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Sample records for allergic respiratory symptoms

  1. Parental education and children's respiratory and allergic symptoms in the Pollution and the Young (PATY) study.

    PubMed

    Gehring, U; Pattenden, S; Slachtova, H; Antova, T; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Fabianova, E; Fletcher, T; Galassi, C; Hoek, G; Kuzmin, S V; Luttmann-Gibson, H; Moshammer, H; Rudnai, P; Zlotkowska, R; Heinrich, J

    2006-01-01

    Inequalities in health between socio-economic groups are a major public health concern. The current authors studied associations between parental socio-economic status (SES) and children's respiratory and allergic symptoms in 13 diverse countries, including the Russian Federation, North America (Canada and the USA), and countries across Eastern and Western Europe. Data of 57,000 children aged 6-12 yrs, originating from eight cross-sectional studies, were analysed. SES was defined by parental education. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were defined by parental questionnaire reports. Multiple logistic regressions showed that low parental education was associated with a decreased risk of inhalant allergy and itchy rash in school children. Furthermore, low parental education was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze and nocturnal dry cough. No clear association was found between parental education and prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma and bronchitis. Part of the difference between socio-economic groups with regard to their children's symptoms was explained by established risk factors, such as parental allergy, smoking during pregnancy, pet ownership, crowding, mould/moisture in the home, use of gas for cooking, and air pollution (particulate matter with a diameter of <10 microm). However, differences remained after adjusting for these variables. Children's health was associated with parental education. The association could not fully be explained by established risk factors.

  2. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  3. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  4. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  5. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  6. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  7. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

  8. Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness ID 442-602 ( ... noninfectious allergic disease that is caused by inhaling mold spores in the dust from moldy hay, straw, ...

  9. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function changes among carpet weavers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Karimiani, Ehsagh Ghayoor; Vostacolaei, Hossein Ahmadzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory and allergic symptoms were evaluated in 66 Iranian carpet weavers and 66 controls with similar age and gender characteristics using a questionnaire including questions on work-related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergies, smoking habits, and work exposure duration. A total of 28 carpet weavers (42%) reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Incidences of allrespiratory symptoms and most allergic symptoms were significantly higher in carpet weavers than in controls (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Moreover, most respiratory and allergic symptoms in carpet weavers were significantly more prominent during working hours (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Pulmonary function test results of the carpet weavers showed significant impairment compared with controls (p<0.05 - p<0.001).

  10. Association between exposure to antimicrobial household products and allergic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Choi, Won-Jun; Lim, Wan Ryung; Kim, Jeonghoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Antimicrobial chemicals are used in a variety of household and personal care products. Exposure to antimicrobial household products has been hypothesized to lead to allergic diseases in children. Methods We investigated antimicrobial household product exposure and allergic symptoms in Korean children. An antimicrobial exposure (AE) score was derived. To examine the symptoms of allergic diseases (current wheeze, current rhinitis, and current eczema) in the past 12 months, we used a questionnaire based on the core module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Complete data for the analysis were available for 25,805 of the 35,590 (72.5%) children. Results The prevalence of current allergic diseases was as follows: wheeze, 5.6%; allergic rhinitis, 32.6%; and eczema, 17.7%. The mean (standard deviation) AE score was 14.3 (9.3) (range: 0-40). Compared with subjects with a low AE score (reference), subjects with a high AE score (fourth quartile) were more likely to have symptoms of wheezing and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for wheezing 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.45, p for trend=0.24; aOR for allergic rhinitis 1.30, 95% CI, 1.20-1.40, p<0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that frequent use of antimicrobial household products was associated with current wheeze and current allergic rhinitis. PMID:25420879

  11. Home dampness, current allergic diseases, and respiratory infections among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kilpelainen, M; Terho, E; Helenius, H; Koskenvuo, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The relation between home dampness and respiratory symptoms among adults is well confirmed, but data on specific allergic diseases and respiratory infections is more limited. Individual factors that may enhance susceptibility to the effects of home dampness are mainly unknown.
METHODS—The association between home dampness and current physician diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, common colds, and bacterial respiratory infections was studied in a questionnaire survey of 10 667 Finnish first year university students aged 18-25 years. The dampness categories analysed were visible mould and visible mould or damp stains or water damage during the last year. In multivariate analyses adjustment was made for parental education, active and passive smoking, type and place of residence, pets, and wall to wall carpets. The interaction effect of atopic heredity and dampness was investigated.
RESULTS—Visible mould or damp stains or water damage was reported by 15.0% of the respondents. In multivariate models there was a positive association between home dampness and current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as common colds ⩾4 times per year and other respiratory infections, but not between home dampness and allergic conjunctivitis. The strongest association was found between exposure to visible mould and asthma (OR 2.21,95% CI 1.48 to 3.28) and common colds (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87). The risk of current asthma in damp homes was highest among subjects with atopic heredity.
CONCLUSIONS—The risk of current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis was higher in damp homes. Of the respiratory infections, the risk of common colds was most clearly increased.

 PMID:11359962

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of respiratory symptoms among home-based garment workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chumchai, Pornlert; Silapasuwan, Pimpan; Wiwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Arphorn, Sara; Suwan-Ampai, Plernpit

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms. A cross-sectional study with random sampling method was employed and 300 home-based garment workers (HBGWs) were recruited. Risk factors, including personal factors; knowledge, health preventive behaviors, and skill of self-health surveillance, working condition, and respiratory symptoms were assessed. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Prevalence of respiratory symptom was 22.3%. Majority of participants were female (78%). Mean age and working experience were 37.38 years (SD = 10.70) and 13.58 years (SD = 8.71), respectively. Allergic respiratory symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 16.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.61-31.7) and garment dust exposure (OR = 12.3; 95% CI = 6.49-23.3) were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (P < .001). Logistic regression analysis indicated history of allergic predicted the respiratory symptoms (OR = 12.96; 95% CI = 4.24-39.55). HBGWs who had serious allergic symptoms and high exposure to dust were at risk of respiratory symptoms. Therefore, preventive program for garment dust exposure among HBGWs is needed.

  13. Respiratory responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and their relationship to nonspecific airway reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Horstman, D.H.; Abdul-Salaam, S.; Raggio, L.J.; Green, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Ozone exposure in man produces changes in respiratory function and symptoms. There is a large degree of unexplained intersubject variability in the magnitude of these responses. There is concern that individuals with chronic respiratory diseases may also be more responsive to ozone than normal individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe the responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and to compare these responses to those previously observed in normal individuals. A further purpose was to measure the association of baseline nonspecific airway reactivity with changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms following ozone exposure. A group of 26 nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis performed a bronchial inhalation challenge with histamine and subsequently underwent two hour exposures to both clean air and to 0.18 part per million ozone with alternating periods of rest and heavy exercise. The airway reactivity of this group of subjects was no greater than that of a comparable group of subjects without allergic rhinitis. The respiratory responses of these subjects to ozone exposure were similar to those previously reported for subjects without allergic rhinitis with the exception that the allergic rhinitis subjects appeared to have a modestly increased bronchoconstrictor response compared to normals. Furthermore, we observed no significant relationships between nonspecific airway reactivity and response to ozone as measured by changes in lung function or the induction of symptoms.

  14. Airborne chemicals cause respiratory symptoms in individuals with contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, H; Dirksen, A; Menné, T; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F; Frølund, L; Johansen, J Duus

    2005-02-01

    Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals other than perfumes are unclear. The study aimed to investigate the association between eye and airway symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals (other than perfumes) and contact allergy in a population-based sample. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was posted, in 2002, to 1189 individuals who participated in 1997/1998 in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases. Questions about eye and airway symptoms elicited by different airborne chemicals and airborne proteins were included in the questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were compared with data on patch testing and prick testing. Having at least 1 positive patch test (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) was associated with the symptoms, and the odds ratio increased with the number of positive patch tests (P-value for test for trend <0.05). Bronchial hyperreactivity, female sex and psychological vulnerability were independently associated with symptoms, but no association was found between prick test reactivity to proteins and the symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals.

  15. Cough and dyspnoea may discriminate allergic and infectious respiratory phenotypes in infancy.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    Asthma symptoms are non-specific during infancy, making the identification of different subgroups among preschool children with early respiratory manifestations an important challenge. We previously used a clustering approach to identify bronchial obstructive phenotypes in 1-yr-old infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. In the present study, we examined whether these phenotypes were stable at 3 yr and studied their comorbidity and risk factors. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) method was applied at 1 and 3 yr of age to cluster children according to wheezing, dry night cough, dyspnoea with sleep disturbance and breathlessness. The resulting groups were used to derive phenotypes in 2084 children during their first 3 yr of life. Analysis of associated comorbidity and risk factors was conducted using multinomial logistic regression. PAM groups were similarly defined at both ages so that two respiratory phenotypes were identified between birth and 3 yr: cough phenotype (CP) and dyspnoea phenotype (DP) including 14.1% and 30.7% of children, respectively. CP infants experienced more often allergic features than DP, dominated by respiratory infections. Parental history of allergy, potential allergen exposure and psychosocial factors were associated with CP. Day care centre attendance was more frequent in DP as well as exposure to domestic chemical pollution, suggesting a greater vulnerability to pathogens. Finally, dry night cough and dyspnoea disturbing the sleep appear to be markers of two respiratory profiles potentially allergic and infectious before 3 yr old.

  16. Cough and dyspnoea may discriminate allergic and infectious respiratory phenotypes in infancy.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    Asthma symptoms are non-specific during infancy, making the identification of different subgroups among preschool children with early respiratory manifestations an important challenge. We previously used a clustering approach to identify bronchial obstructive phenotypes in 1-yr-old infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. In the present study, we examined whether these phenotypes were stable at 3 yr and studied their comorbidity and risk factors. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) method was applied at 1 and 3 yr of age to cluster children according to wheezing, dry night cough, dyspnoea with sleep disturbance and breathlessness. The resulting groups were used to derive phenotypes in 2084 children during their first 3 yr of life. Analysis of associated comorbidity and risk factors was conducted using multinomial logistic regression. PAM groups were similarly defined at both ages so that two respiratory phenotypes were identified between birth and 3 yr: cough phenotype (CP) and dyspnoea phenotype (DP) including 14.1% and 30.7% of children, respectively. CP infants experienced more often allergic features than DP, dominated by respiratory infections. Parental history of allergy, potential allergen exposure and psychosocial factors were associated with CP. Day care centre attendance was more frequent in DP as well as exposure to domestic chemical pollution, suggesting a greater vulnerability to pathogens. Finally, dry night cough and dyspnoea disturbing the sleep appear to be markers of two respiratory profiles potentially allergic and infectious before 3 yr old. PMID:22300433

  17. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  18. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    patient, mind-body interventions such as yoga, hypnosis, and biofeedback-assisted relaxation and breathing exercises are beneficial for stress reduction in general and may be helpful in further controlling asthma. Encouraging parents to learn how to massage their asthmatic children may appeal to some parents and provide benefits for parents and children alike. Acupuncture and chiropractic treatment cannot be recommended at this time, although some patients may derive benefit because of the placebo effect. For patients with allergic rhinitis, there are no good clinical research data on the use of quercetin and vitamin C. Similarly, freeze-dried stinging nettle leaves may be tried, but the applicable research evidence also is poor. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of these supplements and herbs. Homeopathic remedies based on extreme dilutions of the allergen may be beneficial in allergic rhinitis but require collaboration with an experienced homeopath. There are no research data on constitutional homeopathic approaches to asthma and allergic rhinitis. Patients with COPD are helped by exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, and increased caloric protein and fat intake. Vitamin C and n-3 supplements are safe and reasonable; however, studies are needed to establish their efficacy in COPD. On the other hand, there are convincing data in favor of N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation for the patient with COPD at doses ranging between 400 and 1200 mg daily. Red blood cell magnesium levels may guide the use of magnesium replacement. The use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with COPD needs further study. The addition of essential oils to the dietary regimen of patients with chronic bronchitis is worth exploring. Patients with upper respiratory tract infections can expect a shorter duration of symptoms by taking high doses of vitamin C (2 g) with zinc supplements, preferably the nasal zinc gel, at the onset of their symptoms. Adding an herb such as echinacea or

  19. [Respiratory health of children and atmospheric pollution. I. Respiratory symptoms].

    PubMed

    Aubry, C; Teculescu, D; Chau, N; Viaggi, M N; Pham, Q T; Manciaux, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact on the respiratory system of complex industrial pollution (dust, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons) was assessed by an analytical epidemiological study in a population of school children in the northeast of France. The parents of 375 children aged from 9-12 (middle school course 1 and 2) from the polluted zone and 523 children of the same age in a neighboring zone which was not polluted have filled in standardised questionnaires (respiratory symptoms, previous infections and allergies, frequency of infection in infancy; tobacco habits, professional and educational attainments of the parents, domestic environment). In the exposed children the majority of respiratory symptoms were more frequent (e.g., respiratory sounds in the boys, 15.6% against 7.9% p less than 0.01) and the absenteeism from school was more numerous (66.9% against 59.1% p less than 0.01). However, the interpretation of the results had to take into account the existence of confusing factors: parental smoking habits and the use of coal fires increased the prevalence of symptoms in the polluted zone, whereas a less crowded population worked in the inverse direction; likewise the educational level of the parents was higher in the polluted zone. After adjusting for these confusing factors, the frequency of rhinitis and absenteeism from school was significantly higher in exposed children.

  20. Longitudinal modelling of respiratory symptoms in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Fritz, Gisela; Herbarth, Olf; Richter, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapour pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modelling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979). This approach (1) comprises an extension using environmental parameters at different time scales, (2) addresses the suitability of using the daily fraction of symptomatic individuals to account for inter-individual interactions and (3) enables the most significant weather effects to be identified. The resulting model consisted of (1) an individual specific intercept that takes account of the population's heterogeneity, (2) the individual's health status the day before, (3) a long-term meteorological effect, which may be either the squared temperature or global radiation in interaction with temperature, (4) the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide, and (5) the short-term effect of an 8-h ozone concentration above 60 µg/m3. Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates. Individuals suffering from allergy have been identified as a group of a particular susceptibility to ozone. The duration of respiratory symptoms appears to be free of scale and follows an exponential distribution function, which confirms that the symptom record of each individual follows a Poisson point-process. This supports the assumption that not only respiratory diseases, but also respiratory symptoms can be considered an independent measure for the health status of a population sample. Since a point process is described by only one parameter (namely the intensity of the

  1. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    patient, mind-body interventions such as yoga, hypnosis, and biofeedback-assisted relaxation and breathing exercises are beneficial for stress reduction in general and may be helpful in further controlling asthma. Encouraging parents to learn how to massage their asthmatic children may appeal to some parents and provide benefits for parents and children alike. Acupuncture and chiropractic treatment cannot be recommended at this time, although some patients may derive benefit because of the placebo effect. For patients with allergic rhinitis, there are no good clinical research data on the use of quercetin and vitamin C. Similarly, freeze-dried stinging nettle leaves may be tried, but the applicable research evidence also is poor. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of these supplements and herbs. Homeopathic remedies based on extreme dilutions of the allergen may be beneficial in allergic rhinitis but require collaboration with an experienced homeopath. There are no research data on constitutional homeopathic approaches to asthma and allergic rhinitis. Patients with COPD are helped by exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, and increased caloric protein and fat intake. Vitamin C and n-3 supplements are safe and reasonable; however, studies are needed to establish their efficacy in COPD. On the other hand, there are convincing data in favor of N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation for the patient with COPD at doses ranging between 400 and 1200 mg daily. Red blood cell magnesium levels may guide the use of magnesium replacement. The use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with COPD needs further study. The addition of essential oils to the dietary regimen of patients with chronic bronchitis is worth exploring. Patients with upper respiratory tract infections can expect a shorter duration of symptoms by taking high doses of vitamin C (2 g) with zinc supplements, preferably the nasal zinc gel, at the onset of their symptoms. Adding an herb such as echinacea or

  2. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Shin, Hayden H; Gray, Andrew R; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-07-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers.Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms.

  3. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  4. Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases from reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T

    1988-05-01

    5 cases of occupational eczema, urticaria and respiratory disease from reactive dyes, occurring during 1977-1987, are reported. The patients, 4 men and 1 woman, were 24-52 years old when examined. They had been working in dye houses or textile plants, and had been exposed to reactive dyes for 8 months to 4 years before symptoms developed. Only 1 of the patients has been able to continue in the same occupation. On patch testing, the 4 patients with eczema reacted positively to 9 commercial dye powders. 2 patients reacted to the same dye, Remazol Schwarz B. On scratch and/or prick testing, the 2 patients who also had respiratory symptoms and/or urticaria reacted positively to the same dyes as on patch testing. The 5th patient, who had urticaria and respiratory symptoms, reacted positively to a dye, Remazol Gold Gelb RNL, but the patch test with that dye was negative. None of the patients was patch-test-positive to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) or to textile dye allergens in a series of organic dyes. Thus, the series of organic dyes has little value in the screening of allergy to reactive dyes. A 1% pet. dilution of commercial dye powder for patch testing and the same concentration in distilled water for prick testing seem to be suitable for the screening of allergy to reactive dyes.

  5. Pathophysiology of Clinical Symptoms in Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, E; Miśkiewicz, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Szenborn, L

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the pathophysiology of common symptoms of acute viral respiratory infections (e.g., sneezing, nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, muscle pains, malaise, and mood changes). Since clinical symptoms are not sufficient to determine the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections, we believe that the host defense mechanisms are critical for the symptomatology. Consequently, this review of literature is focused on the pathophysiology of respiratory symptoms regardless of their etiology. We assume that despite a high prevalence of symptoms of respiratory infection, their pathogenesis is not widely known. A better understanding of the symptoms' pathogenesis could improve the quality of care for patients with respiratory tract infections.

  6. The prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa, Turkey (A western city from a country bridging Asia and Europe).

    PubMed

    Sakar, Aysin; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Dinc, Gonul; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Pinar; Dagyildizi, Lale; Coskun, Evsen; Kaya, Ece; Ozyurt, Beyhan; Ozcan, Cemil

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa city center, Turkey, to evaluate the determinants effective on those values, and to review the prevalence rates reported from different parts of the country. Data were collected from 610 households and complete interviews were conducted with 1,336 adults over 18 years of age by using European Community Respiratory Health Survey-ECRHS questionnaire. The prevalences of current asthma, cumulative asthma and asthma-like symptoms were found in 1.2, 1.0 and 25.0%, respectively, of the 20-44 years age group and the prevalences of allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and family atopy were found in 14.5, 10.9, and 15.2%, respectively, in all age group. Wheezing with breathlessness, wheezing without cold, woken up with shortness of breath and woken up with cold were reported by 9.1%, 6.9%, 6% and 16.1% of the study population, respectively. Gender, age, active or passive smoking, family atopy and home condition effect on prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms. In this study prevalence of asthma correlated with the studies reporting low prevalence rates of Turkey.

