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Sample records for allergic reactions including

  1. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  2. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is right for you. In many instances, allergy immunotherapy in the form of shots or tablets is an effective, cost-efficient long term treatment approach. While there is not yet ... Healthy Tips • Allergy symptoms are the result of a chain reaction ...

  3. Allergic reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... t bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... Common allergens include: Animal dander Bee stings or stings from other insects Foods, especially nuts, fish, and shellfish Insect bites Medicines Plants Pollens

  4. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  5. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Medications and drug allergic reactions TTR Share | Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions This article has been ... by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Everyone reacts to medications differently. One person may develop a rash while ...

  6. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

  7. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  8. [Expression of allergic reactions to oxaliplatin].

    PubMed

    Arii, Daisuke; Ikeno, Yohei; Murooka, Kunihiko; Nojima, Michio; Kidokoro, Akio

    2012-04-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP), a platinum-containing antineoplastic agent, is a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, it is often difficult to continue with its treatment because of the expression of allergic reactions. This study was an investigation of the expression of allergic reactions resulting from administration of L-OHP. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing therapeutic regimens including L-OHP, from April 2009 to November 2010 in Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital. The results showed that allergic reactions were expressed in 15 out of 81 patients (18. 5%). A high correlation was found between the time from administration until expression of the allergic reaction, and the number of treatment courses (r=-0. 521, p=0. 047). When patient characteristics were compared between the allergic reaction group and the no-reaction group, it was suggested that differences due to the regimen or the presence or absence of liver metastasis, which is considered to be related to drug metabolism, had no effect. Items showing significant differences were sexual difference(p=0. 022)and the effect of changes depending on the dose form of L-OHP(p=0. 003). It was possible to continue treatment with L-OHP in six patients even after expression of allergic reactions. Anti-allergy measures such as additional administration of steroids or antihistamines were suggested to be useful for continuing treatment.

  9. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy.

  10. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  11. [Allergic reactions to implant materials].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2003-01-01

    The extent of the immune response upon implantation of metallic devices depends on the individual reactivity and on material characteristics. If specific T-cellular sensitization occurs or an allergy to metal preexists, hypersensitive reactions to implant components may develop. They include eczema, impaired wound healing, and sterile osteomyelitis. The existence of allergy-induced implant loosening is still an open question. Further improvement of clinical allergological diagnostics, better understanding of peri-implantar immune reactions, and interdisciplinary collection of epidemiological data concerning allergy to implants will contribute to a better knowledge about tolerance of implant material in humans.

  12. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  13. Diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Joseph A; Parekh, Nirav N; Desai, Naman S

    2014-10-01

    Wound closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey USA) has recently increased in popularity across a wide spectrum of physicians ranging from surgeons to emergency medicine practitioners. Generally, very few complications are associated with Dermabond and are usually related to application techniques. Uncommonly, patients present with allergic reactions to the adhesive compounds; these allergies are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis or another infectious process, and are incorrectly treated. This report describes a rare case of a diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond following its use to close a surgical incision, its prompt identification, and treatment after presentation to an emergency department.

  14. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  15. Scratching the surface of allergic transfusion reactions

    PubMed Central

    Savage, William J; Tobian, Aaron AR; Savage, Jessica H; Wood, Robert A; Schroeder, John T; Ness, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) are a spectrum of hypersensitivity reactions that are the most common adverse reaction to platelets and plasma, occurring in up to 2% of transfusions. Despite the ubiquity of these reactions, little is known about their mechanism. In a small subset of severe reactions, specific antibody has been implicated as causal, although this mechanism does not explain all ATRs. Evidence suggests that donor, product, and recipient factors are involved, and it is possible that many ATRs are multi-factorial. Further understanding of the mechanisms of ATRs is necessary so that rationally designed and cost-effective prevention measures can be developed. PMID:22998777

  16. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  17. [Allergic reactions caused by latex: warning to health workers].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Lopes, M H

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a bibliographic survey is made of all articles, published during the last few years, dealing with allergic reactions to latex. The first article on allergic reactions associated with latex was published in Britain, in 1979. Since then, the number of cases reported have increased (Barton, 1993). Type I allergic reaction (immediate reaction) and Type IV (delayed reaction) are part of the latex allergic process (Steelman, 1995). Contact allergy is due to inadequate washing during manufacture, which results in the retention of water-soluble proteins that cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. A wide variety of allergic reactions that vary from contact dermatitis to anaphylatic shock are described in literature. These finding show that a health team must know the probable implications of latex allergy.

  18. Oral Muscle Relaxant May Induce Immediate Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Gyu-Young; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Moon, Jae-Young; Ye, Young-Min; Shim, Jae-Jeong; Kang, Kyung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Eperisone and afloqualone act by relaxing both skeletal and vascular smooth muscles to improve circulation and suppress pain reflex. These drugs are typically prescribed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as painkillers. However, there have been no reports on serious adverse reactions to oral muscle relaxants; and this is the first report to describe three allergic reactions caused by eperisone and afloqualone. All three patients had histories of allergic reactions after oral intake of multiple painkillers, including oral muscle relaxants and NSAIDs, for chronic muscle pain. An open-label oral challenge test was performed with each drug to confirm which drugs caused the systemic reactions. All patients experienced the same reactions within one hour after oral intake of eperisone or afloqualone. The severity of these reactions ranged from laryngeal edema to hypotension. To confirm that the systemic reaction was caused by eperisone or afloqualone, skin prick testing and intradermal skin tests were performed with eperisone or afloqualone extract in vivo, and basophil activity tests were performed after stimulation with these drugs in vitro. In one patient with laryngeal edema, the intradermal test with afloqualone extract had a positive result, and CD63 expression levels on basophils increased in a dose-dependent manner by stimulation with afloqualone. We report three allergic reactions caused by oral muscle relaxants that might be mediated by non-immunoglobulin E-mediated responses. Since oral muscle relaxants such as eperisone and afloqualone are commonly prescribed for chronic muscle pain and can induce severe allergic reactions, we should prescribe them carefully. PMID:22665359

  19. Allergic Reactions to Dental Materials-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Radhika; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Utility of various dental materials ranging from diagnosis to rehabilitation for the management of oral diseases are not devoid of posing a potential risk of inducing allergic reactions to the patient, technician and dentist. This review aims to develop a systematic approach for the selection and monitoring of dental materials available in the market thereby giving an insight to predict their risk of inducing allergic reactions. Materials and Methods Our data included 71 relevant articles which included 60 case reports, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The source of these articles was Pub Med search done with the following terms: allergies to impression materials, sodium hypochlorite, Ledermix paste, zinc oxide eugenol, formaldehyde, Latex gloves, Methyl methacrylate, fissure sealant, composites, mercury, Nickel-chromium, Titanium, polishing paste and local anaesthesia. All the relevant articles and their references were analysed. The clinical manifestations of allergy to different dental materials based on different case reports were reviewed. Results After reviewing the literature, we found that the dental material reported to cause most adverse reactions in patients is amalgam and the incidence of oral lichenoid reactions adjacent to amalgam restorations occur more often than other dental materials. Conclusion The most common allergic reactions in dental staff are allergies to latex, acrylates and formaldehyde. While polymethylmethacrylates and latex trigger delayed hypersensitivity reactions, sodium metabisulphite and nickel cause immediate reactions. Over the last few years, due to the rise in number of patients with allergies from different materials, the practicing dentists should have knowledge about documented allergies to known materials and thus avoid such allergic manifestations in the dental clinic. PMID:26557634

  20. Prevention of allergic reactions in anesthetized patients.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Crisafulli, G; Cardinale, F; Peroni, D G; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions during perioperative period are increasing and may be potentially life-threatening. Therefore, major emphasis is given to prevention. We perform a review to examine which measures should be taken to prevent reactions to products used in elective and emergency surgery. Any patient with a history of previous anaphylaxis or severe reaction during anaesthesia should be referred to allergist for detection of the offending compound. However, the identification of the triggering agent is not always feasible because of the low accuracy of diagnostic tests. In these cases and when emergency surgery is required, it should be considered to replace all drugs administered before the onset of the reaction with alternatives. Furthermore, any cross-reacting agent and latex, especially in patients belonging to populations at-risk for latex allergy should be avoided. In susceptible patients, premedication with antihistamines and corticosteroids might reduce the severity of reaction to drugs or contrast material while it is unclear whether pre-treatment decreases incidence of anaphylactic reactions. There is no evidence that premedication prevents allergic reactions to latex. Overall, physicians should not rely on the efficacy of premedication.

  1. Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumiya

    2013-02-01

    Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

  2. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  3. A Rare Case of Recurrent Pacemaker Allergic Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Muhammed; Shah, Pooja; Elkhalili, Walid; Suleiman, Addi; Shaaban, Hamid; Shah, Pradip A.; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to pacemaker device components are uncommon. However, when they occur, they usually mimic pacemaker infection, which results in multiple device replacements and increased morbidity burden. Here we present a 40-year-old female with pacemaker insertion due to complete heart block and who had multiple device replacements because of allergic sensitivity to various pacemaker component-encasing materials, confirmed by allergic testing to these materials. She had complete resolution of her symptoms after replacement with gold-plated device, to which she was not allergic. PMID:26240735

  4. Adverse drug reactions in Sjögren's syndrome. Frequent allergic reactions and a specific trimethoprim-associated systemic reaction.

    PubMed

    Antonen, J A; Markula, K P; Pertovaara, M I; Pasternack, A I

    1999-01-01

    Trimethoprim-associated systemic reactions, including aseptic meningitis, have been reported to be very rare adverse drug reactions. Patients with Sjögren's syndrome have been overrepresented, but no epidemiological surveys of the reaction have been conducted. To study the overall frequency of adverse drug reactions, and especially trimethoprim-associated reactions, we interviewed 85 primary Sjögren's syndrome patients and compared the results with those of 45 similarly interviewed osteoarthritis patients. Antimicrobial allergy was more common among Sjögren's syndrome patients than in osteoarthritis patients (46% vs. 27%). Eleven Sjögren's syndrome patients (13%), but no osteoarthritis patient, had experienced at least a partial, non-allergic systemic reaction with trimethoprim. Of them five (6%) had had a full-blown systemic reaction including both chills/fever and headache/backache and at least one of the following: malaise, vomiting, dizziness, confusion or meningeal irritation. Our findings confirm that allergic reactions to antimicrobials are frequent in Sjögren's syndrome. In addition to allergic reactions Sjögren's syndrome patients are prone to a specific trimethoprim-associated systemic reaction. This should be remembered when prescribing antimicrobials.

  5. Safety of meropenem in patients reporting penicillin allergy: lack of allergic cross reactions.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Hamid, N S; Krol, V; Eisenstein, L

    2008-04-01

    Over the years, meropenem has become the mainstay of empiric therapy for serious systemic infections in critically ill patients. Although we have had extensive clinical experience since 1996 using meropenem safely in treating hundreds of patients with reported allergic reactions to penicillin without any adverse events, we have not published our experience. This study was conducted to document our clinical practice experience. Accordingly, over a 12-month period we prospectively monitored 110 patients treated with meropenem reporting penicillin allergic reactions for that 12-month period. Since early empiric therapy in such patients is essential, there is often no time for penicillin skin testing. Penicillin skin testing was not done in this "real world" clinical study. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the nature of their penicillin allergic reactions. During a 12-month period, 110 patients with non-anaphylactic (59) and anaphylactic (51) penicillin allergic reactions tolerated prolonged meropenem therapy (1-4 weeks) safely without any allergic reactions. Based on these data and our previous clinical experience, there appears to be little/no potential cross reactivity between meropenem and penicillins even in patients with a definite history of anaphylactic reactions to penicillins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study demonstrating that meropenem may be safely given to patients with known/unknown allergic reactions to penicillin, including those with anaphylactic reactions, without penicillin skin testing. We conclude that meropenem may be given safely to patients reporting a history of non-anaphylactic or anaphylactic allergic reactions to penicillins without penicillin skin testing.

  6. Dissociation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis protective effect and allergic side reactions in tolerization with neuroantigen.

    PubMed

    Lichtenegger, Felix S; Kuerten, Stefanie; Faas, Susan; Boehm, Bernhard O; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V

    2007-04-15

    Administration of autoantigens under conditions that induce type 2 immunity frequently leads to protection from T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Such treatments, however, are inherently linked to the induction of IgG1 Abs and to the risk of triggering anaphylactic reactions. We studied the therapeutic benefit vs risk of immune deviation in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis of SJL mice induced by MP4, a myelin basic protein-proteolipid protein (PLP) fusion protein. MP4 administration in IFA induced type 2 T cell immunity, IgG1 Abs, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis protection, and all three were enhanced by repeat injections. Despite high Ab titers, anaphylactic side reactions were not observed when MP4 was repeatedly injected in IFA or as soluble Ag s.c. In contrast, lethal anaphylaxis was seen after s.c. injection of soluble PLP:139-151 peptide, but not when the peptide was reinjected in IFA. Therefore, the Ab response accompanying the immune therapy constituted an anaphylactic risk factor only when the autoantigen was not retained in an adjuvant and when it was small enough to be readily disseminated within the body. Taken together, our data show that treatment regimens can be designed to boost the protective type 2 T cell response while avoiding the risk of Ab-mediated allergic side effects.

  7. Early stent thrombosis secondary to food allergic reaction: Kounis syndrome following rice pudding ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tzanis, Georgios; Bonou, Maria; Mikos, Nikolaos; Biliou, Smaragda; Koniari, Ioanna; Kounis, Nicholas G; Barbetseas, John

    2017-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of coronary spasm, acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis, with allergic reactions in the setting of mast-cell and platelet activation. In this report Kounis syndrome manifesting as stent thrombosis with left ventricular thrombus formation was triggered by a food-induced allergic reaction. The allergic reaction to food was confirmed by oral rice pudding ingredients challenge test while skin tests were inconclusive. To our knowledge, this is first report of early stent thrombosis secondary to food allergic reaction in a 70-year-old man patient who was found to have left ventricular thrombus and undiagnosed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Autoinjectors Preferred for Intramuscular Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ronna L.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Motosue, Megan S.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Rudis, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. We surveyed emergency department (ED) healthcare providers regarding two methods of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine administration (autoinjector and manual injection) for the management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions and identified provider perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery. Methods This observational study adhered to survey reporting guidelines. It was performed through a Web-based survey completed by healthcare providers at an academic ED. The primary outcomes were assessment of provider perceptions and identification of the preferred IM epinephrine administration method by ED healthcare providers. Results Of 217 ED healthcare providers invited to participate, 172 (79%) completed the survey. Overall, 82% of respondents preferred the autoinjector method of epinephrine administration. Providers rated the autoinjector method more favorably for time required for training, ease of use, convenience, satisfaction with weight-based dosing, risk of dosing errors, and speed of administration (p<0.001 for all comparisons). However, manual injection use was rated more favorably for risk of provider self-injury and patient cost (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Three participants (2%) reported a finger stick injury from an epinephrine autoinjector. Conclusion ED healthcare providers preferred the autoinjector method of IM epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. Epinephrine autoinjector use may reduce barriers to epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis in the ED. PMID:27833688

  9. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food: physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    PubMed Central

    van Os‐Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G.; Blom, W. Marty; Houben, Geert F.; Knulst, André C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get more insight into the frequency of exposure to cofactors and how often cofactors are associated with more severe symptoms in food allergic patients. Methods A questionnaire was completed by patients visiting the Allergology outpatient clinic. Patients with food allergy were included. Outcome measures were the frequency of medication use of medication groups that might act as cofactor and the frequency that physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of analgesics are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. Results Four hundred ninety‐six patients were included in the study. The frequency with which patients used one or more types of medication that might act as cofactors was 7.7%: antacids/acid neutralizing medication (5%), NSAIDs (2%), beta blockers (0.6%), angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (0.6%), and angiotensin receptor blockers (0.2%). Of all patients, 13% reported more severe symptoms to food after involvement of one or more of the cofactors: physical exercise (10%), alcohol consumption (5%), and use of analgesics (0.6%). Sixty‐five percent did not know if these cofactors caused more severe symptoms; 22% reported that these cofactors had no effect. Conclusions Only a small percentage of patients (7.7%) used medication that might aggravate food allergic reactions. Physical exercise and alcohol consumption were the most frequently reported cofactors, but occurring still in only 10% or less. PMID:27980774

  10. Allergic contact granuloma: an uncommon reaction to pierced earrings in a child.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Lee, Jason B; Hyde, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis associated with pierced earrings typically presents as erythematous patches and plaques, with prominent spongiosis histologically. The most common inciting metal is nickel. Allergic contact granulomatous reactions to pierced earrings are rare, and are often more nodular in appearance and associated with metals other than nickel. We hereby report the first case of allergic contact granulomas associated with pierced earrings in a child.

  11. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  12. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    PubMed

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  13. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Tomoko; Oiso, Naoki; Hirao, Ayaka; Kawada, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition. PMID:21173928

  15. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. The aetiology is unknown, but chemical related respiratory symptoms have been found associated with positive patch test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing and the two most severe groups of self-reported sensitivity to airborne chemicals. When adjusting for confounding, associations were weakened, and only non-allergic cutaneous reactions were significantly associated with individuals most severely affected by inhalation of airborne chemicals (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0.006). Our results suggest that individuals with self-reported chemical sensitivity show increased non-allergic cutaneous reactions based on day 2 readings of patch tests.

  16. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions.

  17. Role of CCL7 in Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions in Murine Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chuan-Hui; Collins, Andrea M.; Boettner, Douglas R.; Yang, YanFen

    2017-01-01

    Molecules that are necessary for ocular hypersensitivity reactions include the receptors CCR1 and CCR3; CCL7 is a ligand for these receptors. Therefore, we explored the role of CCL7 in mast cell activity and motility in vitro and investigated the requirement for CCL7 in a murine model of IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. For mast cells treated with IgE and Ag, the presence of CCL7 synergistically enhanced degranulation and calcium influx. CCL7 also induced chemotaxis in mast cells. CCL7-deficient bone marrow–derived mast cells showed decreased degranulation following IgE and Ag treatment compared with wild-type bone marrow–derived mast cells, but there was no difference in degranulation when cells were activated via an IgE-independent pathway. In vivo, CCL7 was upregulated in conjunctival tissue during an OVA-induced allergic response. Notably, the early-phase clinical symptoms in the conjunctiva after OVA challenge were significantly higher in OVA-sensitized wild-type mice than in control challenged wild-type mice; the increase was suppressed in CCL7-deficient mice. In the OVA-induced allergic response, the numbers of conjunctival mast cells were lower in CCL7-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that CCL7 is required for maximal OVA-induced ocular anaphylaxis, mast cell recruitment in vivo, and maximal FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation in vitro. A better understanding of the role of CCL7 in mediating ocular hypersensitivity reactions will provide insights into mast cell function and novel treatments for allergic ocular diseases. PMID:27956527

  18. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  19. Acute allergic reaction due to milk proteins contaminating lactose added to corticosteroid for injection.

    PubMed

    Eda, Asuka; Sugai, Kazuko; Shioya, Hiromi; Fujitsuka, Asako; Ito, Setsuko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Funabiki, Tetsunori

    2009-03-01

    We encountered two patients with severe cow's milk allergy who reacted strongly to an injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Sol-Medrol 40 mg Pfizer, Japan). They came to our hospital because of an asthmatic attack or urticaria and were treated with Sol-Medrol 40 mg. After the injection, the allergic reaction was immediate. Skin prick tests demonstrated that the beta-lactoglobulin contaminating the lactose of the drug preparation caused the immediate allergic reaction.

  20. Clinical characteristics of an allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Liebermann, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions to dental impression materials may occur throughout dental treatment, with diverse manifestations from slight redness to severe pain and a burning mouth with total stomatitis. Patients are often unaware of these allergic reactions, which makes early identification of the cause almost impossible. In addition, symptoms usually begin after 24 hours and mostly in patients with a preexisting history of allergic responses. This report describes a patient with a suspected allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material during prosthetic rehabilitation associated with a mandibular telescopic denture. Although instances of such occurrence are rare, clinicians need to be aware of these symptoms and select materials carefully for patients with a history of allergy.

  1. Towards a European registry of severe allergic reactions: current status of national registries and future needs.

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Timmermans, F; Moneret-Vautrin, A; Muraro, A; Malmheden Yman, I I; Lövik, M; Hattersley, S; Crevel, R

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of severe allergic reactions is largely unknown and information about triggering allergens, aggravating factors, demography of patients and medical care is lacking. A European wide registry could provide a powerful tool to improve the management of severe allergic reactions from both a medical and a public health perspective. Analysis of existing registries regarding the type and quality of data being collected was used to develop a plan for a pan-European registry, including the type of system to be used and the range of data to be entered. Surveillance will provide evidence for the efficacy of risk management measures and may identify the emergence of new allergenic foods, and aid monitoring of novel foods, ingredients and technologies. Patients need a clear indication of factors that may increase their risk of having an adverse reaction, which such a registry can help compile. Based on the collected data, food businesses will be able to develop educational programmes for allergen risk assessment and allergen risk communication. Finally, and most importantly preventive measures can be developed and government agencies receive population based data which may be relevant for legislative purposes.

  2. Hymenopterid bites, stings, allergic reactions, and the impact of hurricanes on hymenopterid-inflicted injuries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Unrecognized anaphylactic reactions to hymenopterid stings by apids, or bees, and vespids, or wasps, are a significant cause of sudden and unanticipated deaths outdoors in young people, with and without atopic histories. Insect bites and stings, often complicated by allergic reactions or skin infections, by community-acquired pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are common sources of morbidity following hurricanes, tropical storms, and prolonged flooding. This article will review and critically analyze the descriptive epidemiology and outcomes of hymenopterid bites, stings, and allergic reactions, especially following hurricanes and prolonged flooding disasters; stratify the immunologic reactions to hymenopterid stings by clinical severity and outcomes; and present current recommendations for management, prophylaxis, and prevention of hymenopterid stings and reactions.

  3. [Clinical and immunological analysis of 1,047 allergic reactions to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Girard, J P; Cuevas, M

    1975-07-26

    Of 1047 patients who had had an allergic reaction to penicillin established by clinical and laboratory findings, 224 were given penicillin therapy again later. One third of these patients developed a second allergic reaction to penicillin. In patients experiencing a second allergic reaction the most striking feature is a dramatic increase in the immediate reactions and especially of the anaphylactic type, and less markedly, an increase in the serum-sickness type of reaction. All the patients were skin tested with penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) and benzylpenicillin (BPO). Circulating hemagglutinating antibodies were determined and in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed in all cases. Skin tests show little change for several years. In contrast, circulating hemagglutinating antibodies disappear in half the cases within 6 months. Finally, lymphocyte stimulation with penicillin was positive in only 50% three months after onset of the allergic reaction, whereas one year later there was a 73% positive response. The best test for prediction of an allergic reaction to penicillin appears to be determination of the (high) and (low) reactors among patients with a positive skin test to PPL and BPO.

  4. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary.

  5. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs.

  6. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation in children.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Salvatore; Pecoraro, Rossella; Filippelli, Martina; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa; Stringari, Giovanna; Ricò, Sonia; La Rosa, Mario; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on hypersensitivity reactions after inhalation of food particles as primary cause for food allergy. This is an increasingly recognized problem in children. Reactions are commonly diagnosed in children who develop symptoms when the food is ingested. Some children tolerate the food when it is eaten but they experience reactions to airborne food particles such as peanut, cow's milk, and fish. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. Usually, respiratory manifestations include rhinoconjunctivitis, coughing, wheezing, and asthma, but in some cases even anaphylaxis has been observed. Practical approaches concerning diagnosing clinical reactivity including skin tests, serum IgE antibodies, specific provocation tests, and management have been identified. Studies are warranted to establish the accuracy of diagnostic tests as well as incidence, prevalence, and natural history of food allergy through inhalation route.

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation.

  8. Late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges.

    PubMed

    Saleh-Langenberg, J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; AlAgla, N; Kollen, B J; Dubois, A E J

    2016-07-01

    The time during which children are observed following a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) varies in clinical practice. There are little data on late reactions (LRs) following DBPCFCs. Therefore, we determined the prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics of late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after DBPCFC, and ascertained which factors are associated with, and may predict, LRs. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate which factors were associated with LRs and to develop the association and prediction models. A total of 1142 children underwent DBPCFCs (child-test combinations). Of these 1142 child-test combinations, 400 reported LRs following the DBPCFC. LRs in food-allergic children after DBPCFC are poorly predictable and are generally not severe. All LRs, including those on the placebo day, are more frequently reported in younger children. Children who do not experience severe immediate reactions may be safely discharged home 2 h after a DBPCFC.

  9. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  10. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  11. World Allergy Organization Systemic Allergic Reaction Grading System: Is a Modification Needed?

    PubMed

    Cox, Linda S; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Lockey, Richard F

    There is no universally accepted grading system to classify the severity of systemic allergic reactions (SARs), including anaphylaxis. Although a consensus definition for anaphylaxis was established in 2005, the signs and symptoms required to define a reaction as anaphylaxis are inconsistently applied in research and clinical practice. As a result, it is difficult to compare and evaluate safety outcomes in surveys, clinical practice and trials, and pharmacovigilance data. In 2010, the World Allergy Organization (WAO) proposed a uniform grading system to classify allergen immunotherapy SARs. The basis of the grading system is the organ system(s) involved and reaction severity. The final grade is determined by the physician/health care professional after the event is over. Although the 2010 WAO grading system was developed to classify allergen immunotherapy SARs, with appropriate modifications, it can be used to classify SARs from any cause. The purpose of this Rostrum is to present a proposed modification of the 2010 WAO SAR grading system that will make it applicable to all SARs due to any cause. The modified grading system allows for classification of less severe SARs, which may be underreported or overreported in clinical trials and surveillance studies, depending on the criteria specified for adverse event reporting. The universal use of the proposed modified SAR grading system will allow for better safety comparisons across different venues and treatment protocols.

  12. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    . Even skin testing can cause symptoms in some highly sensitive individuals. The diagnosis of lupin allergy in adults may be difficult because it is frequently included as an undeclared ingredient. Better food labelling and medical awareness of lupin as a cause of serious allergic reactions is suggested. PMID:24529316

  13. Cross-allergic reactions to legumes in lupin and fenugreek-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Vinje, N E; Namork, E; Løvik, M

    2012-10-01

    Several legumes may induce allergy, and there is extensive serological cross-reactivity among legumes. This cross-reactivity has traditionally been regarded to have limited clinical relevance. However, the introduction of novel legumes to Western countries may have changed this pattern, and in some studies cross-allergy to lupin has been reported in more than 60% of peanut-allergic patients. We wanted to explore cross-reactions among legumes using two newly established mouse models of food allergy. Mice were immunized perorally with fenugreek or lupin with cholera toxin as adjuvant. The mice were challenged with high doses of fenugreek, lupin, peanut or soy, and signs of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Cross-allergic mechanisms were investigated using serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), antibody responses, immunoblotting and ex vivo production of cytokines by spleen cells. Signs of cross-allergy were observed for all the tested legumes in both models. The cross-allergic symptoms were milder and affected fewer mice than the primary allergic responses. The cross-allergy was reflected to a certain extent in the antibody and T-cell responses, but not in serum MMCP-1 levels. Cross-allergy to peanut, soy, fenugreek and lupin was observed in lupin-sensitized and fenugreek-sensitized mice. Differences in serological responses between primary allergy and cross-allergy might be due to mediation through different immune mechanisms or reflect different epitope affinity to IgE. These differences need to be further investigated.

  14. Comparison of allergic reactions to intravenous and intramuscular pegaspargase in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, William C; Clark, Dana; Senn, Stacy L; Cash, W Thomas; Gillespie, Scott E; McCracken, Courtney E; Keller, Frank G; Lew, Glen

    2014-05-01

    Pegaspargase (PEG) is a standard component of therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because PEG preparations are bacterially derived, they are highly immunogenic. PEG has traditionally been delivered intramuscularly (IM), but over the last several years, more PEG has been given intravenously (IV) in order to provide a less painful and more convenient means of delivery. However, there are limited data comparing allergic reactions between IV and IM PEG recipients, especially in a large cohort of patients. We reviewed the charts of pediatric ALL patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 who received PEG at our institution and compared the incidence, time to onset of symptoms, reaction grade, and hospitalization rate for patients who had allergic reactions to PEG. Of 318 evaluable patients, 159 received IV and 159 received IM PEG. Thirty-one (19.5%) IV patients had an allergic reaction, compared to 17 (10.7%) IM patients (P = .028). Time to onset of symptoms was ≤ 30 minutes for 26 of 27 evaluable IV patients (96.3%) versus only two of 11 evaluable IM patients (18.2%; P < .001). Four of 31 IV patients (12.9%) and six of 17 IM patients (35.5%) required hospitalization (P = .134). There is increased incidence of allergy in patients who received IV PEG compared to IM. Grade of reaction was similar between IV and IM, but allergic reactions to IV PEG had a more rapid onset. While the risk of allergy may be increased, IV delivery appears to have an acceptable safety profile for administration in ALL patients.

  15. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2014. Studies on food allergy suggest worrisomely high rates of peanut allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations. Evidence is mounting to support the theory that environmental exposure to peanut, such as in house dust, especially with an impaired skin barrier attributed to atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene, is a risk factor for sensitization and allergy. Diagnostic tests are improving, with early studies suggesting the possibility of developing novel cellular tests with increased diagnostic utility. Treatment trials continue to show the promise and limitations of oral immunotherapy, and mechanistic studies are elucidating pathways that might define the degree of efficacy of this treatment. Studies have also provided insights into the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis and insect venom allergy, such as suggesting that baseline platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity levels are related to the severity of reactions. Advances in drug allergy include identification of HLA associations for penicillin allergy and a microRNA biomarker/mechanism for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Research identifying critical events leading to skin barrier dysfunction and the polarized immune pathways that drive AD have led to new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and management of AD.

  16. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2007.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2008-06-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2007. Advances in diagnosis include possible biomarkers for anaphylaxis, improved understanding of the relevance of food-specific serum IgE tests, identification of possibly discriminatory T-cell responses for drug allergy, and an elucidation of irritant responses for vaccine allergy diagnostic skin tests. Mechanistic studies are discerning T-cell and cytokine responses central to eosinophilic gastroenteropathies and food allergy, including the identification of multiple potential therapeutic targets. Regarding treatment, clinical studies of oral immunotherapy and allergen vaccination strategies show promise, whereas several clinical studies raise questions about whether oral allergen avoidance reduces atopic risks and whether probiotics can prevent or treat atopic disease. The importance of skin barrier dysfunction has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), particularly as it relates to allergen sensitization and eczema severity. Research has also continued to identify immunologic defects that contribute to the propensity of patients with AD to have viral and bacterial infections. New therapeutic approaches to AD, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported, including use of sublingual immunotherapy, anti-IgE, and a kallikrein inhibitor.

  17. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  18. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified.

  19. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis.

  20. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Koo, H N; Myung, N I; Shin, M K; Kim, J W; Kim, D K; Kim, K S; Kim, H M; Lee, Y M

    2001-02-01

    The crude drug "Siberian Ginseng (SG)" has long been used in empirical Oriental medicine for the nonspecific enhancement of resistance in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell cultured SG by oral administration in mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. SG dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic allergy with doses of 10(-2) to 1 g/kg 1 h before oral administration. Of special note, SG inhibited systemic allergy with the dose of 1 g/kg by 25%. SG (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous allergic reaction by 51%. SG dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When SG (0.01 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 in antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody-stimulated mast cells was inhibited 39.5% and 23.3%, respectively. In addition, SG inhibited anti-DNP IgE antibody-stimulated TNF-alpha protein expression in mast cells. Our studies provide evidence that SG may be beneficial in the treatment of various types of allergic diseases.

  1. [The pilot study of type Ⅰ allergic reaction in Meniere's disease patients].

    PubMed

    Pan, T; Zhao, Y; Ding, Y J; Lu, Z Y; Ma, F R

    2017-02-07

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between type Ⅰ allergic reaction and pathogenesis of Meniere's disease. Methods: A total of 35 (10 male vs. 25 female) patients aged between 21-66 years diagnosed with Meniere's disease were recruited to this study, mean age of them was (47.3±13.6) years. The control group consisted of 15 inpatients (5 male vs. 10 female) with pharyngolaryngeal diseases but without otologic and rhinologic abnormity, mean age was 45.4±12.8 years. Allergic prevalence, serous total immunoglobulin E( tIgE ) levels, serous specific immunoglobulin E( sIgE ) levels and subtypes of T lymphocytes were measured and compared in patients with Meniere's disease and the control group. Severity of vertigo, tinnitus and sensation of fullness were compared between Meniere's disease patients with or without allergy. Results: Allergic prevalence were significantly different (Pearson chi-square 5.832, P<0.05) between patients with Meniere's disease and the control group(57.1% vs. 20.0%). Patients with Meniere's disease report higher level of serous tIgE compared with controls, the difference is statistically significant (Z=168.000, P<0.05). However, positive rates of sIgE of food allergens and inhalant allergens were not significantly different between patients with Meniere's disease and the control group. Scores of vertiginous severity, dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) were significantly different between Meniere's disease patients with or without allergy (P<0.05). Treg and Treg/Th17 levels (Z=26.000) were much higher in Meniere's disease patients with allergy than in the controls(P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with Meniere's disease report higher rate of allergy than the control group. Type Ⅰ allergic reaction is thought to be one of the possible reasons that may induce endolymphatic hydrops and lead to Meniere's disease.

