalities for the most frequent allergic cutaneous diseases are reviewed.

  16. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials.

  17. [Recent advances in extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M

    2008-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis), especially humidifier lung, has been more frequently diagnosed over the last decades, whereas farmer's lung has decreased over the same time period. Today two types of the chronic course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be distinguished. The recurrent chronic course with a good prognosis may be differentiated from the insidious course with a poor prognosis by means of different histological patterns (UIP, NSIP, BOOP pattern). The characteristic neutrophilic infiltration of the lung in the insidious course cannot be detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) methods. Furthermore, lymphocytosis in the BAL can be absent or present at a low level. The CD4/CD8 ratio is not always decreased and may be normal or even increased in these insidious cases with a poor prognosis. Granulomas in the lung tissue, however, point to a good prognosis. In the diagnostic work-up of machine operator's and humidifier lung, it is advisable not only to look for serum antibodies against bacteria and molds but also for rapid growing mycobacteria in a sample of machine or humidifier water. IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors occur frequently in allergic alveolitis, especially in humidifier lung. The patients, however, do not suffer from arthritis. The IgM rheumatoid factor may simulate IgM antibodies against numerous infectious agents (e. g., Bordetella pertussis or Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Taking this phenomenon into account may improve the current differential diagnosis of allergic alveolitis.

  18. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joya S; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Tranchina, Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  20. Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia B; Crandall, Elizabeth; Sheppard, John D

    2010-01-01

    Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern. PMID:20856595