  7. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination.

  8. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  9. Respiratory effects of air pollution on allergic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q. )

    1992-10-01

    Allergic patients have an increased susceptibility to the adverse effects of both natural and man-made air pollutants. This goes for both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and manifests itself with biochemical, cellular, and pathophysiologic expressions of adverse health effects in allergic individuals. Also occupationally induced allergic diseases will remain very important. This area has been reviewed recently by Cullen et al. Since allergic patients comprise somewhere between 15% and 20% of the population, this increased susceptibility is of crucial importance not only for medical care and research but for legislative and regulatory consideration to protect these vulnerable individuals.108 references.

  10. [Real effect of specific hyposensitisation in therapy of allergic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Plavsić, Z; Petrović, M; Popovac, D

    1994-01-01

    There are different opinions on the positive effect of hyposensitisation in the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases. In this paper we wish to point out our experience, without intention to clear up these "contrary opinions". Sixty patients of both sexes, aged from 10-55 years, were on specific hyposensitisation over a period from three to five years. Two thirds (63%) were with bronchial asthma and 37% with allergic rhinitis. Most of them (80%) were on specific hyposensitisation to one allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass or reguid polen), and to two allergens 20% patients. During this therapy 63% of patients had no additional medicamentae therapy. Most of them stopped additional medication during the first year of immunotherapy. Ten percent of patients took medicaments when they needed them, and 28% took them continually. Clinical symptoms characteristic of these diseases were also rare. The average value of IgE was 636 UI/ml before and 341 UI/ml after the immunotherapy. The efficacy of immunotherapy depended on the correct selection of patients, good standardisation of antigen extract, and a right dose of allergen in the prolonged immunotherapy. PMID:17974388

  11. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  12. The Treatment of Allergic Respiratory Disease During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Namazy, Jai; Schatz, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new-onset or preexisting asthma and allergic rhinitis.This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of allergy and use of asthma medication during pregnancy. Both allergic rhinitis and asthma can adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, in the case of maternal asthma, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management is thus important for both mother and baby. This article reviews the safety of asthma and allergy medications commonly used during pregnancy.

  13. Tombs of Aspergillus: A missed cause of recurrent respiratory infections in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Onkar Kumar; Khanna, Arjun; Dabral, Charul; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    Broncholithiasis is an often overlooked condition and has been associated with symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis, and recurrent respiratory infections. The most common mechanism of a broncholith formation is the enlargement and subsequent erosion of a lymph node into an adjacent airway. Here, we describe this entity in a patient with advanced allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, and with frequent infective exacerbations. These frequent exacerbations were initially attributed to the poor lung function of the patient and the inability to cough out the secretions. The diagnosis of broncholithiasis was eventually established on bronchoscopy, when the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated. In this patient, the mixed broncholiths were not associated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy and with biopsy showing Aspergillus with no lymph node tissue indicating its bronchial origin. A high index of suspicion should be kept in patients with recurrent infective exacerbations of pulmonary diseases, especially when computed tomography images show calcifications in the vicinity of airways even in the absence of lymphadenopathy, as most of these can be treated with routine bronchoscopic interventions. PMID:27555698

  14. Tombs of Aspergillus: A missed cause of recurrent respiratory infections in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Onkar Kumar; Khanna, Arjun; Dabral, Charul; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Broncholithiasis is an often overlooked condition and has been associated with symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis, and recurrent respiratory infections. The most common mechanism of a broncholith formation is the enlargement and subsequent erosion of a lymph node into an adjacent airway. Here, we describe this entity in a patient with advanced allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, and with frequent infective exacerbations. These frequent exacerbations were initially attributed to the poor lung function of the patient and the inability to cough out the secretions. The diagnosis of broncholithiasis was eventually established on bronchoscopy, when the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated. In this patient, the mixed broncholiths were not associated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy and with biopsy showing Aspergillus with no lymph node tissue indicating its bronchial origin. A high index of suspicion should be kept in patients with recurrent infective exacerbations of pulmonary diseases, especially when computed tomography images show calcifications in the vicinity of airways even in the absence of lymphadenopathy, as most of these can be treated with routine bronchoscopic interventions. PMID:27555698

  15. [Immunologic reactions, respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in jute and sisal textile workers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegović, J; Kern, J

    1993-03-01

    Allergic reactions in relation to respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 41 textile workers employed in the processing of jute and sisal. Only 5.0% of the jute workers and 9.5% of the sisal workers demonstrated positive skin reactions to jute or sisal allergens. Increased IgE was found in 9.8% of the textile workers. Among 35 control workers 11.4% reacted with a positive skin reaction to the jute or sisal allergen and 2.9% had increased IgE. Chronic respiratory symptoms as well as changes in ventilatory capacity were found in textile workers with positive and negative skin tests. Our data suggest that immunological reactions are not likely to be responsible for the development of respiratory impairment in textile workers exposed to jute and sisal dust.

  16. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (p<0.05) between perfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  17. Effect of thermoneutral housing on fungal-induced respiratory allergic disease in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is projected to increase the number of fungal, bacterial, and pollen agents both indoors and outdoors and may become a significant health impact. Combined with the thermal stress from a rise in global temperatures, it is important to consider how respiratory allerg...

  18. Damp housing conditions and respiratory symptoms in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, J F; Chiu, H F; Kao, W Y

    1997-08-01

    There is evidence that indoor air pollution contributes to the development of respiratory symptoms. This study examined the relationships between dampness in houses and respiratory symptoms in 4,164 primary school children in the subtropical rural areas of the Kaohsiung region, Taiwan. Dampness in homes was assessed by questionnaires that reported 1) general dampness, 2) mold or mildew inside the home, or 3) flooding (appearance of standing water within the home, water damage, or leaks of water into the building). Evidence for upper and lower respiratory symptoms were also collected by questionnaires. Recorded symptoms included cough, wheezing, pneumonia, bronchitis, and asthma. Degrees of dampness were reported as 12.2%, 30.1%, and 43.4%, respectively by the parents or guardians of the study population. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was consistently higher in homes with indications of dampness than in non-damp homes. After adjustments for potential confounders, selected respiratory symptoms among the childhood population were significantly higher in damp than non-damp homes, with the exception of pneumonia. We conclude that dampness in the home is a strong predictor of and risk factor for respiratory symptoms and constitutes a significant public health problem in subtropical area.

  19. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  20. Role of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) in the treatment of bronchial asthma and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro

    2006-03-01

    IgE molecules play a crucial role in allergic respiratory diseases and may cause chronic airway inflammation in asthma through activation of effector cells via high-affinity (FcepsilonRI) or low-affinity (FcepsilonRII) IgE receptors. Since the discovery of IgE antibodies our understanding of the mechanisms of allergy has improved to such an extent that we can differentiate allergic/atopic from intrinsic respiratory diseases. Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies, able to reduce free IgE levels and to block the binding of IgE to FcepsilonRI without crosslinking IgE and triggering degranulation of IgE-sensitized cells have been developed. This non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) binds IgE at the same site as these antibodies bind FcepsilonRI and FcepsilonRII. Consequently, omalizumab inhibits IgE effector functions by blocking IgE binding to high-affinity receptors on IgE effector cells and does not cause mast cell or basophil activation because it cannot bind to IgE on cell surfaces where the FcepsilonR1 receptor already masks the anti-IgE epitope. Studies in patients with atopic asthma showed that omalizumab decreases serum IgE levels and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction during both the early and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen. In several clinical controlled trials omalizumab resulted effective in reducing asthma-related symptoms, decreasing corticosteroid use and improving quality of life of asthmatic patients. Recent studies show the benefits of omalizumab as add-on therapy in patients with severe persistent asthma who are inadequately controlled by optimal pharmacological therapy. The anti-IgE approach to asthma treatment has several advantages, including concomitant treatment of other IgE-mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis, a favorable safety profile and a convenient dosing frequency.

  1. Cardiac Function in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seul Bee; Choi, Han Seul; Son, Sejung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Respiratory symptoms are often observed in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) during the acute phase. The association of respiratory viruses in children with KD was investigated using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Subjects and Methods 138 KD patients were included from January 2010 to June 2013. We compared 3 groups (group 1: n=94, KD without respiratory symptoms; group 2: n=44, KD with respiratory symptoms; and group 3: n=50, febrile patients with respiratory symptoms). Laboratory data were obtained from each patient including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Echocardiographic measurements were compared between group 1 and group 2. RT-PCR was performed using nasopharyngeal secretion to screen for the presence of 14 viruses in groups 2 and 3. Results The incidence of KD with respiratory symptoms was 31.8%. The duration of fever was significantly longer, and coronary artery diameter was larger in group 2 than in group 1. Tei index was significantly higher and coronary artery diameter larger in group 2 than group 1. Coronary artery diameter, C-reactive protein levels, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase levels, and NT-pro BNP levels were significantly higher and albumin levels lower in group 2 compared with group 3. Conclusion NT-pro BNP was a valuable diagnostic tool in differentiating KD from other febrile viral respiratory infections. Some viruses were more frequently observed in KD patients than in febrile controls. Tei index using tissue Doppler imaging was increased in KD patients with respiratory symptoms. PMID:26240586

  2. Delayed diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis due to absence of asthmatic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young; Lee, Hong-Yeul; Gu, Kang-Mo; Lee, Joo-Young; Yoon, Sang-Won; Park, Tae-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Chol; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Park, In-Won; Shin, Jong-Wook; Choi, Byoung-Whui

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disease with small prevalence. Exposure to aspergillus mold causes immunologic hypersensitivity and may cause ranges of symptoms from minimal to detrimental outcomes. Diagnosing and treating the disease before the development of bronchiectasis may save the patient from poor outcomes. This report presents a case of recurrent ABPA without any symptom of asthma, which impeded the correct diagnosis even after numerous hospitalizations. PMID:27489792

  3. Delayed diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis due to absence of asthmatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young; Lee, Hong-Yeul; Gu, Kang-Mo; Lee, Joo-Young; Yoon, Sang-Won; Park, Tae-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Chol; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Park, In-Won; Shin, Jong-Wook; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Jung, Jae-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disease with small prevalence. Exposure to aspergillus mold causes immunologic hypersensitivity and may cause ranges of symptoms from minimal to detrimental outcomes. Diagnosing and treating the disease before the development of bronchiectasis may save the patient from poor outcomes. This report presents a case of recurrent ABPA without any symptom of asthma, which impeded the correct diagnosis even after numerous hospitalizations. PMID:27489792

  4. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    PubMed Central

    Earleywine, Mitch; Barnwell, Sara Smucker

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer PMID:17437626

  5. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  6. Respiratory symptoms in Indian children exposed to different cooking fuels.

    PubMed

    Behera, D; Sood, P; Singhi, S

    1998-02-01

    Smoke emission from fuels is an important source of indoor air pollution. Children spend considerable time indoors. It is therefore important to determine whether air contaminants from indoor air sources affect incidence of respiratory illness, cause symptoms and changes in pulmonary function status in them. Two hundred children in the age group of 7-15 were selected randomly. They were stratified according to the fuel used in their homes and respiratory symptoms were inquired from them according to a questionnaire recommended by the American Thoracic Society. The most symptomatic children were those whose households used kerosene (52%) and mixed fuels (46%) although different symptoms were present in varying extent in all 4 groups of children. Cough, cold, congestion or phlegm for one week or more occurred more frequently with mixed fuel use followed by kerosene. The present study thus showed that mixed fuel and kerosene fuel had worst effects on respiratory system in children whose households used these fuels. PMID:11273107

  7. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world.

  8. The characteristics of indoor and outdoor fungi and their relation with allergic respiratory diseases in the southern region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Tugba; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Coşkun, Taner; Otag, Feza; Yildirim, Didem Derici; Kuyucu, Semanur

    2016-06-01

    Indoor and outdoor fungal exposure has been shown to be associated with the development of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside homes and evaluate the association between fungal levels and allergic diseases in the southern region of Turkey. A total of 61 children admitted with respiratory complaints to the pediatric allergy clinic between September 2007 and November 2008 were included in this study. The air samples were obtained using the Air IDEAL volumetric air sampler longitudinally for 1 year. A comprehensive questionnaire was used for medical history and housing conditions. Skin prick test was performed to determine fungal sensitivity and spirometric indices were employed. The predominant indoor fungal species were Cladosporium (69.3 %), Penicillium (18.9 %), Aspergillus (6.5 %), and Alternaria (3.1 %). A strong correlation between indoor and outdoor fungal levels was detected for the Cladosporium species (p < 0.001, r = 0.72) throughout the year. Living in a detached home (p = 0.036) and the presence of cockroaches (p = 0.005) were associated with total indoor fungal levels. The presence of cockroaches (aOR 3.5; 95 % CI 0.95-13.10, p = 0.059) was also associated with fungal sensitization at the edge of significance. The statistical cutoff values of indoor and outdoor Cladosporium levels to predict symptomatic asthma were found to be >176 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.003, AUC 0.696; sensitivity 65.5 %; specificity 68.7 %) and >327 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.038; AUC 0.713; sensitivity 66.6 %; specificity 76.9 %), respectively. Children with respiratory symptoms are exposed to a considerable level of fungi inside and outside their homes. The prevention of fungal exposure may provide valuable intervention for respiratory diseases.

  9. Respiratory symptoms, immunological responses, and aeroallergen concentrations at a sawmill.

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, D M; Graneek, B J; Lacey, J; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Williamson, P A; Venables, K M; Newman Taylor, A J

    1994-01-01

    After identification of a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to exposure to wood dust at a sawmill, all employees at the sawmill where he worked were studied with an occupational, environmental, and symptom questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick tests, and serum specific IgG measurements. Ninety five of current and 14 of 17 ex-sawmill workers were studied. As a basis for comparison, a group of 58 workers from a nearby light engineering factory were also studied. Few women (6) were employed and they were excluded from the analysis. Workers at the sawmill were stratified into high and low exposure groups depending on their place of work. This division was supported both by their subjective assessment of the dustiness of their environment and the results of personal dust samples. There were no significant differences between the three groups in age, height, smoking habits, exposure to other causes of extrinsic allergic alveolitis, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, atopic state, or cutaneous reactivity to moulds. In the high exposure group the prevalence of work related cough and nasal and eye symptoms was higher than in the low exposure and comparison groups. The prevalence of work related wheeze was similar in both the high exposure and comparison groups, but was lower in the low exposure group. The prevalences of chronic bronchitis and symptomatic bronchial hyper-reactivity were similar in the high and low exposure groups but were lower in the comparison group. Serum concentrations of specific IgG against extracts of sawdust and Trichoderma koningii were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the other two groups. The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of extrinsic allergic alveolitis was 4.4% in the high exposure group, greater than in the low exposure group (0%), and the comparison group (1.9%). In conclusion extrinsic allergic alveolitis probably occurs in British sawmills, and among the exposed population its

  10. Evaluation of respiratory symptoms and respiratory protection behavior among poultry workers in small farming operations.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Shaw, Robert; Prentice, Matthew; Tutor-Marcom, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers who work in enclosed poultry operations are at increased risk of respiratory exposure to atmospheric contaminants, including dusts, endotoxins, particulate from feathers, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from animal excrement. Given the relatively large number of small, family-run poultry farms in North Carolina, there has been relatively little research in the area documenting human lung function and perception of using respiratory protection among poultry workers. This study assesses respiratory health, knowledge, and perception of wearing respiratory protection among a sample of poultry workers attending a regional farm show in North Carolina. Lung function (spirometry), airway inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide), self-reported respiratory symptoms, and behavior of wearing respiratory protection were evaluated. Overall, mean lung function values were slightly lower than normal predicted values. The majority of participants ranked using respiratory protection as very important (51.9%); however, actual self-reported behavior was low (16.7%). In bivariate analysis, associations between the importance of wearing respiratory protection and the number of poultry houses (P=.04), as well as using a respirator and the number of poultry houses (P=.01) were statistically significant. Improved educational opportunities, including fit-testing and proper respiratory selection, should be emphasized for workers at small, poultry farm operations.

  11. Infant respiratory symptoms associated with indoor heating sources.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen; Beckett, William; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Gent, Janneane; Jankun, Thomas; McSharry, Jean-Ellen; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-10-15

    This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was obtained every 2 weeks during the first year of life. Heating sources included fireplace, wood stove, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use. Four health outcomes were analyzed by reporting period: days of wheeze, episodes of wheeze, days of cough, and episodes of cough. A large percentage of infants had at least one episode of cough (88%) and wheeze (33%) during the heating season of the first year of life. Wood stove, fireplace, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use was intermittent across the study period. In adjusted Poisson regression models controlling for important confounders, gas space heater use was associated with episodes and days of wheeze. Wood stove use was associated with total days of cough, and kerosene heater use was associated with episodes of cough. Fireplace use was not associated with any of the respiratory symptoms. Use of some heating sources appears related to respiratory symptoms in infants.

  12. Infant respiratory symptoms associated with indoor heating sources.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen; Beckett, William; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Gent, Janneane; Jankun, Thomas; McSharry, Jean-Ellen; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-10-15

    This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was obtained every 2 weeks during the first year of life. Heating sources included fireplace, wood stove, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use. Four health outcomes were analyzed by reporting period: days of wheeze, episodes of wheeze, days of cough, and episodes of cough. A large percentage of infants had at least one episode of cough (88%) and wheeze (33%) during the heating season of the first year of life. Wood stove, fireplace, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use was intermittent across the study period. In adjusted Poisson regression models controlling for important confounders, gas space heater use was associated with episodes and days of wheeze. Wood stove use was associated with total days of cough, and kerosene heater use was associated with episodes of cough. Fireplace use was not associated with any of the respiratory symptoms. Use of some heating sources appears related to respiratory symptoms in infants. PMID:12379555

  13. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  14. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health. The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual’s response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not

  15. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-02-11

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  16. Enhanced allergic responsiveness after early childhood infection with respiratory viruses: Are long-lived alternatively activated macrophages the missing link?

    PubMed

    Keegan, Achsah D; Shirey, Kari Ann; Bagdure, Dayanand; Blanco, Jorge; Viscardi, Rose M; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood infection with respiratory viruses, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, is associated with an increased risk of allergic asthma and severe exacerbation of ongoing disease. Despite the long recognition of this relationship, the mechanism linking viral infection and later susceptibility to allergic lung inflammation is still poorly understood. We discuss the literature and provide new evidence demonstrating that these viruses induce the alternative activation of macrophages. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) induced by RSV or influenza infection persisted in the lungs of mice up to 90 days after initial viral infection. Several studies suggest that AAM contribute to allergic inflammatory responses, although their mechanism of action is unclear. In this commentary, we propose that virus-induced AAM provide a link between viral infection and enhanced responses to inhaled allergens. PMID:27178560

  17. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ALLERGIC-TYPE RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ALLERGIC-TYPE RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF Stachybotrys chartarum IN BALB/C MICE. ME Viana1, N Haykal-Coates2, S H Gavett2, MJ Selgrade2, and M D W Ward2. 1APR/CVM, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA. 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Rationale: assess the ab...