  2. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  3. Consensus document on the approach to children with allergic reactions after vaccination or allergy to vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Zudaire, Luis A; Ortigosa-del Castillo, Luis; Alonso-Lebrero, Elena; Álvarez-García, Francisco J; Cortés-Álvarez, Nuria; García-Sánchez, Nuria; Martorell-Aragonés, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is identified as having had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, subsequent immunisations will probably be suspended - with the risks such a decision implies. The incidence of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5 and 1 cases/100,000 doses. Rather than the vaccine antigens as such, the causes of allergic reactions to vaccines are often residual protein components of the manufacturing process such as gelatine or egg, and less commonly yeasts or latex. Most vaccine reactions are mild and circumscribed to the injection site; although in some cases severe anaphylactic reactions can be observed. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected at vaccination, or if a child with allergy to some of the vaccine components is scheduled for vaccination, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergic process must be made. The usual vaccine components must be known in order to determine whether vaccination can be safely performed.

  4. [Consensus position document on the child with an allergic reaction after vaccination or an allergy to vaccine components].

    PubMed

    Echeverría Zudaire, L; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Alonso Lebrero, E; Álvarez García, F J; Cortés Álvarez, N; García Sánchez, N; Martorell Aragonés, A

    2015-07-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is labeled to have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, the next immunizations will probably be suspended in that child, with the risks involved in this decision. The rate of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5-1/100,000 doses. The causes of allergic reactions to vaccines, more than the vaccine itself, are often due to residual protein components in the manufacturing process, such as gelatin or egg, and rarely to yeast or latex. Most of vaccine reactions are mild, localized at the site of injection, but in some circumstances, severe anaphylactic reactions can occur. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected when vaccinating, or a child allergic to some of the vaccine components has to be vaccinated, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergy has to be made. The usual components of each vaccine should be known, in order to determine if vaccination can be performed safely on the child.

  5. Sonographic appearance of angioedema in local allergic reactions to insect bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ee Tein; Tsung, James W

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue infections and angioedema from insect bites and stings may be difficult to differentiate by inspection. We present sonographic findings of 4 cases of soft tissue swelling from insect bites and stings suggestive of angioedema. Sonographic features of soft tissue angioedema consist of thickened subcutaneous tissue layers with multiple linear, horizontal, striated, and hypoechoic lines following the tissue planes between soft tissue layers. In addition to the history and physical examination, sonographic findings may assist in differentiating between local allergic reactions and cellulitis in patients with insect bites and stings. Further study is warranted for clinical application.

  6. First report on Ambisome-associated allergic reaction in two Sudanese leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Maowia; Aboud, Mona; Kheir, Musa; Bakhiet, Sahar; Abdullah, Nazik; Ali, Ahmed; Hassan, Nadia; Elamin, Elwaleed; Elagib, Atif

    2011-10-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) are serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani parasites in Sudan. Although pentavalent antimonys are used as the first line of treatment of all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, persistent PKDL and ML patients are treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) as a second-line drug. In this work, we report the development of allergic reactions by a PKDL and a ML Sudanese patient to Ambisome. The findings warrant future close supervision of patients to be treated with the drug.

  7. Type I allergic hypersensitivity reactions due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters in patients with thalassaemia: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Belen, Burcu; Polat, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas used in sterilisation of heat sensitive medical devices, such as infusion sets, cannulae, intubation materials, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, dialysis catheters and stents. Allergic reactions due to EO have been reported in haemodialysis patients, patients undergoing extracorporeal photopheresis and donors of plasmapheresis. Clinical manifestations vary considerably and generally do not allow differentiation between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. We report four patients with thalassaemia who experienced anaphylaxis during transfusion due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that frequently transfused patients can have allergic reactions due to EO particles left in leucocyte filters. PMID:25725028

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  9. Sensitization and elicitation of an allergic reaction to wheat gliadins in mice.

    PubMed

    Bodinier, M; Leroy, M; Ah-Leung, S; Blanc, F; Tranquet, O; Denery-Papini, S; Wal, J-M; Adel-Patient, K

    2009-02-25

    We developed a mouse model of allergy to wheat flour gliadins, a protein fraction containing major wheat allergens. We compared the antibody responses (i.e., specific IgE and IgG1) and the profiles of cytokines secreted by reactivated splenocytes induced after intraperitoneal injections of gliadins in three strains of mice, namely, Balb/cJ, B10.A, and C3H/HeJ. The intensities of the allergic reactions elicited by intranasal challenge were also compared. Both the sensitization and elicitation were the highest in Balb/cJ mice, whereas weak or no reaction was observed in the others strains. Interestingly, the specificity of the mouse IgE against the different gliadins (i.e., alpha-, beta-, gamma-, omega 1,2-, and omega 5-gliadin) was similar to that observed in children allergic to wheat flour. Balb/cJ mice may thus provide a relevant model for the study of sensitization and elicitation by wheat gliadins and for improving our understanding of the specific role and mechanisms of action of the different classes of gliadins.

  10. Oxidized cellulose binding to allergens with a carbohydrate-binding module attenuates allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Shani, Nir; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Mruwat, Rufayda; Shoseyov, David

    2011-01-15

    Grass and mite allergens are of the main causes of allergy and asthma. A carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) represents a common motif to groups I (β-expansin) and II/III (expansin-like) grass allergens and is suggested to mediate allergen-IgE binding. House dust mite group II allergen (Der p 2 and Der f 2) structures bear strong similarity to expansin's CBM, suggesting their ability to bind carbohydrates. Thus, this study proposes the design of a carbohydrate-based treatment in which allergen binding to carbohydrate particles will promote allergen airway clearance and prevent allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to identify a polysaccharide with high allergen-binding capacities and to explore its ability to prevent allergy. Oxidized cellulose (OC) demonstrated allergen-binding capacities toward grass and mite allergens that surpassed those of any other polysaccharide examined in this study. Furthermore, inhalant preparations of OC microparticles attenuated allergic lung inflammation in rye grass-sensitized Brown Norway rats and OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Fluorescently labeled OC efficiently cleared from the mouse airways and body organs. Moreover, long-term administration of OC inhalant to Wistar rats did not result in toxicity. In conclusion, many allergens, such as grass and dust mite, contain a common CBM motif. OC demonstrates a strong and relatively specific allergen-binding capacity to CBM-containing allergens. OC's ability to attenuate allergic inflammation, together with its documented safety record, forms a firm basis for its application as an alternative treatment for prevention and relief of allergy and asthma.

  11. Post-marketing surveillance of immediate allergic reactions: polygeline-based versus polygeline-free pediatric TBE vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zent, Olaf; Hennig, Renald

    2004-12-16

    Scattered cases of immediate allergic reactions occurred in the nineties after widespread use of the original (polygeline-based) pediatric tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine and were reported to Pharmacovigilance, Chiron Vaccines. Although, still indicating a very rare frequency of about two cases per 100,000 doses sold, the benefit/risk assessment resulted in its withdrawal from the market in early 1998. An intensive evaluation revealed that polygeline used as a vaccine stabilizer was the most probable cause of the reported allergic reactions. Consequently, an improved pediatric TBE vaccine, free of polygeline and other protein-derived vaccine stabilizers, was developed. A post-marketing surveillance analysis covering the first two vaccination seasons after the introduction of this new pediatric TBE vaccine in early 2002 reveals a very low reporting rate of immediate allergic reactions post immunization (within the range as noted for other widely used vaccines for childhood immunization), i.e., 0.08-0.24 cases per 100,000 doses sold depending on case definition and medical assessment. In conclusion, this analysis provides post-marketing surveillance evidence that the change in the vaccine formulation, with regards to the potential risk of immediate allergic reactions, has led to an intended improvement in the vaccine's safety profile.

  12. Mosla dianthera inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun . E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of Mosla dianthera (Maxim.) (AEMD) on the mast cell-mediated allergy model and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. AEMD inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. AEMD decreased immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AEMD attenuated intracellular calcium level and release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80. Furthermore, AEMD attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-{alpha}, IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of AEMD on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. AEMD decreased PMA and A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. Our findings provide evidence that AEMD inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  13. Transfusion and component characteristics are not associated with allergic transfusion reactions to apheresis platelets

    PubMed Central

    Savage, William J.; Tobian, Aaron A.R.; Savage, Jessica H.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Borge, P. Dayand; Kaufman, Richard M.; Ness, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-related characteristics have been hypothesized to cause allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) but they have not been thoroughly studied. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication with the incidence and severity of ATRs. A secondary objective is to compare the risk of these attributes relative to the previously reported risk factor for aeroallergen sensitization in transfusion recipients, as measured by an aeroallergen-specific IgE antibody screen. Study Design and Methods Clinical and transfusion-related data were collected on subjects with reported ATRs and uneventful (control) apheresis platelet transfusions over a combined 21 month period at two academic medical centers. Control transfusions were selected as the next uneventful transfusion after an ATR was reported. Logistic regression, Mann-Whitney and t tests were used to assess associations with ATRs. Previously reported aeroallergen-specific IgE screening data was incorporated into a multivariable logistic regression. Results 143 ATRs and 61 control transfusions were evaluated among 168 subjects, ages 2-86 years. Infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication showed no statistically significant association with ATRs (P>0.05). Neither infusion rate nor infusion volume increased the risk of anaphylaxis vs. mucocutaneous only ATRs. Aeroallergen sensitization has previously been associated with ATRs. After controlling for transfusion-related covariates, aeroallergen sensitization remained statistically significantly associated with ATRs (OR 2.68, 95%CI: 1.26-5.69). Conclusions Transfusion and component-specific attributes are not associated with ATRs. An allergic predisposition in transfusion recipients is associated most strongly with ATR risk. PMID:25209730

  14. Mediator profiles in tears during the conjunctival response induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The allergic reaction occurring primarily in the nasal mucosa can induce a secondary conjunctival response of an immediate (SICR), late (SLCR), or delayed (SDYCR) type in some patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Objectives To investigate the concentration changes of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), leukotrienes (LTB 4, LTC4, LTE4), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5) in tears during the SICR, SLCR, and SDYCR. Methods In 32 patients with AC, 11 SICR (p<0.01), 13 SLCR (p<0.001), and eight SDYCR (p<0.01) to nasal challenges with allergens (NPTs), the NPTs and 32 control tests with PBS were repeated and supplemented with the determination of these factors in tears. Results The SICRs were associated with significant concentration changes in tears (p<0.05) of histamine, tryptase, ECP, LTC4, and IL-4. The SLCRs were accompanied by significant changes in concentrations of histamine, ECP, LTB4, LTC4, MPO, IL-4, and IL-5. The SDYCRs were associated with significant concentration changes in tears (p<0.05) of LTB4, MPO, IFN-γ, and IL-2. No significant changes in these factors were recorded in tears during the 32 PBS controls (p>0.1) or in the ten control patients (p>0.1). Conclusions These results provide evidence for causal involvement of nasal allergy in some patients with AC, inducing secondary conjunctival response of immediate (SICR), late SLCR, or delayed SDYCR type, associated with different mediator, cytokine, and cellular profiles in the tears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also emphasize the diagnostic value of nasal allergen challenge combined with monitoring of the conjunctival response in some patients with AC. PMID:23869165

  15. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future.

  16. [Asthma, alveolitis, aspergillosis, berylliosis. What to do when there is allergic reaction of the lung?].

    PubMed

    Vier, H; Protze, M; Brunner, R; Gillissen, A

    2003-03-06

    Among the major allergic pulmonary disorders are bronchial asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, allergic aspergillosis and berylliosis. Asthma is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms (wheezing, respiratory distress, tight chest, coughing) and lung function tests possibly supplemented by allergic and provocative testing. Asthma treatment is differentiated into long-term medication and as-required medication. Specific immunotherapy is considered the sole causal therapy. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is work- or hobby-related (farmer's/cheese worker's/bird-fancier's lung) and manifests as diffuse pneumonitis with dyspnea, coughing and fever. For the diagnosis, the antigen provocative test in particular plays a major role. In the main, treatment comprises strict avoidance of allergens. The diagnosis of allergic pulmonary aspergillosis is based on the history, clinical findings, skin tests, serology and radiography. Treatment is stage-related by means of immunosuppressive agents. In terms of radiographic and pulmonary function findings, berylliosis is similar to sarcoidosis. Here, too, immunosuppressive agents are to the fore.

  17. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Etsuko; Uchio, Eiichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shoji, Jun; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as "a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms." Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  18. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjunctivitis is not contagious.Some common allergens include:Pollen fromtrees, grass and ragweedAnimal skin andsecretions such as ... symptoms. For example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold ...

  19. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA analysis is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding analysis, and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and additional therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA molecules. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with reduction in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.

  20. Tinea faciei by Microsporum gypseum mimicking allergic reaction following cosmetic tattooing of the eyebrows.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Sumiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Suzaki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Ninomiya, Junya; Tanaka, Masaru; Harada, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji; Uchida, Hinako

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old healthy female patient presented with well defined itchy erythematous lesions on the area of her eyebrows. Her eyebrows had been tattooed two months before her visit to us. The lesions had previously been treated by application of steroid ointment and anti-histamine and steroid tablets by mouth without success. We suspected the lesions to be contact dermatitis caused by some metal element contained in the dye used for tattooing. Treatment was continued for two weeks, but the lesions spread to her cheeks and forehead. No fungal element was found from the lesions by direct microscopy at this stage. The patch-testing to 20 metal substances on her skin showed no allergic reaction. After one more week of treatment, we reexamined the scale taken from the lesions by direct microscopy, and fungal elements were found at that time. Microsporum (M.) gypseum was isolated from the scale taken from the lesions. The lesions cleared after treatment of 11 weeks' oral intake of itraconazole 100mg daily. It was found that the patient was accustomed to sleep with her dog, a Chihuahua. On examination by a veterinarian, no skin lesions were found on the dog. We speculate that the paws of the dog might have carried soil contaminated by M. gypseum, a geophilic fungus, to the area of her eyebrows which had minor trauma after being tattooed.

  1. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  2. [Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K; Finis, D; Meller, S; Buhren, B A; Wagenmann, M; Geerling, G

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) as well as intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis are widespread diseases. Because a combined occurrence of ocular and nasal symptoms is very common the summarising term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is frequently used. SAC and PAC representing the two acute forms of allergic conjunctivitis account for more than 90 % of all cases of allergic conjunctivitis. Compared to the chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis their course of disease is milder. Nevertheless because of their high prevalence and the proven influence on patients' quality of life they possess clinical and socioeconomic relevance. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is caused by a type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is provoked by aeroallergens in the majority of cases. The pathognomonic sign is itching. Besides, typical ocular findings are chemosis, conjunctival injection, watery secretion and lid swelling. Otorhinolaryngologists' findings include rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and sneezing. Problems in breathing through the nose resulting from nasal obstruction can cause impaired nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence. In addition to a reduction of allergen exposure by modification of environment and life style factors, in mild forms of SAC and PAC artificial tears are recommended. Topical antihistamines can generate rapid relief from acute symptoms and itching. Topical mast cell stabilisers however provide long-term effects. Dual action drugs that combine antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers show increased patient compliance due to reduced application frequency. Use of topical steroids should be cautious and only temporary. For prolonged treatment periods unpreserved anti-allergic eye-drops should be preferred. Combined topical antihistamines and new-generation topical nasal steroids often used by otorhinolaryngologists demonstrate a good safety profile without systemic side effects. In summary

  3. Effect of pollen-mediated oxidative stress on immediate hypersensitivity reactions and late-phase inflammation in allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Choudhury, Barun K.; Sur, Sanjiv; Boldogh, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic eye diseases are complex inflammatory conditions of the conjunctiva that are becoming increasingly prevalent and present an increasing economic burden because of direct and indirect health expenditures. Objective We sought to identify factors that may synergize with antigen-induced allergic inflammation and lead to allergic conjunctivitis. We used a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis to test the effect of oxidative stress generated by pollen oxidases using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NAD[P]H) as an electron donor present in pollen grains. Methods Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by hydrated Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen (short ragweed pollen; RWP) grains was determined by using 2′-7′-dihydro-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and Amplex Red assay. The RWP-induced changes in intracellular ROS levels were examined in A549 cells, human primary bronchial epithelial cells, and murine conjunctiva. Results Ragweed pollen grains contain NAD(P)H oxidase activity, which is diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive and quinacrine-sensitive and sodium azide-resistant. These NAD(P)H oxidases generate a superoxide anion that can be converted to H2O2 by pollen grain–associated superoxide dismutase. These diffusible oxygen radicals from pollen grains increase intracellular ROS levels in cultured epithelial cells and murine conjunctiva. Similar phenomena were observed in sensitized and naive mice, indicating that the RWP-induced oxidative stress in conjunctival epithelium is independent of adaptive immunity. Inactivation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity in RWP decreases the immediate-type hypersensitivity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the conjunctiva. Conclusion Our data suggest that ROS generated by NAD(P)H oxidases in pollen grains intensify immediate allergic reactions and recruitment of inflammatory cells in murine conjunctiva. PMID:16210058

  4. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Margaret M.; Day, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the result of an immediate hypersensitivity immune response of the nasal mucosa to one or more allergens. Clinical features may be indistinguishable from non-allergic rhinitis. Accurate diagnosis demands specialized laboratory investigations, meticulous history and careful physical examination. Management includes control of allergen and irritant exposures, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Recent development of intranasal corticosteroid aerosols has significantly reduced morbidity. Modified allergens for immunotherapy show promise but require further study. PMID:21286562

  5. A paragonimiasis patient with allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole: successful treatment after desensitization to praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Sun Young; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae-Ik; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2011-03-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. This trematode can be treated successfully with praziquantel in more than 90% of the cases. Although praziquantel is generally well tolerated, anaphylactic reactions to this drug have been reported in a few cases. We report here a 46-year-old Korean female with paragonimiasis, presumed to be due to Paragonimus westermani, who displayed an allergic reaction to praziquantel and resistance to triclabendazole treatment. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel following a rapid desensitization procedure. Desensitization to praziquantel could be considered when no alternative drugs are available.

  6. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin. Causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis is caused by an allergic reaction to ... affects people older than age 15. Often, the cause of the problem cannot be found even with ... vasculitis may look like necrotizing vasculitis , which can ...

  7. [Can cross-allergic reactions to food antigens be the cause of recurrent pancreatitis in children with food allergies?].

    PubMed

    Subbotina, O A; Geppe, N A; Primak, E A; Surikova, O A; Orekhova, V P

    2014-01-01

    Drug and food allergy in 80% of cases are the cause of duodenal inflammation disrupting the function of the pancreatic ducts. However, in some cases, elimination diet in patients with food allergy does not provide a sufficient effect. The article shows the effect of cross-allergic reactions on recurrent pancreatitis in 28 children with food allergy (mean age 11.7 +/- 2.9 years). As an additional diagnostic criterion the coefficient of degranulation of mast cell in the intestinal mucosa (the ratio of degranulated forms to granulated) was determined, through which the effect of cross-allergic reactions (between food antigens and drugs of animal origin) on the duration and frequency of exacerbations of chronic pancreatitis in children with food sensitization has been shown. The exception of enzyme preparations for children with sensitization to pork and exception of eubiotics prepared using sucrose-gelatin-milk medium for children with sensitization to cow's milk and beef led to feel better in a shorter time (2-3 days) and to reduce the frequency of relapses. Catamnesis observation for 3 years showed that the incidence of recurrent exacerbations of the disease in 11 children with excepted cross-allergic reactions in the first year of follow-up was 9.1%, in the second year--9.1% and in the third year--0%, while in control group (17 children) the frequency of exacerbations was respectively 23.5; 35.3; 35.3%. In patients of the main group there was a slight overall increase of mast cells in the intestinal mucosa from 211.7 to 230.2 mm2 (p > 0.05) with decreasing of degranulated forms from 163.6 to 138.71 mm2 (p > 0.05) and significant increase of granulated forms from 47.41 to 91.51 mm2 (p < 0.05), resulting in a significant decrease in mast cells degranulation coefficient from 3.2 +/- 0.62/mm2 to 1.24 +/- 0.26/mm2 (p < 0.0001). Thus, duodenal etiology of recurrent pancreatitis caused by exposure to food antigens or cross-allergic reactions can be diagnosed with an

  8. Allergic reactions to oral drugs: A case/non-case study from an Italian spontaneous reporting database (GIF).

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola Maria; Leone, Roberto; Confortic, Anita; Moretti, Ugo; Motola, Domenico; Tuccori, Marco; Caputi, Achille Patrizio

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wide number of studies investigating on drug-induced allergy, limited data focused on allergies associated with orally administered drugs are available. The aim of the study is to evaluate allergic drug reactions associated with oral drug use, using an Italian spontaneous reporting database of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spontaneous reports associated with oral drugs retrieved from seven Italian regions (GIF research group), collected from 1988 to 2006, were analysed. Association between drugs and allergic adverse reactions was assessed using the case/non-case method, calculating the ADR reporting odds ratio (ROR) as a measure of disproportionality. Overall, 27,175 reports of adverse reactions related to oral drug use were analysed; of these, 3143 (11.6%) were judged as allergy cases. Paediatric patients (allergic reactions with oral antibiotics and NSAIDs, although more data are needed. Given the widespread use of these drug classes (some of them being purchased as over the counter drugs), awareness should be raised among patients and prescribers about these risks.

  9. Allergic reaction induced by dermal and/or respiratory exposure to low-dose phenoxyacetic acid, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Harada, Takanori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2009-07-10

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acid, and carbamate have a high risk of affecting human health, causing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma-like diseases. We used our long-term sensitization method and a local lymph node assay to examine the allergic reactions caused by several types of pesticides. BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (9 times in 3 weeks), then challenged dermally or intratracheally with 2,4-D, BRP, or furathiocarb. One day post-challenge, the mice were processed to obtain biologic materials for use in assays of total IgE levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within regional lymph nodes (LNs); and, ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs. 2,4-D-induced immune responses characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE levels in both serum and BALF; an influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1beta) in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells IgE and MHC class II production) in both auricular and the lung-associated LNs; and increased Th2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) in both auricular and the lung-associated LN cells. In contrast, BRP and furathiocarb treatment yielded, at most, non-significant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. BRP and furathiocarb induced marked proliferation of MHC Class II-positive B-cells and Th1 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) in only auricular LN cells. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a respiratory allergen and BRP and furathiocarb are contact allergens. As our protocol detected classified allergic responses to low-molecular-weight chemicals, it thus may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related allergy.

  10. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    PubMed

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  12. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  13. Severe Allergic Reactions to Food in Norway: A Ten Year Survey of Cases Reported to the Food Allergy Register

    PubMed Central

    Namork, Ellen; Fæste, Christiane K.; Stensby, Berit A.; Egaas, Eliann; Løvik, Martinus

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Food Allergy Register was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2000. The purpose of the register is to gain information about severe allergic reactions to food in Norway and to survey food products in relation to allergen labelling and contamination. Cases are reported on a voluntary basis by first line doctors, and submitted together with a serum sample for specific IgE analysis. The register has received a total of 877 reports from 1 July, 2000 to 31 December, 2010. Two age groups, small children and young adults are over-represented, and the overall gender distribution is 40:60 males-females. The legumes lupine and fenugreek have been identified as two “new” allergens in processed foods and cases of contamination and faults in production of processed foods have been revealed. The highest frequency of food specific IgE is to hazelnuts and peanuts, with a marked increase in reactions to hazelnuts during the last three years. The Food Allergy Register has improved our knowledge about causes and severity of food allergic reactions in Norway. The results show the usefulness of population based national food allergy registers in providing information for health authorities and to secure safe food for individuals with food allergies. PMID:21909296

  14. Intranasal Coadministration of Live Lactococci Producing Interleukin-12 and a Major Cow's Milk Allergen Inhibits Allergic Reaction in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Ah-Leung, Sandrine; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Corthier, Gérard; Wal, Jean-Michel; Langella, Philippe; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2007-01-01

    The Th1/Th2 balance deregulation toward a Th2 immune response plays a central role in allergy. We previously demonstrated that administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis strains expressing bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, partially prevents mice from sensitization. In the present study, we aimed to improve this preventive effect by coadministration of L. lactis BLG and a second recombinant L. lactis strain producing biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12). This L. lactis strain producing IL-12 was previously used to enhance the Th1 immune response in a tumoral murine model (L. G. Bermúdez-Humarán et al., J. Immunol. 175:7297-7302, 2005). A comparison of the administration of either BLG alone or BLG in the presence of IL-12 was conducted. A BLG-specific primary Th1 immune response was observed only after intranasal coadministration of both L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis, as demonstrated by the induction of serum-specific immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) concomitant with gamma interferon secretion by splenocytes, confirming the adjuvanticity of IL-12-producing L. lactis. Immunized mice were further sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of purified BLG, and the allergic reaction was elicited by intranasal challenge with purified BLG. Mice pretreated with BLG in either the presence or the absence of IL-12 were rendered completely tolerant to further allergic sensitization and elicitation. Pretreatment with either L. lactis BLG or L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis induces specific anti-BLG IgG2a production in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Although specific serum IgE was not affected by these pretreatments, the levels of eosinophilia and IL-5 secretion in BAL fluid were significantly reduced after BLG challenge in the groups pretreated with L. lactis BLG and L. lactis BLG-IL-12-producing L. lactis, demonstrating a decreased allergic reaction. Our data demonstrate for the first time (i) the

  15. Intranasal coadministration of live lactococci producing interleukin-12 and a major cow's milk allergen inhibits allergic reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G; Ah-Leung, Sandrine; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Corthier, Gérard; Wal, Jean-Michel; Langella, Philippe; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2007-03-01

    The Th1/Th2 balance deregulation toward a Th2 immune response plays a central role in allergy. We previously demonstrated that administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis strains expressing bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, partially prevents mice from sensitization. In the present study, we aimed to improve this preventive effect by coadministration of L. lactis BLG and a second recombinant L. lactis strain producing biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12). This L. lactis strain producing IL-12 was previously used to enhance the Th1 immune response in a tumoral murine model (L. G. Bermúdez-Humarán et al., J. Immunol. 175:7297-7302, 2005). A comparison of the administration of either BLG alone or BLG in the presence of IL-12 was conducted. A BLG-specific primary Th1 immune response was observed only after intranasal coadministration of both L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis, as demonstrated by the induction of serum-specific immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) concomitant with gamma interferon secretion by splenocytes, confirming the adjuvanticity of IL-12-producing L. lactis. Immunized mice were further sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of purified BLG, and the allergic reaction was elicited by intranasal challenge with purified BLG. Mice pretreated with BLG in either the presence or the absence of IL-12 were rendered completely tolerant to further allergic sensitization and elicitation. Pretreatment with either L. lactis BLG or L. lactis BLG and IL-12-producing L. lactis induces specific anti-BLG IgG2a production in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Although specific serum IgE was not affected by these pretreatments, the levels of eosinophilia and IL-5 secretion in BAL fluid were significantly reduced after BLG challenge in the groups pretreated with L. lactis BLG and L. lactis BLG-IL-12-producing L. lactis, demonstrating a decreased allergic reaction. Our data demonstrate for the first time (i) the

  16. Effect of cinnarizine on IgE antibody-mediated experimental allergic reactions in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagai, H; Yamada, H; Yakuo, I; Inagaki, N; Choi, S H; Koda, A; Daikoku, M

    1987-02-01

    The anti-allergic activity and mechanism of cinnarizine was investigated in guinea pigs. Nifedipine, a calcium antagonist, and tranilast, a potent, orally active anti-allergic agent, were used as comparative drugs. Cinnarizine protected against fatal systemic anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs passively sensitized with IgE antibody. Cinnarizine reduced many of the features of severe respiratory disorders. Nifedipine and tranilast showed similar effects. Cinnarizine and nifedipine inhibited the contractile response to antigen of sensitized tracheal smooth muscle when the challenge was carried out at low antigen concentrations. Tranilast showed a tendency to inhibit the antigen-induced contraction of tracheal smooth muscle. Cinnarizine and nifedipine inhibited Ca-induced contraction in potassium-depolarized tracheal smooth muscle, tranilast had no effect. Cinnarizine showed antagonistic action to the contraction by histamine or leukotriene D4 (LTD4) of tracheal muscle. Nifedipine showed similar antagonistic action, although its potency is lower than cinnarizine. Tranilast showed slight antagonistic action to LTD4. Antigen-induced release of histamine and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from sensitized lung tissues was inhibited by nifedipine and tranilast but not by cinnarizine. The release of histamine and SRS-A from lung tissues by calcium ionophore A23187 was inhibited by nifedipine and tranilast but not by cinnarizine. These results suggest that the anti-allergic action of cinnarizine is mainly due to the antagonistic action to allergic mediators and not by interfering with the release of mediators. Cinnarizine's mechanism seems to be related to its antagonistic action to Ca in smooth muscle, but not to the transport of Ca in releasing the anaphylactic chemical mediators in mast cells and other target cells.

  17. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5–50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153

  18. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  19. Allergic reactions to iodinated contrast media: premedication considerations for patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Jennifer G; Iyer, Ramesh S; Wang, Carolyn L; Petscavage, Jonelle M; Paladin, Angelisa M; Bush, William H; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this article are to review allergy-type reactions to iodinated contrast media and the protocols utilized to prevent or reduce the occurrence of these adverse reactions in high-risk patients. We will begin by discussing the types or classifications of the adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. We will then discuss reaction mechanisms, identify the patients at highest risk for adverse reactions, and clarify common misperceptions about the risk. Finally, we will discuss the actions of the medications used to help reduce or prevent allergy-type reactions to iodinated contrast media, the protocols used to help reduce or prevent contrast reactions in high-risk patients, and the potential side effects of these medications. We will also discuss the high-risk patient who has received premedication due to a prior index reaction and discuss the risk of having a subsequent reaction, termed "breakthrough reaction." Identifying patient at high risk for an "allergy-type" reaction to contrast media is an essential task of the radiologist. Prevention of or reduction of the risk of an adverse reaction is critical to patient safety. If an examination can be performed without contrast in a patient at high risk for an allergy-type reaction, it may be appropriate to avoid contrast. However, there are situations where contrast media is necessary, and the radiologist plays a vital role in preventing or mitigating an allergy-type reaction.

  20. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever; Nasal allergies; Seasonal allergy; Seasonal allergic rhinitis; Allergies - allergic rhinitis; Allergy - allergic rhinitis ... an allergen that also trigger symptoms. ALLERGY SHOTS Allergy shots ... are sometimes recommended if you cannot avoid the ...

  1. Allergic conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Conjunctivitis - allergic seasonal/perennial; Atopic keratoconjunctivitis; Pink eye - allergic ... bumps on the inside of the eyelids (papillary conjunctivitis) Positive skin test for suspected allergens on allergy ...

  2. [Allergic reactions to the house-dust mite in children with obstructive disease of the respiratory tract (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Richter, I; Kriebel, I

    1975-09-12

    160 children with obstructive allergic disease of the respiratory tract were tested with the modified pricktest. 58 showed positive reactions to the house-dust mite. Typically, in the case history of these children, is the presence of the complaints throughout the year, especially at night and not in particular seasons. Although, the modified pricktest could be negative in children under 4 years of age, in later years an allergen could be found. Children who have typical-complaints in their case-history, but show weak cutaneous reactions, are admitted in hospital, and a bronchial provocationtest is carried out to study the action of the allergen on the affected organ. 28 of the 58 children with house-dust mite allergy showed only weak positive cutaneous reactions and had mild complaints. Avoidance measurements brought in almost 80 p.c. of these cases good results. We recommended specific hyposensibilisation for the remaining 30 patients; in 22 of these cases the recommendation was carried out. The positive effect of the specific hyposensibilisation was proved when compared to a controll series.