  18. EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) ON THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGIC RESPONSES OF BALB/C MICE TO A FUNGAL ALLERGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) ON THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGIC RESPONSES OF BALB/C MICE TO A FUNGAL ALLERGEN. M D W Ward, D M Sailstad, D L Andrews, E H Boykin, and MJ K Selgrade. National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Developmen...

  19. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals. PMID:24041755

  20. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.

  1. The first 2-year home environment in relation to the new onset and remission of asthmatic and allergic symptoms in 4246 preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijin; Norback, Dan; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Jingjin; Kan, Haidong; Zhao, Zhuohui

    2016-05-15

    The home environment can influence childhood allergies and respiratory health but there is little information on associations between early life exposure at home and new onset and remission of the asthmatic or allergic symptoms in preschool children. A questionnaire survey was performed in a random cluster sample of 4246 preschool children in Urumqi, China. Information on the home environment (perceptions of odors and indicators of pollution sources) and children's health (wheeze, rhinitis and eczema) was collected for the first 2 years of life and the last year (before answering the questionnaire) from one of the parents or another guardian of the child. Associations between the home environment the first 2 years of life and new onset and remission of childhood symptoms were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Home environment factors reported for the first 2 years of life were consistently positively associated with new onset of symptoms and negatively associated with remission of symptoms. Visible mold (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.90), moldy odor (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.45-3.18), air dryness (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59), stuffy odor (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) and parental smoking (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13-1.65) were associated with new onset of symptoms. These factors were negatively associated with the remission of symptoms. In conclusion, mold contamination at home (moldy odor/visible mold), poor indoor air quality (stuffy odor, air dryness) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the first 2 years of life can increase the incidence of asthmatic and allergic symptoms and decrease the remission from these symptoms in preschool children.

  2. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-08-28

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 % soyabean oil diet before and during oral sensitisation with whey or whey hyperimmune serum transfer. Another group of mice received partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) while being fed the diets before oral sensitisation. The acute allergic skin response, serum Ig level, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) concentration and/or splenic T-cell percentages were determined upon whey challenge. When the diets were provided before and during oral sensitisation, the acute allergic skin response was increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Whey IgE and IgG1 levels remained unaltered, whereas mMCP-1 levels increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet. Furthermore, allergic symptoms were increased in naive mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet and sensitised with whey hyperimmune serum. In addition to enhancing the mast cell response, the 10 % soyabean oil diet increased the percentage of activated Th1 and Th2 cells as well as increased the ratios of Th2:regulatory T cells and Th2:Th1 when compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Oral tolerance induction by pWH was abrogated in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with those fed the 7 % soyabean oil diet during pretreatment with pWH. In conclusion, increased intake of soyabean oil rich in n-6 PUFA suppresses tolerance induction by pWH and enhances the severity of the allergic effector response in whey-allergic mice. Dietary vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA may enhance the susceptibility to develop or sustain food allergy.

  3. Environmental controls in reducing house dust mites and nasal symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Moon, J S; Choi, S O

    1999-06-01

    A randomized comparison group pretest-posttest experimental design was used to quantitatively determine the effects of environmental control measures on patients with allergic rhinitis. Environmental controls included wrapping the mattress with a vinyl cover, washing the top bedding cover with 55 degrees C hot water every two weeks, removal of soft furniture, and wet cleaning of the bedroom floor every day. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The amount of house dust mites in dust samples collected from the bedroom floor, bedding and mattress, as well as the nasal symptoms of patients, were measured twice at one-month intervals. A significant decrease in house dust mites in dust samples and relief in patients' nasal symptoms were observed in the experimental group who had environmental controls.

  4. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E; Lawson, C; Grajewski, B; Petersen, M; Pinkerton, L; Ward, E; Schnorr, T

    2003-01-01

    Background: Potential health effects of the indoor environment in office buildings and aircraft have generated considerable concern in recent years. Aims: To analyse the prevalence of self reported respiratory symptoms and illnesses in flight attendants (FAs) and schoolteachers. Methods: Data were collected as part of a study of reproductive health among female FAs. The prevalences of work related eye, nose, and throat symptoms, wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, chest illness, and cold or flu were calculated and stratified by smoking status in 1824 FAs and 331 schoolteachers. Results: FAs and teachers were significantly more likely to report work related eye (12.4% and 7.4 %, respectively), nose (15.7% and 8.1%), and throat symptoms (7.5% and 5.7%) than were other working women (2.9% eye, 2.7% nose, and 1.3% throat symptoms). FAs were significantly more likely than teachers and referent working women to report chest illness during the prior three years (32.9%, 19.3%, 7.2%, respectively). Both study groups were more likely to report five or more episodes of cold or flu in the past year than were other working women (10.2% of FAs, 8.2% of teachers, 2.3% of referents), and both groups were more likely to report wheezing than other working women (22.8% of FAs, 28.4% of teachers, 16.4% of referents). FAs were significantly less likely than teachers and other working women to report ever having been diagnosed with asthma (8.2%, 13.3%, 11.8%, respectively). Conclusions: Overall, FAs and schoolteachers report a higher prevalence of work related upper respiratory symptoms, chest illness, and cold or flu than the general working population. PMID:14634183

  5. Air pollution and its effect on the upper respiratory tract and on allergic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1996-02-01

    The nose is the first organ system encountered by inhaled air and its associated pollutants. Pollutants are deposited during inspiration through the nose. They accumulate on mucus and are absorbed in the nasal mucosa, resulting in a number of deleterious effects on the body. Irritation of the nose and sinus from these pollutants, resulting from direct contact with the nasal mucosa, leads to inflammation, edema, swelling, and blocked sinuses. The result is acute and chronic sinusitis. Absorption of these chemicals into the body produces systemic effects. Their effect on the immune system, although subtle, leads to dramatic changes in the allergic diathesis. The T suppressor cell is the most sensitive cell of the immune system and the first to be affected by exposure to chemical pollutants. Diminution of the suppressor activity and the relative increase in helper activity in turn lead to increased immunoglobulin production and the manifestation of allergy symptoms. The underlying biochemical reaction is caused by the effects of pollutants on the T suppressor cell. Patients with existing allergies become brittle and difficult to treat with the exacerbation of the allergic diathesis. Removal of these chemical pollutants from the body as quickly as possible is essential for effective treatment of this problem. Dietary antioxidants help reduce the oxidizing effect of the pollutants and act as conjugators to remove the pollutants from the body.

  6. Pantoea agglomerans in Immunodeficient Patients with Different Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Flores Popoca, Erika Odilia; Miranda García, Maximino; Romero Figueroa, Socorro; Mendoza Medellín, Aurelio; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Silva Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine in 32 patients from 4 different Mexican hospitals the frequency of opportunistic bacteria in the 2010 to 2011 time period. The patients were divided in 4 groups. Group 1 included 21 HIV positive patients with acute respiratory syndrome. Four HIV positive patients with tuberculosis symptoms were included in Group 2; two patients with tuberculosis symptoms and one asymptomatic person formed Group 3. Reference Group 4 included 4 patients from whom 4 strains of Mycobacterium spp. had been reported. The strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification, API 20E and 50CH, biochemical test, and antibiotic sensitivity. The strains found were 10 Pantoea agglomerans, 6 Mycobacterium spp., 6 Pseudomonas spp. and 10 strains of normal floral species: Thermoactinomycetes bacterium (1), Enterococcus faecium (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Streptococcus oralis (2), Streptococcus anginosus (1), and Enterobacter hormaechei (1). PMID:22619600

  7. Effects of climate change on environmental factors in respiratory allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L

    2008-08-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere and the human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. However, there is also considerable evidence that subjects affected by asthma are at an increased risk of developing obstructive airway exacerbations with exposure to gaseous and particulate components of air pollution. It is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate change and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations. However, the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity suggests that air pollution and climate changes could be contributing. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution, rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy, prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Meteorological factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc.) along with their climatological regimes (warm or cold anomalies and dry or wet periods, etc.), can affect both biological and chemical components of this interaction. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, air pollution overcomes the mucosal barrier priming allergen-induced responses. In conclusion, climate change might induce negative effects on respiratory allergic diseases. In particular, the increased length and severity of the pollen season, the higher occurrence of heavy precipitation events and the

  8. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    PubMed

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

  9. Asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians living in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mossakowska, M; Pawlinska-Chmara, R; Broczek, K M

    2008-12-01

    According to National Census, there were 1541 people over the age of 100 years (centenarians) in Poland, in 2002, including 1215 females and 326 males. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians included in the Polish Centenarians Program, POLSTU 2001, conducted between 2001 and 2004. The study group consisted of 301 subjects including 258 females and 43 males. Research data were gathered in a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study, completed by the interviewer during meetings with the subjects and their families. According to the medical history reported by the subjects, 10 persons (3.3%) suffered from asthma and 41 (13.6%) from allergy. There were no subjects with childhood onset asthma. Allergy to food and medicinal products was the most prevalent. One in four centenarians reported dyspnea and one in eight complained of cough. When analyzed in relation to gender, cough was more prevalent in males, which might have been related to cigarette smoking. Respiratory disorders are frequent in elderly populations, but symptoms may be underreported, especially in the situation of coexisting medical problems. Moreover, it might be difficult to perform full diagnostic procedures in the very elderly due to disability, cognitive impairment, and technical problems. Thus, medical care for the aged should be based on thorough medical evaluation supported by the medical history and reliable information on physician-diagnosed diseases.

  10. Polygonum multiflorum Decreases Airway Allergic Symptoms in a Murine Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Wang, Chien-N; Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Chiu, Chun-Lung; Liu, Leroy F; Lin, Hung-Yun; Wu, Reen

    2016-01-01

    The root of Polygonum multiflorum (also called He-Shou-Wu in Chinese) is a common herb and medicinal food in Asia used for its anti-aging properties. Our study investigated the therapeutic potential of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum (PME) in allergic asthma by using a mouse model. Feeding of 0.5 and 1 mg/mouse PME inhibited ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma symptoms, including airway inflammation, mucus production, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), in a dose-dependent manner. To discern PME's mechanism of action, we examined the profile and cytokine production of inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We found that eosinophils, the main inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lung of OVA-immunized mice, significantly decreased after PME treatment. Th2 cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], decreased in PME-treated mice. Elevated mRNA expression of Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 in the lung tissue was also inhibited after oral feeding of PME in OVA-immunized mice. Thus, we conclude that PME produces anti-asthma activity through the inhibition of Th2 cell activation. PMID:26916919

  11. Overweight/Obesity and Respiratory and Allergic Disease in Children: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Forastiere, Francesco; Büchele, Gisela; Jaensch, Andrea; Strachan, David P.; Nagel, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity and asthma are increasing worldwide. A possible link between the two conditions has been postulated. Methods Cross-sectional studies of stratified random samples of 8–12-year-old children (n = 10 652) (16 centres in affluent and 8 centres in non-affluent countries) used the standardized methodology of ISAAC Phase Two. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were ascertained by parental questionnaires. Tests for allergic disease were performed. Height and weight were measured, and overweight and obesity were defined according to international definitions. Prevalence rates and prevalence odds ratios were calculated. Results Overweight (odds ratio = 1.14, 95%-confidence interval: 0.98; 1.33) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.67, 95%-confidence interval: 1.25; 2.21) were related to wheeze. The relationship was stronger in affluent than in non-affluent centres. Similar results were found for cough and phlegm, rhinitis and eczema but the associations were mostly driven by children with wheeze. There was a clear association of overweight and obesity with airways obstruction (change in FEV1/FVC, −0.90, 95%-confidence interval: −1.33%; −0.47%, for overweight and −2.46%, 95%-confidence interval: −3.84%; −1.07%, for obesity) whereas the results for the other objective markers, including atopy, were null. Conclusions Our data from a large international child population confirm that there is a strong relation of body mass index with wheeze especially in affluent countries. Moreover, body mass index is associated with an objective marker of airways obstruction (FEV1/FVC) but no other objective markers of respiratory and allergic disorders. PMID:25474308

  12. Effect of ambient winter air pollution on respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roemer, W; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B

    1993-01-01

    The acute respiratory effects of ambient air pollution were studied in a panel of 73 children with chronic respiratory symptoms in the winter of 1990 to 1991. The participating children were selected from all children aged 6 to 12 yr in Wageningen and Bennekom, two small, nonindustrial towns in the east of the Netherlands. Peak flow was measured twice daily with MiniWright meters. A diary was used to register the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms and medication use by the children. Exposure to air pollution was characterized by the ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black smoke (BS), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10). Associations between air pollution concentrations and health outcomes were analyzed using time series analysis. During the study period an air pollution episode occurred, with moderately elevated concentrations of PM10 and SO2. There were 6 days with 24-h average PM10 concentrations in excess of the WHO suggested lowest observed effect level of 110 micrograms/m3. After adjustment for ambient temperature, there were small but statistically significant negative associations of PM10, BS, and SO2 with both morning and evening PEF. There was a consistent positive association between PM10, BS, and SO2 with the prevalence of wheeze and bronchodilator use. Overall, the observed associations suggest a mild to moderate response to these moderately elevated levels of air pollution in a group of potentially sensitive children.

  13. Interactive effect of histamine and prostaglandin D2 on nasal allergic symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ashequr; Inoue, Toshio; Ago, Jun; Ishikawa, Takashi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2007-01-12

    This study was undertaken to investigate the interactive effect of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) in nasal allergic symptoms in rats. The intranasal application of histamine at doses lower than 10 mumol/site caused no sneezing or nasal rubbing. In addition, prostaglandin D(2) also showed no significant increase in these responses, even at a dose of 10 nmol/site. On the other hand, the simultaneous instillation of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) resulted in a 1000 times more potent effect in inducing nasal symptoms than the administration of histamine alone. Thus, prostaglandin D(2) enhanced the actions of histamine in inducing sneezing and nasal rubbing in a dose-dependent manner, and significant effects were observed at doses higher than 1 nmol/site. The responses induced by the simultaneous application of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) were inhibited by chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine, BW A868C and ramatroban. Chlorpheniramine and cyproheptadine showed the dose-related inhibition of nasal symptoms induced by the combined administration of histamine (10 nmol) and prostaglandin D(2) (10 nmol), but the effect of cyproheptadine was relatively weak compared with chlorpheniramine. Moreover, BW A868C and ramatroban also showed the inhibition of nasal symptoms induced by the simultaneous administration of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) in a dose-dependent manner. BW A868C was more potent in inhibiting the nasal symptoms than ramatroban. These results clearly indicate that prostaglandin D(2) showed a synergistic effect on sneezing and nasal rubbing induced by histamine in rats, and its effect occurred through both prostaglandin D(2) and CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells) receptors.

  14. Prospectively assessed incidence, severity, and determinants of respiratory symptoms in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Latzin, P; Frey, U; Roiha, H L; Baldwin, D N; Regamey, N; Strippoli, M P F; Zwahlen, M; Kuehni, C E

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Nevertheless, few prospective birth cohort studies have studied the epidemiology of respiratory symptoms in normal infants. The aim of this study was to prospectively obtain reliable data on incidence, severity, and determinants of common respiratory symptoms (including cough and wheeze) in normal infants and to determine factors associated with these symptoms. In a prospective population-based birth cohort, we assessed respiratory symptoms during the first year of life by weekly phone calls to the mothers. Poisson regression was used to examine the association between symptoms and various risk factors. In the first year of life, respiratory symptoms occurred in 181/195 infants (93%), more severe symptoms in 89 (46%). The average infant had respiratory symptoms for 4 weeks and 90% had symptoms for less than 12 weeks (range 0 to 23). Male sex, higher birth weight, maternal asthma, having older siblings and nursery care were associated with more, maternal hay fever with fewer respiratory symptoms. The association with prenatal maternal smoking decreased with time since birth. This study provides reliable data on the frequency of cough and wheeze during the first year of life in healthy infants; this may help in the interpretation of published hospital and community-based studies. The apparently reduced risk in children of mothers with hayfever but no asthma, and the decreasing effect of prenatal smoke exposure over time illustrate the complexity of respiratory pathology in the first year of life.

  15. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Pereira, Sheila Alves; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues; de Rezende, Aline Pacheco; Castro da Costa, Adeliane; de Sousa Corrêa, Krislainy; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Results Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55%) met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7%) patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3%) reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6%) patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12%) patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24). The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100%) than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1%) (P=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, individuals aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and arterial hypertension may benefit from spirometric evaluation. PMID:26257517

  16. The association of respiratory symptoms and lung function with the use of gas for cooking. European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, D; Chinn, S; Sterne, J; Luczynska, C; Burney, P

    1998-03-01

    The association of respiratory symptoms and lung function with the use of gas for cooking was examined using data collected as part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, an international multicentre study. Associations between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms and respiratory function were assessed by logistic and multiple regression models. Tests for interaction were used to examine whether the effect of gas cooking varied between centres and, as there was evidence for this, the average effects were estimated using standard methods for random effects meta-analysis. Data from 5,561 males and 6,029 females living in 23 centres in 11 countries were analysed. There was no significant association found between respiratory symptoms and gas cooking in males. In females the association between some respiratory symptoms and gas cooking varied between centres with an overall positive association with "wheeze in the last 12 months" (odds ratio (OR) 1.24: 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-1.54) and "wheeze with breathlessness in the last 12 months" (OR 1.33: 95% CI 1.06-1.69). There was no evidence that atopy modified this association. Cooking with gas was associated with airways obstruction in both males and females although the differences failed to reach statistical significance. In some countries the use of gas for cooking is associated with respiratory symptoms suggestive of airways obstruction in females. PMID:9596117

  17. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  18. Association between Occupational Stress and Respiratory Symptoms among Lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    M. Y., Nur Aqilah; J., Juliana

    2012-01-01

    There was considerable evidence that a subject’s psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied. PMID:23121752

  19. Association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nur Aqilah, Mohmed Yusof; Juliana, Jalaludin

    2012-11-01

    There was considerable evidence that a subject's psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied. PMID:23121752

  20. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Viegi, G; Paoletti, P; Carrozzi, L; Vellutini, M; Diviggiano, E; Di Pede, C; Pistelli, G; Giutini, G; Lebowitz, M D

    1991-01-01

    We surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) (n = 3289) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy) (n = 2917). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. In particular, rhinitis and wheezing symptoms were higher in all the three urban zones; chronic cough and phlegm were higher in the zone with the automobile exhaust and the additional industrial exposure. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. For example, those living in the urban-industrial zone had an odds ratio of 4.0 (4.3-3.7) for rhinitis and 2.8 (3.0-2.6) for wheeze with respect to those living in the Po Delta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1954948

  1. [Preventative effect of a whey hydrolyzed formula (Nestle, NAN H.A.) on the development of allergic symptoms in infants].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, K; Saito, H; Akasawa, A; Iikura, Y

    1997-10-01

    We examined the prevent effect of a whey hydrolyzed formula (NAN H.A.) on the development of allergic disease from new born infants. A hundred thirty three pregnant women were divided into the NAN H.A. group and the control group. Mothers, who agreed to use the whey hydrolyzed formula to their infant, were classified into the NAN H.A. group. We examined laboratory date such as IgE levels of these infants as well as clinical symptoms for evaluating of the preventive effect of NAN H.A. The serum IgE levels from infants of the NAN H.A. group were lower than those of the control group. The incidance of the infants who showed allergic clinical symptoms was significant lower in the NAN H.A. group. The odds ratio to skin symptom at 3 years of age with multiple logistic regression was 5.32 between the control group and the NAN H.A. group (p < 0.05). It was 6.68 between mother's history of allergy was positive and negative (p < 0.02). These results suggest that NAN H.A. can prevent the development of allergic symptoms in infants.

  2. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  3. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  4. Trajectories of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Child Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Emily K.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Background: We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms as predicted by interactions among maternal internalizing symptoms, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and child sex. Method: An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (n = 251) participated during three study waves. Children's mean ages were 8.23 years…

  5. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    PubMed

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  6. Air quality and seasonal variations in consultations for respiratory, allergic, dermatological and gastrointestinal diseases in Bahrain, 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, R R; Al-Roomi, K A

    2014-06-09

    Environmental health data in Bahrain are scarce. This study in 4 governorates of Bahrain aimed to establish baseline data on the seasonal prevalence of certain disease groups that are sensitive to climate (respiratory, allergic, dermatological and non-specific gastrointestinal diseases) over a 1-year period and to record local climate and air pollutant data for the same year. A 5% sample of medical records for those who attended primary health-care centres during 2007 was taken. Visit rates for all 4 diseases had peaks, in spring and in autumn, with the lowest rates in the summer season when the average temperatures were highest and average humidity was lower. Respiratory-related visits were highest when the air concentrations of SO2 were highest. An ongoing surveillance system for climate-sensitive diseases should be initiated to monitor and relate health and environmental trends.

  7. Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P; Shapiro, S; Dales, R E; Becklake, M R

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of respiratory symptoms were studied in an active workforce of insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres. Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed using logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure (estimated by number of hours worked in the trade) in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used. PMID:3814550

  8. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation.

    PubMed

    James, John M; Crespo, Jesús Fernández

    2007-06-01

    Although allergic reactions to foods occur most commonly after ingestion, inhalation of foods can also be an underlying cause of these reactions. For example, published reports have highlighted the inhalation of allergens from fish, shellfish, seeds, soybeans, cereal grains, hen's egg, cow's milk, and many other foods in allergic reactions. Symptoms have typically included respiratory manifestations such as rhinoconjunctivitis, coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and asthma. In some cases, anaphylaxis has been observed. In addition, there have been many investigations of occupational asthma following the inhalation of relevant food allergens. This report reviews the current literature focusing on allergic reactions to foods by inhalation.

  9. Passive cigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of nonsmoking women in China

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.A. III Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT ); Xu, X. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study the authors evaluated data from a sample of 973 never-smoking women, ages 20-40, who worked in three similar textile mills in Anhui Province, China. They compared prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms across homes with and without coal heating and homes with different numbers of smokers. Multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age, job title, and mill of employment were also estimated. Respiratory symptoms were associated with combined exposure to passive cigarette smoke and coal heating. Effects of passive cigarette smoke and coal heating on respiratory symptoms appeared to be nearly additive, suggesting a dose-response relationship between respiratory symptoms and home indoor air pollution from these two sources. The prevalence of chest illness, cough, phlegm, and shortness of breath (but not wheeze) was significantly elevated for women living in homes with both smokers and coal heating.

  10. Associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Taylor, D Robin; Greene, Justina M; McLachlan, Christene R; Cowan, Jan O; Flannery, Erin M; Herbison, G Peter; Sears, Malcolm R; Talley, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it is unclear which condition develops first. The role of obesity in mediating this association is also unclear. We explored the associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function, and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a birth cohort of approximately 1000 individuals. Methods Information on respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, lung function and airway responsiveness was obtained at multiple assessments from childhood to adulthood in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 individuals followed to age 26. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome were recorded at age 26. Results Heartburn and acid regurgitation symptoms that were at least "moderately bothersome" at age 26 were significantly associated with asthma (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6–6.4), wheeze (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.7–7.2), and nocturnal cough (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.1–8.7) independently of body mass index. In women reflux symptoms were also associated with airflow obstruction and a bronchodilator response to salbutamol. Persistent wheezing since childhood, persistence of asthma since teenage years, and airway hyperresponsiveness since age 11 were associated with a significantly increased risk of heartburn and acid regurgitation at age 26. There was no association between irritable bowel syndrome and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Reflux symptoms are associated with respiratory symptoms in young adults independently of body mass index. The mechanism of these associations remains unclear. PMID:17147826

  11. CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS, AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory symptoms and respiratory hospitalization (for asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of children (ages 7--11 years, N=667) living in a moderately industrialized city in Central Sl...

  12. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  13. Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira; Barros, José Cerqueira; Oliveira, Fabrício Borges; Brunherotti, Marisa Andrade; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results.

  14. [Anti-nicotine education applied in relation of parents of the diseased children on chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Grzegorz; Gołda, Ryszard; Pyskir, Jerzy; Pasińska, Magdalena; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Kopiński, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The allergies of respiratory system are at children the frequent illnesses. Among favorable them factors, risk on passive smoking tobacco can be also. Passive smoking is defined as risk non-smoking on tobacco smoke in environment. Recent reports represent that smoking in home environment tobacco increase on passive smokers' asthma morbidity, especially children in school age. It in it was report the necessity of leadership of anti-nicotine education was underlined in the face of smoking parents. It bets that she should motivate she better parents to cessation smoking, using authority of doctor and love parental. Acting we decided with these principles to analyze effectiveness two year anti-nicotine education which be applied in the face of all treated smoking parents of children with reason of chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system in out-patients. The study comprised parents of 146 children at the Allergy out-Patients clinic, who were diagnosed and cured in years 2003-2005. Generally were 292 persons. The children be treated with reason of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. It the data on subject of smoking of tobacco were collected was on basis of interview got from parents during visits at information bureau on beginning the treatment the children, in his track as well as after two years of education. The anti-nicotine education was applied by whole period of observation during routine medical visits. In moment beginning of treatment in studied group the parents' and education children (n = 292) it 79 the parents' couple did not smoke. Smoking parents among remaining 67 steams were. From among them parents 13 children smoked both, only father in 36 cases smoked and mother in remaining 18 parents' couple smoked. 80 parents smoked with generally. 63 persons after two years of anti-nicotine education the nonsmoking committed one from group smoking. 22 persons among them were from among 24 fathers and 17 mothers' peer in which smoked both parents

  15. Antigen exposure in the late light period induces severe symptoms of food allergy in an OVA-allergic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kana; Kitagawa, Eri; Wada, Misaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Orihara, Kanami; Tahara, Yu; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-09-30

    The mammalian circadian clock controls many physiological processes that include immune responses and allergic reactions. Several studies have investigated the circadian regulation of intestinal permeability and tight junctions known to be affected by cytokines. However, the contribution of circadian clock to food allergy symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of the circadian clock in determining the severity of food allergies. We prepared an ovalbumin food allergy mouse model, and orally administered ovalbumin either late in the light or late in the dark period under light-dark cycle. The light period group showed higher allergic diarrhea and weight loss than the dark period group. The production of type 2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-5, from the mesenteric lymph nodes and ovalbumin absorption was higher in the light period group than in the dark period group. Compared to the dark period group, the mRNA expression levels of the tight junction proteins were lower in the light period group. We have demonstrated that increased production of type 2 cytokines and intestinal permeability in the light period induced severe food allergy symptoms. Our results suggest that the time of food antigen intake might affect the determination of the severity of food allergy symptoms.

  16. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  17. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS AND ASSOCIATION WITH LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-induced respiratory symptoms are known to be functions of concentration, minute ventilation, and duration of exposure. The purposes of this study were to identify an exposure-response model for symptoms, to determine whether response was related to age, and to assess the re...

  18. Anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) in the treatment of atopic asthma and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Noschese, Paolo; Salzillo, Antonello; D'Amato, Maria; Cazzola, Mario

    2004-09-01

    Since the discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies thirty-six years ago, our understanding of the mechanisms of allergy has improved to such an extent that we can now better differentiate allergy from non-allergic hypersensitivity, and allergic/atopic from intrinsic/non-atopic bronchial asthma. IgE antibodies are crucial immune mediators of airway inflammation in allergic atopic asthma and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are the likely mechanisms of allergen-induced airway obstruction. In addition, IgE may cause chronic airway inflammation in asthma through effector cells activated via high-affinity (Fcepsilon RI) or low-affinity (Fcepsilon RII) IgE receptors. Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies able to reduce free IgE levels and to block the binding of IgE to Fcepsilon RI without cross-linking IgE and triggering degranulation of IgE-sensitised cells have been developed. This non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb-E25; omalizumab) binds IgE at the same site as these antibodies bind Fcepsilon RI and Fcepsilon RII. As a consequence, omalizumab inhibits IgE effector functions by blocking IgE binding to high-affinity receptors on IgE effector cells and does not cause mast cell or basophil activation because it cannot bind to IgE on cell surfaces where the Fcepsilon R1 receptor already masks the anti-IgE epitope. Studies in patients with atopic asthma demonstrated that omalizumab decreases serum IgE levels and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction during both the early and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen. In several clinical controlled trials omalizumab resulted to be able to reduce asthma-related symptoms, to decrease corticosteroid use and to improve quality of life of asthmatic patients. The anti-IgE approach to asthma treatment has several advantages, including concomitant treatment of other IgE-mediated diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergies), a favourable side-effect profile

  19. [Respiratory tract symptoms and illnesses in rescue and clearance workers after the World Trade Center catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Aro, Leena; Sauni, Riitta; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Uitti, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    The World Trade Center catastrophe and subsequent rescue and clearance operations caused unusual respiratory tract symptoms in fire fighters and rescue workers. Persistent cough was a common symptom, being extraordinarily often associated with the gastroesophageal reflux symptom. Irritant dusts caused reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Tracheal hyperreactivity increased with the exposure, and the risk of asthma is estimated to have increased up to 12 times higher as compared with the normal population. Investigation and treatment of exposed persons have yielded generalizable information about the reactions of the respiratory system in situations of heavy exposure. PMID:19839191

  20. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel. PMID:23258777

  1. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel.

  2. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N.

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of desloratadine for persistent allergic rhinitis: correlations between symptom improvement and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Zuberbier, Torsten; Canonica, G Walter; Fokkens, Wytske J; Gopalan, Gokul; Shekar, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms can impart emotional, quality of life (QOL), and work productivity burdens, especially in persistent AR (PER). Desloratadine, an H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to be effective against nasal and nonnasal AR symptoms and to improve QOL. Exploratory analyses were conducted to evaluate whether desloratadine-mediated symptom improvement correlated with improvements in QOL and productivity. The Aerius Control: Clinical and Evaluative Profile of Treatment 2 (NCT00405964) study was a 12-week, multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled prospective study of once-daily desloratadine at 5 mg in subjects with moderate-to-severe PER. Assessments included twice-daily symptom severity ratings (0 = none to 3 = severe; total and individual symptoms), sleep interference (morning [A.M.]), interference with activities of daily living (ADL; evening [P.M.]), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire-Standardized version (baseline and days 29 and 85), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Allergy-Specific questionnaire (baseline and weekly). Pearson product-moment correlation statistics (r) were determined to assess correlations between symptom score improvements and QOL factors. All desloratadine-treated patients (n = 360) were included in this exploratory analysis. In the desloratadine-treated patients, all correlations tested were positive (all p < 0.0001). The highest coefficients were seen for the correlations between A.M./P.M. PRIOR total five-symptom score and interference with ADL (r = 0.72) and between A.M. NOW congestion and ADL interference (r = 0.69). Continuous daily treatment of moderate-to-severe PER with desloratadine at 5 mg/day significantly improved symptoms, which correlated positively, albeit moderately, with QOL benefits and reversal of functional impairments caused by PER.

  4. Adaptation to Impacts of Climate Change on Aeroallergens and Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research. PMID:20948943

  5. Adaptation to impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research. PMID:20948943

  6. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of workers employed in textile dyeing factory in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sibel, O; Beyza, A; Murat, K; Fatma, E; Göksel, K; Sevin, B

    2012-08-01

    Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma exposed to them. We evaluate respiratory symptoms among textile. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms at workers.

  7. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions of workers employed in Turkish textile dyeing factories.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Sibel; Kargi, Beyza Akdag; Kavas, Murat; Evyapan, Fatma; Kiter, Göksel; Baser, Sevin

    2012-04-01

    Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF(25-75) of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers.

  8. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Never-Smoking Male Workers Exposed To Hardwood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Bislimovska, Dragana; Petrovska, Sunchica; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from many studies suggest that workplace exposure to organic dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects in exposed workers. AIM: In order to assess the respiratory effects of the workplace exposure to hardwood dust we performed a cross-sectional study of never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and never-smoking male office workers as a control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study including 37 never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and an equal number of never-smoking male office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months and baseline spirometry performed according to the actual recommendations. RESULTS: We found a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms in parquet manufacturers than in office workers with significant difference for cough and phlegm. Majority of the respiratory symptoms in the parquet manufacturers were work-related. The mean values of all spirometric parameters with exception of forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) were significantly lower in the parquet manufacturers as compared to their mean values in the office workers. We found close relationship between both the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the reduction of spirometric parameters in the parquet manufacturers and the duration of the workplace exposure to wood dust. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects indicating the need of adequate preventive measures in order to protect the respiratory health of exposed workers. PMID:27275278

  9. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and nasal cellularity in Indonesian wood workers: a dose-response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borm, P; Jetten, M; Hidayat, S; van de Burgh, N; Leunissen, P; Kant, I; Houba, R; Soeprapto, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: It was hypothesised that inflammation plays a dominant part in the respiratory effects of exposure to wood dust. The purpose of this study was to relate the nasal inflammatory responses of workers exposed to meranti wood dust to (a) levels of exposure, (b) respiratory symptoms and (c) respiratory function. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 1997 in a woodworking plant that used mainly meranti, among 982 workers exposed to different concentrations of wood dust. Personal sampling (n=243) of inhalable dust measurements indicated mean exposure in specific jobs, and enabled classification of 930 workers in three exposure classes (<2, 2–5, and >5 mg/m3) based on job title. Questionnaires were used to screen respiratory symptoms in the entire population. Lung function was measured with two different techniques, conventional flow-volume curves and the forced oscillation technique. Nasal lavage was done to assess inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. Results: A negative trend between years of employment and most flow-volume variables was found in men, but not in women workers. Current exposure, however, was not related to spirometric outcomes, respiratory symptoms, or nasal cellularity. Some impedance variables were related to current exposure but also with better function at higher exposure. Conclusions: Exposure to meranti wood dust did not cause an inflammation in the upper respiratory tract nor an increase of respiratory symptoms or decrease of lung function. These data do not corroborate the hypothesis that inflammation plays a part in airway obstruction induced by wood dust. PMID:11983850

  10. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  11. Long-term effects of soldering fumes upon respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S K; Gupta, B N; Husain, T; Pangtey, B S; Srivastava, S; Garg, N

    1991-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of soldering gases and fumes, and of cigarette smoke on lung function, and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a comparative study of spirometric measurements in 57 solderers engaged in acetylene gas soldering of brassware joints in the brass industry (mean exposure: 12.4 +/- 1.1 years) and in 131 controls was performed. The two groups were similar in age, height, smoking habits and social class. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the solderers did not differ significantly from that in the unexposed controls (59.6 vs 56.4%). However, solderers who smoked showed higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than those who did not smoke; a similar trend was observed in the controls. The study failed to demonstrate any association between the respiratory symptoms and length of exposure. The respiratory status of the solderers was unaffected as the results of spirometric measurements of lung function did not show any significant differences between the exposed and the control groups, indicating the absence of an additive effect of cigarette smoking and exposure to soldering fumes.

  12. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults living along streets with high traffic density.

    PubMed Central

    Oosterlee, A; Drijver, M; Lebret, E; Brunekreef, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the population living along streets with high traffic density has a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 673 adults and 106 children (0-15 years), living along busy traffic streets in the city of Haarlem was compared with a control sample of 812 adults and 185 children living along quiet streets. Exposed and control streets were selected on the basis of model calculations of NO2 concentrations. A postal questionnaire containing questions about respiratory symptoms and several potential confounders was used to collect information from the study subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, children living along busy streets were found to have a higher prevalence of most respiratory symptoms than children living along quiet streets. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for wheeze and for respiratory medication used. Risk ratios were higher for girls than for boys, with significant adjusted odds ratios between 2.9 and 15.8 for girls. In adults, only mild dyspnoea was more often reported by subjects living along streets with high traffic density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that living along busy streets increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms in children. PMID:8664961

  13. Respiratory symptoms in children and indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide and gas stoves.

    PubMed

    Garrett, M H; Hooper, M A; Hooper, B M; Abramson, M J

    1998-09-01

    Nitrogen dioxide levels were measured in 80 homes in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, using passive samplers. Some 148 children between 7 and 14 yr of age were recruited as study participants, 53 of whom had asthma. Health outcomes for the children were studied using a respiratory questionnaire, skin prick tests, and peak flow measurements. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were low, with an indoor median of 11.6 microgram/m3 (6.0 ppb), and a maximum of 246 microgram/m3 (128 ppb). Respiratory symptoms were more common in children exposed to a gas stove (odds ratio 2.3 [95% CI 1. 0-5.2], adjusted for parental allergy, parental asthma, and sex). Nitrogen dioxide exposure was a marginal risk factor for respiratory symptoms, with a dose-response association present (p = 0.09). Gas stove exposure was a significant risk factor for respiratory symptoms even after adjusting for nitrogen dioxide levels (odds ratio 2.2 [1.0-4.8]), suggesting an additional risk apart from the average nitrogen dioxide exposure associated with gas stove use. Atopic children tended to have a greater risk of respiratory symptoms compared with nonatopic children with exposure to gas stoves or nitrogen dioxide, but the difference was not significant.