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  4. Evidence of Allergic Reactions and Cardiopulmonary Impairments among Traders Operating from Foodstuff Warehouses

    PubMed Central

    Egbosionu, Viola; Ibeneme, Georgian; Ezuma, Amarachi; Ettu, Theresa; Nwankwo, Joseph; Limaye, Dnyanesh; Nna, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Foodstuff traders operating from warehouses (FTFW) are potentially exposed to dangerous rodenticides/pesticides that may have adverse effects on cardiopulmonary function. Methods. Fifty consenting male foodstuff traders, comprising 15 traders (21–63 years) operating outside warehouses and 35 FTFW (20–64 years), were randomly recruited at Ogbete Market, Enugu, in a cross-sectional observational study of spirometric and electrocardiographic parameters. Seventeen FTFW (21–57 years) participated in focus group discussions. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed thematically and with independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at p < 0.05, respectively. Results. Most FTFW experienced respiratory symptoms, especially dry cough (97.1%) and wheezing (31.4%) with significant reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) (t = −2.654; p = 0.011), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (t = −2.240; p = 0.030), maximum expiratory flow rate (FEF200–1200) (t = −1.148; p = −0.047), and forced end-expiratory flow (FEF75–85) (t = −1.11; p = 0.007). The maximum mid-expiratory flow (FEF25–75) was marginally decreased (p > 0.05) with a significantly prolonged (p < 0.05) QTc interval. Conclusion. Allergic response was evident in the FTFW. Significant decrease in FVC may negatively impact lung flow rates and explains the marginal decrease in FEF25–75, which implies a relative limitation in airflow of peripheral/distal airways and elastic recoil of the lungs. This is consistent with obstructive pulmonary disease; a significant decrease in FEF75–85/FEV1 supports this conclusion. Significant decrease in FEF200–1200 indicates abnormalities in the large airways/larynx just as significantly prolonged ventricular repolarization suggests cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:28116288

  5. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu . E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

  6. Anti-Allergic Action of Aged Black Garlic Extract in RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA2, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  7. Allergic reaction to epinephrine preparation in 2% lidocaine: two case reports.

    PubMed Central

    Kohase, Hikaru; Umino, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hypersensitivity to an epinephrine preparation in local anesthetics which were found by skin tests for local anesthetics. Both patients had uncomfortable episodes to local anesthetics at dental treatment. In both cases, the skin tests showed positive reactions to 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Furthermore drug lymphocyte stimulation test revealed positive reaction to epinephrine hydrochloride, epinephrine bitartrate in case 1, whereas in case 2, the drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed positive response to epinephrine bitartrate. Attention should be paid to exogenous epinephrine preparations that have the potential to induce hypersensitivity during dental treatment. PMID:15675262

  8. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-12-16

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10-20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

  9. [Immediate allergic reaction to natural latex with special reference to surgical gloves].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Wahl, R

    1992-07-15

    There is an increasing incidence of contact urticaria (CU) and systemic reactions to rubber products. 34 patients are presented: Most were atopic (22/34) and women (29/34). 24 worked in the medical field. 13 patients showed signs of hand dermatitis. In 31 patients, rub and/or pricktests with liquid latex in different dilutions and with latex gloves led to positive reactions. The allergen(s) appear in part to be watersoluble: 23 of 31 patients revealed positive test reactions to an aqueous glove extract. In two patients, urticarial test reactions to TMTD, Mercapto-Mix, and PPD-mix were considered as possible contributing factor of CU. Scratch tests with corn-starch were negative in all patients. 17 of 29 sera showed RAST (radioallergosorbent test) class 0 using latex allergen disks. SDS-PAGE (sodiumdodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide-electrophoresis) determined protein bands of less than or equal to 14 kD (not allergen specific) and approximately 28 kD. The Western Blot detected the 28 kD protein as allergen in the sera of three patients. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) proved no protein bands. Immunoprinting performed with sera of five patients presented allergen bands in an pH range between 3.8 and 4.55. This shows that radiostaining (immunoprint) is more sensitive than the Coomassie Blue staining. Although three sera showed RAST class 0, immunoblotting detected allergen bands. In these cases the immunoblot appears to be more sensitive than the RAST. A cross reactivity between latex and banana could not be established. Alternative gloves are Neolon (neoprene) or Elastyren (styrene-butadiene polymer).

  10. Schisandra chinensis and Its Main Constituent Schizandrin Attenuate Allergic Reactions by Down-Regulating Caspase-1 in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hee-Yun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (SC) and its main constituent, schizandrin (SCH) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. Allergic and inflammatory reactions are aggravated via caspase-1 signaling pathway. However, the regulatory effects of SC and SCH on caspase-1 activation have not been clarified yet. In this study, we aimed to clarify the anti-allergic effects of SC and SCH using an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice and anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies-stimulated splenocytes. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, or interleukin (IL)-4 in serum of OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], and IL-1[Formula: see text] in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly suppressed the expression of caspase-1 and receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-2 in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. In activated splenocytes, SC or SCH significantly decreased the expression of caspase-1 and RIP-2 as well as the production of IL-6 and TNF-[Formula: see text]. We suggest that SC and SCH exert an anti-allergic effect by down-regulating caspase-1 signaling.

  11. Allergic Rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... out what I'm allergic to?Is my allergy seasonal?I am allergic to _____. Am I at risk for any other allergies?What changes can I make at home to ... org editorial staff Tags: allergen, allergic rhinitis, allergies, allergy, ... ragweed, seasonal rhinitis Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, ...

  12. Suppression of allergic reactions by dehulled adlay in association with the balance of TH1/TH2 cell responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bi-Fong; Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Wenchang

    2003-06-18

    Dehulled adlay is known as a natural Chinese medicine having antiallergic activity, although its mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the effects of dehulled adlay on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production. Mice were immunized three times with ovalbumin (OVA) in alum adjuvant. It was found that oral administration of dehulled adlay in mice suppressed the production of IgE against OVA antigen. Serum anti-OVA IgG(2a) antibody levels were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of dehulled adlay. Furthermore, the production of IL-2 by OVA-stimulated splenocytes was augmented in dehulled adlay-fed mice. Although dehulled adlay had no effect on the serum anti-OVA IgG(1) antibody levels, it had a great capacity to reduce IL-5 secretion by means of OVA-stimulated splenocytes. Hydrothermal processes, including steaming and extrusion cooking, did not change the capacity of dehulled adlay to suppress IgE production. Three fractions of dehulled alday, including methanolic extract, warm water extract, and residue, were obtained. The methanolic extract exhibited the greatest capacity to reduce anti-OVA IgE production. These results suggest that dehulled adlay has a modulating ability to shift the balance from Th2 to Th1 dominance in the T cell mediated immune system and may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  13. Including Rebinding Reactions in Well-Mixed Models of Distributive Biochemical Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Sean D; Keener, James P

    2016-11-15

    The behavior of biochemical reactions requiring repeated enzymatic substrate modification depends critically on whether the enzymes act processively or distributively. Whereas processive enzymes bind only once to a substrate before carrying out a sequence of modifications, distributive enzymes release the substrate after each modification and thus require repeated bindings. Recent experimental and computational studies have revealed that distributive enzymes can act processively due to rapid rebindings (so-called quasi-processivity). In this study, we derive an analytical estimate of the probability of rapid rebinding and show that well-mixed ordinary differential equation models can use this probability to quantitatively replicate the behavior of spatial models. Importantly, rebinding requires that connections be added to the well-mixed reaction network; merely modifying rate constants is insufficient. We then use these well-mixed models to suggest experiments to 1) detect quasi-processivity and 2) test the theory. Finally, we show that rapid rebindings drastically alter the reaction's Michaelis-Menten rate equations.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  15. 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Min Jong; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Choi, Young-Ae; Baek, Moon-Chang; Lee, Byungheon; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Hae Ran; Shin, Tae-Yong; Lee, Soyoung; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Rae; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic reactions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis. Vanillic acid, a natural product, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-allergic inflammatory effects of ortho-vanillic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, o-VA) that was a derivative of vanillic acid isolated from Amomum xanthioides. In mouse anaphylaxis models, oral administration of o-VA (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and IgE-mediated cutaneous allergic reactions such as hypothermia, histamine release, IgE production and vasodilation; administration of o-VA also suppressed the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis. In cultured mast cell line RBL-2H3 and isolated rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro, pretreatment with o-VA (1–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited DNP-HSA-induced degranulation of mast cells by decreasing the intracellular free calcium level, and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-4. Pretreatment of RBL-2H3 cells with o-VA suppressed DNP-HSA-induced phosphorylation of Lyn, Syk, Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. In conclusion, o-VA suppresses the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory response by blocking the signaling pathways downstream of high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on the surface of mast cells. PMID:27890918

  16. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  17. Types of Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Allergies and Dentistry Ensure You Have an Allergy-Free Dental Visit ... Terms and Conditions © 1996-2017 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... others. People with allergies to insect bites and stings, foods, or certain medications are most at risk ... an Allergy Emergency Shellfish Allergy Bug Bites and Stings Nut and Peanut Allergy My Friend Has a ...

  19. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  20. A study for characterization of IgE-mediated cutaneous immediate and late-phase reactions in non-allergic domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Seals, Shanna L; Kearney, Michael; Del Piero, Fabio; Hammerberg, Bruce; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2014-05-15

    Immunoglobulin-E (IgE) mediated reactions can be induced by intradermal injection of anti-IgE antibodies in both humans and dogs. These reactions grossly and histologically mimic changes seen in naturally occurring allergic dermatitis in these species. Similar studies have not been conducted in the cat. Purified polyclonal rabbit-origin IgG specific for canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) were injected intradermally in 7 non-allergic laboratory colony cats. Wheal measurements were obtained and biopsies collected before injection and at injection sites after 20 min, 6, 24, and 48 h. Injection of anti-IgE induced an immediate wheal response which was significantly larger than that seen after injection of rabbit IgG. Anti-IgE injected skin was also significantly thicker than IgG-injected skin. This corresponded with a significant increase in number of visibly degranulated mast cells in anti-IgE samples when compared to IgG samples. Injection of anti-IgE was associated with the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to the injected dermis. The number of inflammatory cells and mononuclear cells were significantly elevated after the injection of anti-IgE when compared to IgG-injected skin. Both eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly increased in anti-IgE samples relative to IgG, although neutrophils were only transiently increased. The high eosinophil and relatively low neutrophil cell counts in these samples were consistent with previously documented histologic features of naturally occurring feline allergic skin disease. Immunohistochemistry identified a significantly overall increased CD1a(+) cells after the intradermal injection of anti-IgE when compared to IgG and non-injected skin. CD3(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+) were also significantly increased overall in anti-IgE injected skin relative to IgG injected skin. These data document the gross and cellular response to injection of anti-IgE in the skin of healthy, non-allergic cats and support a

  1. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce immune reaction in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Liu, Yanjuan; Liang, Hongfeng; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Object: To determine the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for immunomodulatory mechanism in mice model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods: BMSCs were isolated and the surface markers and stemness were analyzed. The effect of BMSCs was evaluated in BALB/c mice that were randomly divided into three groups (control group, ovalbumin (OVA) group, OVA+BMSCs group). BMSCs were administered intravenously to OVA sensitized mice on days 1, 7, 14 and 21, and subsequent OVA challenge was conducted daily from days 22 to 35. Several parameters of allergic inflammation were assessed. Results: Mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully isolated from bone marrow of mice. Intravenous injection of BMSCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms, eosinophil infiltration, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine profile (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10). In addition, level of Th1 (IFN-γ) was significantly increased. Conclusion: Administration of BMSCs effectively reduced allergic symptoms and inflammatory parameters in the mice model of AR. BMSCs treatment is potentially an alternative therapeutic modality in AR. PMID:28078033

  2. Successful Re-administration of Low-dose of Methimazole (MMI) in Graves' Disease Patients Who Experienced Allergic Cutaneous Reactions to MMI at Initial Treatment and Had Received Long-term Propylthiouracil (PTU)

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective When patients with Graves' disease show severe allergic cutaneous reactions, physicians often suggest that they undergo radioiodine therapy instead of receiving propylthiouracil (PTU), another antithyroid drug, because anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis can occur with PTU, especially with long-term use. However, some patients refuse radioiodine therapy and chose PTU. Sometimes PTU treatment may be prolonged. Since the frequency of adverse effects of methimazole (MMI) is dose-related, there is a possibility that we can re-administer a low dose without adverse effects to patients well-controlled with PTU who once experienced an allergic reaction to MMI. Methods I prospectively re-administered a low dose of MMI to patients who previously experienced an allergic reaction to MMI at initial treatment. The dose of re-administered MMI ranged from 5 mg twice a week to 5 mg daily. Patients Nine patients with Graves' disease who developed urticaria at initial treatment with MMI and had been treated with PTU for 6 to 21 years were recruited. Results Eight of the 9 patients were successfully controlled with MMI without allergic cutaneous reactions. Only one patient felt itchiness 2 days after switching to MMI. However, skin change was not observed. Conclusion If the patients show allergic cutaneous reactions as a side effect of MMI at the initial treatment for Graves' disease, then there is a strong possibility that such patients can tolerate a low dose of MMI without adverse effects after the disease activity has subsided. PMID:27853063

  3. Allergic enteritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Gawryjołek, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development. The diagnosis of allergic enteritis is based on the clinical examination and the results of additional tests including an endoscopy of the lower digestive tract with histopathological assessment. Cow’s milk proteins are the most common nutrition proteins responsible for the development of the symptoms of allergic enteritis. The most essential method of treating allergic enteritis is the elimination diet. The symptoms should subside within 1–2 weeks from the beginning of the diet. PMID:28337229

  4. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  5. The Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Samuel O.

    1964-01-01

    Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, like other atopic disorders, occurs primarily as the result of an antigenantibody reaction between external allergens and circulating skin-sensitizing antibodies. In addition, the disease process is frequently complicated by bacterial or viral infection. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis, therefore, consists of: (1) changing the patient's environment in order to remove the offending allergens, (2) removing the patient from his environment, (3) altering the patient's response to environmental allergens by means of hyposensitization injections, (4) suppressing the allergic reaction with drugs, and (5) eliminating bacterial infection. Usually more than one of these therapeutic measures is required for the individual patient. PMID:14175878

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  7. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  8. Update on vaccination guidelines for allergic children.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2009-11-01

    Children with allergic or atopic diseases require immunization just like non-atopic children. However, vaccination of such children requires some special considerations and precautions. Children may be allergic to specific vaccine constituents such as gelatin or egg. Children who have suffered an apparent allergic reaction to a vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist to determine the culprit allergen and to make recommendations regarding future vaccination. In rare circumstances, certain vaccines may cause acute exacerbations of allergic diseases, but the contention that vaccination causes allergic disease is not substantiated by any available evidence.

  9. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O3, NO(x), Cl(x), HCl, N2O5, ClONO2 are calculated.

  10. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  11. Allergic reaction to biodegradable interference poly-L-lactic acid screws after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft.

    PubMed

    Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Paessler, Hans H

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of a systemic allergic reaction to biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. A 30-year-old patient complained of certain symptoms, such as an inability to focus mentally, rash on the right femur, chronic fatigue, decreased sex drive, and localized alopecia, 3 months after ACL reconstruction in the right knee. Two biodegradable PLLA interference screws had been used for proximal and distal graft fixation. Allergy testing showed a value of 7 in PLLA antigen. After removal of 1 screw in August 2000, the patient reported marked improvement, but some symptoms remained. In July 2001 he underwent arthroscopic revision ACL reconstruction with hamstrings via an implant-free technique with intensive debridement of the tunnels and removal of all scar tissue and screw rests. All symptoms disappeared, and the PLLA antigen number fell from 3 to "concentrate" 2 months postoperatively.

  12. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  13. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  14. Hyperresponsiveness in the human nasal airway: new targets for the treatment of allergic airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P J; Foreman, J C

    1999-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a condition which affects over 15% of the population in the United Kingdom. The pathological process involves two stages: nasal inflammation, and the development of nasal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen and a number of other stimuli. This results in the amplification of any subsequent allergic reaction, contributing to the chronic allergic state. A number of different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of AHR, including a role for eosinophil-derived proteins, free radicals and neuropeptides. While there may be a number of independent pathways which can result in AHR, evidence obtained from both animal models and in vivo experiments in humans indicate that some mediators may interact with one another, resulting in AHR. Further research into these interactions may open new avenues for the pharmacological treatment of chronic allergic rhinitis, and possibly other allergic airway diseases. PMID:10704051

  15. Phytosphingosine degradation pathway includes fatty acid α-oxidation reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takuya; Seki, Naoya; Kihara, Akio

    2017-03-28

    Although normal fatty acids (FAs) are degraded via β-oxidation, unusual FAs such as 2-hydroxy (2-OH) FAs and 3-methyl-branched FAs are degraded via α-oxidation. Phytosphingosine (PHS) is one of the long-chain bases (the sphingolipid components) and exists in specific tissues, including the epidermis and small intestine in mammals. In the degradation pathway, PHS is converted to 2-OH palmitic acid and then to pentadecanoic acid (C15:0-COOH) via FA α-oxidation. However, the detailed reactions and genes involved in the α-oxidation reactions of the PHS degradation pathway have yet to be determined. In the present study, we reveal the entire PHS degradation pathway: PHS is converted to C15:0-COOH via six reactions [phosphorylation, cleavage, oxidation, CoA addition, cleavage (C1 removal), and oxidation], in which the last three reactions correspond to the α-oxidation. The aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3A2 catalyzes both the first and second oxidation reactions (fatty aldehydes to FAs). In Aldh3a2-deficient cells, the unmetabolized fatty aldehydes are reduced to fatty alcohols and are incorporated into ether-linked glycerolipids. We also identify HACL2 (2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase 2) [previous name, ILVBL; ilvB (bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like] as the major 2-OH acyl-CoA lyase involved in the cleavage (C1 removal) reaction in the FA α-oxidation of the PHS degradation pathway. HACL2 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, in addition to the already-known FA α-oxidation in the peroxisomes, we have revealed the existence of FA α-oxidation in the endoplasmic reticulum in mammals.

  16. Recent advances in understanding the roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Kyoko; Orihara, Kanami; Emi-Sugie, Maiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disorders commonly involve both chronic tissue inflammation and remodeling caused by immunological reactions to various antigens on tissue surfaces. Due to their anatomical location, vascular endothelial cells are the final responders to interact with various exogenous factors that come into contact with the epithelial surface, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and antigens. Recent studies have shed light on the important roles of endothelial cells in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. For instance, endothelial cells have the greatest potential to produce several key molecules that are deeply involved in allergic inflammation, such as periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17). Additionally, endothelial cells were recently shown to be important functional targets for IL-33--an essential regulator of allergic inflammation. Notably, almost all endothelial cell responses and functions involved in allergic inflammation are not suppressed by corticosteroids. These corticosteroid-refractory endothelial cell responses and functions include TNF-α-associated angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion, IL-33-mediated responses and periostin and TARC production. Therefore, these unique responses and functions of endothelial cells may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various allergic disorders, especially their refractory processes. Here, we review recent studies, including ours, which have elucidated previously unknown pathophysiological roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation and discuss the possibility of endothelium-targeted therapy for allergic disorders.

  17. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Morris, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Waern, Ida; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Page, Clive; Schmidt, Eric P; Wernersson, Sara; Li, Jin-Ping; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/-) mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT) control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil) recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  18. Infection with Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) induces protective Th2 immune responses and influences ovalbumin-induced allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Michels, Chesney; Goyal, Prem; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; Brombacher, Frank

    2006-10-01

    Infections with pinworms are common in rodent animal facilities. In this study, we show the consequence of an outbreak in a transgenic barrier facility of infection by Syphacia obvelata, a murine pinworm gastrointestinal nematode. Immune responses were defined in experimental infection studies with BALB/c mice. Infection with S. obvelata induced a transient Th2-type immune response with elevated interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 cytokine production and parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). In contrast, BALB/c mice deficient in IL-13, IL-4/13, or the IL-4 receptor alpha chain showed chronic disease, with a >100-fold higher parasite burden, increased gamma interferon production, parasite-specific IgG2b, and a default Th2 response. Interestingly, infected IL-4-/- BALB/c mice showed only slightly elevated parasite burdens compared to the control mice, suggesting that IL-13 plays the dominant role in the control of S. obvelata. The influence that pinworm infection has on the allergic response to a dietary antigen was found to be important. Helminth-infected mice immunized against ovalbumin (Ova) elicited more severe anaphylactic shock with reduced Ova-specific IL-4 and IL-5 than did noninfected controls, demonstrating that S. obvelata infection is able to influence nonrelated laboratory experiments. The latter outcome highlights the importance of maintaining mice for use as experimental models under pinworm-free conditions.

  19. Electron-beam dynamics in a strong laser field including quantum radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitz, N.; Di Piazza, A.

    2014-08-01

    The evolution of an electron beam colliding head on with a strong plane-wave field is investigated in the framework of strong-field QED including radiation-reaction effects due to photon emission. Employing a kinetic approach to describe the electron and the photon distribution it is shown that at a given total laser fluence the final electron distribution depends on the shape of the laser envelope and on the pulse duration, in contrast to the classical predictions of radiation reaction based on the Landau-Lifshitz equation. Finally, it is investigated how the pair-creation process leads to a nonlinear coupled evolution of the electrons in the beam, of the produced charged particles, and of the emitted photons.

  20. Nasal sodium cromoglycate (Lomusol) modulates the early phase reaction of mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mite: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Margaux; Lefebvre, Philipe P; Delvenne, Philippe; El-Shazly, Amr E

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical improvement of patients with mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) due to mono-sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen, by sodium cromoglycate nasal spray (Lomusol 4%). Lomusol was used as a single agent treatment, and its anti-inflammatory effects, in the early phase reaction were evaluated. Herein we showed that Lomusol significantly improved the subjective nasal symptom scores especially nasal obstruction. This was associated with significant and specific reduction in neutrophils influx in nasal cytology but had no effect on other cell types. This selective anti-inflammatory effect on nasal cytology was associated with significant reduction in the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and histamine in nasal secretions but had no effect on PGD2, LTC4 or CysLt levels. Lomusol was also able to induce significant reduction in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in nasal secretions without altering the percentage of eosinophil influx in nasal cytology. Taken collectively, we showed the first evidence that nasal sodium cromoglycate possesses a selective inhibition on neutrophil recruitment into nasal cytology in the early phase reaction of AR patients mono-sensitized to HDM. This may be attributed to the ability of Lomusol to significantly reduce the amount of PAF recovered in nasal secretion. These results were associated with significant improvement in subjective symptom scores especially nasal obstruction that may in addition, be due to the ability of Lomusol to down-regulate eosinophil degranulation activity as well.

  1. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Balmaseda, Ivones Hernández; León, Alina Alvarez; Hernández, Belkis Cancio; Montiel, Lucía Márquez; Garrido, Gabino Garrido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Hernández, René Delgado

    2006-03-01

    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.

  2. Cheonggukjang Ethanol Extracts Inhibit a Murine Allergic Asthma via Suppression of Mast Cell-Dependent Anaphylactic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cheonggukjang (CGJ), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exerts immunomodulatory effects. Asthma is the most common chronic allergic disease to be associated with immune response to environmental allergens. In the pathogenesis of asthma, histamine is one of the important inflammatory mediators released from granules of mast cells. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of CGJ on a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma via the suppression of histamine release. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of OVA or a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control and then challenged with OVA inhalation. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with either 70% ethanol-extracted CGJ (CGJE) (100 mg/kg/day) or equivalent PBS. Asthma-related inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. To elucidate the mechanisms of asthma inhibition by CGJE treatment, we also examined degranulation and histamine release of compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). Treatment with CGJE downregulated the number of eosinophils and monocytes in the lungs of mice challenged with OVA and suppressed histopathological changes, such as eosinophil infiltration, mucus accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen fiber deposits. Moreover, CGJE alleviated compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation and histamine release from RPMCs through inhibition of calcium (Ca2+) uptake as well as ear swelling by infiltration of inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrated that CGJE can be used as an antiasthmatic dietary supplements candidate for histamine-mediated asthma. PMID:24456365

  3. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  4. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  5. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  6. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  7. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  8. Bayesian Evaluation Including Covariance Matrices of Neutron-induced Reaction Cross Sections of {sup 181}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb, H. Schnabel, G.; Srdinko, Th.; Wildpaner, V.

    2015-01-15

    A new evaluation of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 181}Ta using a consistent procedure based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Starting point of the evaluation is the description of nuclear reactions via nuclear models implemented in TALYS 1.4. A retrieval of experimental data was performed and covariance matrices of the experiments were generated from an extensive study of the corresponding literature. All reaction channels required for a transport file up to 200 MeV have been considered and the covariance matrices of cross section uncertainties for the most important channels are determined. The evaluation has been performed in one step including all available experimental data. A comparison of the evaluated cross sections and spectra with experimental data and available evaluations is performed. In general the evaluated cross section reflect our best knowledge and give a fair description of the observables. However, there are few deviations from expectation which clearly indicate the impact of the prior and the need to account for model defects. Using the results of the evaluation a complete ENDF-file similarly to those of the TENDL library is generated.

  9. Allergic contact reaction to dexpanthenol: lymphocyte transformation test and evidence for microsomal-dependent metabolism of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Röseler, S; Fritzsche, R; Schneider, R; Merk, H F

    1993-02-01

    In a patient with contact dermatitis, dexpanthenol was found to be the causative allergen. There was a positive reaction to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Controls did not show any positive reactions to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Additionally, an LTT was performed. After preincubation with dexpanthenol-modified microsomes, we observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation to dexpanthenol, in comparison to dexpanthenol without microsomes, suggesting that microsomal metabolism plays a rôle in the pathogenesis of dexpanthenol sensitization, because microsomes are known to possess drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine: co-reactions or cross-reactions?

    PubMed

    Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2004-09-01

    We present the case of a patient with facial dermatitis caused by sensitization to cocamidopropyl betaine. The patient also had positive patch-test reactions to cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine. The presence of 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine as an impurity in all of these substances can be hypothesized to explain these simultaneous reactions.

  11. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  12. Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doo Hee

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment options for allergic rhinitis (AR) include allergen avoidance and environmental control, pharmacotherapy, nasal surgery and immunotherapy. Among these, immunotherapy is the only therapeutic option that modifies fundamental immunologic mechanism by inducing desensitization. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been used for 1 century since 1911 and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been demonstrated to be effective in asthma and AR. However, SCIT has several disadvantages such as inconvenience, invasiveness and potentially severe systemic reactions. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has recently received much attention around the world as a treatment for AR and is now widely used to replace the subcutaneous route. SLIT has recently been introduced in Korea and is now available for AR treatment in the Asia-Pacific region. This review offers better understanding of SLIT for AR by summarizing published articles and our previous works regarding proposed mechanisms, indication and efficacy, safety and adverse events, and compliance. PMID:22053308

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    PubMed

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  14. Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Modeling results including Hg + halogen atom reaction rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.

    2003-04-01

    The inclusion, of recently published kinetic data for the reactions between gas phase elemental Hg and halogen atoms and molecules, in a photochemical box model including aerosols of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), suggests that the cycling of Hg over the world's oceans may be much more dynamic than was once thought, as a direct result of halogen activation from marine aerosols. The rate of gas phase oxidation of Hg(0) in the model leads to high concentrations of gas phase oxidised Hg (Hg(II)), which is deposited to the sea surface either directly from the gas phase or indirectly via scavenging by sea salt and non-sea-salt sulphate aerosol particles and subsequent deposition. The model base run predicts Hg(II) concentrations higher than those measured in the marine atmosphere, and a lifetime for Hg(0) of a matter of days, rather than months as has been generally assumed. In light of previous measurements and the known stability of the hemispherical background concentration of Hg(0) the influence of liquid water content (the number of deliquescent aerosol droplets), cloud optical depth at the top of the boundary layer, and the Henry's Law constants for HgCl2 and HgBr2 have been investigated. In order to maintain a stable background concentration of Hg(0) a source strength (for emission from the sea, or entrainment from the free troposphere) of at least 15 ng m-2 hr-1 is required, which seems most unlikely considering results from flux chamber experiments. The model therefore either overestimates the rate of gas phase oxidation or lacks a fundamental reduction process. The evidence from studies of mercury depletion events in the Arctic troposphere lend support to the fast reaction between Hg(0) and Br containing radicals which have been included in the model, it is necessary therefore to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms for the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) in order to explain the measured Hg(II) concentrations in the MBL and the stable

  15. Include dispersion in quantum chemical modeling of enzymatic reactions: the case of isoaspartyl dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lu

    2015-06-09

    The lack of dispersion in the B3LYP functional has been proposed to be the main origin of big errors in quantum chemical modeling of a few enzymes and transition metal complexes. In this work, the essential dispersion effects that affect quantum chemical modeling are investigated. With binuclear zinc isoaspartyl dipeptidase (IAD) as an example, dispersion is included in the modeling of enzymatic reactions by two different procedures, i.e., (i) geometry optimizations followed by single-point calculations of dispersion (approach I) and (ii) the inclusion of dispersion throughout geometry optimization and energy evaluation (approach II). Based on a 169-atom chemical model, the calculations show a qualitative consistency between approaches I and II in energetics and most key geometries, demonstrating that both approaches are available with the latter preferential since both geometry and energy are dispersion-corrected in approach II. When a smaller model without Arg233 (147 atoms) was used, an inconsistency was observed, indicating that the missing dispersion interactions are essentially responsible for determining equilibrium geometries. Other technical issues and mechanistic characteristics of IAD are also discussed, in particular with respect to the effects of Arg233.

  16. Coupled microvibration analysis of a reaction wheel assembly including gyroscopic effects in its accelerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Ren, Weijia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the coupled microvibration analysis of a cantilever configured Reaction Wheel Assembly with soft-suspension system. A RWA-seismic mass coupled microvibration measurement system is presented and its model validated against test results. The importance of the RWA driving point accelerances in coupled microvibration analysis is thoroughly discussed. A RWA accelerance measurement system has been designed to measure the driving point accelerances in both static (flywheel not spinning) and dynamic (flywheel spinning) conditions. Analytically, RWA static accelerance is obtained by frequency response analysis of a finite element model. The traditionally ignored gyroscopic effects in the accelerances are included in the model and their effects with respect to traditional models are shown both theoretically and experimentally. Although at high angular speed, when nonlinearities in the microvibrations prevent an accurate simulation, it is shown that the predicted microvibrations match more closely with the test results when considering gyroscopic effects in RWA accelerances than those predicted using the traditional method. The presented coupled microvibration analysis method is also very efficient in practice and is applicable in an industrial environment.

  17. Management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Solelhac, Geoffroy; Charpin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke.

  18. A diabatic representation including both valence nonadiabatic interactions and spin-orbit effects for reaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G

    2007-09-06

    A diabatic representation is convenient in the study of electronically nonadiabatic chemical reactions because the diabatic energies and couplings are smooth functions of the nuclear coordinates and the couplings are scalar quantities. A method called the fourfold way was devised in our group to generate diabatic representations for spin-free electronic states. One drawback of diabatic states computed from the spin-free Hamiltonian, called a valence diabatic representation, for systems in which spin-orbit coupling cannot be ignored is that the couplings between the states are not zero in asymptotic regions, leading to difficulties in the calculation of reaction probabilities and other properties by semiclassical dynamics methods. Here we report an extension of the fourfold way to construct diabatic representations suitable for spin-coupled systems. In this article we formulate the method for the case of even-electron systems that yield pairs of fragments with doublet spin multiplicity. For this type of system, we introduce the further simplification of calculating the triplet diabatic energies in terms of the singlet diabatic energies via Slater's rules and assuming constant ratios of Coulomb to exchange integrals. Furthermore, the valence diabatic couplings in the triplet manifold are taken equal to the singlet ones. An important feature of the method is the introduction of scaling functions, as they allow one to deal with multibond reactions without having to include high-energy diabatic states. The global transformation matrix to the new diabatic representation, called the spin-valence diabatic representation, is constructed as the product of channel-specific transformation matrices, each one taken as the product of an asymptotic transformation matrix and a scaling function that depends on ratios of the spin-orbit splitting and the valence splittings. Thus the underlying basis functions are recoupled into suitable diabatic basis functions in a manner that

  19. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  20. Pathophysiology of itching and sneezing in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Raap, U; Holz, M; Hörmann, K; Klimek, L

    2009-01-24

    Itching and sneezing represent two of the main bothersome symptoms, apart from nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea in allergic rhinitis. Apparently, activation of the central and peripheral nervous system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of this process. Sensory nerves of the afferent trigeminal system including myelinated Adelta-fibres and thin, non-myelinated C-fibres of the nasal mucosa transmit signals generating sensations, including itching and motor reflexes, such as sneezing. These nerves can be stimulated by products of allergic reactions and by external physical and chemical irritants. Via axon reflex inflammatory neuropeptides including the tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) and the calcitonin gene related peptide are released, leading to vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability (concept of "neurogenic inflammation"), glandular activation, leukocyte recruitment and differentiation of immune cells including mast cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. The present paper describes nasal (micro-) anatomy and innervation and explains the central and peripheral mechanisms initiating itching and sneezing in allergic rhinitis. Further, the role of neuropeptides and neurotrophins with regard to neuronal and immune cell activation which might play a key role in the future treatment of allergic rhinitis are discussed.

  1. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah L.

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35$+19\\atop{-9}$ ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki

  2. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis.

  3. Analysis of solid propellant combustion in a closed vessel including secondary reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benreuven, M.; Summerfield, M.

    1980-01-01

    A theory for combustion of solid propellants in a closed vessel is presented allowing for residual exothermic chemical reaction in the bulk of the gas in the vessel. Particular attention is given to propellants exhibiting thick gaseous flame zones such as nitrocellulose, double-base and nitramine propellants. For these, the reaction at high pressures is assumed to involve mainly the oxidation of residual hydrocarbons by NO. It is shown that the direct dynamic coupling between the exothermicity, the molecular weight reduction and the changing pressure can influence the dp/dt-p traces obtained, in a manner not directly related to mass burning rate of the solid. Energy and species conservation equations are derived for the bulk of the vessel in differential form; the system is solved numerically. The results show the effect of extended chemical reaction upon measurable combustion characteristics such as dp/dt-p and burn rate pressure exponent, demonstrating its potential importance in interpretation of closed vessel firing data, depending on the pace of the residual gas phase reactions.

  4. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  5. Safety First: Preventing Allergic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2015-01-01

    All elementary teachers should be aware of their students' allergies especially when they are planning to use plants or animals in the classroom or interacting with them in the field. This knowledge is essential because allergy symptoms can range from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock. This column shares safety information for the science…

  6. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologic agents, or, finally, immunotherapy. Successful treatment requires accurate assessment of the offending agent and proper use of the above-mentioned modalities. PMID:21263880

  7. Specificity of psychomotor reactions in the conditions of support deprivation including effects of countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichiporuk, Igor; Ivanov, Oleg

    Activity of the cosmonaut demands high level of psychomotor reactions (PMR) which can vary during space flight under the influences of psychophysiological state’s variability and unusual inhabitancy that causes the necessity of PMR estimation’s inclusion into quality monitoring of capacity for work (CW). A main objective of research was a study of features of visual-motor reactions (VMR) and elements of CW of the person within simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The experimental data were received which testified to peculiarities of VMR and recognition of simple figures of main colors of a visible spectrum (red, green, blue, the RGB-standard) in the conditions of the DI characterized by support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation - in a control series and in a series with use of mioelectrostimulation as a countermeasure.

  8. Core excitations in (d,p) reactions including transitions to continuum levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makoto, Tanifuji; Osamu, Mikoshiba; Tokuo, Terasawa

    1982-11-01

    Effects of core excitations in (d, p) reactions are investigated for 12C(d, p) 13C ∗ reactions in the CCBA framework, where couplings of channels are considered for the ground and first-excited levels of 12C in the initial state and for the bound {1}/{2}+and{5}/{2}+ levels and low-lying continuum levels of 13C in the final state, where a discretization is introduced for the continuum region. In the transitions to the continuum levels, matrix elements are calculated by the use of scattering-state wave functions for the final neutron. Theoretical cross sections and vector analyzing powers are compared with experimental data, where significant contributions of core-excitation processes are identified, particularly in the transition to the {5}/{2}+II level of 13C. Spectra of emitted protons are calculated and compared with the measured ones. Adequate agreement between theory and experiment is found throughout the present investigation.

  9. Low doses of allergen and probiotic supplementation separately or in combination alleviate allergic reactions to cow β-lactoglobulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Thang, Cin L; Boye, Joyce I; Zhao, Xin

    2013-02-01

    Probiotic supplementation and oral tolerance induction can reduce certain types of food allergy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of probiotics (VSL#3) and/or oral tolerance induction via low doses of an allergen supplementation in β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-sensitized mice. Three-week-old, male BALB/c mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 8/group): sham-sensitized negative control (CTL-), BLG-sensitized positive control (CTL+), oral tolerance-induced and BLG-sensitized group (OT), probiotic-supplemented OT group (OTP), probiotic-supplemented CTL- (PRO), and probiotic-supplemented and BLG-sensitized (PROC) groups. Mice were i.p. sensitized with BLG and alum and then orally challenged with BLG. Immunological responses were assessed by monitoring hypersensitivity scores and measuring levels of BLG-specific serum Igs, total serum IgE and fecal IgA, and cytokines from serum and spleen lysates. Hypersensitivity scores were significantly lower in the PROC (2.00 ± 0.53), OT (0.75 ± 0.46), and OTP mice (1.00 ± 0.53) than in the CTL+ mice (2.63 ± 0.52) as were BLG-specific serum IgE concentrations (34.3 ± 10, 0.442 ± 0.36, 3.54 ± 3.5, and 78.5 ± 8.7 μg/L for PROC, OT, OTP, and CTL+, respectively). Our results suggest that supplementation of VSL#3 suppressed the allergic reaction mainly through increased intestinal secretary IgA (sIgA) in PROC mice, and oral tolerance offered allergen-specific protective effects to BLG-induced allergy, probably through CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell-mediated active suppression. In OTP mice, probiotics did not induce a further reduction of hypersensitivity score compared with OT mice but may provide additional protection to unforeseen nonspecific challenges through increased intestinal sIgA.

  10. The motion of charged particles in strong plane waves including radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinemann, R.; Herold, H.; Ruder, H.; Kegel, W. H.

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation in the Landau approximation is used to study the motion of charged particles in strong plane vacuum waves. It is shown that integration for circularly polarized waves can be used to determine analytically the curves of the particle trajectories. The solution is used to investigate the particle trajectories and energy evolution for various strong waves. The initial conditions for the motion are chosen so that the particles start from a radiation-free path and the growing effect of the radiation reaction on the particle trajectory is highlighted.

  11. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Mastocytosis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, P; Lombardo, C; Zanotti, R

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, mainly skin and bone marrow. It can cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations-other than urticaria pigmentosa-that can lead to inappropriate release of mediators by mast cells. The most severe manifestation is anaphylaxis. The triggers of anaphylaxis in adults with mastocytosis are numerous, but Hymenoptera stings seem to be the most frequent, followed by foods and drugs. Therefore, to prevent severe reactions, it is very important to recognize and avoid potential triggers; in addition, venom-allergic patients must receive lifelong immunotherapy, which has proven very effective. Given that published data on drug anaphylaxis in patients with mast cell disorders are scarce, it is not currently possible to provide clear recommendations. The risk of systemic reactions during general anesthesia can be reduced by assessing risk on an individual basis (previous reaction to a drug or reaction during surgery) and by avoiding specific trigger factors (patient temperature changes, infusion of cold solution, tissue trauma, friction, and other mechanical factors).

  13. Skin reactions to sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R L; Frowen, K E; Lewis, A E

    1997-06-01

    Sunscreen reactions are said not to be uncommon. A population referred to a patch testing clinic was evaluated for reactions to sunscreen by questionnaire initially and then, if relevant, by patch testing to sunscreen products and their components. Irritant reactions were more common than allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic reactions to sunscreens were less common than to non-sunscreen chemicals present in sunscreen products.

  14. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  15. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  16. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  17. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  18. Reactions to "Ethical Challenges and Complexities of Including People with Intellectual Disability as Participants in Research" by Dr Teresa Iacono

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Handen, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    The authors' reaction to Dr Teresa Iacono's article "Ethical challenges and complexities of including people with intellectual disability as participants in research" is presented. Among other things, they find that Dr Iacono has done an outstanding job of describing creative solutions for obtaining appropriate informed consent from people with…

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  20. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  1. Current management of allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Georgalas, Christos; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Fokkens, Wytske

    2010-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, including the discovery of new inflammatory mediators, the link between asthma and allergic rhinitis ('one airway-one disease' concept) and the introduction of novel therapeutic modalities. These new insights have been documented in the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines and have led to the creation of evidence-based management algorithms. We now understand the importance of a common strategy for treating allergic inflammation of the upper and lower airway as a way of improving outcome, reducing hospital admissions, providing better quality of life and perhaps, altering the natural course of the 'allergic march'. A therapeutic ladder is suggested: Whereas for mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, allergen avoidance should be the first line of treatment with subsequent addition of a second generation topical or oral antihistamine, nasal saline or cromoglycate, in cases of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis, a nasal steroid is the treatment of choice. If a patient with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis fails to improve after 4 wk of adequate treatment, patient compliance or the diagnosis must be re-assessed. In such cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, a careful clinical examination including nasal endoscopy is mandatory to assess for other potential causes of nasal obstruction. In children who suffer from concomitant allergic rhinitis and asthma, a management algorithm that addresses concurrently asthma and allergic rhinitis is vital, both from a theoretical and from a practical point of view: Parents overwhelmingly prefer a single strategy for the treatment of their child's upper and lower airway symptoms; however, the overall quality of life in children with severe asthma can be significantly improved if rhinitis is adequately addressed.

  2. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious.

  3. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  4. Report of Common Aeroallergens among Allergic Patients in Northeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi Oskouei, Yaghoub; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Ahanchian, Hamid; Jarahi, Lida; Ariaee, Nazila; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of atopic diseases has increased in recent decades dramatically. The most common aeroallergens in Northeastern Iran have not been fully defined. Determining the most common aeroallergens in allergic patients based on the skin prick test (SPT) was aimed in this investigation. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1,006 allergic patients (aged 1–86 years) from October 2010 to February 2014 referred to the Allergy clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Science. After completing a checklist including demographic information, the SPT was performed according to the patients’ history of aeroallergen sensitivity. Results: Patients with symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria were enrolled. Ninety seven percent of patients had a positive skin test to at least one aeroallergen. The most prevalent allergens were Russian thistle (Salsola kali) (50.2%), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) (36.7%), grass mix (29.1%), tree mix (21.6%), and pigweed mix (19.5%). Common allergens in patients with different symptoms of allergic disorders were as follows: asthma (Russian thistle, grass mix, ash, tree mix, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus); allergic rhinitis (Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, tree mix, and pigweed mix); urticaria (Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, pigweed mix, and tree mix) and atopic dermatitis (Russian thistle, grass mix, ash, tree mix, and pigweed mix). In the spring, the most prevalent allergens were Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, tree mix, and pigweed mix. In the summer, Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, tree mix, and pigweed mix accounted for the most prevalent allergens. During the autumn, Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, pigweed mix and lamb’s quarter were the most common aeroallergens, while in the winter, Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, pigweed mix, and tree mix were shown to be the most common aeroallergens. Conclusion: Determination of the most common aeroallergens in this area

  5. [Roentgenographic pattern of interstitial pneumonia and allergic alveolitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stender, H S

    1977-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the lungs permits diagnosis of inflammatory and allergic pulmonary disease with predominantly interstitial and less alveolar involvement in which pulmonary fibrosis may develop. Reaction of the sensitised lung to allergic exposure causes typical roentgenological patterns. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in interstitial lung disease can be prevented be early cortison therapy.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic asthma have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes ... eczema ( atopic dermatitis ), followed by food allergies, then hay fever, and finally asthma. However, not all individuals with ...

  7. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  8. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  9. Ginger for Prevention of Antituberculosis-induced Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Including Hepatotoxicity: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Emrani, Zahra; Shojaei, Esphandiar; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the potential benefits of ginger in preventing antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity have been evaluated in patients with tuberculosis. Patients in the ginger and placebo groups (30 patients in each group) received either 500 mg ginger (Zintoma)(®) or placebo one-half hour before each daily dose of antituberculosis drugs for 4 weeks. Patients' gastrointestinal complaints (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain) and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity were recorded during the study period. In this cohort, nausea was the most common antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Forty eight (80%) patients experienced nausea. Nausea was more common in the placebo than the ginger group [27 (90%) vs 21 (70%), respectively, p = 0.05]. During the study period, 16 (26.7%) patients experienced antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients in the ginger group experienced less, but not statistically significant, antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity than the placebo group (16.7% vs 36.7%, respectively, p = 0.07). In conclusion, ginger may be a potential option for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A decade of vaccinating allergic travellers: a clinical audit.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Andrew D; Duncan, Christopher J A; MacDonald, Rona; Jones, Michael E

    2011-09-01

    Adverse reactions following vaccination are rare but may include potentially fatal anaphylaxis. This audit is a retrospective review of 38 patients with a history, or potential risk, of 'vaccine allergy' referred to an Infectious Diseases Unit for vaccination over a 10 year period. A total of 59 patient encounters were recorded, of which 89.8% were uneventful. Of the 6 adverse events, 3 patients had a local reaction, 1 patient developed urticaria and 1 patient had a vasovagal episode. Only 1 patient developed anaphylaxis secondary to vaccination, and she had no prior history of vaccine allergy. Of these patients 17 had a history suggesting the need for immunological investigation but only 7 had laboratory evidence of allergy. The differential diagnosis of anaphylaxis includes vasovagal reactions and non-specific mediator release and immunological work-up of such events can help avoid such patients being incorrectly labelled as allergic. The vast majority of immunisations are uncomplicated and patients with a history of allergic reactions to vaccination may be vaccinated safely in a controlled setting. Unduly conservative guidelines risk withholding vaccines providing protection against dangerous pathogens but which can be safely administered.

  11. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-κB and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  13. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Mast cells and basophils are essential for allergies: mechanisms of allergic inflammation and a proposed procedure for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Dong; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The current definition of allergy is a group of IgE-mediated diseases. However, a large portion of patients with clinical manifestations of allergies do not exhibit elevated serum levels of IgE (sIgEs). In this article, three key factors, ie soluble allergens, sIgEs and mast cells or basophils, representing the causative factors, messengers and primary effector cells in allergic inflammation, respectively, were discussed. Based on current knowledge on allergic diseases, we propose that allergic diseases are a group of diseases mediated through activated mast cells and/or basophils in sensitive individuals, and allergic diseases include four subgroups: (1) IgE dependent; (2) other immunoglobulin dependent; (3) non-immunoglobulin mediated; (4) mixture of the first three subgroups. According to our proposed definition, pseudo-allergic-reactions, in which mast cell or basophil activation is not mediated via IgE, or to a lesser extent via IgG or IgM, should be non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Specific allergen challenge tests (SACTs) are gold standard tests for diagnosing allergies in vivo, but risky. The identification of surface membrane activation markers of mast cells and basophils (CD203c, CCR3, CD63, etc) has led to development of the basophil activation test (BAT), an in vitro specific allergen challenge test (SACT). Based on currently available laboratory allergy tests, we here propose a laboratory examination procedure for allergy.

  15. [Adverse cutaneous reactions induced by exposure to woods].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Various adverse cutaneous reactions may occur as a result of exposure to wood dust or solid woods. These include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and, more rarely, contact urticaria, photoallergic and phototoxic reactions. Also cases of erythema multiforme-like reactions have been reported. Contact dermatitis, both allergic and irritant, is most frequently provoked by exotic woods, e.g. wood of the Dalbergia spp., Machaerium scleroxylon or Tectona grandis. Cutaneous reactions are usually associated with manual or machine woodworking, in occupational setting or as a hobby. As a result of exposure to wood dust, airborne contact dermatitis is often diagnosed. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis due to solid woods of finished articles as jewelry or musical instruments have also been reported. The aim of the paper is to present various adverse skin reactions related to exposure to woods, their causal factors and sources of exposure, based on the review of literature.

  16. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  17. Hybrid approach for including electronic and nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen transfer reactions in enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billeter, Salomon R.; Webb, Simon P.; Iordanov, Tzvetelin; Agarwal, Pratul K.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2001-04-01

    A hybrid approach for simulating proton and hydride transfer reactions in enzymes is presented. The electronic quantum effects are incorporated with an empirical valence bond approach. The nuclear quantum effects of the transferring hydrogen are included with a mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method in which the hydrogen nucleus is described as a multidimensional vibrational wave function. The free energy profiles are obtained as functions of a collective reaction coordinate. A perturbation formula is derived to incorporate the vibrationally adiabatic nuclear quantum effects into the free energy profiles. The dynamical effects are studied with the molecular dynamics with quantum transitions (MDQT) surface hopping method, which incorporates nonadiabatic transitions among the adiabatic hydrogen vibrational states. The MDQT method is combined with a reactive flux approach to calculate the transmission coefficient and to investigate the real-time dynamics of reactive trajectories. This hybrid approach includes nuclear quantum effects such as zero point energy, hydrogen tunneling, and excited vibrational states, as well as the dynamics of the complete enzyme and solvent. The nuclear quantum effects are incorporated during the generation of the free energy profiles and dynamical trajectories rather than subsequently added as corrections. Moreover, this methodology provides detailed mechanistic information at the molecular level and allows the calculation of rates and kinetic isotope effects. An initial application of this approach to the enzyme liver alcohol dehydrogenase is also presented.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  19. Statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory with width-fluctuation correction including direct reaction channels for neutron-induced reactions at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, T.; Capote, R.; Hilaire, S.; Chau Huu-Tai, P.

    2016-07-01

    A model to calculate particle-induced reaction cross sections with statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory including direct reactions is given. The energy average of the scattering matrix from the coupled-channels optical model is diagonalized by the transformation proposed by Engelbrecht and Weidenmüller [C. A. Engelbrecht and H. A. Weidenmüller, Phys. Rev. C 8, 859 (1973), 10.1103/PhysRevC.8.859]. The ensemble average of S -matrix elements in the diagonalized channel space is approximated by a model of Moldauer [P. A. Moldauer, Phys. Rev. C 12, 744 (1975), 10.1103/PhysRevC.12.744] using the newly parametrized channel degree-of-freedom νa to better describe the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) reference calculations. The Moldauer approximation is confirmed by a Monte Carlo study using a randomly generated S matrix, as well as the GOE threefold integration formula. The method proposed is applied to the 238U(n ,n' ) cross-section calculation in the fast-energy range, showing an enhancement in the inelastic scattering cross sections.

  20. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, Ruby; Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  2. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  3. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics.

  4. New treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tkachyk, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:10349070

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  6. Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, S; Puigdemont, A; Della Valle, M F; Fusco, M; Verde, R; Allarà, M; Aveta, T; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encoding for N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA), were treated with adelmidrol or azelaic acid, and the concentrations of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and related mediators (PEA and oleoylethanolamide) were measured. The mRNA expression of PEA catabolic enzymes (NAAA and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), and biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1, was also measured. Brain or HEK-293 cell membrane fractions were used to assess the ability of adelmidrol to inhibit FAAH and NAAA activity, respectively. HaCaT cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), was measured in the presence of adelmidrol. Adelmidrol increased PEA concentrations in canine keratinocytes and in the other cellular systems studied. It did not inhibit the activity of PEA catabolic enzymes, although it reduced their mRNA expression in some cell types. Adelmidrol modulated the expression of PEA biosynthetic enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in HaCaT cells, and inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-2 from stimulated HaCaT cells. This study demonstrates for the first time an 'entourage effect' of adelmidrol on PEA concentrations in keratinocytes and suggests that this effect might mediate, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound in veterinary practice.

  7. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Juan Carlos; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aída; Cariño-Cartagena, Diego Antonio; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  8. Epigenetics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 7 million children in the United States. Epidemiological evidence supports the idea that the inception of allergic diseases is typically before the pre-school years, even when chronic symptoms do not emerge until adulthood. The role of epigenetic mechanisms (particularly DNA methylation) in allergic disease is under active investigation because these mechanisms are known to be at the interface among gene regulation, environmental stimuli and developmental processes, all of which are essential for the pathogenesis for asthma and allergy. This article specifically reviews genome-wide DNA methylation studies in allergic disease. Recent findings Differential DNA methylation at specific regions appears to be associated with concurrent allergic disease. A few studies have identified methylation signatures predictive of disease. Summary DNA methylation signatures have been shown be associated with several allergic disease phenotypes, typically concurrently with disease. The few that have been found to precede diagnosis are especially interesting because they highlight an early trajectory to disease. PMID:26418323

  9. Occlusive irritant dermatitis: when is "allergic" contact dermatitis not allergic?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sara; Helms, Amy; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    CASE 1: A 38-year-old teacher presented with a 3- to 4-week history of a linear, erythematous, vesicular, and pruritic eruption of her left wrist. She had been wearing a new elastic bracelet for 4 weeks before the onset of her eruption. Although there was no history of allergy to rubber products or jewelry, an allergic contact dermatitis to rubber was suspected. Patch testing to rubber chemicals and the elastic bracelet revealed no reactions at 48, 72, and 96 hours. She stopped wearing the bracelet and used a corticosteroid cream with rapid resolution of the problem. The patient resumed wearing the bracelet, and there has been no recurrence in the past 2 months. CASE 2: A 12-year-old boy presented with a 1-month history of an itchy, scaly, erythematous 1-cm patch over the midline of his lower lip. The patient complained of tiny blisters initially with persistent erythema, mild scaling, and associated pruritus. The patient plays the saxophone and he had been practicing more intensely (3 to 4 h/d) for a musical competition. Allergic reaction to his wood reed was suspected, but patch testing with a moistened portion of his reed and reed shavings in a drop of water revealed no reaction at 48 and 72 hours. Treatment with hydrocortisone 1% cream bid for 3 days led to complete resolution of the dermitis and pruritus. Playing the saxophone 1 h/d has not led to any recurrence. CASE 3: A 33-year-old woman presented with erythema, scaling, and pruritus of 1 month's duration beneath her engagement and wedding rings, which were worn together on her left fourth finger (Figure 3). Although she had no history of previous sensitivity to earrings, watch clasp, blue jean rivets, or other jewelry, allergic contact dermatitis to nickel was suspected. Patch testing was performed to the common metal allergens nickel, cobalt, chromium, and gold. Readings at 48 hours and 1 week revealed no positive reactions. The patient wore her rings on the right hand for 1 week and used fluocinonide 0

  10. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, IL (interleukin)-1{beta}, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-{kappa}B and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. - Research Highlights: > Discovery of drugs for the allergic inflammation is important in human health. > Chrysin is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. > Chrysin

  11. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; Zaki, Rehab M.; Salama, Mervat A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT) using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4%) patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326) of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118) of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44) of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54) of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp.) with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products. PMID:25505988

  12. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A; Bush, Robert K; Demain, Jeffrey G; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    There remains a lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports, and an electronic survey was conducted of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 US physicians in the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology database of members and fellows, 245 health professionals (48%) had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE because 44.9% used ≥417 kU/L, whereas 42.0% used ≥1000 kU/L. Analysis of these findings suggests that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. With regard to pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids plus inhaled corticosteroids plus antifungal agent were used with 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited.

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  14. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  15. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K.; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E.; Ryan, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0–9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. PMID:26715608

  16. Tregs and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas S.; Larché, Mark; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect up to 15% of populations in Westernized countries. The description of Tregs as T cells that prevent development of autoimmune disease led to considerable interest in whether these Tregs were also normally involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens and whether it might be possible to manipulate Tregs for the therapy of allergic disease. Current data suggest that Th2 responses to allergens are normally suppressed by both CD4+CD25+ Tregs and IL-10 Tregs. Furthermore, suppression by these subsets is decreased in allergic individuals. In animal models, Tregs could be induced by high- or low-dose inhaled antigen, and prior induction of such Tregs prevented subsequent development of allergen sensitization and airway inflammation in inhaled challenge models. For many years, allergen-injection immunotherapy has been used for the therapy of allergic disease, and this treatment may induce IL-10 Tregs, leading to both suppression of Th2 responses and a switch from IgE to IgG4 antibody production. Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. PMID:15545986

  17. Allergic response to metabisulfite in lidocaine anesthetic solution.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. R.; Maestrello, C. L.; Campbell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    True allergies to local anesthetics are rare. It is common for practitioners to misdiagnose a serious adverse event to local anesthetics as an allergic reaction. The most likely causes for an allergic response are the preservative, antioxidant, or metabolites and not the anesthetic itself. This case report illustrates the need for practitioners to understand the many potential allergens in local anesthetics and to correctly diagnose patients that are truly allergic to the local anesthetic. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figures 4 and 5 PMID:11495401

  18. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with allergy to intraoral metals.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia; Zerboni, Roberto; Somalvico, Francesco; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2014-10-15

    Contact (allergic) dermatitis is a skin disorder related to natural exposure to various allergens. Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) describes a cutaneous eruption in response to systemic exposure to an allergen. The exact pathologic mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we describe a 36-year-old woman with symmetric systemic allergic contact dermatitis, unresponsive to conventional treatment, associated with dental alloy-contact hypersensitivity. We did skin patch testing and the blood lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) from the dental allergen series to assess contact allergy to restorative dental materials. On patch testing, positive allergic contact dermatitis reactions to metals occurred (nickel, potassium dichromate, and gold). Nickel hypersensitivity was confirmed by LTT, which also revealed silver-amalgam sensitization. Our case report highlights the need to consider adverse reactions to base-metal dental alloys in the differential diagnosis of cases of systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  20. [Apoptosis in allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas Ramos, E; Martínez Jiménez, N E; Martínez Aguilar, N E; Garfias Becerra, J

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis (cell programmed death) it is a mechanism that implicate a physiological suicide, to keep the cellular homeostasis in big amount of tissues. Fas (APO-1; CD95) system is one of the most important cellular responsible via to induce apoptosis on different tissues. Eosinophillia on peripheral blood and tissues are the main characteristics on allergic like asthma. Eosinophil apoptosis is upper regulated in those diseases by IL-5 y GM-CSF. Corticoids, teophyllin and some macrolids have been used like apoptosis inductors on eosinophills, these could be a novel mechanism to promote a better solution on inflammatory allergic diseases.

  1. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.

  2. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes.

  3. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Conk-Dalay, Meltem; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing globally due to various causes. It affects the quality life of a large group of people in all around the world. Allergic rhinitis still remains inadequately controlled with present medical means. The need of continuous medical therapy makes individuals anxious about the side effects of the drugs. So there is a need for an alternative strategy. Effects of spirulina, tinospora cordifolia and butterbur were investigated recently on allergic rhinitis in just very few investigations. Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. This double blind, placebo controlled study, evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Spirulina consumption significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placebo (P < 0.001***) including nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. Spirulina is clinically effective on allergic rhinitis when compared with placebo. Further studies should be performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this effect.

  4. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  5. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common causes of allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor ... may seem drastic, but it often helps ease seasonal symptoms. True False False. It's hard to escape allergy triggers. Many forms of pollen (especially grasses) and ...

  6. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  7. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  8. Pulmonary mycotic infections; allergic and immunologic factors.

    PubMed

    KEENEY, E L

    1954-12-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated.Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions-precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction-the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections-for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed.

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible.

  10. Identification of the five human Plasmodium species including P. knowlesi by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Oddoux, O; Debourgogne, A; Kantele, A; Kocken, C H; Jokiranta, T S; Vedy, S; Puyhardy, J M; Machouart, M

    2011-04-01

    Recently, Plasmodium knowlesi has been recognised as the fifth Plasmodium species causing malaria in humans. Hundreds of human cases infected with this originally simian Plasmodium species have been described in Asian countries and increasing numbers are reported in Europe from travellers. The growing impact of tourism and economic development in South and Southeast Asia are expected to subsequently lead to a further increase in cases both among locals and among travellers. P. knowlesi is easily misidentified in microscopy as P. malariae or P. falciparum. We developed new primers for the rapid and specific detection of this species by low-cost real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and added this method to an already existing panel of primers used for the molecular identification of the other four species in one reaction. Reference laboratories should now be able to identify undisputably and rapidly P. knowlesi, as it is a potentially fatal pathogen.

  11. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  12. [Allergic rhinitis and ashtma: 2 illnesses. The same disease?].

    PubMed

    González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances of the upper and lower airways frequently coexist, and the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma is an example of that. The relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma probably occurs because both, nasal and bronchial mucosas are elements of a "united airway", and on the other hand, allergic rhinitis and asthma are manifestations of a common allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis and asthma are not only statistically associated, but have pathophysiological and clinical similarities. Allergic rhinitis is itself a risk factor for the development of asthma, but additionally may confound the diagnosis of asthma and may exacerbate coexisting asthma. The management of allergic rhinitis, mainly with the use of intranasal corticosteroids, improve asthma symptoms and lung function in asthmatic patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed to link the nose and bronchi, which include: postnasal drip of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory molecules; a possible nasobronchial neural reflex; an increased exposure of the lower airways to dry and cold air as well as aeroallergens because the mouth breathing secondary to nasal obstruction; and an increased susceptibility to rhinovirus infection secondary to an increased ICAM-1 expression in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis. A better understanding of the rhinitis-asthma relationship nature might allow the creation of better strategies for the integral treatment of patients with these diseases.

  13. The burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Ozdoganoglu, Tunis; Songu, Murat

    2012-02-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common health problems that cause major illness and disability worldwide. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is estimated to range from 10% to 20% in the USA and Europe. Multiple factors contribute to the wide range of reported prevalence rates. These include type of prevalence rate reported (current or cumulative), study selection criteria, age of participants, differences in survey methods, varied geographic locations and socioeconomic status, any of which are significant enough to confound direct comparison between studies. There is no standard set of diagnostic criteria for allergic rhinitis. In most studies, the criteria for diagnosis are based on the subject's reporting, solely by questionnaire and rarely confirmed by skin testing. In addition, most studies focus on hay fever, leaving perennial allergic rhinitis underestimated. Sinus imaging is generally not performed and, therefore, rhinosinusitis not differentiated. Some investigators report 'current' prevalence while others report 'cumulative' or 'lifetime' prevalence. Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that asthma and rhinitis often coexist in the same patients. The prevalence of asthma is <2% in subjects without rhinitis while it varies from 10% to 40% in patients with rhinitis. Furthermore, the majority of patients with asthma experience rhinitis, which is a factor in the risk for asthma. Despite recognition that allergic rhinitis and asthma are global health problems, there are insufficient epidemiologic data and more data are needed with regard to their etiologic risk factors and natural history. This aim of this review is to enable the reader to discuss prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  14. GLSENS: A Generalized Extension of LSENS Including Global Reactions and Added Sensitivity Analysis for the Perfectly Stirred Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized version of the NASA Lewis general kinetics code, LSENS, is described. The new code allows the use of global reactions as well as molecular processes in a chemical mechanism. The code also incorporates the capability of performing sensitivity analysis calculations for a perfectly stirred reactor rapidly and conveniently at the same time that the main kinetics calculations are being done. The GLSENS code has been extensively tested and has been found to be accurate and efficient. Nine example problems are presented and complete user instructions are given for the new capabilities. This report is to be used in conjunction with the documentation for the original LSENS code.

  15. Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D

    2013-11-01

    Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases.

  16. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  17. Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large

  18. [Allergic vasculitis in brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Mérad-Boudia, A; Ghernaout-Benchouk, S

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram negative bacillus of the Brucella gender. Skin manifestations have been reported in 1.5 to 11 p. 100 of the cases. Allergic vasculitis is rare. Recently a 24-year-old man was hospitalized for signs of infection. He had been treated with tetracycline. The clinical picture was suggestive of brucellosis and the Wright test was positive at 1/1,280. There were violet and purpuric papulae on the limbs, arthritis of the knee and ankle joints and renal involvement (haematuria, proteinuria). Histology revealed fibrinoid and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the small veinules of the subpapillary plexus. Outcome was favourable with rifampicin, doxycycline and adjuvant dapsone, together with bed rest. Several types of skin manifestations have been reported in brucellosis although cases of allergic vasculitis are rare.

  19. Goldschlager allergy in a gold allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T; Stork, C M; Cantor, R M

    1999-08-01

    We describe the case of gold allergy after ingestion of GOLDSCHLAGER, a gold-containing liquor, in a patient with a previous allergy to gold jewelry. The patient was not aware that genuine gold particles were contained in the schnapps liquor and that ingestion could result in a reaction similar to that experienced by individuals sensitive to gold jewelry. Clinicians should be familiar with the presence of gold particles in GOLDSCHLAGER liquor and the potential for allergic reactions to occur in those so predisposed.

  20. Vitiligo and allergic complications from orthopaedic joint implants: the role of benzoyl peroxide.

    PubMed

    Dudda, Marcel; Godau, Peter; Al-Benna, Sammy; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Gothner, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Orthopaedic joint implants and osteosynthetic materials are progressively being employed more often. Complications mainly include physical-mechanical problems and infections. Uncommonly, allergic reactions to an alloy metal or a bone cement component have been implicated. Less attention has been paid to the components of bone cement, such as acrylate, catalysers (e.g. peroxide), additive polymers or stabilisers. An important bone cement component is benzoylperoxide (BPO), an initiator of the process enhancement of the bone cement. Vitiligo is an acquired, progressive depigmenting disorder that can induce autoimmune diseases. The occurrence of vitiligo in combination with an infection or allergy is not well described, and this manuscript highlights the possibility of an occurrence of a vitiligo whenever the immunesystem is activated and T-cell activation is observed. The aim of this article was to analyze the diagnosis and management of vitiligo and allergic complications from orthopaedic joint implants due to benzoyl-peroxide and relevant patents.

  1. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  2. Spectrophotometric method for the quantitative assay of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters including extinction coefficients and reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Presentini, Rivo

    2017-05-15

    A quantitative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), a chromophore with a maximum absorbance at 268 nm. The extinction coefficients were determined between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and found to vary in a nonlinear manner. This spectrophotometric profile is not present in its esters which however release an equimolar amount of sulfo-NHS when they react with nucleophilic groups or hydrolyze in aqueous solution. This fact facilitates the determination in solution of the concentration and purity of bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) used as a model, as well as the examination of hydrolysis and aminolysis half-lives in different reaction conditions, these parameters being valuable in optimization of the use of the active esters.