  14. Influence of Asian Desert Dust on Lower Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Patients with Asthma over 4 Years.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Igishi, Tadashi; Yamasaki, Akira; Burioka, Naoto; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Sako, Takanori; Touge, Hirokazu; Nakamoto, Masaki; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Chikumi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yamasaki, Chie; Minato, Sayaka; Ueda, Yutaka; Horasaki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2012-06-01

    The Asian Dust Storm (ADS) aggravates symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction in adult asthma patients. Our objective was to investigate the association of air pollutants and metals in desert dust with worsening of asthma symptoms during the ADS. A telephone survey was performed to investigate the upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, ocular symptoms and skin symptoms of asthma patients during the ADS in March between 2007 and 2010. Four surveys were conducted in 46 patients. Two patients noted worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms in all four surveys, as well as 2 patients in three surveys, 7 patients in two surveys, and 9 patients in one survey. There was no worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms in 26 patients. In each patient, the influence of the ADS on lower respiratory tract symptoms varied between surveys. In 2010, the level of suspended particulate matter was highest in all four years, but the smallest number of patients noted worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms. Among pollutants, only the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide during the ADS was significantly associated with the worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms. The influence of the ADS on lower respiratory tract symptoms of adult asthma patients is variable. PMID:24031138

  15. Respiratory Symptoms, Sensitization, and Exposure–Response Relationships in Spray Painters Exposed to Isocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Preller, Liesbeth; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Jonkers, Irene C. L.; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Wouters, Inge M.; Doekes, Gert; Wisnewski, Adam V.; Heederik, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure–response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large population occupationally exposed to isocyanate oligomers during spray painting. Methods: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and sensitization was assessed in 581 workers in the spray-painting industry. Personal exposure was estimated by combining personal task-based inhalatory exposure measurements and time activity information. Specific IgE and IgG to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were assessed in serum by ImmunoCAP assay and enzyme immunoassays using vapor and liquid phase HDI–human serum albumin (HDI–HSA) and HSA conjugates prepared with oligomeric HDI. Measurements and Main Results: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in exposed workers than among comparison office workers. Log–linear exposure–response associations were found for asthmalike symptoms, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease–like symptoms, and work-related chest tightness (prevalence ratios for an interquartile range increase in exposure of 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0, respectively; P ⩽ 0.05). The prevalence of specific IgE sensitization was low (up to 4.2% in spray painters). Nevertheless, IgE to N100 (oligomeric HDI)–HSA was associated with exposure and work-related chest tightness. The prevalence of specific IgG was higher (2–50.4%) and strongly associated with exposure. Conclusions: The results provide evidence of exposure–response relationships for both work-related and non–work-related respiratory symptoms and specific sensitization in a population exposed to oligomers of HDI. Specific IgE was found in only a minority of symptomatic individuals. Specific IgG seems to be merely an indicator of exposure. PMID:17656675

  16. Climate Change and Our Environment: The Effect on Respiratory and Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles S.; Alexis, Neil E.; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Cohn, John R.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Horner, Elliott; Levetin, Estelle; Nel, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. This article provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth’s environment into their patient’s treatment plan. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated. Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments. Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas. Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens, whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may result in urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to meet changing environmental conditions. PMID:23687635

  17. Prevention of occupational respiratory symptoms among certified safe farm intervention participants.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Lange, Jeff L; Kline, Aaron; Rautiainen, Risto H; Grafft, LaMar

    2011-01-01

    Certified Safe Farm (CSF) is a multifaceted intervention including clinical Occupational and wellness screening, education, and on-farm safety audits with set safety standards, and performance incentives. Five years of respiratory health outcomes are reported in 150 CSF intervention farmers and 158 matched controls. Standardized health interviews and occupational histories were analyzed with descriptive statistics to determine prevalence rates. There was a 100% response rate from the standardized telephone interviews, and respectively a 94% and 89 % response rate from the self-administered occupational health history questionnaire for the CSF intervention and the comparison population. The overall rate for occupational respiratory conditions was 17/100 person-years. At baseline there was no difference between the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between the CSF and control groups. However, over the course of the intervention, the CSF farmers increased their use of personal protective respiratory equipment at work, and experienced fewer episodes of acute symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). The Certified Safe Farm intervention appeared to affect increased use of respiratory protection and decreased symptoms of ODTS.

  18. Pulmonary functions and respiratory symptoms and diseases among adult Israelis. Variations by country of origin.

    PubMed

    Goren, A I; Bruderman, I

    1986-11-01

    A study group of 1,299 adult Israelis aged 30 to 65 years was chosen from persons referred for evaluation of possible pulmonary diseases in two outpatient chest clinics. They were interviewed using the ATS-NHLI (American Thoracic Society-National Heart and Lung Institute) health questionnaire and underwent the pulmonary function test (PFT), which included the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), FEF50 and FEF25 (forced expiratory flow at 50 and 25% of FVC, respectively). The effect of the country of origin of the subjects on the distribution of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary diseases and PFT was analyzed. The lowest PFT values and an excess of reported respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive airways diseases--especially asthma--among subjects and their parents were found among immigrants from Iraq-Iran. In immigrants from Morocco, reported respiratory symptoms, pulmonary diseases and impaired PFT were relatively uncommon. The different distribution of reported respiratory symptoms, pulmonary diseases and impaired PFT by country of origin could not be explained by environmental factors, such as smoking habits and socioeconomic background. The high prevalence of reported asthma among immigrants from Iraq-Iran is most probably due to a genetic factor.

  19. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  20. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  1. Brief Report: Social Skills, Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms, and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical models describe respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation and social competence. Recent findings also link RSA to individual differences in social functioning within autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, associations between RSA and symptoms of internalizing/externalizing…

  2. Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Balmes, John R.; Bradman, Asa; Lipsett, Michael; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pesticide use is widespread, the possible effect of early-life exposure to organophosphate (OP) on pediatric respiratory health is not well described. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between early-life exposure to OPs and respiratory outcomes. Methods: Participants included 359 mothers and children from the CHAMACOS birth cohort. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, specifically diethyl (DE) and dimethyl (DM) phosphate metabolites, were measured in urine from mothers twice during pregnancy (mean = 13 and 26 weeks gestation) and from children five times during childhood (0.5–5 years). Childhood DAP concentrations were estimated by the area under curve (AUC). Mothers reported their child’s respiratory symptoms at 5 and 7 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine associations of prenatal and childhood DAP concentrations with repeated measures of respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing at 5 and 7 years of age, adjusting for child’s sex and age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand tobacco smoke, season of birth, PM2.5, breastfeeding, mold and cockroaches in home, and distance from highway. Results: Higher prenatal DAP concentrations, particularly DE, were nonsignificantly associated with respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10-fold increase = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.12]. This association was strongest with total DAP and DE from the second half of pregnancy (aOR per 10-fold increase = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.95; and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.39, respectively). Childhood DAP, DE, and DM concentrations were associated with respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age (total DAPs: aOR per 10-fold increase = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.86; and aOR = 5.40; 95% CI: 2.10, 13.91, respectively). Conclusions: Early-life exposure to OP pesticides was associated with

  3. The effects of pregnancy on the exacerbation and development of maternal allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

    2009-12-01

    The T-helper 2 (T(H)2) bias associated with pregnancy may predispose the pregnant mother to the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. To determine the effects of pregnancy on pre-existing maternal sensitization, we sensitized BALB/c mice before breeding by two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to the fungal allergen, Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). Some mice also received three IA exposures to MACA on gestational days 11, 15, and 19. After weaning, all mice were challenged IA with MACA before killing. To determine the effects of pregnancy on susceptibility to future sensitization, naïve parous and nulliparous BALB/c mice were sensitized by three IA exposures to MACA or to Hank's buffered salt solution vehicle control. Pregnancy did not have a significant effect on individual inflammatory parameters (airway responsiveness to methacholine, total serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE, BALF total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and total and differential cell counts) following allergen challenge in sensitized mice, regardless of post-breeding allergen exposure. In conclusion there was a weak inhibition of the overall response in mice exposed to allergen during pregnancy compared to identically treated nulliparous mice. In contrast, parous mice that did not encounter allergen post-breeding tended to have exacerbated responses. Parity had no significant impact on future susceptibility to sensitization. PMID:19845451

  4. Are respiratory viruses involved in preseasonal symptoms or severity in Japanese cedar pollinosis?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takanashi, Ikuo; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Respiratory virus infections are involved in asthma exacerbations. However, there are no reports of the relationship between respiratory virus infections and Japanese cedar pollinosis. Objective: We studied the relationship between respiratory viral infection and the appearance of preseasonal symptoms and the severity of seasonal symptoms in Japanese cedar pollinosis. Methods: In 36 patients with asthma and with no symptoms (PreAsyP) and 54 patients with asthma and with symptoms (PreSyP) before the cedar pollen shedding commenced (preseason), and 37 patients with mild-to-moderate severity (InMild/Mod) and 45 patients with severe to extreme severity (InSev/Ext) after cedar shedding commenced (in season), the occurrence of respiratory viruses and nasal smear cytology were examined. Results: In total, seven infections with respiratory viruses were detected among the subjects. Human rhinovirus (HRV) C infection was detected in one subject in each of the PreAsyP and PreSyP groups, and one HRVA infection occurred in the InMild/Mod group. In the InSev/Ext group, one HRVA, one HRVC, one respiratory syncytial virus, and one human metapneumovirus were detected. There was no significant difference in the rate of detection of viral infections between the PreAsyP and the PreSyP groups (p = 0.077), and between the InMild/Mod group and the InSev/Ext group (p = 0.24, Wilcoxon rank sum test). When cells types in nasal smears were identified and their abundance examined, the rate of neutrophilia in the subjects in the PreSyP group was 54%, which was statistically higher (p < 0.01) than the subjects in the PreAsyP group (25%). Interestingly, in the subjects in the InSev/Ext group, the proportion of eosinophils (40%) was larger (p < 0.05) than in the subjects in the InMild/Mod group (19%). Conclusion: These results provided no evidence that respiratory virus infections contributed to preseasonal symptoms and severity in season of Japanese cedar pollinosis. Nasal

  5. Respiratory Symptoms of Vendors in an Open-Air Hawker Center in Brunei Darussalam

    PubMed Central

    Nazurah bt Abdul Wahid, Nurul Nor; Balalla, N. B. P; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We studied respiratory problems among vendors exposed to cooking fumes in an open-air hawker center. Exposure to cooking fumes from either the use of fossil fuels or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been shown to be associated with adverse respiratory health effects. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors exposed to cooking fumes as well as 18 merchandise sellers at an open-air hawker center in Brunei Darussalam. Past medical and smoking history and exposure to cooking fumes were obtained. The validated American Thoracic Society Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was used to ask for respiratory symptoms. Results: Compared to merchandise sellers (n = 18), cooking vendors (n = 67) had a higher self-reported respiratory symptoms (50.7% for those cooking and 33.3% for merchandise sellers). Cough (28.3%) was the main respiratory symptom experienced in cooking vendors and breathlessness (22.2%) among merchandise sellers. Half (50.0%) of cooking vendors who worked for more than 10 years had cough and 27.3% had phlegm. Those cooking with charcoal were two times more likely to have cough than those cooking with LPG. Cooking vendors with a job duration of more than 10 years were thrice more likely to have cough. Conclusion: Cooking vendors in the open-air hawker center exposed to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms compared to non-exposed merchandise sellers. The type of fuel used for cooking and duration of work was associated with increased prevalence of cough. PMID:25325051

  6. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  7. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  8. Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptoms caused by diphenyl-methane di-isocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Tanser, A. R.; Bourke, M. P.; Blandford, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    Tanser, A. R., Bourke, M. P., and Blandford, A. G. (1973).Thorax, 28, 596-600. Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptoms caused by diphenyl-methane di-isocyanate. We investigated 57 employees of a factory where diphenyl-methane di-isocyanate (MDI) was used to prepare the materials for making rigid polyurethane foam. Four employees had developed hypersensitivity to MDI. Two had severe, and one moderate asthma, while the fourth had symptoms resembling the delayed hypersensitivity type of reaction. Ten other employees had experienced unpleasant, mainly respiratory, irritant effects from MDI vapour. A past history of bronchitis or of allergy was found more commonly in those with symptoms from MDI than in those without symptoms. It is not known if MDI causes permanent damage to the respiratory tract. The most severely affected cases in the present series had normal spirometric values after recovery, and no persisting symptoms. MDI is safer than other isocyanates used in industry but may cause both major and minor illness. It should be handled with the same precautions as those used with the more toxic compounds. PMID:4784381

  9. Relation between respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and peak flow variability in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Boezen, H. M.; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D. S.; Rijcken, B.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A study was carried out to determine whether subjects with respiratory symptoms are more likely to have impaired lung function or increased airway lability, and to quantify these relationships in a population of adults. METHODS--Data were collected from 511 participants (aged 20-70 years) from the Dutch part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The symptoms analysed were: wheeze, dyspnoea > or = grade 3, nocturnal dyspnoea, cough and phlegm, and history of allergy. Lung function was measured by peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). PEF variability was used as an index for bronchial lability. RESULTS--Both FEV1 and PEF were decreased with increasing numbers of symptoms. Subjects with one symptom had an increased risk of having an FEV1 value of < 70% (OR = 4.2) and this risk increased with an increasing number of symptoms. Subjects with three or more symptoms had an increased risk of having a PEF value of < 70%, a diurnal variation in PEF of > 10% (both OR = 4.4), and an increased risk of high between day variation (OR = 6.6). CONCLUSIONS--Subject-reported symptoms are related to impaired lung function and to increased variability of peak flow. PMID:7701448

  10. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in a randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Cibella, Fabio; Campagna, Davide; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Amaradio, Maria Domenica; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Cockcroft, Donald W; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Quitting smoking is the most important step smokers can take to improve their health. Nonetheless, there is little information on long-term improvements in lung function and/or respiratory symptoms after smoking cessation. Here we illustrate long-term changes in spirometric indices as well as in respiratory symptoms in smokers invited to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Prospective evaluation of cigarette consumption, spirometry and symptoms was performed in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of smokers receiving EC containing 2.4%, 1.8% or 0% nicotine. Spirometric data are presented on the basis of participants' pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (Quitters, Reducers, Failures), whereas respiratory symptoms on the basis of their point prevalence-smoking phenotype. Smoking phenotype classification (Quitters, Reducers, Failures) had no significant effect on spirometric indices (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) with the exception of FEF25-75%, which significantly (P  =0.034) increased over the time among Quitters; their FEF25-75% (% predicted) improving from (means±S.D.) 85.7±15.6% at baseline (BL) to 100.8±14.6%. High prevalence of cough/phlegm (43.1%) and shortness of breath (SoB; 34.8%) was reported at BL with substantial reduction in their frequency at subsequent follow-up visits. These symptoms virtually disappeared very quickly in both quitters and reducers. Smokers invited to switch to ECs who completely abstained from smoking showed steady progressive improvements in their FEF25-75% Normalization of peripheral airways function was associated with improvement in respiratory symptoms, adding to the notion that abstaining from smoking can reverse tobacco harm in the lung. PMID:27543458

  11. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in a randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Cibella, Fabio; Campagna, Davide; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Amaradio, Maria Domenica; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Cockcroft, Donald W; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Quitting smoking is the most important step smokers can take to improve their health. Nonetheless, there is little information on long-term improvements in lung function and/or respiratory symptoms after smoking cessation. Here we illustrate long-term changes in spirometric indices as well as in respiratory symptoms in smokers invited to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Prospective evaluation of cigarette consumption, spirometry and symptoms was performed in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of smokers receiving EC containing 2.4%, 1.8% or 0% nicotine. Spirometric data are presented on the basis of participants' pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (Quitters, Reducers, Failures), whereas respiratory symptoms on the basis of their point prevalence-smoking phenotype. Smoking phenotype classification (Quitters, Reducers, Failures) had no significant effect on spirometric indices (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) with the exception of FEF25-75%, which significantly (P  =0.034) increased over the time among Quitters; their FEF25-75% (% predicted) improving from (means±S.D.) 85.7±15.6% at baseline (BL) to 100.8±14.6%. High prevalence of cough/phlegm (43.1%) and shortness of breath (SoB; 34.8%) was reported at BL with substantial reduction in their frequency at subsequent follow-up visits. These symptoms virtually disappeared very quickly in both quitters and reducers. Smokers invited to switch to ECs who completely abstained from smoking showed steady progressive improvements in their FEF25-75% Normalization of peripheral airways function was associated with improvement in respiratory symptoms, adding to the notion that abstaining from smoking can reverse tobacco harm in the lung.

  12. Factors relating to the development of respiratory symptoms in coffee process workers.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K E; Trigg, C J; Baxter, P J; Topping, M; Lacey, J; Crook, B; Whitehead, P; Bennett, J B; Davies, R J

    1991-01-01

    After several cases of occupational asthma had been reported in a coffee processing factory in England, 197 coffee workers representing 80% of the production workforce were studied to determine the factors affecting the development of work related respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, and dyspnoea. Two computer administered questionnaires concerning the presence of respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms were used. Workers underwent skin prick testing to green coffee bean extract (GCB) and 11 common inhalant allergen extracts and bronchial provocation testing with methacholine. The presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to GCB and castor bean extract (CAB) were determined by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms was 12.7%, bronchial hyperresponsiveness 30%, atopy 54%, positive GCB skin prick test 14.7%, positive GCB RAST 14%, and positive CAB RAST 14.7%. None of the workers was sensitised to fungi present in the factory and the numbers of certain species of fungi, despite being greater than may be found out of doors or in an uncontaminated indoor environment, were fewer than are generally associated with the presence of work related respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers. Storage mites were not isolated. Green coffee bean extract and CAB RAST were significantly correlated using the McNemar test but there was limited allergenic cross reactivity in RAST inhibition studies of the two extracts. The only factors that were significantly and independently associated with work related symptoms were CAB RAST and duration of employment. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not independently associated with work related respiratory symptoms. The significant independent associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness included GCB RAST, duration of employment, and resting forced expiratory volume in one second. Exposure to CAB, a highly potent antigen, may be overriding

  13. Factors relating to the development of respiratory symptoms in coffee process workers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K E; Trigg, C J; Baxter, P J; Topping, M; Lacey, J; Crook, B; Whitehead, P; Bennett, J B; Davies, R J

    1991-05-01

    After several cases of occupational asthma had been reported in a coffee processing factory in England, 197 coffee workers representing 80% of the production workforce were studied to determine the factors affecting the development of work related respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, and dyspnoea. Two computer administered questionnaires concerning the presence of respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms were used. Workers underwent skin prick testing to green coffee bean extract (GCB) and 11 common inhalant allergen extracts and bronchial provocation testing with methacholine. The presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to GCB and castor bean extract (CAB) were determined by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms was 12.7%, bronchial hyperresponsiveness 30%, atopy 54%, positive GCB skin prick test 14.7%, positive GCB RAST 14%, and positive CAB RAST 14.7%. None of the workers was sensitised to fungi present in the factory and the numbers of certain species of fungi, despite being greater than may be found out of doors or in an uncontaminated indoor environment, were fewer than are generally associated with the presence of work related respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers. Storage mites were not isolated. Green coffee bean extract and CAB RAST were significantly correlated using the McNemar test but there was limited allergenic cross reactivity in RAST inhibition studies of the two extracts. The only factors that were significantly and independently associated with work related symptoms were CAB RAST and duration of employment. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not independently associated with work related respiratory symptoms. The significant independent associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness included GCB RAST, duration of employment, and resting forced expiratory volume in one second. Exposure to CAB, a highly potent antigen, may be overriding

  14. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  15. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children.