  3. Diversity of gut Bifidobacterium species is not altered between allergic and non-allergic French infants.

    PubMed

    Waligora-Dupriet, A J; Campeotto, F; Romero, K; Mangin, I; Rouzaud, G; Ménard, O; Suau, A; Soulaines, P; Nicolis, I; Kapel, N; Dupont, C; Butel, M J

    2011-06-01

    Some clinical studies have suggested a relationship between allergic diseases and gut microbiota. We aimed to study bifidobacterial colonization at species and strain levels in ten allergic French infants included at their first clinical consultation and 20 controls matching for age at sampling, mode of delivery, per partum antibiotics, type of feeding and antibiotics in the first weeks of life. The faecal microbiota was analyzed by culture methods and TTGE. Bifidobacterial species and strains were identified using multiplex PCR and Box-PCR fingerprinting. No differences were observed between groups in the number of colonized infants or in the levels of colonization by the main aerobic and anaerobic genera. All infants were colonized with high levels of Bifidobacterium except for one in each group. One to 5 Bifidobacterium species and 1 to 7 strains were observed per subject independently of allergic status and age at sampling. Our study showed the infants to be colonized by several species and strains, including several strains from the same species. This diversity in Bifidobacterium colonization was not related with the allergic status and showed that the link between Bifidobacterium colonization and allergic diseases is complex and cannot be restricted to the role attributed to Bifidobacterium species.

  4. Allergic Inflammation—Innately Homeostatic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Laurence E.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  5. Case of allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-butylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Atsuko; Ito, Akiko; Masui, Yukiko; Ito, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Butylene glycol (1,3-BG) is widely used in cosmetics, including low-irritant skin care products and topical medicaments, as an excellent and low-irritation humectant. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-BG. A 28-year-old woman suffered from an itchy erythematous eruption on her face. By 2 days of closed patch testing, her own cosmetics and many of the hypo-irritant skin care products showed positive results. A second patch testing showed positive reaction to 1,3-BG (1% and 5%). 1,3-BG was a common component in most of the products that had elicited a positive reaction in the first patch testing. Although allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-BG is not so common, we have to consider 1,3-BG as a possible contact allergen in the patients presenting with allergic contact dermatitis due to various cosmetics.

  6. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus.

  7. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  8. Is vitamin E an anti-allergic compound?

    PubMed

    Caraffa, A L; Varvara, G; Spinas, E; Kritas, S K; Lessiani, G; Ronconi, G; Saggini, A; Antinolfi, P; Frydas, I; De Tommaso Morrison, M C; Conti, P

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin E is found in eight forms in nature which include four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and four tocotrianols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). The classic effect of vitamin E is to reduce and prevent oxygen damage to the tissue and is useful for the treatment of pain, inflammation and allergic reactions. In addition to antioxidant activity, vitamin E also has a number of different and related functions. It protects against cancer, improves immune response, lowers the incidence of infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and is protective in allergy and asthma risk, and other disorders. Vitamin E increases n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreases n-3 PUFA, an effect that diminishes asthma and allergic diseases. Moreover, vitamin E regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration through its oxidant and non-antioxidant effect. Furthermore, vitamin E modulates the endothelial function by altering VCAM-1-induced oxidative activation of endothelial cell PKCα. However, vitamin E is not consistently associated with asthma and/or allergy, and in some cases there are conflicting results on allergy and inflammatory diseases. The association of vitamin E and allergy appears to be very complex, and further study needs to clarify this dilemma.

  9. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  10. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  11. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  12. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials.

  13. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  14. Galangin attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Bae, Yunju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. In this study, we investigated anti-allergic inflammatory effect of galangin and underlying mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo models. Galangin inhibited histamine release by the reduction of intracellular calcium in phorbol 12-mystate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Galangin decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and IL-8. The inhibitory effect of galangin on theses pro-inflammatory cytokines was related with c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, and caspase-1. Furthermore, galangin attenuated IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and the expression of histamine receptor 1 at the inflamed tissue. The inhibitory effects of galangin were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Our results showed that galangin down-regulates mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In light of in vitro and in vivo anti-allergic inflammatory effects, galangin could be a beneficial anti-allergic inflammatory agent.

  15. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  16. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented. PMID:22776751

  17. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sonia N; Judson, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by an exaggerated T(H)2 response to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA develops in a small fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis and asthma, suggesting that intrinsic host defects play a major role in disease susceptibility. This article reviews current understanding of the immunopathology, clinical and laboratory findings, and diagnosis and management of ABPA. It highlights clinical and laboratory clues to differentiate ABPA from cystic fibrosis and asthma, which are challenging given clinical and serologic similarities. A practical diagnostic algorithm and management scheme to aid in the treatment of these patients is outlined.

  18. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  19. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  20. Voice change in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Bende, Mats; Brynnel, Moa; Johansson, Inger; Kappel, Sofi; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-07-01

    Voice problems are seldom reported in pollen allergy, although the allergic reaction involves the entire airways. The objective of this study was to investigate voice dysfunction during the pollen season in patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty patients with verified birch pollen allergy and 30 controls were investigated twice, during the pollen season and outside the pollen season. Both times they scored respiratory and voice symptoms, the latter with the validated questionnaire Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and performed standardized voice recordings. These recordings were analyzed in a controlled manner by a professional voice therapist. During the allergy season, patients reported more respiratory and voice symptoms compared with controls. Those with blinded scored voice dysfunction scored their voice quality during springtime as 31 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-42 mm), compared with 13 mm (95% CI 6-21 mm for participants without voice dysfunction (P<0.01). Furthermore, the group with experienced voice dysfunction scored significantly higher on the VHI in the functional and physical domains and in the total VHI score. Although voice problems during the pollen season are rarely discussed, in allergic rhinitis the larynx may also be involved. These findings support that some patients experience voice change, an experience which can be objectively confirmed.

  1. Spotlight on the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis).

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Fischer, Axel; Budnik, Lygia T

    2015-01-01

    Repeated inhalative exposures to antigenic material from a variety of sources, mainly from moulds, thermophilic Actinomycetes, and avians, respectively, can induce immune responses with the clinical picture of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Delays of years or even decades till the diagnosis is made are not uncommon; frequent misdiagnoses include allergic asthma, COPD, recurrent flue and other infections. We provide here the state of the art references, a detailed case description and recommend a current diagnostics schema.

  2. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  3. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  4. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  5. Development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Qiong; Zhang, Jun; Muller, Claude P; Chen, Jing-Xian; Yang, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Ren; Li, Juan; He, Yun-Shao

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and, if transmitted to poultry, can cause serious economic losses. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of influenza virus type A, including H5 and H9 subtypes. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan reporter probes corresponding to matrix, H5, and H9 genes were used in a multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay can be applied to detect RNA of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes with a high specificity and a sensitivity of 10 copies per reaction. As a result of its short turnaround times and a high specificity and sensitivity, the assay is very suitable for large-scale screening during AIV outbreaks.

  6. Revisiting the roles of mast cells in allergic rhinitis and its relation to local IgE synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, R; Yamagishi, S; Yagi, T

    2000-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in the immediate-phase allergic reaction. However, in recent years much evidence has accumulated on the versatile role of mast cells in allergic inflammation. The present article is an overview of the roles of mast cells in allergic inflammation, especially in light of the local production of IgE and the IgE-IgE receptor network. Although both nasal mast cells (NMC) and T cells in allergic rhinitics are important sources of Th2-type cytokines like IL-4 and IL-13, and can induce IgE synthesis, we report here that antigen-activated NMC can secrete greater levels of IL-4/IL-13 and induce increased levels of IgE synthesis than antigen-activated nasal T cells. Furthermore, IgE production can occur locally in the nasal mucosa (target organ) and IgE itself can enhance the Fc epsilon RI expression and subsequent mediator release from NMC, thus contributing to the perpetuation of on-going allergic inflammation. Again, mast cells can contribute to the late-phase allergic reaction not only via the upregulation of adhesion molecules like VCAM-1, but also through the interactions of NMC with the extracellular matrix proteins, and interaction of NMC with nasal epithelial cells (NEC). Thus, it is increasingly evident that mast cells are not only important for the genesis of the allergic reaction, but also contribute to the late-phase allergic reaction and on-going allergic inflammation.

  7. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

    2008-01-09

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  8. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    PubMed

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  9. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.

  10. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  12. An IgE immediate reaction to thiocolchicoside.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, D; Caviglioli, S; Raschetti, R; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions due to muscle relaxant drugs may be related either to a nonspecific release of allergic mediators or to allergic reactions induced by the molecules themselves. Rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions have been associated to thiocolchicoside, and no case of IgE-mediated immediate reaction has actually been reported to date. We report the first documented case of immediate anaphylaxis to thiocolchicoside.

  13. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  14. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  15. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  16. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  17. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  18. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  19. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6.

  20. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  1. Urticaria: "You're Probably Just Allergic to Something".

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Urticaria is a common symptom seen in pediatric patients, and it has multiple allergic and nonallergic causes. Unfortunately, it is far too common that when children present acutely for urticaria, they are told that it is an "allergy." This statement often leads to increased anxiety while the patient waits to be evaluated by an allergist/immunologist. This article discusses the frequency that allergic reactions are involved in urticaria and provides examples of potential nonallergic causes. Additionally, the article discusses approaches to treatment that may be appropriate to initiate in the pediatrician's office or acute setting. This article is intended to provide a broader understanding of urticaria and its management in the outpatient or emergency setting so that we are able to tell our patients more than"you're probably just allergic to something." [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(11):e399-e402.].

  2. Prevalence of allergic sensitization to regional inhalants among allergic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baratawidjaja, I R; Baratawidjaja, P P; Darwis, A; Soo-Hwee, L; Fook-Tim, C; Bee-Wah, L; Baratawidjaja, K G

    1999-03-01

    Sensitization towards a panel of eight regional inhalant allergens was evaluated among 107 patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. A total of 32 children (age 5-13 years, mean 9 years; 18 male, 14 female), 75 adolescents and adults (aged 14-66 years, mean 32 years; 21 male, 54 female) and 20 normal control volunteers (aged 16-46, mean 30 years; 4 male, 16 female) were evaluated via skin prick test. A weal response of 3 x 3 mm or greater was taken to be positive. The sensitization rates among individuals to these allergens were: house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (77.57%), Blomia tropicalis (71.96%), Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis (33.64%), pollen, palm oil Elaeis guineensis (22.43%), Acacia auriculiformis (12.15%), fern spore, resam Dicranopteris spp (11.21%), fungal spores: Curvularia fallax (8.41%) and Exserohilum rostratum (13.08%). There were significantly higher frequencies of sensitization to these allergens among allergic individuals compared to normal controls, and among atopic individuals with two allergy manifestations (rhinitis and asthma) compared to those with only one. No difference was noted between children and adults in the allergic group. In conclusion, the allergic patients were highly sensitized to dust mites and sensitization to regional pollen and spores was also documented. They should be considered as relevant and be included in skin test batteries in Indonesia.

  3. [Allergic rhinitis: evaluation of prick test positivity for German and American cockroaches (Blatella Germanica, Periplaneta Americana)].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, M; Salami, A; Cordone, G; Sovatzis, A; Mora, F; Cordone, M P; Mora, R; Yoo, T J

    2002-06-01

    Allergies are a widespread phenomenon and one that is in continuous expansion, especially in large cities. A heretofore underestimated allergen, at least in Italy, is the cockroach. Between April and June 2000, we administered a prick test (including the cockroach antigen in the allergen kit) to 163 patients. The prick test was executed utilizing histamine as the positive control and a normal diluent as the negative control; both indoor allergens (including dermatophagoids and dog and cat epithelium) and outdoor allergens (including trees, grasses, pollens and spores) were employed. The results obtained were evaluated by comparing the reaction provoked by these allergens to that of the histamine. About 20% of the patients who reacted to the other indoor allergens also tested positive to the cockroach antigen. Also on the basis of experiences previously carried out in other countries (United States, Korea, Japan, Turkey), the cockroach must be borne in mind as a possible significant cause of allergic reactions in Italy, too.

  4. Allergic rhinitis and genetic components: focus on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhiwei; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2010-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting 10% to 25% of the population worldwide. Over the years, studies have found that allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, are associated with immunological responses to antigens driven by a Th2-mediated immune response. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses to a broad variety of antigens, the association between polymorphisms of TLRs and allergic diseases has been the focus in many animal and human studies. Although the etiology of allergic rhinitis is still unknown, extensive research over the years has confirmed that the underlying causes of allergic diseases are due to many genetic and environmental factors, along with the interactions among them, which include gene–environment, gene–gene, and environment–environment interactions. Currently, there is great inconsistency among studies mainly due to differences in genetic background and unique gene–environment interactions. This paper reviews studies focusing on the association between TLR polymorphisms and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, which would help researchers better understand the role of TLR polymorphisms in the development of allergic rhinitis, and ultimately lead to more efficient therapeutic interventions being developed. PMID:23776356

  5. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  6. Clinical evaluation of fifty-six patients referred with symptoms tentatively related to allergic contact stomatitis.

    PubMed

    van Loon, L A; Bos, J D; Davidson, C L

    1992-11-01

    During a 7-year period, 56 patients were referred to the Department of General Pathology and Internal Medicine and the Department of Dental Materials, University of Amsterdam, to determine whether contact allergic reactions to dental materials were the cause of their complaints. On the first consultation with the patient a detailed history focusing on the complaints themselves, general medical history, and special clinical history of allergic skin reaction was obtained. Oral examinations were performed, and all patients were referred to the allergy clinic at the department of dermatology for skin tests. There was a strong female predominance in the referred group. Most of the patients with allergic contact stomatitis mentioned a burning sensation in the mouth. In only 16 of the 56 patients could the diagnosis of allergic contact stomatitis be established. From this study it can also be concluded that the combination of a positive allergic history and positive allergic skin reactions with or without visible oral signs are important for the diagnosis of allergic contact stomatitis.

  7. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  8. Inhibitory effect of Moutan Cortex aqueous fraction on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kee, Ji-Ye; Inujima, Akiko; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Tanaka, Ken; Li, Feng; Kuraishi, Yasushi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Saiki, Ikuo; Koizumi, Keiichi

    2015-04-01

    Moutan Cortex and its major compounds have been shown to possess various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of Moutan Cortex aqueous fraction (MCA) and its molecular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of MCA on mast cell-mediated allergy inflammation in vitro and in vivo compared with major Moutan Cortex compounds. Thus, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of Moutan Cortex by comparing the inhibition of β-hexosaminadase and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release in an aqueous fraction with other major compounds of Moutan Cortex. The inhibitory mechanism of MCA was investigated by western blotting in IgE-mediated DNP-BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. We confirmed the pharmacological effects of MCA on compound 48/80-induced allergic reactions in a mouse model by assessing scratching behavior and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-like reaction. Consequently, MCA inhibited IgE-mediated DNP-BSA-induced β-hexosaminadase and TNF-α release via inactivation of p38, ERK, Akt, and NF-κB in RBL-2H3 cells. MCA reduced compound 48/80-induced PCA reaction and scratching behavior in mice. This inhibitory effect of MCA is more potent than major compounds of Moutan Cortex. In conclusion, our results suggest that MCA has more potential in the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases compared to other major compounds of Moutan Cortex.

  9. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  10. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  11. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V

    2012-01-01

    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  13. Leukocyte Agglomeration Reaction in Diagnosis of Allergy Reactions from Antibiotics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    tested in a clinic on 80 patients with serious allergic anamnesis . The results of the studies indicate that the leukocyte agglomeration reaction is a highly sensitive immunological indicator of hypersensitivity to antibiotics.

  14. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy.

  15. The management of the allergic child at school: EAACI/GA2LEN Task Force on the allergic child at school.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Clark, A; Beyer, K; Borrego, L M; Borres, M; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Carrer, P; Mazon, A; Rancè, F; Valovirta, E; Wickman, M; Zanchetti, M

    2010-06-01

    Allergy affects at least one-quarter of European schoolchildren, it reduces quality of life and may impair school performance; there is a risk of severe reactions and, in rare cases, death. Allergy is a multi-system disorder, and children often have several co-existing diseases, i.e. allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema and food allergy. Severe food allergy reactions may occur for the first time at school, and overall 20% of food allergy reactions occur in schools. Up to two-thirds of schools have at least one child at risk of anaphylaxis but many are poorly prepared. A cooperative partnership between doctors, community and school nurses, school staff, parents and the child is necessary to ensure allergic children are protected. Schools and doctors should adopt a comprehensive approach to allergy training, ensuring that all staff can prevent, recognize and initiate treatment of allergic reactions.

  16. Sesamin attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic responses by suppressing the activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang Chang; Piao, Hong Mei; Zheng, Ming Yu; Lin, Zhen Hua; Li, Guangzhao; Yan, Guang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Establishing therapeutic agents for the treatment of allergic diseases is an important focus of human health research. Sesamin, a lignan in sesame oil, exhibits a diverse range of pharmacological properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of sesamin on mast cell‑mediated allergic responses has not yet been investigated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sesamin on mast cell‑mediated allergic responses and the underlying mechanisms by which it produces this effect. In rats, oral administration of sesamin inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Sesamin exposure attenuated immunoglobulin E‑induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, which was indicated to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In human mast cells, sesamin reduced the stimulatory effects of phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 on the production and secretion of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6. The inhibitory effect of sesamin on pro‑inflammatory cytokine production was dependent on nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK). The present study demonstrates that sesamin inhibits mast cell‑derived inflammatory allergic reactions by blocking histamine release, and pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and secretion. In addition, the findings indicate that the effect of sesamin is mediated by its effect on p38 MAPK/NF‑κB signaling. Furthermore, the in vivo and in vitro anti‑allergic effects of sesamin reported in the present study suggest that it is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory allergic diseases.

  17. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  18. The effect of allergic rhinitis with positive skin prick test on choroidal thickness.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, Alper; Elbay, Ahmet; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-03-06

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease that develops through immunoglobulin E in the rhino-ocular mucosa due to allergy. The main symptoms are runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and itchy nose. This study was designed to investigate the effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness. This study was planned as a case-control study. This study performed in a tertiary referral center. The study included 61 patients with allergic rhinitis and 35 healthy subjects. Patients in both groups underwent skin prick test. In allergic rhinitis patients and healthy persons; subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness measurement was performed. The choroidal thicknesses were measured without pupil dilation using the Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography. In the subfoveal and temporal region, choroidal tissue was followed up significantly thicker in allergic rhinitis patients statistically compared to healthy persons (p = 0.031, p = 0.049). However, no significant difference was followed up between the nasal choroidal thickness measurements statistically (p = 0.54). Runny nose (67.2%), sneeze (65.5%), stuffiness (62.2%), itching of the nose (40.9%), and nasal discharge (21.3%) complaints were observed significantly higher in the group having allergic rhinitis. The effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness were assessed and compared with the control group. Our study revealed that there was significant association between increased choroidal thickness and allergic rhinitis. Allergic sensitivity may play an important role in increased choroidal thickness.

  19. Academic Functioning and Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents with Allergic Rhinitis--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series on allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis, which includes seasonal allergies, has been considered by physicians, parents, and the general public as a mild, transitory nuisance for children and adults that is easily remedied with over-the-counter or prescription medications. Recent research, however,…

  20. CROSS REACTIVITY IN ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES BETWEEN MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases including allergic asthma. Some mold allergens have been implicated as the causal agent for allergic asthma. Western blot analysis demonstrated IgE-binding cross-reactivity among m...

  1. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  2. PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADOLESCENTS WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Manjavidze, N; Ubiria, I; Saginadze, L

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a widespread allergic disease, with 35-40% prevalence in the world population. It is characterized with increasing frequency, particularly in children's population. Goal of the work - study of psycho-emotional profile in adolescents with allergic rhinitis of different severity. Single-stage research was conducted, in compliance with the ethical norms. Study included 86 children (41% girls and 45% boys) of age from 11 to 13 years with allergic rhinitis of different severity and 30 healthy children. For the purpose of study of the patients' psychological profile Esenek Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) intended for assessment of characterological and individual psychological features in children and adolescents (10-15 years) was used. Psycho-emotional sphere of the adolescents with allergic rhinitis was assessed also by Psychopathologic Symptom Checklist (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised-SCL-90-R). Clinical scale of self-assessment of psychical condition is widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice. At the final stage of research the mathematical-statistical data processing was provided by means of SPSS/v12 software package. According to the research results, susceptibility to significant and mild introversion was identified in severe and average AR cases. Such patients are often locked into their inner world. These children are reserved, communicate with the parents and close friends only. They make decisions with due care, love order, control their emotions, are pessimistic and rarely aggressive. Results of neuroticism study by G. Esenek techniques are provided in Table. Neuroticism is associated with the lability of nervous system, characterizes emotional condition or emotional lability (emotional stability or instability). According to the research results, allergic rhinitis is characterized with emotional instability, anxiety, as manifested by unsatisfactory adaptation, instable nature, depression, low resistance to the stress situations

  3. Propylene glycol: an often unrecognized cause of allergic contact dermatitis in patients using topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Al Jasser, M; Mebuke, N; de Gannes, G C

    2011-05-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is considered to be a ubiquitous formulary ingredient used in many personal care products and pharmaceutical preparations. It is an organic compound commonly found in topical corticosteroids (CS). Cutaneous reactions to PG are mostly irritant, but allergic contact dermatitis to PG is well-documented. Cosensitization to PG and topical CS can occur, making it challenging to choose the appropriate topical CS in a PG-allergic patient. This review is aimed at guiding clinicians in the selection of a suitable topical corticosteroid when presented with patients allergic to PG.

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader].

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, M C; Goday-Buján, J J; Almagro, M; Fonseca, E

    2009-05-01

    Diethylthiourea, like other thioureas, is often used by the rubber industry and in the manufacture of neoprene. We present a patient who suffered allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader and who required admission to hospital and systemic treatment. We review the literature on allergy to diethylthiourea. Thioureas are not included in the standard GEIDAC (Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group) battery of patch tests. In these cases, it is necessary to use a special battery of rubber allergens, which includes thiourea compounds, for diagnosis of the disease and to ensure that cases of contact allergic dermatitis to thioureas do not go undiagnosed.

  5. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  6. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  7. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  8. Complementary therapies in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Baykal, Bahadir; Ulusoy, Seckin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed.

  9. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon; Surh, Charles D

    2017-02-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota.

  10. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon

    2017-01-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota. PMID:28261020

  11. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  12. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Elizabeth S; Pinto-Mariz, Fernanda; Bastos-Pinto, Sandra; Pontes, Adailton T; Prado, Evandro A; deAzevedo, Leonardo C

    2009-11-30

    Asperger's syndrome is a subgroup of autism characterized by social deficits without language delay, and high cognitive performance. The biological nature of autism is still unknown but there are controversial evidence associating an immune imbalance and autism. Clinical findings, including atopic family history, serum IgE levels as well as cutaneous tests showed that incidence of atopy was higher in the Asperger group compared to the healthy controls. These findings suggest that atopy is frequent in this subgroup of autism implying that allergic inflammation might be an important feature in Asperger syndrome.

  13. Acute and chronic desensitization of penicillin-allergic patients using oral penicillin.

    PubMed

    Stark, B J; Earl, H S; Gross, G N; Lumry, W R; Goodman, E L; Sullivan, T J

    1987-03-01

    The efficacy, safety and mechanisms of penicillin desensitization were studied in 24 adults and two children with serious infections that required therapy with a beta-lactam drug. Indications for desensitization included debilitating as well as life-endangering infections. Increasing oral doses of phenoxymethyl penicillin were administered at 15-minute intervals to a cumulative dose of 1.3 million units. Parenteral therapy with the beta-lactam drug of choice was instituted at that point. Immunologic complications of desensitization or therapy, ranging from pruritus to serum sickness, occurred in 12 patients. The appearance of gradually worsening wheezing led to abandonment of the procedure in one subject with cystic fibrosis and severe pulmonary disease. The remaining 25 patients were successfully desensitized and received full-dose parenteral therapy. Chronic desensitization was maintained in seven individuals with twice daily oral penicillins for 3 weeks to more than 2 years. No allergic complications of chronic desensitization or recurrent full-dose parenteral therapy were detected. Skin test reactions to one or all penicillin determinants became negative in 11 of 15 patients retested after acute desensitization. Two desensitized patients became skin test negative, remained skin test negative after cessation of desensitization, and tolerated subsequent beta-lactam therapy without allergic reactions or resensitization. The results of this study provide new evidence that acute and chronic penicillin desensitization is useful and an acceptably safe approach and suggest that antigen-specific mast cell desensitization contributes to the protection against anaphylaxis.

  14. Ocular allergic inflammation: interaction between the cornea and conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ken; Nishida, Teruo

    2010-11-01

    Severe ocular allergic diseases such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis are characterized not only by conjunctival allergic inflammation, including infiltration of T helper 2 cells and eosinophils into the conjunctiva, but also by various corneal disorders such as persistent epithelial defects and shield ulcer. Although the cornea and conjunctiva are thought to influence each other during ocular allergic inflammation, direct evidence for interaction between these tissues in vivo has been lacking. Eosinophils and eosinophil-derived factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of corneal lesions associated with ocular allergy, with cytotoxic granule proteins such as major basic protein and matrix metalloproteinase 9 derived from eosinophils having been detected in shield ulcer. Major basic protein exhibits cytotoxic effects in cultured corneal epithelial cells and inhibits corneal epithelial wound healing in organ culture, whereas matrix metalloproteinase 9 can degrade the corneal epithelial basement membrane. In vitro studies have revealed that cytokines and other inflammatory mediators directly impair the barrier function of corneal epithelial cells and increase the expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules by corneal stromal fibroblasts, effects that may enhance allergic inflammation. We have recently shown that removal of the corneal epithelium augmented late-phase clinical signs and conjunctival eosinophilia, whereas conjunctival inflammation delayed corneal epithelial wound healing, in a rat model of ocular allergy. Conjunctival allergic inflammation and corneal epithelial disorders thus interact with each other in vivo to generate a vicious cycle, interruption of which might provide the basis for novel approaches to the treatment of severe ocular allergy.

  15. Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and other allergies in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: unnoticed issue

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Piotr; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic diseases are becoming more prevalent in elderly patients. Allergic diseases have been observed in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prevalence of atopic bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was analyzed in such elderly Polish population. Aim Analysis of the presence of allergic diseases in the patients with AD in Poland, including asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Material and methods The recruitment of subjects with AD was conducted at 6 sites representative of Polish rural and urban areas, and 1060 subjects with a mean age of 69.2 ±5.1 years were screened. Medical examinations, an original questionnaire, skin prick testing for common aeroallergens and appropriate serum-specific IgE assays were performed. Results Probable atopy was diagnosed in 234 (22.1%) analyzed patients, including 127 women (21.5% of women) and 234 men (22.8% of men). The average prevalence associated with age and sex in this population for bronchial asthma was 2.9%, atopic dermatitis/eczema was 0.6%, seasonal allergic rhinitis was 6.6%, perennial allergic rhinitis was 11.1% and polymorphous atopic disease was 4.4%. The most frequent positive results were recorded for the following allergens: mixed grass, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Alternaria. Conclusions One-fifth of diagnosed patients with AD have allergic disease requiring treatment. PMID:27881942

  16. [Allergic rhinitis. Coexistent diseases and complications. A review and analysis].

    PubMed

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is rarely found in isolation and needs to be considered in the context of systemic allergic disease associated with numerous comorbid disorders, including asthma, chronic middle ear effusions, sinusitis, and lymphoid hypertrophy with obstructive sleep apnea, disordered sleep, and consequent behavioral and educational effects. The coexistence of allergic rhinitis and asthma is complex. First, the diagnosis of asthma may be confused by symptoms of cough caused by rhinitis and postnasal drip. This may lead to either inaccurate diagnosis of asthma or inappropriate assessment of asthma severity with over treatment of the patient. The term "cough variant rhinitis" is therefore proposed to describe rhinitis that manifest itself primarily as cough that results from postnasal drip. Allergic rhinitis, however, has also a causal role in asthma; it appears both to be responsible for exacerbating asthma and to have a role in its pathogenesis. Postnasal drip with nasopharyngeal inflammation leads to a number of other conditions. Thus sinusitis is a frequent extension of rhinitis and is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses. Allergen exposure in the nasopharynx with release of histamine and other mediators can cause Eustachian tube obstruction possibly leading to middle ear effusions. Chronic allergic inflammation of the upper airway causes lymphoid hypertrophy with prominence of adenoidal and tonsillar tissue. This may be associated with poor appetite, poor growth, obstructive sleep apnea, mouth breathing, pharyngeal irritation and dental abnormalities. Allergic rhinitis is therefore part of a spectrum of allergic disorders that can profoundly affect the well being and quality of life of a child. Prospective cohort studies are required to assess the disease burden caused by allergic rhinitis in childhood, its consequences due to delay in diagnosis and treatment, and to further assess the potential educational impairment that may result. Because

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Like Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Se Hee; You, Ji Hee; Baek, Hyung Tae; Na, Chul; Kim, Bung Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:25110499

  18. Adiposity, serum lipid levels, and allergic sensitization in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Kumar, Rajesh; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Story, Rachel E.; Liu, Xin; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Liu, Xue; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Wenbin; Fang, Yaping; Zhang, Shanchun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and allergic diseases have increased dramatically in recent decades. While adiposity has been associated with asthma, associations with allergic sensitization have been inconsistent. Objective To examine the association of adiposity and lipid profiles with allergic sensitization. Methods This study included 1,187 rural Chinese twins (653 men) aged 18-39 years, with skin prick tests (SPT), anthropometric and DEXA-assessed adiposity measures, and lipid assessments. Allergic sensitization was defined as positive SPT to ≥1 allergen (9 foods and 5 aeroallergens tested). We applied gender-stratified generalized estimating equations to assess the association of adiposity and serum lipids with allergic sensitization, and structural equation models to estimate the genetic/environmental influences on any observed associations. Results Males had lower percent body fat (%BF) (13.9% vs. 28.8%) but higher rates of allergic sensitization (56.2% vs. 36.7%) than females. Males in the highest %BF quartile were 2.1 times more likely sensitized than the lowest quartile (95%CI 1.3-3.5, P-trend=0.003). In males, the risk of allergic sensitization increased with HDL<40 mg/dl (OR=4.0, 95%CI 1.8-9.2) and higher LDL quartiles (P-trend=0.007). This appeared to be partially explained by shared genetic factors between serum lipid levels and allergic sensitization. In females, lower HDL was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization. Conclusions In this relatively lean Chinese population, higher %BF, lower HDL and higher LDL were associated with greater risk of allergic sensitization, most notable in males. The observed associations between adiposity, serum lipids and allergic sensitization in males appear to be partially explained by common genetic influences on these traits. PMID:19135238

  19. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  20. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  1. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  2. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  3. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  4. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight(®) intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight(®) group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight(®) treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  5. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  6. Phenotypic characterization in situ of inflammatory cells in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L

    1984-01-01

    The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938

  7. My patient is allergic to eggs, can i use propofol? A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Tashkandi, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    Rather than other drugs, propofol is more likely to be used for induction of anesthesia to cause an allergic reaction. Propofol is becoming the most common intravenous agent used for induction as well as maintenance of anaesthesia. Allergy to propofol is rarely reported. We present a case of 4–year-old boy presented for elective adenotonsillectomy with past medical history of eczema and multiple allergies to food. He developed what seems to be an allergic reaction to propofol. We concluded that anaesthetists should be alerted when using propofol in patients with history of atopy or several drug allergies. Current evidence suggests that egg allergic patients are not more likely to develop anaphylaxis when exposed to propofol. If reactions to drugs occurred, it is always advisable to ascertain the exact allergen in each individual case before deciding causality. Serum tryptase, skin prick, intradermal testing, or serologic testing should be done to confirm the diagnosis of an anaphylactic reaction. PMID:21189862

  8. The ocular surface: from physiology to the ocular allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galicia-Carreón, Jorge; Santacruz, Concepción; Hong, Enrique; Jiménez-Martínez, María C

    2013-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva secondary to an immune response to exogenous antigens, usually called allergens. In fact, AC is a syndrome that involves the entire ocular surface, including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, and tear film. The signs and symptoms of AC have a meaningful effect on comfort and patient health, and could be influenced by environment, genetics and immune regulation mechanisms, all of which work together in a complex immunological homeostasis. Dysregulation in such immune responses could turn into a variety of ocular allergic diseases (OAD). This review describes some of the current understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in different OAD.

  9. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  10. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of topical 0.1% tacrolimus in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement. Methods This prospective observational study included 1436 patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis whose condition had responded poorly to conventional antiallergic drugs and/or topical steroids and/or topical cyclosporine. All patients received tacrolimus eye drops twice daily during the study period. Ten clinical signs and six clinical symptoms were rated on a four-grade scale. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total clinical signs and symptoms score at the last observation or following 6 months of treatment. Results Total signs and symptoms score significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment (p<0.001). Giant papillae and corneal lesions were also reduced by tacrolimus eye drop use (p<0.001). The drug proved effective in patients whose condition did not respond well to topical cyclosporine therapy. About 50% of all patients using topical steroids were weaned. The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (3.20%). Conclusions Tacrolimus eye drops are highly effective in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement, and may reduce or replace topical steroid use. Trial registration number UMIN 000008640. PMID:24695688

  11. Early skin testing is effective for diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions occurring during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Javaloyes, G; Berroa, F; Goikoetxea, M J; Moncada, R; Núñez-Córdoba, J M; Cabrera-Freitag, P; D'Amelio, C; Sanz, M L; Gastaminza, G

    2013-06-01

    Allergic skin tests have to be performed 4-6 weeks after an allergic anesthetic reaction. Patients with allergic reactions during anesthesia were prospectively included (n = 44). Skin tests were performed in two stages: (i) Stage 1 (S1), 0-4 days after the reaction; and (ii) Stage 2 (S2), 4-8 weeks after. Five (11.5%) surgical procedures were suspended due to the reaction. Positive skin tests were obtained in 25/44 patients (57%). Allergic diagnosis was carried out at S1 in 15/25 (60%) and at S2 in 10/25 (40%). Three patients resulted positive only in S1. Overall agreement among S1 and S2 skin tests was 70.45%. The kappa statistic was 0.41 (P-value = 0.002). Odds ratio of obtaining a false negative in S1 (compared with S2) was 3.33. Early allergological study is useful, could minimize false negatives, but should be considered as a complement to late skin tests.

  12. Anti-allergic properties of the bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum: inhibition of eosinophil activation and influx.

    PubMed

    Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Gomes, Gleice S; Zanon, Cristiane; Chedier, Luciana M; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Frutuoso, Válber S; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Weller, Peter F; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2005-12-01

    New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases can be aided by the development of agents capable of regulating eosinophilic leukocytes. Here, we evaluated the anti-allergic properties of a crude extract of the Brazilian bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum, focusing on its effects on allergic eosinophilia. By studying allergic pleurisy in actively sensitized C57Bl/6 mice, we observed that pretreatment with N. procerum (2 mg/kg; i.p.) reduced pleural eosinophil influx triggered by allergen challenge. N. procerum was also able to reduce lipid body numbers found within infiltrating eosinophils, indicating that N. procerum in vivo is able to affect both migration and activation of eosinophils. Consistently, pretreatment with N. procerum blocked pleural eosinophil influx triggered by PAF or eotaxin, key mediators of the development of allergic pleural eosinophilia. The effect of N. procerum was not restricted to eosinophils, since N. procerum also inhibited pleural neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx. Of note, N. procerum failed to alter the acute allergic reaction, characterized by mast cell degranulation, oedema, and cysteinyl leukotriene release. N. procerum also had direct effects on murine eosinophils, since it inhibited both PAF- and eotaxin-induced eosinophil chemotaxis on an in vitro chemotactic assay. Therefore, N. procerum may be a promising anti-allergic therapy, inasmuch as it presents potent anti-eosinophil activity.

  13. Cutting edge: STAT6 signaling in eosinophils is necessary for development of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kindra; LaMarche, Nelson M; Islam, Nasif; Wood, Amie; Huang, Weishan; August, Avery

    2015-03-15

    Eosinophils are critical cellular mediators in allergic asthma and inflammation; however, the signals that regulate their functions are unclear. The transcription factor STAT6 regulates Th2 cytokine responses, acting downstream of IL-4 and IL-13. We showed previously that eosinophil-derived IL-13 plays an important role in the recruitment of T cells to the lung and the subsequent development of allergic asthma. However, whether eosinophils respond to Th2 signals to control allergic airway inflammation is unclear. In this report, we show that STAT6(-/-) eosinophils are unable to induce the development of allergic lung inflammation, including recruitment of CD4(+) T cells, mucus production, and development of airways hyperresponsiveness. This is likely due to the reduced migration of STAT6(-/-) eosinophils to the lung and in response to eotaxin. These data indicate that, like Th cells, eosinophils need to respond to Th2 cytokines via STAT6 during the development of allergic airway inflammation.

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 10 loci influencing allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Raquel; Strachan, David P; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Linneberg, Allan; Curtin, John A; Warrington, Nicole M; Standl, Marie; Kerkhof, Marjan; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Bukvic, Blazenka K; Kaakinen, Marika; Sleimann, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schramm, Katharina; Baltic, Svetlana; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Simpson, Angela; St Pourcain, Beate; Coin, Lachlan; Hui, Jennie; Walters, Eugene H; Tiesler, Carla M T; Duffy, David L; Jones, Graham; Ring, Susan M; McArdle, Wendy L; Price, Loren; Robertson, Colin F; Pekkanen, Juha; Tang, Clara S; Thiering, Elisabeth; Montgomery, Grant W; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Husemoen, Lise L; Herder, Christian; Kemp, John P; Elliot, Paul; James, Alan; Waldenberger, Melanie; Abramson, Michael J; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Gupta, Ramneek; Thompson, Philip J; Holt, Patrick; Sly, Peter; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Blekic, Mario; Weidinger, Stephan; Hakonarsson, Hakon; Stefansson, Kari; Heinrich, Joachim; Postma, Dirkje S; Custovic, Adnan; Pennell, Craig E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koppelman, Gerard H; Timpson, Nicholas; Ferreira, Manuel A; Bisgaard, Hans; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE (allergic sensitization) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP from 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association to allergic sensitization from three to 10, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top-SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk variants at these 10 loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide novel insight into the etiology of allergic disease. PMID:23817571

  15. Improved Understanding of Fenton-like Reactions for the In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Including Treatment of Sorbed Contaminants and Destruction of DNAPLs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-29

    fluorinated solvents, and the use of methanothrophs (Rittman et al., 2002). However, when controlled field experiments were performed at many...common reactions of hydroxyl radical are electrophilic substitution to aromatic compounds and addition to alkenes. Another class of hydroxyl radical...reactions is hydrogen abstraction from saturated compounds such as alkanes, a pathway that proceeds at a slower rate relative to electrophilic

  16. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  17. Personalized Medicine in Allergic Asthma: At the Crossroads of Allergen Immunotherapy and “Biologicals”

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsching, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    Major allergic disease can be viewed as clinical syndromes rather than discrete disease entities. Emerging evidence indicates that allergic asthma includes several disease phenotypes. Immunological deviation toward high T helper cell type 2 cytokine levels has been demonstrated for a subgroup of pediatric asthma patients, and now, several novel monoclonal antibodies have been approved for treatment of this subgroup as a stratified approach of “personalized” medicine in allergy. Introduction of component-based IgE testing before allergen immunotherapy (AIT), i.e., testing for IgE cross-reactivity before initiation of AIT, has also brought stratified medicine into allergy therapy. Improved responder criteria, which identify treatment-responders previous to therapy, might foster this stratification and even individualized AIT might have an impact for tailor-made therapy in the future. Furthermore, combining antibody-based treatment with AIT could help to establish more rapid AIT protocols even for allergens with a high risk of anaphylactic reactions. Efforts to advance such “personalized” medicine in pediatric allergy might be challenged by several issues including high costs for the health-care system, increasing complexity of allergy therapy, the need for physician allergy expertise, and furthermore ethical considerations and data safety issues. PMID:28261576

  18. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  19. Allergic Diseases and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Inchul; Kim, Inah; Park, Hye Jung; Roh, Jaehoon; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a clinical syndrome representing multi-organ and psychological symptoms caused by chronic exposure to various chemicals in low concentrations. We evaluated the prevalence and related factors of MCS targeting Korean adults using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI©). Methods A total of 446 participants were recruited from Severance Hospital. Participants underwent a questionnaire interview including questions on sociodemographic factors, occupational and environmental factors, allergic diseases, and the QEESI©. Among them, 379 participants completed the questionnaire and the QEESI©. According to the QEESI© interpretation results, participants were divided into very suggestive (VS) group and less suggestive (LS) group. Results The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher in allergic patients than non-allergic participants (19.7% and 11.3%, respectively, P=0.04). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, ages of 30-39 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.25-6.95) and those of 40-49 (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.02-6.21) were significantly related to MCS compared to those aged less than 30 years. Female sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.18), experience of dwelling in a new house (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03), and atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04-3.69) were also significantly related to MCS. However, only age of 30-39 in the allergic group was significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher among allergic patients than non-allergic participants. People with experience of dwelling in a new house and atopic dermatitis were more at risk of being intolerant to chemicals. Further studies to provide the nationally representative prevalence data and clarify risk factors and mechanisms of MCS are required. PMID:25228997

  20. Schiff and pseudo-Schiff reagents: the reactions and reagents of Hugo Schiff, including a classification of various kinds of histochemical reagents used to detect aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W

    2016-11-01

    During the 1860's, Hugo Schiff studied many reactions between amines and aldehydes, some of which have been used in histochemistry, at times without credit to Schiff. Much controversy has surrounded the chemical structures and reaction mechanisms of the compounds involved, but modern analytical techniques have clarified the picture. I review these reactions here. I used molecular modeling software to investigate dyes that contain primary amines representing eight chemical families. All dyes were known to perform satisfactorily for detecting aldehydes in tissue sections. The models verified the correct chemical structures at various points in their reactions and also determined how decolorization occurred in those with "leuco" forms. Decolorization in the presence of sulfurous acid can occur by either adduction or reduction depending on the dye. The final condensation product with aldehyde was determined to be either a C-sulfonic acid adduct on the carbonyl carbon atom or an aminal at the same atom. Based on the various outcomes, I have placed the dyes and their reactions into five categories. Because Hugo Schiff studied the reactions between aldehydes and amines with and without various acids or alcohol, it is only proper to call each of them Schiff reactions that used various types of Schiff reagents.

  1. Delay of growth and development in children with bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Baum, W F; Schneyer, U; Lantzsch, A M; Klöditz, E

    2002-04-01

    The elevated incidence of short stature (body height < (-)x - 2s), skeletal retardation and delayed puberty in children with bronchial asthma or atopic dermatitis is generally attributed to the severity of the disorder. However, a series of findings indicate a causal influence of the atopy and the existence of atopic skeletal retardation per se.The observation that children with atopic disorders, whether bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis, exhibit a rate of short stature that is twice to five times higher than normal indicates atopic and thus genetically determined influences. The elevated prevalence of short stature associated with allergic rhinitis is especially significant, as this disorder cannot be included among the severe chronic disorders. The fact that skeletal retardation is more prevalent in boys than in girls by a ratio of about 2:1 and that a significantly more marked retardation of bone maturation is found in atopic in comparisons with non-atopic asthmatics also lend support to this postulation. The clinical relevance of atopic growth retardation is also supported by the close interaction of pathophysiological basal mechanisms of bone metabolism and the atopy status. Thus the local growth factor prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which is important for bone metabolism, is also a messenger substance for the immediate and late allergic reaction. The platelet-activating factor (PAF), as one of the strongest mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, influences the PGE(2) synthesis in the osteoblasts. These relationships show that atopy-dependent imbalances in the complex system of local and systemic growth factors can certainly lead to disturbance of skeletal maturation which may delay growth and development in atopic children. In order to verify these assumptions it is necessary to research the interaction of local growth factors (particularly the roles of PGE(2), PAF and IGF I) in the skeletons of children of short stature

  2. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-09-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1-like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future.

  3. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed Central

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1–like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future. PMID:24880633

  4. Importins and exportins regulating allergic immune responses.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ankita; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES) on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  5. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormones of iNOS origin play important roles in the allergic reactions of atopic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Orita, Kumi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Inoue, Masayasu

    2011-11-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of patients with allergic rhinitis, we used an animal model of atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by epicutaneous sensitization and analysed the differences in ear thickness, the frequency of scratching and plasma levels of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E (OVA-IgE), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) between control and iNOS(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old control and iNOS(-/-) male C57BL/6j mice were sensitized three times with OVA antigen. Before and after the last skin sensitization, the number of scratching incidents and the thickness of the ear were examined, and the plasma levels of OVA-IgE, α-MSH, ACTH, TGF-β and TNF-α were analysed by ELISA. Sensitization of mice with OVA resulted in increased plasma levels of OVA-IgE, α-MSH, ACTH, TGF-β and TNF-α in control, but not in iNOS(-/-) mice. The administration of l-nitro-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME) abolished all the above changes that occurred in the control mice. In addition, iNOS(-/-) mice given α-MSH exhibited a change similar to that seen in the control, whereas iNOS(-/-) mice given ACTH, TGF-β or TNF-α did not demonstrate any changes. These results indicate that symptoms of AD such as scratching can be exacerbated by α-MSH, which is induced by iNOS-derived NO.

  6. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junmi; Tanaka, Hideo; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nomura, Eiichi; Ito, Norihiko; Nomura, Naoko; Yamane, Masayuki; Hida, Tomonobu; Goshima, Yoshio; Hatano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A) in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW) in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U) eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α) release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future. PMID:25709899

  7. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  9. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex H C; Barg, Stefani S N; Leung, Alexander K C

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are IgE-mediated, hypersensitivity conditions characterized by ocular pruritus, epiphora, and hyperemia. Proper diagnosis is usually made clinically based on history and physical examination. Diagnostic procedures are rarely necessary. Non-pharmacological measures, such as environmental modification and proper eye care, should be considered for all patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Pharmacological interventions may also be required. Milder cases can be treated with short-term topical ophthalmic therapy such as a decongestant/ antihistamine combination, a mast cell stabilizer, or a multi-action agent. Moderate to severe cases may require longer usage of the above agents and/or the addition of an oral antihistamine. Refractory cases may necessitate the use of topical ophthalmic corticosteroids and topical NSAIDs. Immunotherapy, whether via the subcutaneous route or the intranasal route, should be considered in the treatment of persistent severe cases refractory to conventional treatment. Despite all the available therapeutic agents, there continues to be a constant need to discover more effective ways to treat seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. This article also discusses recent patents related to the field.

  10. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  11. Microarray Technology Applied to Human Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    IgE antibodies serve as the gatekeeper for the release of mediators from sensitized (IgE positive) mast cells and basophils following a relevant allergen exposure which can lead to an immediate-type hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Purified recombinant and native allergens were combined in the 1990s with state of the art chip technology to establish the first microarray-based IgE antibody assay. Triplicate spots to over 100 allergenic molecules are immobilized on an amine-activated glass slide to form a single panel multi-allergosorbent assay. Human antibodies, typically of the IgE and IgG isotypes, specific for one or many allergens bind to their respective allergen(s) on the chip. Following removal of unbound serum proteins, bound IgE antibody is detected with a fluorophore-labeled anti-human IgE reagent. The fluorescent profile from the completed slide provides a sensitization profile of an allergic patient which can identify IgE antibodies that bind to structurally similar (cross-reactive) allergen families versus molecules that are unique to a single allergen specificity. Despite its ability to rapidly analyze many IgE antibody specificities in a single simple assay format, the chip-based microarray remains less analytically sensitive and quantitative than its singleplex assay counterpart (ImmunoCAP, Immulite). Microgram per mL quantities of allergen-specific IgG antibody can also complete with nanogram per mL quantities of specific IgE for limited allergen binding sites on the chip. Microarray assays, while not used in clinical immunology laboratories for routine patient IgE antibody testing, will remain an excellent research tool for defining sensitization profiles of populations in epidemiological studies. PMID:28134842

  12. [Actualities in extrinsic allergic alveolities or hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Soumah, M; Sow, M L

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances have been noticed in the pathogenesis and the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis during the last few years. Indeed the immune mechanism and the enabling conditions have been more precisely defined, the clinical stages and the diagnosis criterias clearly defined, new antigens incriminated and some etiological agents have been reclassified. The present pathogenic explanation insists on the type IV hypersensitivity reaction with sensitization of T lymphocytes, activation macrophages, the formation of IgG type antibodies and immune complexes, activation of complement and secretion of cytokines. The involvement of certain HLA classes (HLA2, DR3, DRB1, DQB1), interaction of genetics and environments factors, the role of infections agents and smoking have been demonstrated in several studies. The development of news clinical and biological diagnosis criteria have led the discovery of new extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the work places, a better knowledge of the prognostic elements and an appropriate adaptation of prevention measures.

  13. Motivating patient adherence to allergic rhinitis treatments.

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G

    2015-03-01

    Patient nonadherence significantly burdens the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Fewer than half of prescribed doses of intranasal corticosteroid medication are taken. The challenges for immunotherapies are even greater. While sustained treatment for 3 to 5 years is required for full benefit, most patients receiving immunotherapy, either subcutaneous or sublingual, stop treatment within the first year. Although research into interventions to improve AR adherence is lacking, lessons learned from adherence interventions in other chronic health conditions can be applied to AR. Two well-established, overriding models of care-the chronic care model and patient-centered care-can improve adherence. The patient-centered care model includes important lessons for allergy providers in their daily practice, including understanding and targeting modifiable barriers to adherence. Additionally, recent studies have begun to leverage health information and communication technologies to reach out to patients and promote adherence, extending patient-centered interventions initiated by providers during office visits.

  14. Anti-Fatigue Effect by Peptide Fraction from Protein Hydrolysate of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Swim Bladder through Inhibiting the Oxidative Reactions including DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Li; Yang, Zui-Su; Huang, Fang-Fang; Ding, Guo-Fang; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. In the study, swim bladder peptide fraction (SBP-III-3) was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of the croceine croaker, and its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities were measured using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SBP-III-3 exhibited good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 (the concentration where a sample caused a 50% decrease of the initial concentration of HO•) = 0.867 mg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 = 0.895 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical (O2−•) (EC50 = 0.871 mg/mL), and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+•) (EC50 = 0.346 mg/mL). SBP-III-3 also showed protective effects on DNA damage in a concentration-effect manner and prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 57.9%–107.5% greater than that of the control. SBP-III-3 could increase the levels of muscle glucose (9.4%–115.2% increase) and liver glycogen (35.7%–157.3%), and decrease the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 16.4%–22.4%, 13.9%–20.1%, and 28.0%–53.6%, respectively. SBP-III-3 also enhanced the activity of lactic dehydrogenase to scavenge excessive LA for slowing the development of fatigue. In addition, SBP-III-3 increased the activities superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase to reduce the

  15. Assessment of global reporting of adverse drug reactions for anti-malarials, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In spite of enhanced control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem causing close to a million deaths annually. With support from several donors, large amounts of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are being deployed in endemic countries raising safety concerns as little is known about the use of ACT in several of the settings where they are deployed. This project was undertaken to profile the provenance of the pharmacovigilance reporting of all anti-malarials, including ACT to the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) database (Vigibase™) over the past 40 years. Methods The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) provided anonymized extracts of Vigibase™ covering the period 1968-2008. All countries in the programme were clustered according to their malaria control phase and income status. The number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of anti-malarials was analyzed according to those clusters. Results From 1968 to 2008, 21,312 ICSRs suspecting anti-malarials were received from 64 countries. Low-income countries, that are also malaria-endemic (categorized as priority 1 countries) submitted only 1.2% of the ICSRs. Only 60 out of 21,312 ICSRs were related to ACT, 51 of which were coming from four sub-Saharan African countries. Although very few ICSRs involved artemisinin-based compounds, many of the adverse events reported were potentially serious. Conclusions This paper illustrates the low reporting of ADRs to anti-malarials in general and ACT in particular. Most reports were submitted by non-endemic and/or high-income countries. Given the current mix of large donor funding, the insufficient information on safety of these drugs, increasing availability of ACT and artemisinin-based monotherapies in public and private sector channels, associated potential for inappropriate use and finally a pipeline of more than 10 new novel anti-malarials in various stages of development, the

  16. Impaired mast cell maturation and degranulation and attenuated allergic responses in Ndrg1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Sunaga, Kohei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Arata, Satoru; Okuda, Tomohiko; Moon, Tae-Chul; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kokame, Koichi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Murakami, Makoto; Kudo, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    We have previously reported that N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is an early inducible protein during the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) toward a connective tissue mast cell-like phenotype. To clarify the function of NDRG1 in mast cells and allergic responses, we herein analyzed mast cell-associated phenotypes of mice lacking the Ndrg1 gene. Allergic responses including IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylactic reactions were markedly attenuated in Ndrg1-deficient mice as compared with those in wild-type mice. In Ndrg1-deficient mice, dermal and peritoneal mast cells were decreased in number and morphologically abnormal with impaired degranulating ability. Ex vivo, Ndrg1-deficient BMMCs cocultured with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of stem cell factor, a condition that facilitates the maturation of BMMCs toward a CTMC-like phenotype, displayed less exocytosis than replicate wild-type cells after the cross-linking of FcepsilonRI or stimulation with compound 48/80, even though the exocytotic response of IL-3-maintained, immature BMMCs from both genotypes was comparable. Unlike degranulation, the production of leukotriene and cytokines by cocultured BMMCs was unaffected by NDRG1 deficiency. Taken together, the altered phenotypes of Ndrg1-deficient mast cells both in vivo and ex vivo suggest that NDRG1 has roles in the terminal maturation and effector function (degranulation) of mast cells.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period.

  18. Astragaloside IV ameliorates allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors in the initial stage of sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai-fan; Yu, Xi; Wei, Xiao; Gui, Li-li; Liu, Hai-liang; Wang, Xiao-yu; Tao, Yu; Jiang, Guo-rong; Hong, Min

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the anti-allergy mechanism of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), we assessed its effects in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). AS-IV administered in the sensitization phase, rather than in the elicitation phase, dramatically alleviated the symptoms of allergic inflammation. We hypothesized that AS-IV exerts its anti-allergy effects by regulating the production of key pro-allergic cytokines based on the fact that interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels increase significantly in the initial stage of the sensitization phase. AS-IV administered in the initial stage of ACD inhibited TSLP and IL-33 expression and reduced the proportion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). An in vitro study showed that the production of pro-allergic cytokines was significantly inhibited in AS-IV presenting HaCaT cells. We also verified that AS-IV administered only in the initial stage markedly alleviated inflammation, including ear swelling, Th2 cytokine expression, and histological changes. Taken together, these results suggest that AS-IV effectively ameliorates the progression of allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors, including TSLP and IL-33, and can be used to prevent and/or treat patients with ACD. Our data also suggest that these key pro-allergic cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for allergic diseases. PMID:27917896

  19. The First Factor Extracted Is an Unreliable Estimate of Spearman's "g": The Case of Discrimination Reaction Time. Reply and Rejoinder included.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Lloyd G.; Eysenck, Hans J.

    1989-01-01

    Three papers--comments, a reply to comments, and a rejoinder--discussing a conclusion about the nature of general intelligence based on the size loadings of a psychomotor test of discrimination reaction time are presented. The use of Spearman's "g" is the center of the controversy. (TJH)

  20. Horse Allergy: Curly Horses Allow Horse Allergic Riders To Ride Again.

    PubMed

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C; Niggemann, B

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that so called hypoallergenic horses (Curly horses) allow horse allergic riders to ride again, we investigated 40 horse allergic riders in a period of 37 months. Methods: We tested these patients (pts.) by skin prick test (SPT) with different non-curly and Curly horses and studied the riding hours and horse brushing by measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau tests (FEV1) as well as peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) over 12 months. The results in 37/40 pts. showed no relevant reactions of the lower airways or nasal flow. Only in 3/40 patients an initial significant fall of FEV1 was observed, reversed by a single inhalation of salbutamol and not repeated despite further riding contact. In contrast to other allergic events (e. g. baker's asthma) a further and regular contact with these horses abolished the mild allergic reactions of the start period of contact. This may be due to hypoallergenic properties of these horses, whose test material produces weaker reactions in the SPT than that of normal horses. After a period of three years, a loss of reactivity to normal horses could be confirmed in some of the riders. Conclusion: The tested purebreed Curly horses may be a suitable alternative for horse allergic riders if the methodological precautions of this study are followed.

  1. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  2. Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

  3. Anti-allergic effects of Lycopus lucidus on mast cell-mediated allergy model

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Kim, InKyeom; Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Chang-Duk; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lim, Jong-Pil; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-12-15

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the aqueous extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. (Labiatae) (LAE) decreases mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. The immediate-type allergic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. LAE has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, its specific mechanism of action is still unknown. LAE was anally administered to mice for high and fast absorption. LAE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. LAE decreased the local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. LAE dose-dependently reduced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Furthermore, LAE decreased the secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of LAE on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. LAE attenuated PMA plus A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and specifically blocked activation of p38 MAPK, but not that of c-jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our findings provide evidence that LAE inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, p38 MAPK, and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  4. Therapeutic Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Allergic Rhinitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wen, Liting; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-documented therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) on various diseases, including arthritis and asthma, the therapeutic effect of HDACi on allergic rhinitis remains unmentioned in the literature. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of sodium butyrate (SoB), a form of HDACi, on mice with allergic rhinitis. The results showed that the expression levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were significantly upregulated in mice with allergic rhinitis, whereas H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) was decreased. The intranasal application of SoB inhibited the expression levels of TSLP levels and upregulated the expression of H3AcK9 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, SoB treatment significantly decreased the increased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and improved clinical symptoms and nasal mucosa epithelial morphology in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In addition, we further demonstrated that SoB treatment significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and decreased the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, correcting the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Taken together, our study suggests that SoB has the potential to treat allergic rhinitis.

  5. Prevalence of allergic diseases and risk factors of wheezing in Korean military personnel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Jong Seong; Noh, Chang Suk; Lee, Sei Won

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the risk factors of wheezing among young adults in the Korean military. Young military conscripts in five areas completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. For subjects with current wheeze in one sample area, baseline spirometry and bronchodilator response were measured. For subjects without a significant response to bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of more than 200 mL and 12%), methacholine challenge tests (MCT) were also performed. Of 3,359 subjects that completed the questionnaire, 354 (10.5%) had current wheeze, 471 (14.0%) had current allergic rhinitis, and 326 (9.7%) had current eczema. Current wheeze was associated with family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Of 36 subjects with current wheeze who underwent PFT with or without MCT in the Anyang area, 24 (66.7%) were confirmed to have current asthma. In conclusion, the prevalence of allergic disease in young adults of Korean military is not low, and the risk factors of wheezing include family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  6. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis based on the SACRA questionnaire among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors and asthma and rhinitis are related, relatively few studies have investigated the prevalence of occupational rhinitis based on occupation, and knowledge of occupational rhinitis in Japan is currently limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma. A postal survey was conducted from October to December 2013 using translated versions of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey for the prevalence of asthma and State of the Impact of Allergic Rhinitis on Asthma Control questionnaire for the prevalence of rhinitis. Of 4,634 Japanese nursing professionals, 497 subjects had asthma, and 270 of these 497 subjects had allergic rhinitis (54.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49.7-58.7). Latex allergy was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21-2.60). There was no relationship between employment period and prevalent allergic rhinitis. The results of this study provide fundamental information regarding occupational health among Japanese nursing professionals, including the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Japanese nursing professionals with asthma and latex allergy as a potential risk factor for prevalent allergic rhinitis.

  7. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects.

  8. Combined QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study on a Condensed-Phase SN2 Reaction at Nitrogen:  The Effect of Explicitly Including Solvent Polarization.

    PubMed

    Geerke, Daan P; Thiel, Stephan; Thiel, Walter; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2007-07-01

    In a previous combined QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD) study from our laboratory on the identity SN2 reaction between a chloride anion and an amino chloride in liquid dimethyl ether (DME), an increase in the free energy activation barrier was observed in the condensed phase when compared to the gas-phase activation energy. Here we reproduce these findings, but when comparing the condensed-phase potential of mean force (PMF) with the free energy profile in the gas phase (obtained from Monte Carlo simulations), we observe a smaller solvent effect on the activation barrier of the reaction. In a next step, we introduce an explicit description of electronic polarization in the MM (solvent) part of the system. A polarizable force field for liquid DME was developed based on the charge-on-spring (COS) model, which was calibrated to reproduce thermodynamic properties of the nonpolarizable model in classical MD simulations. The COS model was implemented into the MNDO/GROMOS interface in a special version of the QM/MM software ChemShell, which was used to investigate the effect of solvent polarization on the free energy profile of the reaction under study. A higher activation barrier was obtained using the polarizable solvent model than with the nonpolarizable force field, due to a better solvation of and a stronger polarization of solvent molecules around the separate reactants. The obtained PMFs were subjected to an energy-entropy decomposition of the relative solvation free energies of the reactant complex along the reaction coordinate, to investigate in a quantitative manner whether the solvent (polarization) effects are mainly due to favorable QM-MM (energetic) interactions.

  9. NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

  10. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  12. Rhinolith misdiagnosed as allergic rhinitis: case report

    PubMed Central

    Aljfout, Qais; Saraireh, Mohammad; Maita, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body neglected in the nasal cavity for many years leads to the formation of a rhinolith, which gradually increases in size. Nasal obstruction and persistent foul smelling nasal discharge usually are the main presenting symptoms, although some might be silent. This paper presents and discuss a case of 19-year-old female patient whose main complaint was nasal obstruction for many years and treated as allergic rhinitis. Diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomography scan, and it was removed endoscopically without complications. We think that proper examination, which includes endoscopic evaluation, should be done to reach the diagnosis. A computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis and helped in planning the best treatment option. PMID:27053994

  13. [Tattoo skin reactions: Management and treatment algorithm].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2016-01-01

    So-called "allergic" reactions to ink or colouring agents constitute the main current complication associated with tattoos that lead individuals to consult. However, general practitioners are frequently at a loss about how to manage such complications. In order to assist clinicians in their daily practice, we propose an update of the modes of managing allergic reactions to tattoos, and we offer a therapeutic scale and a decision-making algorithm.

  14. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS.

  15. [The allergic child at school. What do we need to know?].

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Allergy is a multisystem disease in children that often occurs with the coexistence of diverse clinical manifestations that cause great impact on quality of life and academic performance due to sleep disorders arising from the disease or treatment, and absenteeism that children may experience. Because of the time spent in school, there is a possibility that allergic reactions may occur first in these facilities, where a lack of staff knowledge has been found regarding how to proceed in allergy crisis situations. Cooperative action among health teams, community, parents, and school authorities is essential to ensure that the school can prevent, recognize, and ensure quick access to emergency services (if needed) and treatment protocols for allergic reactions, thus allowing allergic children to be better protected in the school environment, which should be considered an extension of the home environment and an important arm in proper management to control the disease.

  16. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  17. Comparison of effects of alcaftadine and olopatadine on conjunctival epithelium and eosinophil recruitment in a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Santa J; Lane, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antihistamines constitute the first line of therapy for allergic conjunctivitis, and are safe and effective in relieving the signs and symptoms of ocular allergy. Despite this, they are less effective than some other drugs in relieving delayed symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that changes in the conjunctival epithelium may underlie aspects of delayed reactions. In this study we compared two antihistamines, olopatadine and alcaftadine, for their ability to modify epithelial cell changes associated with allergic conjunctivitis at time points selected to reflect late-phase reactions. Methods: Studies employed a modified conjunctival allergen challenge model. Sensitized mice were challenged with topical allergen with or without drug treatments. Treatment groups were assayed for acute-phase (15 minutes) and delayed-phase (24 hours) responses. Groups were scored for allergy symptoms (redness, itch, tearing, and edema) and for conjunctival mast cell numbers. Delayed-phase groups were also examined for eosinophil numbers and for tight junctional protein expression. Results: Olopatadine-treated and alcaftadine-treated animals had similar efficacy profiles and mast cell numbers, suggesting both were effective at ameliorating symptoms of the acute phase. In contrast, alcaftadine-treated animals had significantly lower conjunctival eosinophil infiltration than either controls or olopatadine-treated animals. Allergen challenge caused a significant decrease in expression of the junctional protein, ZO-1, and this decrease was prevented by alcaftadine but not by olopatadine. Conclusion: Alcaftadine displays therapeutic properties beyond its antihistamine action. These include an ability to reduce conjunctival eosinophil recruitment, and a protective effect on epithelial tight junction protein expression. PMID:21340041

  18. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  19. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Ozod; Petzold, Ursula; Haase, Hans; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Ellers-Lenz, Barbara; Hermann, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

  20. PULMONARY MYCOTIC INFECTIONS—Allergic and Immunologic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Edmund L.

    1954-01-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated. Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions—precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction—the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections—for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed. PMID:13209369

  1. High-level direct-dynamics variational transition state theory calculations including multidimensional tunneling of the thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from methanol by atomic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2011-03-07

    We report a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methanol by atomic hydrogen. The study includes the analysis of thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects. Specifically, we have performed high-level computations at the MC3BB level together with direct dynamics calculations by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the microcanonically optimized multidimensional tunneling (μOMT) transmission coefficient (CVT/μOMT) to study both the CH(3)OH+H→CH(2)OH+H(2) (R1) reaction and the CH(3)OH+H→CH(3)O+H(2) (R2) reaction. The CVT/μOMT calculations show that reaction R1 dominates in the whole range 298≤T (K)≤2500 and that anharmonic effects on the torsional mode about the C-O bond are important, mainly at high temperatures. The activation energy for the total reaction sum of R1 and R2 reactions changes substantially with temperature and, therefore, the use of straight-line Arrhenius plots is not valid. We recommend the use of new expressions for the total R1 + R2 reaction and for the R1 and R2 individual reactions.