    PubMed

    Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B

    1993-01-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  16. Peripheral eosinophilia and respiratory symptoms in rubber injection press operators: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R J; Bascom, R; Yang, W N; Fisher, J F; Baser, M E; Greenhut, J; Baker, J H

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate a suspected association between an outbreak of acute respiratory illness and eosinophilia and employment as a rubber worker, we performed a retrospective review of medical records of rubber workers employed from September 1983 to July 1984 in a plant housing a thermoinjection process. Twenty-five workers met the case definition of a respiratory illness requiring a physician visit. The predominant respiratory illness was acute in onset with cough, chest tightness, and dyspnea. Peripheral eosinophilia, up to 40% of white blood cells in a peripheral smear, was seen in 10 of 18 (56%) cases. Twenty-one of 25 white males with respiratory symptoms were employed in the thermoinjection process (odds ratio = 22, p less than .001). Smoking and employment in this process contributed independently to an increased risk of being a case as determined by a logistic regression analysis. Return to the plant building caused recurrence of symptoms in most cases, and these workers have been transferred or left the company. We conclude that a strong previously unrecognized association exists between employment in this neoprene rubber thermoinjection process and the development of an acute respiratory illness.

  17. Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, L. M.; Fishwick, D.; Slater, T.; Pearce, N.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function in welders was performed at eight New Zealand welding sites: 62 current welders and 75 non-welders participated. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to record demographic data, smoking habit, and current respiratory symptoms. Current and previous welding exposures were recorded to calculate a total lifetime welding fume exposure index. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before the start of the shift. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ethnicity, smoking habits, or years of work experience between welders and non-welders. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were more common in current welders (11.3%) than in non-welders (5.0%). Of those workers with a cumulative exposure index to welding fume > or = 10 years, 16.7% reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with 4.7% of those with a cumulative exposure index < 4 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 17.6). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly lower measures of baseline PEF (p = 0.008) and FEV/FVC ratio (p = 0.001) than workers without chronic bronchitis. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking (OR 9.3, 1.0 to 86.9) and total exposure index to welding fumes > 10 years (OR 9.5, 1.3 to 71.9) were independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. The report of any work related respiratory symptom was more prevalent in welders (30.7%) than non-welders (15.0%) and workers with these symptoms had significantly lower FEV, (p = 0.004) and FVC (p = 0.04) values. Multivariate analysis identified a high proportion of time spent welding in confined spaces as the main risk factor for reporting these symptoms (OR 2.8, 1.0 to 8.3). CONCLUSION: This study has documented a high prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and other work related respiratory symptoms in current welders. Also, workers

  18. Asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children living near a petrochemical site.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Enric; Cuadras, Anna; Aguilar, Xavier; Esteban, Leonardo; Borràs-Santos, Alícia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Residential proximity to environmental hazards has been related to adverse health outcomes. Respiratory health and allergies in children living near petrochemical sites have not been extensively studied. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to the petrochemical site of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) and the prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children. Children aged 6-7 (n=2672) and adolescents aged 13-14 (n=2524) residing near two large petrochemical sites and those living in a city with medium vehicular traffic were cross-sectionally compared with children from an area with low vehicular traffic and without industry. The prevalence of symptoms was measured using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written and video questionnaires. Lung function measurements were done in a subsample of 959 adolescents in the four areas. Multivariable analyses were done to estimate the effects of the residential area on symptoms and lung function adjusted for potential confounders. Crude prevalence of symptoms was similar across the studied areas. After adjustment, children and adolescents living near a petrochemical site had a statistically significant higher prevalence of respiratory hospitalizations in the previous year (Prevalence Ratio (PR)=1.49; 95%CI, 1.06-2.09) and of nocturnal cough (PR=1.29; 95%CI 1.05-1.57), respectively. Reduced lung function values among adolescents residing near the petrochemical areas were not observed. Although a higher prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents living near the petrochemical sites could not be demonstrated, as described in other studies, respiratory hospitalizations and nocturnal cough could be related to short-term exposures to pollutants. Other clinical and sub-clinical respiratory health effects in the petrochemical industry areas should be investigated.

  19. The association of respiratory symptoms and indoor housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Talton, Jennifer; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Farm labor housing has been described as among the worst in the nation, oftentimes with poor and unsanitary indoor living conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory health among migrant farmworker occupants (N = 352) living in employer-provided housing. A cross-sectional sample of adult Latino male farm laborers were administered a questionnaire to identify the prevalence of major respiratory symptoms. Self-reported and independent observations were made to evaluate environmental respiratory risk factors and indoor housing conditions, including but not limited to, the presence of cockroaches, rodents, pesticides, and visible signs of mold. Spirometry was performed to evaluate lung function using FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and FEV1 /FVC ratio. Bivariate analysis was applied to evaluate associations between respiratory symptoms and selected indoor environmental risk factors. Findings for respiratory health included prevalence of wheeze (11.4%), coughing up phlegm (17.3%), tightness of chest (16.8%), and runny or stuffy nose (34.4%). Respiratory risks identified inside the dwellings included the use of pesticides or bug sprays for cockroaches (31.5%), rat or mouse poison (19.5%), visible signs of water damage in the bathroom (22.5%), and mold in the sleeping room (11.1%). Spirometry values were normal for most occupants, although statistically significant associations were found between mold and coughing up phlegm when not having a cold (P = .0262); presence of mold and asthma (P = .0084); pesticides used in the home and tightness of chest (P = .0001); and use of tobacco and coughing up phlegm (P = .0131). Although causal inference can be difficult to establish from a cross-sectional study, findings from this study represents suggestive evidence that indoor environmental risk factors may be contributory factors for respiratory health

  20. The association of respiratory symptoms and indoor housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Gregory D.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Talton, Jennifer; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Farm labor housing has been described as among the worst in the nation, oftentimes with poor and unsanitary, indoor living conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory health among migrant farmworker occupants (N=352) living in employer-provided housing. A cross-sectional sample of adult, Latino male farm laborers were administered a questionnaire to identify the prevalence of major respiratory symptoms. Self-reported and independent observations were made to evaluate environmental respiratory risk factors and indoor housing conditions, including but not limited to, the presence of cockroaches, rodents, pesticides, and visible signs of mold. Spirometry was performed to evaluate lung function using FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Bivariate analysis was applied to evaluate associations between respiratory symptoms and selected indoor environmental risk factors. Findings for respiratory health included, prevalence of wheeze (11.4%), coughing up phlegm (17.3%), tightness of chest (16.8%) and runny or stuffy nose (34.4%). Respiratory risks identified inside the dwellings included, the use of pesticides or bug sprays for cockroaches (31.5%), rat or mouse poison (19.5%), visible signs of water damage in the bathroom (22.5%) and mold in the sleeping room (11.1%). Spirometry values were normal for most occupants, although statistically significant associations were found between; mold and coughing up phlegm when not having a cold (p=0.0262); presence of mold and asthma (p=0.0084); pesticides used in the home and tightness of chest (p=0.0001) and, use of tobacco and coughing up phlegm (p=0.0131). Although causal inference can be difficult to establish from a cross sectional study, findings from this study represents suggestive evidence that indoor environmental risk factors may be contributory factors for respiratory health problems among this vulnerable population. PMID:25275405

  1. The association of respiratory symptoms and indoor housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Talton, Jennifer; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Farm labor housing has been described as among the worst in the nation, oftentimes with poor and unsanitary indoor living conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory health among migrant farmworker occupants (N = 352) living in employer-provided housing. A cross-sectional sample of adult Latino male farm laborers were administered a questionnaire to identify the prevalence of major respiratory symptoms. Self-reported and independent observations were made to evaluate environmental respiratory risk factors and indoor housing conditions, including but not limited to, the presence of cockroaches, rodents, pesticides, and visible signs of mold. Spirometry was performed to evaluate lung function using FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and FEV1 /FVC ratio. Bivariate analysis was applied to evaluate associations between respiratory symptoms and selected indoor environmental risk factors. Findings for respiratory health included prevalence of wheeze (11.4%), coughing up phlegm (17.3%), tightness of chest (16.8%), and runny or stuffy nose (34.4%). Respiratory risks identified inside the dwellings included the use of pesticides or bug sprays for cockroaches (31.5%), rat or mouse poison (19.5%), visible signs of water damage in the bathroom (22.5%), and mold in the sleeping room (11.1%). Spirometry values were normal for most occupants, although statistically significant associations were found between mold and coughing up phlegm when not having a cold (P = .0262); presence of mold and asthma (P = .0084); pesticides used in the home and tightness of chest (P = .0001); and use of tobacco and coughing up phlegm (P = .0131). Although causal inference can be difficult to establish from a cross-sectional study, findings from this study represents suggestive evidence that indoor environmental risk factors may be contributory factors for respiratory health

  2. Reported respiratory symptom intensity in asthmatics during exposure to aerosolized Florida red tide toxins.

    PubMed

    Milian, Alexyz; Nierenberg, Kate; Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Jayroe, David; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Florida red tides are naturally occurring blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces natural toxins called brevetoxins. Brevetoxins become part of the marine aerosol as the fragile, unarmored cells are broken up by wave action. Inhalation of the aerosolized toxin results in upper and lower airway irritation. Symptoms of brevetoxin inhalation include: eye, nose, and throat irritation, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthmatics appear to be more sensitive to the effects of inhaled brevetoxin. This study examined data from 97 asthmatics exposed at the beach for 1 hour during K. brevis blooms, and on separate occasions when no bloom was present. In conjunction with extensive environmental monitoring, participants were evaluated utilizing questionnaires and pulmonary function testing before and after a 1-hour beach walk. A modified Likert scale was incorporated into the questionnaire to create respiratory symptom intensity scores for each individual pre- and post-beach walk. Exposure to Florida red tide significantly increased the reported intensity of respiratory symptoms; no significant changes were seen during an unexposed period. This is the first study to examine the intensity of reported respiratory symptoms in asthmatics after a 1-hour exposure to Florida red tide.

  3. Acid fog: effects on respiratory function and symptoms in healthy and asthmatic volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.

    1989-02-01

    Acidic air pollutants generally are dissolved in water droplets. Mean droplet diameter may range from more than 10 microns in dense fog to less than 1 micron at low relative humidity. Droplet size influences the deposition of inhaled acid within the respiratory tract and thus may influence toxicity. To help assess health risks from acid pollution, we performed controlled exposures of normal and asthmatic volunteers to sulfuric acid aerosols at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 500, 1000, and 2000 micrograms/m/sup 3/. Exposures lasted 1 hr with intermittent heavy exercise. Response was assessed by lung function tests and symptom questionnaires. Under foggy conditions (mean droplet size 10 microns, temperature 50 degrees F), no marked effects on lung function were found. However, both normal and asthmatic subjects showed statistically significant dose-related increases in respiratory symptoms. In a separate study, normal subjects exposed at 70 degrees F with mean droplet size 0.9 microns showed no marked effect on function or symptoms. Asthmatics showed dose-related decrements in forced expiratory performance and increases in symptoms, most obvious at 1000 and 2000 micrograms/m/sup 3/. The different results of the two studies probably reflect an influence of droplet size, but further investigation is needed to confirm this. The aggregate results suggest that only mild, if any, short-term respiratory irritant effects are likely at acid concentrations attained in ambient pollution.

  4. Acid fog: effects on respiratory function and symptoms in healthy and asthmatic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S; Avol, E L

    1989-02-01

    Acidic air pollutants generally are dissolved in water droplets. Mean droplet diameter may range from more than 10 microns in dense fog to less than 1 micron at low relative humidity. Droplet size influences the deposition of inhaled acid within the respiratory tract and thus may influence toxicity. To help assess health risks from acid pollution, we performed controlled exposures of normal and asthmatic volunteers to sulfuric acid aerosols at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 500, 1000, and 2000 micrograms/m3. Exposures lasted 1 hr with intermittent heavy exercise. Response was assessed by lung function tests and symptom questionnaires. Under foggy conditions (mean droplet size 10 microns, temperature 50 degrees F), no marked effects on lung function were found. However, both normal and asthmatic subjects showed statistically significant dose-related increases in respiratory symptoms. In a separate study, normal subjects exposed at 70 degrees F with mean droplet size 0.9 microns showed no marked effect on function or symptoms. Asthmatics showed dose-related decrements in forced expiratory performance and increases in symptoms, most obvious at 1000 and 2000 micrograms/m3. The different results of the two studies probably reflect an influence of droplet size, but further investigation is needed to confirm this. The aggregate results suggest that only mild, if any, short-term respiratory irritant effects are likely at acid concentrations attained in ambient pollution.

  5. Comparison of intranasal azelastine to intranasal fluticasone propionate for symptom control in moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Warner W; Ratner, Paul; Munzel, Ullrich; Murray, Ruth; Price, David; Canonica, G Walter; Mullol, Joaquim; Virchow, J Christian; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli; Bachert, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective therapy for moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and recommended first line in guidelines. It is uncertain whether intranasal antihistamines have comparable efficacy. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of azelastine (AZE; 137 μg/spray) and fluticasone propionate (FP; 50 μg/spray), both given as 1 spray/nostril bid (i.e., approved dosing regimen in the United States), in SAR via a post hoc analysis of data from a previously published direct-comparison study. Six hundred ten moderate-to-severe SAR patients (≥12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS (morning and evening), over 14 days. Reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) was a key secondary variable. Reflective total of seven symptom scores (rT7SS [nasal plus ocular symptoms]) and time to ≥50% reduction from baseline in these key parameters were also analyzed. AZE and FP reduced rTNSS from baseline by a similar degree (-3.25 versus -3.84; p = 0.2014). Patients experienced comparable improvement in rTOSS (-2.62 versus -2.17; p = 0.2371) and rT7SS (-5.83 versus -6.05; p = 0.7820). FP was superior to AZE in alleviating rhinorrhea (-1.15 versus -0.87; p = 0.0433), but AZE showed comparable efficacy for all other nasal and ocular symptoms. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between AZE (-1.17) and FP (-1.43) for reduction in the overall rhinitis quality of life questionnaire score (although FP, but not AZE, significantly differed from placebo). A similar proportion of patients in the AZE and FP groups achieved a 50% reduction in rTNSS. However, more AZE patients (53.0%) exhibited a 50% reduction in rTOSS by day 14 versus FP (39.6%), and ≤3 days faster (p = 0.028). Intranasal AZE (137 micrograms/spray) and intranasal FP (50 micrograms

  6. Child Allergic Symptoms and Mental Well-Being: The Role of Maternal Anxiety and Depression☆

    PubMed Central

    Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were ‘none’; ‘early onset transient’ (infancy/preschool only); ‘persistent’ (infancy/preschool and at school age); and ‘late onset’ (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Results Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Conclusions Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. PMID:24952709

  7. Respiratory symptoms and the case definition of gastroenteritis: an international analysis of the potential impact on burden estimates.

    PubMed

    Hall, G; McDonald, L; Majowicz, S E; Scallan, E; Kirk, M; Sockett, P; Angulo, F J

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of foodborne disease rely on attributing a proportion of syndromic gastroenteritis to foodborne transmission. Persons with syndromic diarrhoea/vomiting can also present with concurrent respiratory symptoms that could be due to respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, or both. This distinction is important when estimating the foodborne disease burden but has rarely been considered. Using data from population surveys from Australia, Canada and the USA we describe the effect of excluding persons with respiratory and associated symptoms from the case definition of gastroenteritis. Excluding persons first with respiratory symptoms, or second with respiratory symptoms plus fever and headache, resulted in a decrease in the weighted estimates of acute gastroenteritis of about 10-50% depending on the exclusion criteria. This has the potential to have a very significant impact on estimates of the burden of foodborne infections using syndromic case definitions of acute gastroenteritis.

  8. Children’s Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Interactions between Cortisol and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D.; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined interactions between children’s physiological activity across two systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), as predictors of child-reported internalizing symptoms (depression, anxiety). HPA activity was indexed by baseline salivary cortisol, and PNS activity was indexed by baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Study 1 consisted of 57 children (54% girls; M age = 8.81 years ±.34), and Study 2 included 219 children (51% girls; M age = 9.31 years ±.79). Cortisol interacted with RSA to explain unique variance in children’s internalizing symptoms. Across the two studies, children with higher cortisol levels in conjunction with higher RSA levels tended to exhibit the lowest levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Findings demonstrate that contemporaneous consideration of physiological activity across multiple systems can advance understanding of internalizing symptoms in children. PMID:21315098

  9. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  10. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. PMID:25838509

  11. NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

  12. Substance P is involved in the effect of histamine H3 receptor agonist, Sch 50971 on nasal allergic symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Emiko; Kuyama, Shoji; Ogawa, Masami; Kamei, Chiaki

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of a histamine H3 receptor agonist, Sch 50971, on nasal signs in an allergic rhinitis model in mice. The severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed by determining the extent of two markers of allergic symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing). The topical application of a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit, into the nasal cavities resulted in a dose-dependent increase in sneezing and nasal rubbing, and both Sch 50971 and a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060, inhibited these reactions in non-sensitized mice. Sch 50971 caused no inhibition of histamine- and substance P-induced nasal symptoms; however, the reactions induced by capsaicin were significantly decreased by Sch 50971 in non-sensitized mice. Sch 50971 and cetirizine inhibited antigen-induced sneezing and nasal rubbing in sensitized mice. On the other hand, cetirizine inhibited nasal symptoms induced by antigen in capsaicin-pretreated mice, whereas no effect was observed in Sch 50971. From these results, we concluded that Sch 50971 blocked nasal symptoms by the inhibition of substance P release via histamine H3 receptors located on peri]pheral sensory nerve endings.