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  3. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  4. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  5. Anisakis simplex only provokes allergic symptoms when the worm parasitises the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gómez, Alicia; Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; López-Serrano, M Concepción; Suarez-de-Parga, Jose M; Daschner, Alvaro; Caballero, M Teresa; Barranco, Pilar; Cabañas, Rosario

    2004-08-01

    We analysed patients with allergic or digestive symptoms after seafood ingestion in order to assess a correct diet in Anisakis simplex sensitised individuals. A total of 120 patients who suffered allergic and/or digestive symptoms after marine food ingestion were studied. We performed skin prick tests for A. simplex and seafood, total serum and specific serum immunoglobulin E to A. simplex in the acute stage and 1 month later. A gastroscopy was carried out to find larvae in those patients with persistent abdominal pain. A challenge with non-infective larvae was performed to assess a correct diet. Some 96 patients were sensitised to A. simplex. Gastroscopy was performed in 47 and we detected larvae in 24. We compared symptoms, skin tests, total and specific IgE and the latency of appearance of symptoms in patients positive for Anisakis larvae, patients without larvae at gastroscopy and patients without digestive symptoms. There was no difference among the groups. We challenged 22 patients with frozen A. simplex larvae. After allowing deep-frozen seafood in the diet for more than 2 years, no patient suffered a reaction. At this time, we allowed all our patients well-frozen seafood without any allergic reaction occurring. Allergic symptoms are the most frequent manifestation of A. simplex parasitism. We could not find any patient allergic to the thermostable proteins of parasite.

  6. Allergic immune-regulatory effects of adlay bran on an OVA-immunized mice allergic model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Wenchang

    2012-10-01

    Allergy is an inflammation associated with an elevated T helper (Th) 2 lymphocyte responses to allergens and elevated serum IgE levels and cytokines. In one of our previous studies using a cell model, various flavonoids were found to be involved the anti-inflammatory effects of adlay bran. The present study investigated the effect of the ethyl-acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of adlay bran (ABE-EtOAc) in an ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized murine model. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice underwent OVA sensitization and were used as an allergy model. An orogastric gavage was used to force feed these mice with 240 mg/kg ABE-EtOAc from their sixth week through their twelfth week. Immune reactions were determined by measuring changes in Th2-type cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and production of antibodies. ABE-EtOAc was found capable of regulating the Th1/Th2 immune reaction through its regulation of IL-2 and IL-4. It also significantly reduced the production of anti-OVA IgE antibodies (10%), increased the secretion of IFN-γ and decreased the secretion of IL-6 (38%). These results suggest that adlay bran extract can reduce an allergic reaction by balancing Th1/Th2 immune responses and that it might be used in the treatment of this condition.

  7. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerloose, Katrien B; Robays, Lander J; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Tournoy, Kurt G; Joos, Guy F

    2006-01-01

    Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day) daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P < 0.05), while no inflammatory reaction was observed in the airways. Exposure to cigarette smoke did not induce IgE, but was characterized by a small but significant neutrophilic inflammatory reaction. Combining OVA with cigarette smoke not only induced a significant increase in OVA-specific IgE but also a distinct eosinophil and goblet cell enriched airway inflammation albeit that airway hyperresponsiveness was not evidenced. FACS analysis showed in these mice increases in dendritic cells (DC) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16571114

  8. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  9. Gut dysbiosis promotes M2 macrophage polarization and allergic airway inflammation via fungi-induced PGE₂.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Gi; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Totsuka, Naoya; Weinberg, Jason B; Núñez, Gabriel; Shibuya, Akira

    2014-01-15

    Although imbalances in gut microbiota composition, or "dysbiosis," are associated with many diseases, the effects of gut dysbiosis on host systemic physiology are less well characterized. We report that gut dysbiosis induced by antibiotic (Abx) treatment promotes allergic airway inflammation by shifting macrophage polarization in the lung toward the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages derived from Abx-treated mice was sufficient to increase allergic airway inflammation. Abx treatment resulted in the overgrowth of a commensal fungal Candida species in the gut and increased plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), which induced M2 macrophage polarization in the lung. Suppression of PGE₂ synthesis by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and celecoxib suppressed M2 macrophage polarization and decreased allergic airway inflammatory cell infiltration in Abx-treated mice. Thus, Abx treatment can cause overgrowth of particular fungal species in the gut and promote M2 macrophage activation at distant sites to influence systemic responses including allergic inflammation.

  10. Mitigating the allergic effects of fire ant envenomation with biologically-based population reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review is to describe current efforts to use biological control agents to reduce fire ant population levels, thus, ultimately reducing the number of human sting and allergic reaction incidents. Climate change and worldwide fire ant expansion will increase the frequency of human e...

  11. A review of food allergy and nutritional considerations in the food-allergic adult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, the prevalence of adults with food allergies is approximately 2 percent to 3 percent. Theoretically, any food can cause an allergic reaction; however, some foods are clearly more allergenic than others are. In adults, peanuts, tree nuts, finned fish, crustaceans, fruit, and veg...

  12. Prospective comparison study of one-year outcomes for all titanium total temporomandibular joint replacements in patients allergic to metal and cobalt-chromium replacement joints in patients not allergic to metal.

    PubMed

    Hussain, O T; Sah, S; Sidebottom, A J

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to ascertain whether there are any early differences in outcome between all titanium temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prostheses in patients allergic to metal and standard cobalt-chromium prostheses in patients not allergic to metal. All patients who had primary TMJ prostheses placed with one-year follow-up between March 2003 and February 2011 were included. We reviewed the basic characteristics of patients. The outcome variables measured included disease, pain, mouth opening, and diet. A total of 55 patients with 77 joint replacements fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Forty patients had standard cobalt-chromium alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) prostheses (20 unilateral and 20 bilateral), and 15 had all titanium prostheses (13 unilateral and 2 bilateral). Osteoarthritis was the most common disease in both groups. There was significant improvement in pain score at reviews at 6 weeks (p=0.001) and 12 months (p=0.03). Values between groups were not significant (p=0.48 at 6 weeks, and p=0.10 at 1 year). Mouth opening in each group improved significantly with continued gains between assessments at 6 weeks and 12 months (p=0.001) but there were no significant differences between groups. Diet scores were significantly improved one year postoperatively in both groups (p=0.001), but differences between groups were not significant (p=0.90). At one year, outcomes for all titanium prostheses in patients allergic to metal were similarly favourable to those in patients who had no hypersensitivity to metal and had standard prostheses. No patient developed a hypersensitivity reaction, and no all titanium prosthesis failed during the one-year follow-up period.

  13. Allergic diseases in farmers' children.

    PubMed

    Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have reported lower rates of allergic sensitization and allergies in children living in rural as compared to urban communities. This has been attributed to the lower levels of air pollution in rural areas. The question arises whether other factors in the rural environment could explain the lower prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and hay fever. A first report from rural South Bavaria in Germany demonstrated that children living in a home where coal and wood were used for heating had a significantly lower risk of suffering from hay fever (odds ratio 0.57 (0.34-0.98)), of being sensitized to common allergens (OR 0.67 (0.49-0.93)) and of having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR 0.55 (0.34-0.90)) than their peers living in homes with other heating systems. Subsequently, the Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution (SCARPOL) tested the hypothesis that farming as parental occupation was associated with a lower risk of hay fever and atopy. A total of 1620 (86.0%) 6-15-year-old schoolchildren living in three rural communities of Switzerland were examined using a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents and IgE antibodies against six common aeroallergens in serum samples of 404 (69.3.0%) of the 13-15-year-olds. Farming as parental occupation was significantly associated with lower rates of reported hay fever symptoms and allergic sensitization. Comparing children from farming with those from non-farming environments, the adjusted OR was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.89) for sneezing attacks during the pollen season, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.73) for a sensitization to allergens. These results have recently been confirmed in a new and much larger survey in rural South Bavaria. Several alternative explanations have to be considered when interpreting these findings, namely, selection bias, the development of tolerance, increased microbial stimulation and a more traditional lifestyle (diet and housing

  14. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis to common ivy (Hedera helix L.)].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, C; Schneider, L A; Hinrichs, R; Staib, G; Weber, L; Weiss, J M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2003-10-01

    Common ivy (Hedera helix L.) is a ubiquitous plant in Europe whose major allergen falcarinol has moderate allergic potential. It is not related to poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.). There are no cross reactions between the allergens of common ivy (falcarinol) and poison ivy (urushiol). Contact with common ivy or falcarinol may lead to sensitization and then a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. There are only few cases described in the literature. We report on a male hobby gardener with appropriate clinical history and positive patch test. The pathogenic mechanism is a type IV reaction following a sensitization exposure. Gardeners and landscape architects with frequent exposure to common ivy and thus a high risk of sensitization should wear appropriate protective clothing.

  16. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  17. γ-Secretase Inhibitor Alleviates Acute Airway Inflammation of Allergic Asthma in Mice by Downregulating Th17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Xueya; Sheng, Anqun; Weng, Cuiye; Zhu, Tingting; Zhao, Wei; Li, Changchong

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Th17 cell differentiation requires Notch signaling. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) blocks Notch signaling; thus, it may be considered as a potential treatment for allergic asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GSI on Th17 cell differentiation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. OVA was used to induce mouse asthma model in the presence and absence of GSI. GSI ameliorated the development of OVA-induced asthma, including suppressing airway inflammation responses and reducing the severity of clinical signs. GSI also significantly suppressed Th17-cell responses in spleen and reduced IL-17 levels in serum. These findings suggest that GSI directly regulates Th17 responses through a Notch signaling-dependent pathway in mouse model of allergic asthma, supporting the notion that GSI is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:26339131

  18. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  19. Provocative use tests in CAPB-allergic subjects with CAPB-containing product.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Diepgen, T L; Kuhn, M; Basketter, D A

    1999-07-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been identified as a cause of contact allergy in personal care products. Furthermore, it has been suggested that chemicals responsible are impurities, especially dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA). However, skin contact concentrations with these impurities, especially DMAPA, are very low. The aim of the study was to analyse whether subjects with previous positive patch tests to CAPB would react in provocative use tests of a product containing CAPB. 10 individuals with a clinical history of contact allergy to CAPB (by positive patch test and history) took part in a ROAT which used a CAPB-based shower gel at 25% (DMAPA concentration < 1 ppm). None of the subjects showed positive allergic reactions. 1 of the test subjects did experience a flare of atopic dermatitis at the treatment site. Later, all 10 subjects were patch tested to 3 different concentrations of CAPB and DMAPA (0.1%, 0.3%, 1%) to verify the threshold that was capable of inducing a positive test reaction. 5/10 showed clear + reactions to 1% CAPB (typically at D3), whilst a further 3 gave marginal and/or irritant reactions. Only 1 of the subjects showed an allergic reaction to DMAPA. Finally, in uncontrolled use testing with the shower gel, none of the test subjects reported any adverse skin reactions. Thus, the study confirmed that CAPB-sensitive individuals can use a CAPB-based rinse-off product without the risk of experiencing an allergic reaction to CAPB.

  20. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  1. Toxocara infection and its association with allergic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Elena; Aranzamendi, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are roundworms of dogs and cats that can also infect humans worldwide. Although these parasites do not reach the adult stage in the human host the larvae migrate to different organs and can persist for many years. Migration of larvae through the lungs may result in respiratory distress such as wheezing, coughs, mucous production and hyper-reactivity of the airways. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that infection with this helminth contributes to the development of allergic manifestations, including asthma. These findings are however conflicting since in others studies no association between these two immunopathologies has been found. This article reviews information on Toxocara spp. and findings from epidemiological and experimental studies on the association between Toxocara infection and allergic manifestations. In addition, the immunological mechanisms and the factors involved in the helminth allergy-association are discussed.

  2. Treatment options in severe fungal asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Richard B

    2014-05-01

    Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis encompass two closely related subgroups of patients with severe allergic asthma. Pulmonary disease is due to pronounced host inflammatory responses to noninvasive subclinical endobronchial infection with filamentous fungi, usually Aspergillus fumigatus. These patients usually do not achieve satisfactory disease control with conventional treatment of severe asthma, i.e. high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators. Although prolonged systemic corticosteroids are effective, they carry a substantial toxicity profile. Supplementary or alternative therapies have primarily focused on use of antifungal agents including oral triazoles and inhaled amphotericin B. Immunomodulation with omalizumab, a humanised anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, or "pulse" monthly high-dose intravenous corticosteroid, has also been employed. This article considers the experience with these approaches, with emphasis on recent clinical trials.

  3. Dissimilar allergic disease in identical twins; a study of psychosomatic aspects.

    PubMed

    CREDE, R H; CARMAN, C T; WHALEY, R D; SCHUMACHER, I C

    1953-01-01

    Identical twins with bronchial asthma were studied. One had the first attack of the disease in late adolescence, the other not until he was adult. Both were demonstrated by immunologic means to be sensitive to house dust and certain foods. Yet, of itself, the factor of exposure to a known allergen seemed not enough to precipitate clinical allergic reaction in either of them. It is believed that emotional stress is accompanied by physiologic changes which facilitate increased reactions to antigenic agents that in normal circumstances would not cause clinical disease.The twins were widely different with regard to emotional development and in their reaction to situations of stress. In both of them allergic manifestations were associated with periods of emotional conflict.The dissimilar clinical manifestations of allergy in these identical twins may be explained by differences in personality and therefore in reactions to stress situations.

  4. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet.

  5. Reconstitution of the human biome as the most reasonable solution for epidemics of allergic and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D; Wray, Gregory A; Perkins, Sarah E; Parker, William

    2011-10-01

    A wide range of hyperimmune-associated diseases plague post-industrial society, with a prevalence and impact that is staggering. Strong evidence points towards a loss of helminths from the ecosystem of the human body (the human biome) as the most important factor in this epidemic. Helminths, intestinal worms which are largely eradicated by elements of post-industrial culture including toilets and water treatment facilities, have an otherwise ubiquitous presence in vertebrates, and have co-evolved with the immune system. Not only do helminths discourage allergic and autoimmune reactions by diverting the immune system away from these pathologic processes and stimulating host regulatory networks, helminths release a variety of factors which down-modulate the immune system. A comprehensive view of hyperimmune-related disease based on studies in immunology, parasitology, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, and neurobiology indicates that the effects of biome depletion may not yet be fully realized, and may have an unexpectedly broad impact on many areas of human biology, including cognition. Fortunately, colonization with helminths results in a cure of numerous autoimmune and allergic diseases in laboratory rodents, and clinical studies in humans have indicated their utility for treatment of both multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Based on these considerations, commitment of considerable resources toward understanding the effects of "biome depletion" and systematically evaluating the most effective approach toward biome reconstitution is strongly encouraged.

  6. MicroRNA-26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 Loop Regulates Allergic Inflammation and Allergic Inflammation-promoted Enhanced Tumorigenic and Metastatic Potential of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yoojung; Kim, Youngmi; Eom, Sangkyung; Kim, Misun; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Hyuna; Noh, Kyeonga; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-05-29

    Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) knock-out mouse experiments showed that COX-2 was necessary for in vivo allergic inflammation, such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive systemic anaphylaxis, and triphasic cutaneous allergic reaction. TargetScan analysis predicted COX-2 as a target of miR-26a and miR-26b. miR-26a/-26b decreased luciferase activity associated with COX-2-3'-UTR. miR-26a/-26b exerted negative effects on the features of in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation by targeting COX-2. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and SNAIL, but not COX-2, to the promoter sequences of miR-26a and miR-26b. Cytokine array analysis showed that the induction of chemokines, such as MIP-2, in the mouse passive systemic anaphylaxis model occurred in a COX-2-dependent manner. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and COX-2 to the promoter sequences of MIP-2. In vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation was accompanied by the increased expression of MIP-2. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the expression of MIP-2. Allergic inflammation enhanced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells and induced positive feedback involving cancer cells and stromal cells, such as mast cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. miR-26a mimic and miR-26b mimic negatively regulated the positive feedback between cancer cells and stromal cells and the positive feedback among stromal cells. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the enhanced tumorigenic potential by allergic inflammation. COX-2 was necessary for the enhanced metastatic potential of cancer cells by allergic inflammation. Taken together, our results indicate that the miR26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 loop regulates allergic inflammation and the feedback relationship between allergic inflammation and the enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential.

  7. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea.

  8. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  9. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  10. Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro; Takayama, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  11. The Exploration of Disease Pattern, Zheng, for Differentiation of Allergic Rhinitis in Traditional Chinese Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sienhung; Chen, Hsingyu; Lin, Yihsuan; Chen, Yuchun

    2012-01-01

    Pattern, or “zheng,” differentiation is the essential guide to treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the considerable variability between TCM patterns complicates evaluations of TCM treatment effectiveness. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the relationship between patterns and the core patterns of allergic rhinitis. We summarized 23 clinical trials of allergic rhinitis with mention of pattern differentiation; association rule mining was used to analyze TCM patterns of allergic rhinitis. A total of 205 allergic rhinitis patients seen at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from March to June 2005 were included for comparison. Among the 23 clinical trials evaluated, lung qi deficiency and spleen qi deficiencies were the core patterns of allergic rhinitis, accounting for 29.50% and 28.98% of all patterns, respectively. A higher prevalence of lung or spleen qi deficiency (93.7%) was found in Taiwan. Additionally, patients with lung or spleen qi deficiency were younger (27.99 ± 12.94 versus 58.54 ± 12.96 years) and the severity of nasal stuffiness was higher than among patients with kidney qi deficiency (1.35 ± 0.89 versus 0.62 ± 0.65; P < 0.05). Lung and spleen qi deficiencies are the core patterns of allergic rhinitis and determining the severity of nasal stuffiness is helpful in differentiating the TCM patterns. PMID:22899954

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to condoms: description of a clinical case and analytical review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, D; Antelmi, A; Conserva, A; Angelini, G

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 42-years-old non-atopic man who developed a severe eczematous reaction in the genital area some hours after the use of a condom (Settebello-Hatù Durex) containing a retarding cream. Patch test revealed a strong allergic reaction to the retarding cream and to benzocaine and paraben mix contained in the cream itself. Condoms with retarding cream should be avoided in man sensitized to local anestethetics.

  13. Characterization of Metastable Intermediates Formed in the Reaction Between a Mn(II) Complex and Dioxygen, Including a Crystallographic Structure of a Binuclear Mn(III)-Peroxo Species

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Michael K.; Sun, Xianru; Kwak, Yeonju; Solomon, Edward I.; Rybak-Akimova, Elena; Kovacs, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Transition-metal peroxos have been implicated as key intermediates in a variety of critical biological processes involving O2. Due to their highly reactive nature, very few metal-peroxos have been characterized. The dioxygen chemistry of manganese remains largely unexplored despite the proposed involvement of a binuclear Mn-peroxo, either as a precursor to O2, or derived from O2, in both photosynthetic H2O oxidation and DNA biosynthesis, arguably two of the most fundamental processes of life. Neither of these biological intermediates has been observed. Herein we describe the dioxygen chemistry of coordinatively unsaturated [MnII(SMe2N4(6-MeDPEN))] +(1), and the characterization of intermediates formed en route to a binuclear mono-oxo bridged Mn(III) product {[MnIII(SMe2N4(6-MeDPEN)]2-(μ-O)}2+ (2), the oxo atom of which is derived from 18O2. At low-temperatures, a dioxygen intermediate, [Mn(SMe2N4(6-MeDPEN))(O2)]+ (4), is observed (by stopped-flow) to rapidly and irreversibly form in this reaction (k1(−10 °C)= 3780±180M−1s−1, ΔH1‡ = 26.4±1.7 kJ mol−1, ΔS1‡ = − 75.6±6.8 J mol−1K−1), and then convert more slowly (k2(−10 °C)= 417±3.2 M−1s−1, ΔH2‡ = 47.1±1.4 kJ mol−1, ΔS2‡ = − 15.0±5.7 J mol−1K−1) to a species 3 with isotopically sensitive stretches at νo-o (Δ18O) = 819(47) cm−1, kO–O= 3.02 mdyn/Å, and νMn-O(Δ18O) = 611(25) cm−1 consistent with a peroxo. Intermediate 3 releases approximately 0.5 equiv of H2O2 per Mn ion upon protonation, and the rate of conversion of 4 to 3 is dependent on [Mn(II)] concentration, consistent with the formation of a binuclear Mn-peroxo. This was verified by X-ray crystallography, where the peroxo of {[MnIII(SMe2N4(6-Me-DPEN)]2(trans–μ–1,2–O2)}2+ (3) is shown to be bridging between two Mn(III) ions in an end-on trans-μ-1,2-fashion. This represents the first characterized example of a binuclear Mn(III)-peroxo, and a rare case in which more than one intermediate is observed

  14. [. Oсumethyl in the treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, N R

    Treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva (conjunctivites and blepharoconjunctivites) often presents difficulties due to peculiarities of their pathogenesis - allergic and vascular reactions, disorder of lacrimal production, meibomian gland dysfunction, and possible bacterial contamination. It has been suggested to use Ocumethyl, which contains zinc sulfate (binding, drying, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic effect), diphenhydamine hydrochloride (an Н1-antihistamine that decreases capillary permeability and helps resolve conjunctival and eyelid edema), naphazoline hydrochloride (a sympathomimetic notable for its strong, rapid, and long-lasting vasoconstrictive effect), and methylene blue (antiseptic effect, disintoxication, and antioxidant activity). A total of 80 patients with chronic allergic conjunctivitis, blepharoconjuntivitis, or giant papillary conjunctivitis associated with contact lens wearing were treated with Ocumethyl instillations (3 times daily for 15-30 days). A clinically significant effect was obtained in 77-91% of patients depending on the disease entity.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  16. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in two resource-limited settings in Peru with disparate degrees of urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, L. M.; Romero, K. M.; Robinson, C. L.; Hansel, N. N.; Gilman, R. H.; Hamilton, R. G.; Lima, J. J.; Wise, R. A.; Checkley, W.

    2017-01-01

    being overweight and 7% for an elevated total serum IgE. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Allergic rhinitis was prevalent in both settings, and important risk factors include elevated exhaled nitric oxide, allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, parental rhinitis, being overweight and high total serum IgE. When considering subject-specific factors, the difference in prevalence between the urban and rural settings became non-important. PMID:25059756

  18. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  19. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value.

  20. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, DeGaulle I; Coyne, Alissa M

    2015-01-01

    Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:26185412

  1. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity.MethodsWe integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity.ResultsWe report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13+IL-17+CD4+ double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc−/− mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity.ConclusionOur data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. To describe th

  2. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

    2004-03-01

    A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical

  4. Natalizumab-related anaphylactoid reactions in MS patients are associated with HLA class II alleles

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, Belén; Urcelay, Elena; Brassat, David; Chan, Andrew; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Salmen, Anke; Villar, Luisa Maria; Álvarez-Cermeño, José Carlos; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Fernández, Oscar; Oliver, Begoña; Saiz, Albert; Ara, Jose Ramón; Vigo, Ana G.; Arroyo, Rafael; Meca, Virginia; Malhotra, Sunny; Fissolo, Nicolás; Horga, Alejandro; Montalban, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate potential associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles and the development of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab. Methods: HLA class I and II genotyping was performed in patients with MS who experienced anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and in patients who did not develop infusion-related allergic reactions following natalizumab administration. Results: A total of 119 patients with MS from 3 different cohorts were included in the study: 54 with natalizumab-related anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and 65 without allergic reactions. HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-DRB1*14 alleles were significantly increased in patients who developed anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (pM-H = 3 × 10−7; odds ratio [OR]M-H = 8.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.40–23.64), with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 82%. In contrast, the HLA-DRB1*15 allele was significantly more represented in patients who did not develop anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions to natalizumab (pM-H = 6 × 10−4; ORM-H = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.08–0.50), with a PPV of 81%. Conclusions: HLA-DRB1 genotyping before natalizumab treatment may help neurologists to identify patients with MS at risk for developing serious systemic hypersensitivity reactions associated with natalizumab administration. PMID:25520955

  5. SUPPRESSION OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE (HDM) IN RATS EXPOSED TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Exposure to various xenobiotics, including oxidant gases, diesel exhaust and certain pesticides, has been reported to exacerbate pulmonary allergic hypersensitivity responses. Increased lymphocyte proliferative responses to parasite antigens or increased antibody r...

  6. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  7. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    PubMed

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments.

  8. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management.

  9. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  10. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway.

  11. The allergic march: can we prevent allergies and asthma?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    The allergic march is a progression of atopic disease from eczema to asthma, and then to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. It appears to be caused by a regional allergic response with breakdown of the local epithelial barrier that initiates systemic allergic inflammation. Genetic and environmental factors predispose to developing the allergic march. There are data to support 4 possible interventions to prevent the allergic march from progressing to asthma: (1) supplements of dietary probiotics, (2) exclusive breast feeding during the first few months of life, or, alternatively (3) use of extensively hydrolyzed infant formulas, (4) treatment with inhalant allergen immunotherapy by either subcutaneous or sublingual methods.

  12. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  13. [The efficacy of a new medication -- intranasal glucocorticoid mometasone furoate (Nasonex) -- in seasonal allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Chyrek-Borowska, S; Rogalewska, A M; Lenczewska, D; Buko, Z; Południewska, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this open study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new topical corticosteroid Nasonex (mometasone furoate) in allergic, seasonal rhinitis. The investigations were carried out on 30 patients with proven grass pollen allergy. Nasonex was administered intranasally during the pollen season, in a single dose 200 micrograms. During the 3 subsequent visits nasal and nonnasal symptom (total and individual) scores and patient reaction to the treatment were evaluated. Rhinomanometry and number of eosinophils in nasal smear were calculated before and after the treatment. Complete or marked relief of symptoms was observed in 24 patients, moderate improvement in 4 patients and no positive reaction in 2 cases. Nasonex markedly inhibited eosinophil influx to the nasal mucosa. No adverse reaction was observed during 2-week Nasonex treatment. We conclude that Nasonex aerosol is a very effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  14. Fullerene nanomaterials inhibit the allergic response.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John J; Bateman, Henry R; Stover, Alex; Gomez, Greg; Norton, Sarah K; Zhao, Wei; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Lenk, Robert; Kepley, Christopher L

    2007-07-01

    Fullerenes are a class of novel carbon allotropes that may have practical applications in biotechnology and medicine. Human mast cells (MC) and peripheral blood basophils are critical cells involved in the initiation and propagation of several inflammatory conditions, mainly type I hypersensitivity. We report an unanticipated role of fullerenes as a negative regulator of allergic mediator release that suppresses Ag-driven type I hypersensitivity. Human MC and peripheral blood basophils exhibited a significant inhibition of IgE dependent mediator release when preincubated with C(60) fullerenes. Protein microarray demonstrated that inhibition of mediator release involves profound reductions in the activation of signaling molecules involved in mediator release and oxidative stress. Follow-up studies demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk was dramatically inhibited in Ag-challenged cells first incubated with fullerenes. In addition, fullerene preincubation significantly inhibited IgE-induced elevation in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, fullerenes prevented the in vivo release of histamine and drop in core body temperature in vivo using a MC-dependent model of anaphylaxis. These findings identify a new biological function for fullerenes and may represent a novel way to control MC-dependent diseases including asthma, inflammatory arthritis, heart disease, and multiple sclerosis.

  15. Low-dose ethanol aggravates allergic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Ogino, Hirofumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Okuno, Tomofumi; Ueno, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol injures dendritic cells and suppresses cellular immunity, while some evidence indicates that drinking alcohol aggravates allergic asthma. This study investigated the effect of low doses of ethanol in enhancing allergic reactions in the skin of mice. Liquid food containing alcohol was administered to conventional NC/Nga mice to induce alcoholic hepatic steatosis, and spontaneous dermatitis was evaluated. BALB/c mice were administered approximately 1 g/kg body weight of ethanol by gavage, and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA) was induced. Spleens were collected 24 h after the elicitation of CHS and mRNA expressions of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diet exaggerated spontaneous dermatitis in conventional NC/Nga mice and contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administered by gavage for 5 days enhanced contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administration with gavage also enhanced ACA of BALB/c mice. Ethanol did not affect mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-4, but did enhance IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 mRNA expression. Histological evaluation revealed an absence of hepatic steatosis in mice administered ethanol by gavage for 5 days. In ethanol-administered mice, inflamed areas presented as lesions or a local extreme accumulation of mononuclear cells in the epidermis. These findings suggest that ethanol enhances the expression of inflammatory cytokines independently from T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine phenotypes, causing abnormalities in the epidermis resulting in exacerbated allergic reactivity.

  16. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Compare, D; Nardone, G

    2013-01-01

    Allergy is defined as a hypersensitivity reaction due to specific antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. Epidemiological studies are showing a dramatic increase of allergies in industrialized countries in the last few decades, while remaining stable in developing countries. In 1989 Strachan, hypothesized that the increase in allergic disorders was the result of a lack of infections in early infancy, and in 1998 Wold suggested that, rather than a decrease in viral or bacterial infections, an altered normal intestinal colonization pattern in infancy, could be responsible for the increase in allergies. Germ-free mice were shown to mount an exaggerated allergic airway reaction compared with that seen in colonized mice, indicating the important role of microbe-host interactions in the development of allergic diseases. Infants with food allergies are found to exhibit an imbalance between "beneficial"and potentially harmful bacteria, i.e., decreased Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus species and increased coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium species, suggesting that microbial inhabitants of the human body, may play either a pathogenic or protective role in allergies. Based on this data, many clinical trial addressing the use of probiotics in the context of allergic disorders, have been conducted in children. However, currently, no conclusive item may be drawn.

  17. Allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma are associated with differences in school performance among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have reported negative relations between allergic diseases and school performance but have not simultaneously considered various allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, and only examined a limited number of participants. The present study investigated the associations of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis with school performance in a large, representative Korean adolescent population. A total of 299,695 7th through 12th grade students participated in the Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 to 2013. The subjects’ history of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis and number of school absences due to these diseases in the previous 12 months were examined and compared. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The relations between allergic disorders and school performance were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with complex sampling and adjusted for the subjects’ durations of sleep, days of physical activity, body mass indexes (BMIs), regions of residence, economic levels, parents’ education levels, stress levels, smoking status, and alcohol use. A subgroup analysis of the economic groups was performed. Allergic rhinitis was positively correlated with better school performance in a dose-dependent manner (adjusted odds ratios, AOR, [95% confidence interval, CI] = 1.50 [1.43–1.56 > 1.33 [1.28–1.38] > 1.17 [1.13–1.22] > 1.09 [1.05–1.14] for grades A > B > C > D; P < 0.001). Asthma was negatively correlated with better school performance (AOR [95% CI] = 0.74 [0.66–0.83], 0.87 [0.79–0.96], 0.83 [0.75–0.91], 0.93 [0.85–1.02] for performance A, B, C, and D, respectively; P < 0.001). Atopic dermatitis was not significantly correlated with school performance. The subgroup analysis of the students’ economic levels revealed associations between allergic diseases and school performance. Compared to other allergic disorders, the asthma

  18. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  19. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre

  20. Allergic rhinitis and chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Rajati, Mohsen; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Khadivi, Ehsan; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Allergic inflammation in upper airways can act as a predisposing factor for infectious ear diseases. There are some evidences about the role of allergic rhinitis in chronic otitis media with effusion, but its role in establishing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has not been clearly shown. 68 adult patients with established CSOM, who were candidates for ear surgery, and 184 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for the presence of allergic rhinitis. Standard questionnaire was filled out for all participants. All patients and controls underwent skin prick test for 28 common regional aeroallergens, and serum total IgE was measured by means of ELISA method. Allergic rhinitis were defined as a positive responses to the questionnaire, positive skin prick test to at least one allergen, and/or high level of serum total IgE. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 20 (29.41%) and 41 (22.28%) of patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.241) (OR = 1.28, CI = 0.69-2.36). Outdoor allergens, especially grass pollen, were the most prevalent allergens among both groups, but indoor allergens like mites and molds have a low prevalence. The study did not show a significant difference in the prevalence of AR in the CSOM patients compared to the controls. The intermittent nature of allergy and other less known intervening factors in the etiopathogenesis of CSOM make such a conclusion difficult.