  13. [Respiratory symptoms caused by the use of electrocautery in physicians being trained in surgery in a Mexican hospital].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Meza, María Cristina; González-Baltazar, Raquel; Aldrete-Rodríguez, María Guadalupe; Carmona-Navarro, David Enrique; López-Cardona, María Guadalupe

    2013-03-01

    In order to determine the frequency of respiratory symptoms among residents from surgical specialties dures exposed to the electrocautery smoke, a cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2012. 50 third-year residents from different surgical specialties coming from a third-level hospital belonging to the Institute of Security and Social Services of the State Workers in Jalisco, Mexico, were included. The subject selection was non-probabilistic. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms developed in Cuba was used for data collection. The most common symptoms were sensation of a lump in the throat (58%), and a sore throat (22%). The specialty with the highest rate of exposure was neurosurgery (24.1 min/surgical procedure). All, the physicians from this specialty had respiratory symptoms. We conclude that the cauterization smoke may be considered a risk for developing respiratory symptoms among physicians with surgical specialties. PMID:23612810

  14. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.]. PMID:23194098

  15. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.].

  16. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers.

    PubMed

    Hessel, P A; Sluis-Cremer, G K

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study.

  17. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study.

  18. [Follow-up of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary ventilatory function in jute textile workers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegović, J; Kanceljak, B

    1992-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of exposure to jute dust on respiratory function was studied in a group of textile workers over a 19-year period. During the initial study the prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms was higher among the exposed workers compared with the controls. These differences in the prevalence were statistically significant at the time of the follow-up study, 19 years later. Four textile workers developed symptoms of occupational asthma during exposure to jute dust. Measurement of ventilatory capacity at both surveys demonstrated small but statistically significant mean acute reductions of FVC and FEV1 over the work shift. The values for FVC and FEV1 measured at the time of the follow-up study were significantly lower than the predicted normal values. The mean annual decrease for FVC and FEV1 was 35 ml/year what is greater than expected. Our data suggest that exposure to jute dust may in sensitive workers lead to the development of respiratory symptoms and diseases with less pronounced changes in ventilatory capacity.

  19. Respiratory symptoms, asthma, exercise test spirometry, and atopy in schoolchildren from a Lima shanty town

    PubMed Central

    Penny, M; Murad, S; Madrid, S; Herrera, T; Pineiro, A; Caceres, D; Lanata, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Little is known about the associations between symptoms of asthma, pulmonary function tests, and atopy in developing countries. While asthma in children is often associated with atopy, some studies of wheezing illness have found little or no association, leading to suggestions that there are subgroups of wheezing illness. The ISAAC study recently reported that the prevalence of reported asthma symptoms in Lima, Peru was among the highest in the world, but did not report on the atopic status of the subjects.
METHODS—A cross sectional survey was conducted of children aged 8-10 years who had previously participated in a cohort study of respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses in infancy. Questionnaires were administered asking about respiratory symptoms and asthma diagnoses, pulmonary function tests were performed before and after exercise on a treadmill, and atopy was determined from skin prick tests and specific serum IgE levels.
RESULTS—A total of 793 children participated in the survey. The prevalence of asthma related symptoms in the last 12 months was 23.2%, but only 3.8% of children reported a recent asthma attack. The mean differences in pretest percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were 8.1% (95% CI 2.4 to 13.8) between children who did and did not report an asthma attack in the last 12 months, and 5.3% (95% CI 2.8 to 7.9) in children who did and did not report respiratory symptoms. The corresponding differences in mean percentage fall in FEV1 after exercise were 3.1% (95% CI -1 to 7.1) and 5.1% (95% CI 3.4 to 6.8). Recent asthma or respiratory symptoms were not associated with atopy in this population (odds ratios 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.37), respectively).
CONCLUSIONS—Most asthma in these children was unrecognised and mild. Asthma and asthma symptoms in this population do not seem to be related to atopy.

 PMID:11462062

  20. Indoor nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, D; Leaderer, B; Chinn, S; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important pollutant of indoor and outdoor air, but epidemiological studies show inconsistent health effects. These inconsistencies may be due to failure to account for the health effects of nitrous acid (HONO) which is generated directly from gas combustion and indirectly from NO2. Methods: Two hundred and seventy six adults provided information on respiratory symptoms and lung function and had home levels of NO2 and HONO measured as well as outdoor levels of NO2. The association of indoor HONO levels with symptoms and lung function was examined. Results: The median indoor HONO level was 3.10 ppb (IQR 2.05–5.09), with higher levels in homes with gas hobs, gas ovens, and in those measured during the winter months. Non-significant increases in respiratory symptoms were observed in those living in homes with higher HONO levels. An increase of 1 ppb in indoor HONO was associated with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted (–0.96%; 95% CI –0.09 to –1.82) and a decrease in percentage FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (–0.45%; 95% CI –0.06 to –0.83) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Measures of indoor NO2 were correlated with HONO (r = 0.77), but no significant association of indoor NO2 with symptoms or lung function was observed. After adjustment for NO2 measures, the association of HONO with low lung function persisted. Conclusion: Indoor HONO levels are associated with decrements in lung function and possibly with more respiratory symptoms. Inconsistencies between studies examining health effects of NO2 and use of gas appliances may be related to failure to account for this association. PMID:15923247

  1. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  2. Can Twitter Be a Source of Information on Allergy? Correlation of Pollen Counts with Tweets Reporting Symptoms of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Names of Antihistamine Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Carloni, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95) and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93). Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends.

  3. Can Twitter Be a Source of Information on Allergy? Correlation of Pollen Counts with Tweets Reporting Symptoms of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Names of Antihistamine Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Carloni, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95) and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93). Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends. PMID:26197474

  4. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  5. Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined. Methods Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children <15 years of age in 56 families residing in the communities of Lliupapuquio, Andahuaylas province in Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves. Results 82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used. Conclusions Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves. PMID:24433576

  6. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  7. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. PMID:22958910

  8. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's / Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I Christopher; Mitchison, Hannah M; Chung, Eddie MK; Stubbings, Georgina F; Martin, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's / Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis, symptoms and problems of those with situs inversus (PCD-SI) and those with situs solitus (PCD-SS). Methods Postal questionnaire sent to members of the UK Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Family Support Group. The questionnaire contained the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire for assessing health status. Results 93 questionnaires were returned, representing a 66% response rate. Replies were received from similar numbers of PCD-SI and PCD-SS. Individuals with PCD-SI did not show a significant tendency to be diagnosed earlier, and neither did they show any difference in their symptoms, or the relationship of symptoms to age. Respiratory symptoms were fairly constant up until the age of about 25, after which there was a slow increase in symptoms, and a decline in health status, patients over the age of 40 being about one and a half standard deviations below the mean on the physical component score of the PCS. Patients diagnosed earlier in life, and hence who had received more treatment for their condition, had better scores on the SGRQ Impact and Activity scores. Conclusions PCD is a chronic condition which has a progressively greater impact on health in the second half of life, producing significant morbidity and restriction of life style. Early diagnosis, and hence earlier treatment, may improve symptoms and the impact of the condition. PMID:14641928

  9. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity and internalizing and externalizing symptoms are emotion specific.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Christine K; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Ram, Nilam

    2013-06-01

    Internalizing and externalizing disorders are often, though inconsistently in studies of young children, associated with low baseline levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RSA is thus considered to reflect the capacity for flexible and regulated affective reactivity and a general propensity for psychopathology. However, studies assessing RSA reactivity to emotional challenges tend to report more consistent associations with internalizing than with externalizing disorders, although it is unclear whether this is a function of the type of emotion challenges used. In the present study, we examined whether baseline RSA was associated with internalizing and/or externalizing severity in a sample of 273 young children (ages 5-6) with elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Following motivation-based models of emotion, we also tested whether RSA reactivity during withdrawal-based (fear, sadness) and approach-based (happiness, anger) emotion inductions was differentially associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, respectively. Baseline RSA was not associated with externalizing or internalizing symptom severity. However, RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges was associated differentially with each symptom domain. As expected, internalizing symptom severity was associated with greater RSA withdrawal (increased arousal) during fearful and sad film segments. Conversely, externalizing symptom severity was related to blunted RSA withdrawal during a happy film segment. The use of theoretically derived stimuli may be important in characterizing the nature of the deficits in emotion processing that differentiate the internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology. PMID:23233122

  10. [Monoclonal antibody therapy for allergic asthma].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masanori; Matsuse, Takeshi

    2002-03-01

    Allergic responses at the level of the respiratory system are mostly mediated by IgE-dependent mechanisms. The first selective anti-IgE therapy, a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody(rhuMAb-E25), binds with high affinity to the Fc epsilon RI receptor binding site on IgE, thereby reducing the amount of free IgE available to bind to Fc epsilon RI receptors on mast cells and basophils. In addition, administration of rhuMAb-E25 indirectly reduces Fc epsilon RI receptor density on cells involved in allergic responses. rhuMAb-E25 has been shown to reduce allergic responses in atopic individuals and to improve symptoms and reduce rescue medication and corticosteroid use in patient with allergic asthma. The clinical effectiveness of rhuMAb-E25 supports the central role of IgE in allergic reaction and the viability of anti-IgE therapy as an effective immunological intervention for allergic asthma.

  11. Lung function in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pirogowicz, I; Patyk, M; Popecki, P; Rudnicki, J; Gojny, L; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate lung function in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) who present respiratory symptoms suggestive of the possibility of co-morbid asthma. The study encompassed 20 patients (9 women and 11 men; age range from 11 to 68 years) diagnosed with GERD and presenting with chronic cough and other non-specific periodic respiratory complaints. The control group consisted of closely gender and age-matched 20 subjects without any gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms. All patients and control subjects were tested for lung function, which encompassed spirometric and flow-volume variables. We found that none of the GERD patients had lung function abnormalities characteristic of asthma. There were, however, decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and in maximal instantaneous forced expiratory flows in the GERD patients compared with the healthy subjects. We conclude that cough accompanying GERD is unlikely to be associated with the presence of co-morbid asthma, but rather suggests a mild airway inflammation developing as a sequel of GERD. The corollary is that chronic cough should prompt physician's attention to consider diagnostic work-up toward the possibility of GERD. PMID:23835974

  12. Newly reported respiratory symptoms and conditions among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Besa; Wong, Charlene A; Smith, Tyler C; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2009-12-01

    Concerns about respiratory conditions have surfaced among persons deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on 46,077 Millennium Cohort Study participants who completed baseline (July 2001-June 2003) and follow-up (June 2004-February 2006) questionnaires were used to investigate 1) respiratory symptoms (persistent or recurring cough or shortness of breath), 2) chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and 3) asthma. Deployers had a higher rate of newly reported respiratory symptoms than nondeployers (14% vs. 10%), while similar rates of chronic bronchitis or emphysema (1% vs. 1%) and asthma (1% vs. 1%) were observed. Deployment was associated with respiratory symptoms in both Army (adjusted odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 1.91) and Marine Corps (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.08) personnel, independently of smoking status. Deployment length was linearly associated with increased symptom reporting in Army personnel (P < 0.0001). Among deployers, elevated odds of symptoms were associated with land-based deployment as compared with sea-based deployment. Although respiratory symptoms were associated with deployment, inconsistency in risk with cumulative exposure time suggests that specific exposures rather than deployment in general are determinants of postdeployment respiratory illness. Significant associations seen with land-based deployment also imply that exposures related to ground combat may be important.

  13. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O

    1990-05-01

    We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.

  14. [Respiratory symptoms and spirometric tests of quarry workers in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Lemle, A; de Araújo, A J; Lapa e Silva, J R; Lima, F de P; Cardoso, A P; Câmara, W de M; de Lucca, W; Marchiori, E; Carnevalli, L C; Colucci, A L

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and past history of chest disease as well as spirometric tests were investigated in 72 of 86 (83.7%) employees of a middle sized quarry in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Seventy one were men (98.6%), and the mean age was 36.2 +/- 9.3 years (20-65). Forty two (58.3%) had occupations considered as highly exposed to dust, and 30 (44.7%) were considered as lightly exposed. Forty (55.6%) were smokers, 20 (27.8%) never had been smokers and 12 (16.7%) were former smokers. Symptoms and past history were investigated with a questionnaire based on international models, and adapted for the Brazilian public. A high prevalence of symptoms (except for dyspnea) was noted: 47 (65.3%) had one or more symptoms-there was cough in 31.9%, expectoration in 41.7% dyspnea in 9.7% and wheezing in 33.3%. The symptoms were found to be associated mostly with a past history of chest disease, and also with smoking, factors which explained, in part, the presence of the symptoms. No association with a higher exposure to dust was found. The exposure to dust did not explain the symptoms. The spirometric tests were performed on a 6 liter bell spirometer. The means of the parameters were lower than one would expect in a non selected population sample--89.9 +/- 11.2% of predicted for the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), 90.1 +/- 12.9% for the Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 92.9 +/- 32.7% for the Forced Expiratory Flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75). However, the proportions of abnormal results were comparable to the reported ones from unselected samples. There was no statistically significant influence of higher dust exposure, past history or smoking on the means of the results. It is concluded that, in this sample of quarry employees, no association between respiratory symptoms or spirometric results and dust exposure could be demonstrated. There was an association between the symptoms, but not with the spirometric results, and a past history of chest disease, as

  15. Outpatient Upper Respiratory Tract Viral Infections in Children with Malaria Symptoms in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Waitumbi, John N.; Kuypers, Jane; Anyona, Samuel B.; Koros, Joseph N.; Polhemus, Mark E.; Gerlach, Jay; Steele, Matthew; Englund, Janet A.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in children 5 through 10 years of age presenting to outpatient clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya, in which nasal swab and blood specimens were collected during the high malaria transmission season. Patients presenting with malaria-like symptoms within 4 days of fever onset were enrolled in the study. Plasmodium parasitemia was determined by blood smear microscopy. Nasal swabs were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Influenza A, rhinoviruses, and other respiratory viruses were detected in 18%, 26%, and 12% of 197 specimens, respectively. Four of 36 patients with influenza A had a positive malaria blood slide, compared with 20 of 52 patients with rhinovirus. A significant burden of disease caused by influenza A in febrile children during the study period was observed, highlighting the need for further research into the burden of influenza disease in regions where malaria is holoendemic. PMID:21036828

  16. Prevalence of work-related rhino-conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms among domestic waste collectors.

    PubMed

    Schantora, A L; Casjens, S; Deckert, A; van Kampen, V; Neumann, H-D; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J; Hoffmeyer, F

    2015-01-01

    Waste collectors may suffer from acute and chronic health effects caused by organic dust (bioaerosols). Pathophysiological symptoms may originate either from allergic or irritative pathomechanisms, but an explicit distinction of the etiology is often complicated although crucial for proper risk assessment and workplace prevention. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 69 male waste collectors from the Ruhr area in Germany underwent a customized testing protocol including a modified questionnaire, basic clinical examination, spirometry, and immunologic parameters. Subjects were classified according to their work tasks into loaders (n=27), floaters (n=29), and drivers (n=13). We found that a high percentage of the workers had complaints (eyes 29.0%, nose 39.1%, and cough 34.8%) which were strongly work-related. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that duration of employment in waste collection (per 10 years) was associated with an increased prevalence of cough (OR=1.64, 95% CI 0.81; 3.35) and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.18, 95% CI 0.80; 5.92). An association between rhinitis and cough (OR=2.62, 95% CI 0.94; 7.27) was found, which supports the association between the prevalence of upper and lower airway disease. Furthermore, when adjusting for smoking status, atopic subjects suffered more frequently from irritation of the lower airways as indicated by cough (OR=2.71, 95% CI 0.91; 8.08). In conclusion, the study demonstrates associations between the prevalence of upper and lower airway disease in waste collectors. Notably, an underlying allergic disease in waste collectors could be suspected more commonly than previously reported.

  17. Particular characteristics of allergic symptoms in tropical environments: follow up to 24 months in the FRAAT birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early wheezing and asthma are relevant health problems in the tropics. Mite sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of others, inherent in poverty, are unknown. We designed a birth-cohort study in Cartagena (Colombia) to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, parasite infections and poor living conditions. Methods Pregnant women representative of the low-income suburbs of the city were randomly screened for eligibility at delivery; 326 mother-infant pairs were included at baseline and biological samples were collected from birth to 24 months for immunological testing, molecular genetics and gene expression analysis. Pre and post-natal information was collected using questionnaires. Results 94% of families were from the poorest communes of the city, 40% lacked sewage and 11% tap-water. Intestinal parasites were found as early as 3 months; by the second year, 37.9% of children have had parasites and 5.22% detectable eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools (Median 3458 epg, IQR 975-9256). The prevalence of "wheezing ever" was 17.5% at 6 months, 31.1% at 12 months and 38.3% at 24 months; and recurrent wheezing (3 or more episodes) 7.1% at 12 months and 14.2% at 24 months. Maternal rhinitis [aOR 3.03 (95%CI 1.60-5.74), p = 0.001] and male gender [aOR 2.09 (95%CI 1.09 - 4.01), p = 0.026], increased risk for wheezing at 6 months. At 24 months, maternal asthma was the main predisposing factor for wheezing [aOR 3.65 (95%CI 1.23-10.8), p = 0.01]. Clinical symptoms of milk/egg allergy or other food-induced allergies were scarce (1.8%) and no case of atopic eczema was observed. Conclusions Wheezing is the most frequent phenotype during the first 24 months of life and is strongly associated with maternal asthma. At 24 months, the natural history of allergic symptoms is different to the "atopic march" described in some industrialized countries. This cohort

  18. Long-term effects of welding fumes upon respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Akbarkhanzadeh, F

    1980-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term influence of welding fumes and of cigarette smoke on the function of the bronchopulmonary system a comparative study of spirometric measurements in 209 welders and 109 non-welder controls was performed in a shipyard. The two groups were matched for age, height, smoking habits, residence and social class. Fifty-one percent of the welders had one or more of the respiratory symptoms, while only 26% of the controls had any of the symptoms. Chronic bronchitis was found to be confined to welders who smoked or had smoked. The welders appeared to show significantly increased impairment of lung function and, with advancing years, a deterioration in lung function greater than that of the controls, but, in general, they did not show serious pulmonary insufficiency.