  1. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae allergy in allergic rhinitis caused by cross-reactivity not dual-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Liao, En-Chih; Ho, Chau-Mei; Lin, Meei-Yn; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2010-11-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are causative factors for the development of airway hypersensitivity. The main objective in this study was to identify the cross-reactive allergens between T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus and investigate their sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis. The prevalence of sensitization to mites was determined by skin prick tests and histamine release assays. Both immunoblot and ELISA inhibition assays were performed by using the recombinant allergens of T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus. The cross-reactive allergens were identified by using IgE-binding inhibition analysis. The correlations of specific IgE between T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus to group 2 and group 3 mite allergens were compared. A total of 117 allergic rhinitis patients, aged between 16 and 40 years old were recruited to be included in this study. The results showed that 70% (82/117) of allergic rhinitis subjects had skin test positive reactions to D. pteronyssinus or T. putrescentiae. Among these mite-sensitive subjects, there were 81 subjects (81/82) sensitive to D. pteronyssinus and 34 subjects (34/82) sensitive to T. putrescentiae. Among the T. putrescentiae hypersensitive subjects, 97% (33/34) were also sensitized to D. pteronyssinus. In the IgE-binding inhibition analysis, 59% (13/22) subjects had IgE-binding activity of T. putrescentiae that was completely absorbed by D. pteronyssinus, especially components with MW at 16 kDa. In ELISA inhibition testing, 69% of IgE-binding was inhibited by rTyr p 2, and 45% inhibited by rTyr p 3. The titers of IgE antibodies to rTyr p 2 and rDer p 2 were well correlated, but not rTyr p 3 and rDer p 3. In conclusion, most T. putrescentiae sensitized subjects were also sensitized to D. pteronyssinus in young adult allergic rhinitis patients. The complete absorption of IgE binding activity by D. pteronyssinus indicates that T. putrescentiae hypersensitivity might be due to the

  2. Effect of desloratadine on the control of morning symptoms in patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    The symptoms of allergic rhinitis vary in severity over the course of the day and often are worse in the morning. This review focuses on data from clinical studies of the antihistamine desloratadine to establish whether it effectively controls the morning symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Studies of desloratadine in patients with allergic rhinitis that used instantaneous scoring to assess the severity of morning symptoms were selected for inclusion from published literature (peer-reviewed articles and abstracts presented at professional meetings). When administered once daily, desloratadine is effective in alleviating the morning symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including nasal congestion. Its action is sustained over the 24-hour dosing interval. A comparison of morning and evening dosing of desloratadine revealed equivalent relief of morning symptoms, illustrating that the effect of desloratadine is independent of the time of dosing. Clinical studies indicate that desloratadine is nonsedating and well tolerated, with no evidence of adverse cardiac effects. For many patients with allergic rhinitis, symptoms are most severe in the morning. To maximize the benefits for patients, pharmacologic agents used in the management of allergic rhinitis should be effective in controlling these peak morning symptoms. The sustained 24-hour action of desloratadine and its effective control of morning symptoms make it a valuable tool for improving the quality of life of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  3. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randmonized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live...

  4. The natural compound nujiangexanthone A suppresses mast cell activation and allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Cai, Shuangfan; Nie, Jia; Li, Yangyang; Shi, Guochao; Hao, Jimin; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Chen, Shilin; Li, Bin; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-01-15

    Mast cells play an important role in allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The genus Garcinia of the family Guttiferae is well known as a prolific source of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols and bioactive prenylated xanthones, which exhibit various biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects. Nujiangexanthone A (N7) is a novel compound isolated from the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis. In this paper, we sought to determine the anti-allergic and anti-inflammation activity of N7 in vivo and its mechanism in vitro. We found N7 suppressed IgE/Ag induced mast cell activiation, including degranulation and production of cytokines and eicosanoids, through inhibiting Src kinase activity and Syk dependent pathways. N7 inhibited histamine release, prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4 generation in mast cell dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis animal model. We also found N7 inhibited the IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IgE levels in ovalbumin-induced asthma model. Histological studies demonstrated that N7 substantially inhibited OVA-induced cellular infiltration and increased mucus production in the lung tissue. Our study reveals the anti-allergic function of N7, thereby suggesting the utility of this compound as a possible novel agent for preventing mast cell-related immediate and delayed allergic diseases.

  5. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  6. Genetic risk factors for the development of allergic disease identified by genome-wide association

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, M A; Hodge, E; Sayers, I

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of the worldwide population is affected by allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic asthma and improved treatment options are needed particularly for severe, refractory disease. Allergic diseases are complex and development involves both environmental and genetic factors. Although the existence of a genetic component for allergy was first described almost 100 years ago, progress in gene identification has been hindered by lack of high throughput technologies to investigate genetic variation in large numbers of subjects. The development of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), a hypothesis-free method of interrogating large numbers of common variants spanning the entire genome in disease and non-disease subjects has revolutionised our understanding of the genetics of allergic disease. Susceptibility genes for asthma, AR and AD have now been identified with confidence, suggesting there are common and distinct genetic loci associated with these diseases, providing novel insights into potential disease pathways and mechanisms. Genes involved in both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms have been identified, notably including multiple genes involved in epithelial function/secretion, suggesting that the airway epithelium may be particularly important in asthma. Interestingly, concordance/discordance between the genetic factors driving allergic traits such as IgE levels and disease states such as asthma have further supported the accumulating evidence for heterogeneity in these diseases. While GWAS have been useful and continue to identify novel genes for allergic diseases through increased sample sizes and phenotype refinement, future approaches will integrate analyses of rare variants, epigenetic mechanisms and eQTL approaches, leading to greater insight into the genetic basis of these diseases. Gene identification will improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and generate potential

  7. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animal dander are also called allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is another word often used for this problem. ... to ask your doctor about allergic rhinitis - child; Hay fever - what to ask your doctor - child; Allergies - what ...

  8. Inhibitory effects of Piper betle on production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wirotesangthong, Mali; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Thanakijcharoenpath, Witchuda; Nagai, Hiroichi

    2008-03-01

    The leaves of the Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) are used in traditional medicine and possess anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic and radioprotective activities. However, little is known about their anti-allergic activity. Therefore, the effects of P. betle ethanolic extract (PE) on the production of histamine and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by murine bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) and on the secretion of eotaxin and IL-8 by the human lung epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, were investigated in vitro. PE significantly decreased histamine and GM-CSF produced by an IgE-mediated hypersensitive reaction, and inhibited eotaxin and IL-8 secretion in a TNF-alpha and IL-4-induced allergic reaction. The results suggest that P. betle may offer a new therapeutic approach for the control of allergic diseases through inhibition of production of allergic mediators.

  9. Primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Assa'ad, Amal H; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of atopic disease, primary prevention may play a role in reducing its burden, especially in high-risk infants. With this in mind, the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology was charged with the task of developing recommendations for primary care physicians and specialists about the primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions according to current available literature and expert opinion. Recommendations that are supported by data are as follows. Avoidance diets during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended at this time, but more research is necessary for peanut. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 and up to 6 months is endorsed. For high-risk infants who cannot be exclusively breast-fed, hydrolyzed formula appears to offer advantages to prevent allergic disease and cow's milk allergy. Complementary foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months of age. Because no formal recommendations have been previously provided about how and when to introduce the main allergenic foods (cow's milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish), these are now provided, and reasons to consider allergy consultation for development of a personalized plan for food introduction are also presented.

  10. Role of cockroach proteases in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen

    2012-10-01

    Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.

  11. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  12. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization.

  13. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  14. Ancillary therapy of intranasal T-LysYal® for patients with allergic, non-allergic, and mixed rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Taliente, S; Fiorella, M L; Quaranta, N; Ciancio, G; Russo, C; Mola, P; Ciofalo, A; Zambetti, G; Caruso Armone, A; Cantone, E; Ciprandi, G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated pathogenesis. Frequently, patients have the two disorders associated: such as mixed rhinitis (MR). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a fundamental component of the human connective tissue. HA may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities. Recently, an intranasal HA formulation was proposed: a supramolecular system containing lysine hyaluronate, thymine and sodium chloride (T-LysYal®). This randomized study investigated whether intranasal T-LysYal® (rinoLysYal®, Farmigea, Italy) was able to reduce symptom severity, endoscopic features, and nasal cytology in 89 patients (48 males and 41 females, mean age 36.3±7.1 years) with AR, NAR, and MR. Patients were treated with intranasal T-LysYal® or isotonic saline solution as adjunctive therapy to nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine for 4 weeks. Patients were visited at baseline, after treatment and after 4-week follow-up. Intranasal T-LysYal® treatment significantly reduced the quote of patients with symptoms, endoscopic features, and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that intranasal T-LysYal® is able, as ancillary therapy, to significantly improve patients with AR, NAR, and MR, and its effect is long lasting.

  15. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    GHAFFARI, Javad; ABBASKHANIAN, Ali; JALILI, Masumeh; YAZDANI CHARATI, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. Material & Methods This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011–May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. Results In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Conclusion Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ. PMID:25143773

  16. Proallergic cytokines and group 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic nasal diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kazufumi; Kato, Yukinori; Akasaki, Shoko; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of proallergic cytokines and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) indicate their critical roles in type 2 immunity-mediated disorders. Proallergic cytokines, interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, are released from epithelial cells in inflamed tissues and drive type 2 inflammation by acting on innate and acquired immune systems. ILC2s are an innate immune population that responds to proallergic cytokines by producing type 2 cytokines. In line with allergic disorders in the lung, skin, and intestine, emerging evidence suggests the involvement of proallergic cytokines and ILC2s in allergic nasal diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (CRSwNP), allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, and allergic rhinitis (AR). In CRSwNP patients, both proallergic cytokine levels and ILC2s frequency are increased in the nasal mucosa. Increased proallergic cytokine levels correlate with poorer disease outcomes in CRSwNP. Levels of nasal proallergic cytokines are also elevated in AR patients. In addition, animal studies demonstrate that cytokines are essential for the development of AR. It is becoming clear that the proallergic cytokine/ILC2s axis participates in allergic diseases by multiple mechanisms dependent upon the inflammatory context. Thus, a thorough understanding of these cytokines and ILC2s including their tissue- and disease-specific roles is essential for targeting the pathways to achieve therapeutic applications.

  17. DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Aida; Hristova, Milena; Heppner, David E; Danyal, Karamatullah; Ather, Jennifer L; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W; Irvin, Charles G; Poynter, Matthew E; Lundblad, Lennart K; Dixon, Anne E; Geiszt, Miklos; van der Vliet, Albert

    2016-11-03

    Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin as well as constitutive EGFR activation in cultured nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects compared with nonasthmatic controls and in lung tissues of mice during house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation. EGFR activation was associated with cysteine oxidation within EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, and both amphiregulin production and oxidative EGFR activation were diminished by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of the epithelial NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). DUOX1 deficiency also attenuated several EGFR-dependent features of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, including neutrophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production (IL-33, IL-13), mucous metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and central airway resistance. Moreover, targeted inhibition of airway DUOX1 in mice with previously established HDM-induced allergic inflammation, by intratracheal administration of DUOX1-targeted siRNA or pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reversed most of these outcomes. Our findings indicate an important function for DUOX1 in allergic inflammation related to persistent EGFR activation and suggest that DUOX1 targeting may represent an attractive strategy in asthma management.

  18. DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Habibovic, Aida; Hristova, Milena; Heppner, David E.; Danyal, Karamatullah; Ather, Jennifer L.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.; Irvin, Charles G.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Lundblad, Lennart K.; Dixon, Anne E.; Geiszt, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin as well as constitutive EGFR activation in cultured nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects compared with nonasthmatic controls and in lung tissues of mice during house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation. EGFR activation was associated with cysteine oxidation within EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, and both amphiregulin production and oxidative EGFR activation were diminished by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of the epithelial NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). DUOX1 deficiency also attenuated several EGFR-dependent features of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, including neutrophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production (IL-33, IL-13), mucous metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and central airway resistance. Moreover, targeted inhibition of airway DUOX1 in mice with previously established HDM-induced allergic inflammation, by intratracheal administration of DUOX1-targeted siRNA or pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reversed most of these outcomes. Our findings indicate an important function for DUOX1 in allergic inflammation related to persistent EGFR activation and suggest that DUOX1 targeting may represent an attractive strategy in asthma management. PMID:27812543

  19. Generalized eczematous reaction after fractional carbon dioxide laser therapy for tattoo allergy.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; De Rie, Menno A; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2016-12-01

    Allergic tattoo reactions form a therapeutically difficult entity. Treatment with conventional quality-switched lasers does not completely remove the allergenic particles and may lead to generalized hypersensitivity reactions. Recently, ablative fractional laser therapy was introduced as a treatment for allergic tattoo removal. We present two cases of allergic reactions to red tattoo ink treated with 10,600-nm fractional CO2 laser. At the end of treatment, almost complete removal of red ink accompanied by a significant reduction of symptoms was observed in the first patient, whereas the second patient developed an acute generalized eczematous reaction after five treatments. These findings confirm that ablative fractional laser therapy is capable of significant removal of tattoo ink in an allergic tattoo reaction. However, it implies a risk of generalized hypersensitivity reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a generalized hypersensitivity reaction following treatment of tattoo allergy with the fractional CO2 laser.

  20. Allergic axillary dermatitis due to hydrogenated castor oil in a deodorant.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Kathy; Tatnall, Frances; Orton, David

    2008-03-01

    We present a case of axillary dermatitis caused by hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) in a commercially available deodorant. Patch testing with constituents obtained from the manufacturer showed allergic reaction to HCO 'as is', whereas there was no reaction to HCO 30% in pet. Testing 10 controls with HCO 'as is' did not cause irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis to non-HCO in cosmetics has been described previously but sensitization to HCO seems to be rare. Most common allergens identified in deodorants are fragrances, and this case illustrates that HCO is another possible allergen found in this group of personal care products. It is important that it is tested 'as is' to avoid false-negative results.

  1. Safety aspects of Cluster immunotherapy with semi-depot allergen extracts in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Mösges, Ralph; Hörmann, Karl; Klimek, Ludger

    2010-02-01

    In addition to allergen avoidance and pharmaceutical medication, specific immunotherapy (SIT) stands for the third most important mainstay offered to allergic patients. SIT has been widely used in pollen-allergic rhinitis,and clinical efficacy has been validated in several controlled clinical trials. Classic SIT protocols begin with an initial dose-increase period (subcutaneous injections of gradually ascending dosages of the allergen extract in weekly intervals) followed by the dose-maintenance period.However, dosage schedules are not commonly standardized yet. Cluster-SIT is an accelerated procedure to achieve the maintenance dose after a shorter time interval by the application of 2-3 injections per treatment day.A total of 395 pollen-allergic patients (173 females,222 males) aging from 18 to 61 years (mean age 32.6 +/- 5.9 years) have been investigated using a Cluster schedule for Alutard SQ that allows up dosing up to 100,000 SQ-U in six treatment days (within 5 weeks). The schedule was investigated with regard to the side effects during dosage increase. The total number of systemic reactions was n = 148 or 2.05% of all injections. Of these,119 (80%) were classified as immediate reactions, 27(18%) were late-phase reactions and 2 (2%) were both immediate- and late-phase reactions. Of all systemic reactions, 124 (84%) were classified as grade 1 reactions,and 24 (16%) as grade 2. No reactions of grades 3 and 4 occurred. Age, gender and the type of the allergen used had no influence on the frequency or severity of local or systemic reactions. The appearance and amount of adverse side effects in Cluster-SCIT is comparable to those in conventional schedules. With respect to safety aspects, this accelerated dosage schedule could turn into an interesting alternative for dosage increase during subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT).

  2. Evaluation of drug-related hypersensitivity reactions in children.

    PubMed

    Martín-Muñoz, F; Moreno-Ancillo, A; Domínguez-Noche, C; Díaz-Pena, J M; García-Ara, C; Boyano, T; Ojeda, J A

    1999-01-01

    Patients with drug reactions are often referred to allergists for "allergy". Skin testing and clinical history seem to have a good negative predictive value, however, although drug challenge could be dangerous, it is the only way to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to demonstrate that most children with a history of non-life-threatening drug reactions do not have a true drug allergy and examined the use of drug challenge in childhood. Patients with reactions were referred to our clinic by pediatricians. In 1 year, 354 reactions were studied in 239 children. Patients were classified according to their positive or negative history of drug allergy. Skin prick testing was done in all cases. Exclusion criteria for challenge included drug anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, systemic reactions with severe concomitant illness, beta-inhibitor drug therapy or positive skin test to the implicated drug with a positive history. It was found that the beta-lactam antibiotics were involved in 50% of suspected reactions, aspirin in 10% and sulfonamides in 9%. Histories were considered positive only in 25%. Drug challenges confirmed only 4% of all reactions. It was concluded that drug challenge may be the gold standard for most childhood reactions that are considered to be allergic, non-life-threatening and drug-related. Only 4% of these suspected reactions were exclusively caused by drug allergy.

  3. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  4. Eyeglass frame allergic contact dermatitis: does tacrolimus prevent recurrences?

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tokio; Iijima, Masafumi; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-10-01

    A 35-year-old man developed well-demarcated, oedematous and erosive erythematous lesions on the nasal bridge and retroauricular regions bilaterally. His eyeglass frame was repaired by an optician 2 weeks prior to symptom onset. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to scrapings of nose pads and temples of the frame in petrolatum. Because the patient did not take our exhortation to change eyeglass frames, we advised him to cover their nose pads and temples with vinyl tape to prevent direct skin contact. Although topical corticosteroid therapy produced clinical resolution temporally, recurrences were not prevented. After starting tacrolimus ointment therapy, recurrence has not occurred for 9 months. Tacrolimus may be effective for allergic contact dermatitis patients who cannot avoid repeated allergen exposure, as it may not only reduce inflammation but inhibit recurrences.

  5. [Allergic hypersensitivity to antiretroviral drugs: etravirine, raltegravir and darunavir].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Olivas, Manuel Anastacio; Valencia-Zavala, Martha Patricia; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Sánchez-Olivas, Jesús Alberto; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo; Sepúlveda-Velázquez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    All antiretroviral drugs can have both short-term and long-term adverse events. The risk of specific side effects varies from drug to drug, from drug class to drug class, and from patient to patient. A better understanding of the adverse effects of antiretroviral agents is of interest not only for HIV specialists, but also for other physicians who care allergy reactions in HIV-positive patients. Each antiretroviral medication is associated with its own specific adverse effects or may cause problems only in particular circumstances. In this article some adverse allergic effects of HAART therapy in the treatment of HIV from a patient are reviewed. Our aim is to gain a working knowledge of these adverse effects, promoting the early recognition and reversal of potentially serious adverse effects, and reducing the potential for adverse drug interactions.

  6. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut.

  7. Exhaled NO: Determinants and Clinical Application in Children With Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Bin; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously released in the airways, and the fractional concentration of NO in exhaled breath (FeNO) is now recognized as a surrogate marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation that can be measured using a noninvasive technique suitable for young children. Although FeNO levels are affected by several factors, the most important clinical determinants of increased FeNO levels are atopy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. In addition, air pollution is an environmental determinant of FeNO that may contribute to the high prevalence of allergic disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanism for airway NO production, methods for measuring FeNO, and determinants of FeNO in children, including host and environmental factors such as air pollution. We also discuss the clinical utility of FeNO in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and further useful directions using FeNO measurement. PMID:26540497

  8. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  9. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  10. [Thiamine diphosphate level and metabolism in allergic myocarditis and treatment with peloid].

    PubMed

    Leus, N F

    1986-01-01

    Enzymatic systems involved in thiamin metabolism were studied in experimental allergic myocarditis. Development of inflammation in myocardium was accompanied by a distinct activation of thiamin pyrophosphatase which catalyzed the most important step responsible for deterioration of the coenzyme functions. The stabilizing effect of peloid on the intracellular pool and compartmentalization of thiamin in myocarditis involved equilibration of the anabolic and catabolic reactions in the coenzyme metabolism, mainly due to selective inhibition of the thiamin pyrophosphatase activity stimulated under these conditions.

  11. Future treatments of allergic diseases and asthma.

    PubMed

    Stirling, R G; Chung, K F

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the inflammatory and immunological mechanisms of allergic diseases have illuminated many potential therapeutic strategies that may prevent or even reverse the abnormalities of allergic inflammation. As the roles of effector cells, and of signalling and adhesion molecules are better understood, the opportunities to inhibit or prevent the inflammatory cascade have increased. In addition, there have been advances in the synthesis of proteins, monoclonal antibodies and new small molecule chemical entities, which provide further valuable flexibility in the therapeutic approach to asthma. Such new approaches are aimed at prevention of T-cell activation; redressing the imbalance of T helper cell populations thus inhibiting or preventing Th-2-derived cytokine expression; and the inhibition or blockade of the downstream actions of these cytokines such as effects on IgE and eosinophils. Approaches such as these allow both broad and highly specific targeting, and may pave the way towards the prevention and reversal of the immunological and inflammatory processes driving asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The development of effective agents with effects beyond those provided by current therapies coupled with lesser side-effects will further address the unmet needs of allergic disease.

  12. [Allergic dermatitis: new concepts for old diseases].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, Martín; Ayala Balboa, Julio César; Mendoza Vázquez, Victor Cristóbal

    2003-01-01

    The skin is the largest body's organ, with a well defined functional lymphoid tissue. This organ can be the target of several hypersensitivity-mediated diseases, that are both, genetically determined and influenced by environmental factors. In this paper the main clinical features and the current treatment modalities for the most frequent allergic cutaneous diseases are reviewed.

  13. [Recent advances in extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M

    2008-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis), especially humidifier lung, has been more frequently diagnosed over the last decades, whereas farmer's lung has decreased over the same time period. Today two types of the chronic course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be distinguished. The recurrent chronic course with a good prognosis may be differentiated from the insidious course with a poor prognosis by means of different histological patterns (UIP, NSIP, BOOP pattern). The characteristic neutrophilic infiltration of the lung in the insidious course cannot be detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) methods. Furthermore, lymphocytosis in the BAL can be absent or present at a low level. The CD4/CD8 ratio is not always decreased and may be normal or even increased in these insidious cases with a poor prognosis. Granulomas in the lung tissue, however, point to a good prognosis. In the diagnostic work-up of machine operator's and humidifier lung, it is advisable not only to look for serum antibodies against bacteria and molds but also for rapid growing mycobacteria in a sample of machine or humidifier water. IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors occur frequently in allergic alveolitis, especially in humidifier lung. The patients, however, do not suffer from arthritis. The IgM rheumatoid factor may simulate IgM antibodies against numerous infectious agents (e. g., Bordetella pertussis or Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Taking this phenomenon into account may improve the current differential diagnosis of allergic alveolitis.

  14. Allergic contact stomatitis from bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate during application of composite restorations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Johns, Dexton A; Hemaraj, Sajna; Varoli, Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins have revolutionized the field of esthetic dentistry. They are safe to use and usually do not cause any untoward reactions. Allergies to composites are rare, but they do occasionally occur as patients are briefly exposed to the resin before it is polymerized and becomes non-allergenic. Here, we present a case of allergic contact stomatitis due to bis-GMA.

  15. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joya S; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Tranchina, Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  17. Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia B; Crandall, Elizabeth; Sheppard, John D

    2010-01-01

    Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern. PMID:20856595

  18. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders. PMID:27251783

  19. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders.

  20. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Kunbootsri, Narupon; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chainansamit, Seksun; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks. There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u.), PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u.) at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group. Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergic rhinitis patients.

  1. Role of interleukin-18 in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nathan L; Mishra, Anil

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is an IL-1 family cytokine expressed by macrophages, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes and is implicated in various aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. IL-18 signals similar to IL-1β intracellularly to activate gene transcription. Since its discovery, IL-18 has been demonstrated to play a key role in pathogen defense from helminths and some bacteria. Recently however, evidence has accumulated that IL-18 expression is increased in many presentations of allergic disease. A pathologic role for IL-18 includes stimulating mast cell and basophil degranulation, recruiting granulocytes to sites of inflammation, increasing cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) and NK-T cells, inducing Immunoglobulin (Ig)E production and isotype switching, and affecting a broad range of T cells to promote a type II helper T cell (Th2) response. Evidence and importance of these effects are presented, including novel results from our lab implicating IL-18 in the direct expansion of mast cells, basophils, and other myeloid-lineage cells from bone-marrow precursors. The development of urticaria, asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and eosinophilic disorders all have demonstrated correlations to increased IL-18 levels either in the tissue or systemically. IL-18 represents a novel site of immune regulation in not only allergic conditions, but also autoimmune diseases and other instances of aberrant immune functioning. Diagrammatic summarized abstract for readers convinance is presented in Fig. 1.

  2. The history and progression of treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to place new treatments in the context of allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment history. The medical literature was searched for significant advances and changes in AR treatment. Historical data on AR treatment options and management were selected. Reviews of AR management published throughout the 20th century were included to provide context for treatment advances. Modern AR treatment began in the early 20th century with immunotherapy and was soon followed by the emergence of antihistamine therapy in the 1930s. Numerous treatments for AR have been used over the ensuing decades, including decongestants, mast cell stabilizers, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Topical corticosteroid options were developed the 1950s, and, added to baseline antihistamine therapy, became the foundation of AR treatment. Treatment options were significantly impacted after the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbon propellant aerosols because of environmental concerns. From the mid-1990s until recently, this left only aqueous solution options for intranasal corticosteroids (INSs). The approval of the first hydrofluoroalkane propellant aerosol INSs for AR in 2012 restored a "dry" aerosol treatment option. The first combination intranasal antihistamine/INSs was also approved in 2012, providing a novel treatment option for AR. Treatment of AR has progressed with new therapeutic options now available. This should continue to move forward with agents to alter the allergic mechanism itself and impact the disease burden that has a significant impact on patient outcomes.

  3. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events.

  4. Academic Functioning and Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents with Allergic Rhinitis--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second of a two-part series on allergic rhinitis (AR). Treatments for AR are now widely available in both prescription and over-the-counter form. The medication therapies include antihistamines, decongestants, leukotriene receptor antagonists, cromolyn sodium, and immunotherapy. Corticosteroids are also used via nasal…

  5. Observations on the use of cyproheptadine hydrochloride as an antipruritic agent in allergic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D W; Rothstein, E; Beningo, K E; Miller, W H

    1998-01-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride was administered to 20 presumed or proven allergic cats to determine its efficacy in controlling pruritus. Each cat received 2 mg, orally, every 12 h. The pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 9 cats. Side effects were seen in 8 cats, and included polyphagia, sedation, vocalization, affectionate behavior, and vomiting. PMID:9789674

  6. EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) cream used in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Harries, Matthew J; Street, Gill; Gilmour, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Lesley E; Beck, Michael H

    2007-02-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used in the treatment of superficial skin malignancies including actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Contact allergy to the prodrug is rarely reported. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate cream used in PDT.

  8. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

  9. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  10. Prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among school children of Karachi, Pakistan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed Muhammad; Khan, Muneeba; Saleem, Asma; Waqar, Muhammad Anwar

    2009-02-01

    In recent times, the incidence of allergic diseases, particularly bronchial asthma, has been increasing worldwide. However, there appears to be no published data on the prevalence of allergic diseases among school children (3 to 16 years of age) in Karachi, Pakistan, with only limited data available among few age groups under one ISAAC study. The objective of this project was to investigate the prevalence of allergic diseases among school children (3 to 16 years of age) in the city of Karachi. The questionnaire that was used for data collection had previously been used for a similar study in neighboring Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. In 2007, a total of 3,000 surveys were distributed in various schools of Karachi, of which 2,325 completed surveys were obtained. SPSS was used to perform statistical analysis on the collected data. Survey results showed that the frequency of diagnosed (previously seen by physicians) cases of asthma stood at 15.8%, while the frequency of allergic rhinitis was found to be 28.50% among these children. Other parameters that were analyzed included dry cough (20.1%), wheezing (11.7%), breathlessness (15.40%), and eczema (21.8%). Furthermore, smoking by family members was found to be associated with asthma (p value less than 0.05), allergic rhinitis (p value less than 0.05), breathlessness (p value less than 0.05), dry cough (p value 0.002), and wheezing (p value less than 0.05). This study reveals that there is a significant number of school children in the metropolitan city of Karachi who have various allergic symptoms. It also sheds light on the fact that exposure to indoor environmental factors as well as family atopy can play a key role in increasing the chances of an individual to experience asthma and other allergy symptoms.

  11. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females only.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike

    2014-10-01

    Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease

  12. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  13. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  14. [Occurrence of drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Pastorello, E; Qualizza, R M; Luraghi, M T; Ispano, M; Villa, A M; Ortolani, C; Zanussi, C

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of allergic reactions to drugs compared to other kinds of medical emergencies admitted to the main Hospital in Milan during a 6 months period. At the same time we drew a list of drugs most frequently involved in allergic reactions, and a list of the most frequent symptoms. Using special forms, the medical staff collected patients' data: age, history of atopy, identification of the drug causing the reaction, and any previous reactions. Among 11,407 cases of medical emergencies, we found 163 (1.43%) patients showing drug reactions: the mean age was 27.3; 58.90% were female; atopy was present in 16.56%. The drugs most frequently involved were: pyrazon group (22%); ASA (20.86%); penicillin and derivatives (9.20%); sulfa drugs (6.14%); group B vitamins (4.30%); tetanus toxoid (4.30%); hyposensitizing extracts (3.68%); propionic acid derivatives (2.46%); paracetamol (1.84%); indomethacin (1.23%); rifampicin (1.23%); erythromycin (1.23%); glafenine (1.23%); others (17.80%). Urticaria and/or angioedema were the most frequent symptoms (86.51%), then anaphylactic shock (9.81%) and asthma (3.68%) with regard to anaphylactic shock only 6.20% of the patients had had a previous reaction to the same drug. From these data we can see that the incidence of drug reactions is very low compared to other medical emergencies; penicillin evidenced fewer reactions than expected, while the pyrazon group and ASA confirmed the data from literature.

  15. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche.

  16. Allergic Sensitization to Perennial Allergens in Adults and Children Sensitized to Japanese Cedar or Japanese Cypress Pollen in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, seasonal allergic rhinitis in the spring due to exposure to Japanese cedar or Japanese cypress pollen is common. However, the allergic profile for perennial allergens in spring pollinosis remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the allergic profiles of 652 patients with rhinitis. Total serum IgE, serum-specific IgE, and blood eosinophil counts were measured. Allergic sensitization, determined by the serum allergen-specific IgE level, did not always correspond with the patient's symptoms. Only 27% of patients with allergic symptoms in response to spring pollens were sensitized to these allergens alone; 31% of patients were also sensitized to perennial allergens, even without symptoms due to perennial allergens. Total serum IgE and eosinophil cell counts were significantly elevated in patients sensitized to perennial allergens and spring pollens, as compared to patients sensitized only to spring pollens. Most children sensitized to spring pollen (84%) were sensitized to perennial allergens, at a higher rate than adults (49%). Patients sensitized to spring pollens are likely to be latently sensitized to perennial allergens. This is especially true for children and should be monitored closely. Improvement in seasonal allergic conditions, including latent perennial allergy, is important to prevent symptoms that could advance to asthma. PMID:24757445

  17. Should celecoxib be contraindicated in patients who are allergic to sulfonamides? Revisiting the meaning of 'sulfa' allergy.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S; Shapiro, L; Shear, N H

    2001-01-01

    Celecoxib, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, is a diaryl-substituted pyrazole derivative containing a sulfonamide substituent. Because of this structural component, celecoxib is contraindicated for use in patients who have demonstrated allergic reactions to sulfonamides. However, there is a lack of data demonstrating cross-reactivity among sulfonamide medications. A sulfonamide is any compound with an SO2NH2 moiety. The major difference between sulfonamide antimicrobials and other sulfonamide-containing medications such as furosemide, thiazide diuretics and celecoxib, is that sulfonamide antimicrobials contain an aromatic amine group at the N4 position. This allows for division of the sulfonamides into 2 groups: aromatic amines (i.e., sulfonamide antimicrobials) and nonaromatic amines. In addition, sulfonamide antimicrobials contain a substituted ring at the N1-position; this group is not found with nonaromatic amine-containing sulfonamides. Adverse reactions to sulfonamide antimicrobials include type I, or immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reactions, hypersensitivity syndrome reactions, and severe skin reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis. The aromatic amine portion of the sulfonamide antimicrobial is considered to be critical in the development of latter 2 reactions. In susceptible individuals, the hydroxylamine metabolite is unable to be detoxified leading to a cascade of cytotoxic and immunological events that eventually results in the adverse reaction. Since celecoxib does not contain the aromatic amine, adverse reactions such as hypersensitivity syndrome reactions and toxic epidermal necrolysis would not be expected to occur at the same frequency as they do with sulfonamide antimicrobials. Similarly, for IgE-mediated reactions, the N1-substituent and not the sulphonamide moiety is important in determining specificity to antibodies. Celecoxib and other nonaromatic amine-containing sulfonamide medications do not contain the N1-substituent. Cross

  18. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients’ IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wh