  19. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Background Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in multiple organs, primarily heart, kidneys, skin, CNS, and lungs. Materials and method A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database, leading to a total number of 154 hits. Due to language restriction, this number was reduced to 135; 53 papers did not concern Fabry disease, 19 were either animal studies or gene therapy studies, and 36 papers did not have lung involvement in Fabry disease as a topic. The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. Results The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory examinations are seldom performed. Pulmonary function tests primarily show obstructive airway limitation, but a few articles also report of patients with restrictive limitation and a mixture of both. No significant association has been found between smoking and the development of symptoms or spirometry abnormalities in patients with Fabry disease. Electron microscopy of lung biopsy and induced sputum show lamellar inclusion bodies (Zebra bodies) in the cytoplasm of cells in the airway wall. X-ray and CT scan have shown patchy ground-glass pulmonary infiltrations, fibrosis, and air trapping. Fibrosis diagnosed by high-resolution CT has not been significantly correlated with lung spirometry. Conclusion Consistent findings have not been shown in the current literature. Pulmonary function tests and registration of symptoms showed various results; however, there is a trend towards obstructive airway limitation in patients with Fabry disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenesis, progression, and the effects of treatment. PMID:26557248

  20. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the allergic symptoms, including sneezing or a runny nose and nasal congestion. This is the first report to show that Asian dust triggers cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  1. Efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray for nasal symptoms, quality of life, rhinitis-disturbed sleep, and nasal nitric oxide in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Kubo, Seita; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Susuki, Dai; Narita, Norihiko; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shinji; Terasawa, Yuko; Kayano, Yuichiro; Masada, Mikio; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroid therapy has exhibited effectiveness for improving nasal symptoms and quality of life (QOL) scores associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) for improving the total nasal symptom score, QOL score, and sleep quality in subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Nasal airway conditions were also objectively assessed by measuring nasal nitric oxide (NO). Fifty-seven patients with PAR were randomized to MFNS or placebo for a 14-day, double-blind, crossover study. The subjects recorded their symptoms on nasal symptom forms and a visual analog scale. QOL and sleep quality were surveyed in accordance with the Japanese version of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) and the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Nasal NO was measured during a single exhalation using a chemiluminescence analyzer. MFNS treatment achieved significant reductions versus placebo for total nasal symptoms (p < 0.001). There were significant decreases of the usual daily activity domain (p < 0.005), outdoor activities (p < 0.01), social function (p < 0.05), and the overall QOL score (p < 0.05) of JRQLQ with MFNS therapy versus placebo. A significant reduction of the sleepiness scale was also observed in the MFNS group with high sleep disturbance (p < 0.01). A significant decrease of nasal NO was found in the MFNS group (p < 0.01), especially among patients with severe nasal symptoms (p < 0.005). This prospective study indicated that MFNS therapy significantly improves nasal symptoms, QOL, sleep quality, and upper airway condition in Japanese subjects with PAR.

  2. A population-based study on welding exposures at work and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lillienberg, L; Zock, J-P; Kromhout, H; Plana, E; Jarvis, D; Torén, K; Kogevinas, M

    2008-03-01

    In the first European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I), an excess asthma risk was associated with high exposure to gases and fumes, mineral and biological dusts. In a 9-year follow-up study (ECRHS II), the aim was to study if welding at work increases the risk of asthma symptoms, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms. The study also aimed to identify specific welding risk factors. In a random population sample of individuals from 22 European centres in 10 countries, 316 males reported welding at work during the follow-up period. These individuals responded to a supplemental questionnaire about frequency of welding, use of different methods and materials, welding environment and respiratory protection. Cumulative exposure to welding fumes for the follow-up period was estimated by using a database on welding fume exposures. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalence of asthma symptoms or asthma medication, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms in relation to welding methods and welded materials as well as estimated cumulative welding fume exposure compared to an external reference group. In the study population of 316 males, 62% performed welding <1 h day(-1), 23% 1-3 h day(-1) and 15% >4 h day(-1). Welding was a common task in many occupations and only 7% of the individuals actually called themselves welders and flame cutters, while the largest groups doing welding worked in construction or were motor, agricultural and industrial mechanics and fitters. Welding at work was not associated with an increased prevalence of asthma symptoms or wheeze but there was an association with chronic bronchitis symptoms (PR = 1.33, 1.00-1.76). Using assigned cumulative exposure in tertiles showed that the lowest exposed tertile had the highest PR of bronchitis symptoms. Chronic bronchitis symptoms was significantly higher in those frequently welding in galvanized steel or iron (PR = 2

  3. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of welders in the engineering industry.

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, S P; Pincock, A C; Hayden, J; Tyler, L E; Cross, K W; Bishop, J M

    1984-01-01

    We have studied respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, chest radiographs, sickness absence, and pulmonary function among 258 welders and an equal number of matched control subjects in three engineering factories. Welders who smoked had a higher frequency of chronic phlegm production than control subjects but there was no difference in cough or dyspnoea. The frequency of abnormality on chest radiographs was low and similar in welders and controls. Upper respiratory infections were a more frequent cause of sickness absence in welders than in controls but no difference was found in other respiratory diseases. FEV1 and peak expiratory flow rate were similar in welders and controls. In a subset of 186 subjects the maximum expiratory flow rate at low lung volumes was significantly less in welders who smoked than in control subjects who smoked, but there was no difference in non-smokers. Welders working under these conditions in the engineering industry appear to have no increased risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:6463913

  4. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity: identification of a syndrome and its relation to asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Mortagy, A K; Howell, J B; Waters, W E

    1986-01-01

    Two postal questionnaire surveys were carried out among the adult population of Southampton aimed at clarifying the diagnostic criteria for asthma (study 1) and at testing the validity of symptoms so identified as diagnostic of bronchial hyper-reactivity (study 2). The questionnaires asked about respiratory symptoms and included three questions thought likely to disclose increased bronchial reactivity. Laboratory measurements on subsamples of respondents included spirometry and bronchial challenge with increasing doses of histamine till a concentration was reached provoking a fall of more than 20% (PC greater than 20) in forced expiratory volume in one second. In the first study no normal subject (that is, one who did not report shortness of breath or wheezing on the questionnaire) had a PC greater than 20 below 0.5 g/l. Of 51 subjects who reported shortness of breath or wheezing, or both, nine had a cluster of abnormalities consisting of one or more symptoms of bronchial irritability, nocturnal dyspnoea, and prolonged morning tightness together with PC greater than 20 values of 0.5 g/l or less. These symptoms in conjunction with a low PC greater than 20 were termed the bronchial irritability syndrome. In the second study bronchial challenge confirmed the close association of these symptoms with bronchial hyper-reactivity, all other subjects being less reactive to histamine. Only 27% of subjects with symptoms of the bronchial irritability syndrome had been diagnosed as asthmatic by their general practitioners. The bronchial irritability syndrome is a definable entity for epidemiological study and patient care. PMID:3092901

  5. Is metal fume fever a determinant of welding related respiratory symptoms and/or increased bronchial responsiveness? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Infante-Rivard, C; Malo, J; Gautrin, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: The current prospective study investigated the hypothesis of metal fume fever (MFF) being a predictor for the development of respiratory symptoms and functional abnormalities. Methods: The study consisted of a pre-exposure and two follow up assessments of 286 welding apprentices during an average period of 15 months. A respiratory and a systemic symptom questionnaire, skin prick tests to common allergens and metal salts, spirometry, and methacholine challenge tests were administered. Results: Developing at least one positive skin prick test to a metallic salt solution was found in 11.8% of apprentices. Possible MFF (at least one of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, or shortness of breath) was reported by 39.2% of apprentices. The presence of at least one welding related respiratory symptom (cough, wheezing, or chest tightness) suggestive of welding related asthma was reported by 13.8%. MFF was significantly associated with these respiratory symptoms (OR = 4.92, 95% CI 2.10 to 11.52), after adjusting for age, atopy, smoking, physician diagnosed asthma, and symptoms of non-welding related asthma. Apprentices with possible MFF, and no welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of welding related asthma at the first follow up, had an increased risk of developing the latter symptoms by the second follow up visit (OR = 7.4, 95% CI 1.97 to 27.45) compared with those not having MFF. MFF was not significantly associated with an increase in bronchial responsiveness. Conclusion: MFF could be a predictor for the development of respiratory symptoms but not for functional abnormalities in welders. PMID:16169914

  6. Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to characterize the indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi were assessed in 73 classrooms from 20 public primary schools located in Porto, Portugal. Children who attended the selected classrooms (n = 1134) were evaluated by a standardised health questionnaire completed by the legal guardians; spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide tests. The results indicated that no classrooms presented individual VOC pollutant concentrations higher than the WHO IAQ guidelines or by INDEX recommendations; while PM2.5, PM10 and bacteria levels exceeded the WHO air quality guidelines or national limit values. High levels of total VOC, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher odds of wheezing in children. Thus, indoor air pollutants, some even at low exposure levels, were related with the development of respiratory symptoms. The results pointed out that it is crucial to take into account the unique characteristics of the public primary schools, to develop appropriate control strategies in order to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollutants and, therefore, to minimize the adverse health effects.

  7. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in jute processing workers: a primary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Liu, Z L; Ho, C S; Lou, J Z

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of respiratory symptoms and lung function of 404 workers who had been exposed to jute dust in a jute mill. Measurement of total dust concentration and analysis of dust composition were also conducted. Most workers in the jute mill were exposed to jute dusts containing less than 5% silica, whereas a few workers were exposed to dusts containing approximately 10-15% silica. Male smokers and nonsmokers in the dust-exposed group had a higher prevalence of cough and chest tightness compared with those in the control group. Among dust-exposed workers, female nonsmokers had a significantly higher prevalence of cough, chronic bronchitis, chest tightness, and dyspnea than those in the control group. Lung function tests showed that dust-exposed workers had a greater incidence of abnormal lung function than did control workers, as measured by percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and FEV1.0/FVC. Dust exposure was the main cause of respiratory symptoms and abnormal values of FEV1.0, but both cigarette smoking and dust exposure contributed to the abnormal values reported for FEV1.0.

  8. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  9. Effects of the home environment on respiratory symptoms of a general population sample in middle Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Carrozzi, L; Paoletti, P; Vellutini, M; DiViggiano, E; Baldacci, S; Modena, P; Pedreschi, M; Mammini, U; di Pede, C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of home environment characteristics were evaluated in a multistage, stratified, cluster sample (N = 3,866) of the general population who lived in the district of Pisa (middle Italy). Each subject completed a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained questions about respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors (e.g., type of heating, fuels used for cooking and heating). Cough and asthma were significantly more frequent in men who did not smoke and who did not use natural gas for cooking and heating. Attacks of shortness of breath accompanied by wheeze, dyspnea, and cardiovascular conditions in female nonsmokers were associated with use of a stove or forced-air circulation for heating; the type of fuel used did not affect this result. Multiple logistic models, which accounted for independent effects of age, smoking status, pack-years, childhood respiratory illness, education, zone of residence, and work exposure to dusts, chemicals, or fumes, showed significantly increased odds ratios for (a) cough and phlegm in males (associated with bottled gas for cooking), (b) wheeze and shortness of breath with wheeze in females (associated with the use of a stove or forced-air circulation). These results, which confirm our previous observations in an unpolluted rural area of north Italy, indicate that characteristics of the home environment, as assessed by questionnaire, may be linked to mild adverse health effects, i.e., respiratory symptoms, in the general population. The results also identify the need to better characterize the dose-response relationship in indoor air pollution monitoring studies that include subsamples of this population.

  10. Risk factors for respiratory symptoms and asthma in the residential environment of 5th grade schoolchildren in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Jen; Tsai, Alan C; Nriagu, Jerome; Ghosh, Debashis; Gong, Molly; Sandretto, Anita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association of residential environmental factors with respiratory symptoms and asthma in 2,290 fifth graders in Taipei, Taiwan. A self-report survey questionnaire elicited experiences of respiratory symptoms, disease history, and characteristics of residential environmental factors from schoolchildren. The proportion of schoolchildren having physician-diagnosed asthma was 9.8% and suspected asthma was 16.1%. The proportions of having respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months ranged from 9.8% for wheezing without a cold to 40.5% for exercise-induced cough. Higher proportions of boys had non-exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, physician-diagnosed asthma, and suspected asthma than girls (p < 0.05). Exposure to odoriferous chemical vapor was significantly associated with all seven respiratory symptoms considered in the study (p < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors including residential districts, gender, diagnosed allergy, and parental history of respiratory symptoms, odoriferous chemical vapors, gas leaks, dehumidifier use, presence of cockroaches at home, and leaky water/water puddle at home were significantly associated with the proportions of physician-diagnosed asthma or suspected asthma of the schoolchildren. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of physician-diagnosed asthma was 2.35 (95% confidential interval = 1.45-3.82) for odoriferous chemical vapor. The aOR of suspected asthma measure was 2.14 (95% CI = 1.40-3.26) for odoriferous chemical vapor. Odoriferous chemical vapor was the major risk factor of respiratory illness in the residential environment of schoolchildren in Taipei. Other household risk factors included gas leaks, dampness, and cockroaches at home.

  11. Respiratory symptoms in households as an effective marker for influenza-like illness surveillance in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shui Shan; Wong, Ngai Sze

    2014-06-01

    To effectively track the growth of influenza, we piloted an online system to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) in the community in one district of Hong Kong. Four syndromic markers, namely fever, respiratory symptoms, fever with respiratory symptoms, fever and/or respiratory symptoms, either of the individual or of the household, were collected during the study period from June 2012 to October 2013. A total of 132 residents of Tuen Mun District reported syndromic markers at the individual and household levels on a weekly basis. Temporal patterns of these markers were compared with data derived from laboratory surveillance by dynamic linear regression. Household respiratory symptoms were found to be an effective syndromic marker, pre-dating overall laboratory virus surveillance results on influenza diseases in two influenza seasons by 3-4 weeks. To conclude, respiratory symptoms can be a good marker predicting the onset of the influenza season in the community, and is particularly useful with regard to data from households, even if the sample size may not be a large one.

  12. Respiratory symptoms in households as an effective marker for influenza-like illness surveillance in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shui Shan; Wong, Ngai Sze

    2014-06-01

    To effectively track the growth of influenza, we piloted an online system to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) in the community in one district of Hong Kong. Four syndromic markers, namely fever, respiratory symptoms, fever with respiratory symptoms, fever and/or respiratory symptoms, either of the individual or of the household, were collected during the study period from June 2012 to October 2013. A total of 132 residents of Tuen Mun District reported syndromic markers at the individual and household levels on a weekly basis. Temporal patterns of these markers were compared with data derived from laboratory surveillance by dynamic linear regression. Household respiratory symptoms were found to be an effective syndromic marker, pre-dating overall laboratory virus surveillance results on influenza diseases in two influenza seasons by 3-4 weeks. To conclude, respiratory symptoms can be a good marker predicting the onset of the influenza season in the community, and is particularly useful with regard to data from households, even if the sample size may not be a large one. PMID:24680819

  13. Glucose Metabolism Disorder Is Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Individuals with Respiratory Symptoms from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Simone; Cafezeiro, Aparecida S.; Daltro, Carla; Netto, Eduardo M.; Kornfeld, Hardy; Andrade, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased risk for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in endemic settings but it is unknown whether PTB risk is also increased by pre-DM. Here, we prospectively examined the association between glucose metabolism disorder (GMD) and PTB in patients with respiratory symptoms at a tuberculosis primary care reference center in Brazil. Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in a cohort of 892 individuals presenting with respiratory symptoms of more than two weeks duration. Patients were also tested for PTB with sputum cultures. Prevalence of pre-DM and DM (based on HbA1c) was estimated and tested for association with incident PTB. Other TB risk factors including smoking history were analyzed. Results The majority of the study population (63.1%) exhibited GMD based on HbA1c ≥5.7%. Patients with GMD had higher prevalence of PTB compared to normoglycemic patients. Individuals with DM exhibited increased frequency of TB-related symptoms and detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears. Among patients with previous DM diagnosis, sustained hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥7.0%) was associated with increased TB prevalence. Smoking history alone was not significantly associated with TB in our study population but the combination of smoking and HbA1c ≥7.0% was associated with 6 times higher odds for PTB. Conclusions Sustained hyperglycemia and pre-DM are independently associated with active PTB. This evidence raises the question whether improving glycemic control in diabetic TB patients would reduce the risk of TB transmission and simultaneously reduce the clinical burden of disease. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying these associations, especially those suggesting that pre-DM may be a factor driving susceptibility to TB is warranted. PMID:27078026

  14. Welding, longitudinal lung function decline and chronic respiratory symptoms: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Szram, Joanna; Schofield, Susie J; Cosgrove, Martin P; Cullinan, Paul

    2013-11-01

    While the acute respiratory risks of welding are well characterised, more chronic effects, including those on lung function, are less clear. We carried out a systematic review of published longitudinal studies of lung function decline in welders. Original cohort studies documenting two or more sequential measurements of lung function were reviewed. Meta-analysis was carried out on studies with suitable data on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Seven studies were included; their quality (measured on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was good, although exposure assessment was limited and the studies showed significant heterogeneity. Five had data suitable for meta-analysis; the pooled estimate of the difference in FEV1 decline between welders and nonwelders was -9.0 mL · year(-1) (95% CI -22.5-4.5; p=0.193). The pooled estimates of difference in annual FEV1 decline between welders and referents who smoked was -13.7 mL · year(-1) (95% CI -33.6-6.3; p=0.179). For welders and referents who did not smoke the estimated difference was -3.8 mL · year(-1) (95% CI -20.2-12.6; p=0.650). Symptom prevalence data were mainly narrative; smoking appeared to have the greatest effect on symptom evolution. Collectively, available longitudinal data on decline of lung function in welders and respiratory symptoms suggest a greater effect in those who smoke, supporting a focus on smoking cessation as well as control of fume exposure in this trade. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  15. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  16. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  17. Bronchitis in two integrated steel works: III. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity related to atmospheric pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, C. R.; Campbell, H.; Khosla, T.

    1970-01-01

    Lowe, C. R., Campbell, H., and Khosla, T.(1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 121-129. Bronchitis in two integrated steel works. III. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity related to atmospheric pollution. This is the third in a series of papers presenting the results of an epidemiological study of respiratory symptomatology and lung function among men employed in two integrated steel works in South Wales. In this paper measurements of atmospheric pollution are related to respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity among 10 449 men who spent the greater part of their working hours in one or other of 114 defined working areas. The problem has been explored in three different ways. In the first, each man was assigned the mean value of sulphur dioxide and respirable dust for the area in which he was working and this was related to his ventilatory capacity (FEV1·0), age, smoking habits, and the number of years he had spent in his present department. In the second, the 114 working areas were divided into four sub-groups, according to defined levels of atmospheric pollution, and the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and mean FEV1·0 in the four sub-groups was examined. In the third way, the mean atmospheric pollution levels in each of the 114 areas were related to the prevalence of bronchitis and to the mean FEV1·0, age, and smoking habits in those areas. The analysis demonstrates very clearly the over-riding importance of cigarette smoking in the aetiology of chronic bronchitis, but, so far as the main purpose of the survey is concerned, it is concluded that, if there is any relation between respiratory disability and atmospheric pollution in the two steel works, it is so slight that none of the three approaches to the problem was sensitive enough to detect it. The implications of this are discussed in the light of the levels of pollution that were recorded in and around the two works. PMID:5428631

  18. A study of New Zealand wood workers: exposure to wood dust, respiratory symptoms, and suspected cases of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Norrish, A E; Beasley, R; Hodgkinson, E J; Pearce, N

    1992-05-27

    A randomly selected group of 50 New Zealand wood workers was studied. The level of airborne wood dust to which they were exposed ranged from 1.0-24.5 mg/m3. The wood workers reported experiencing higher rates of both lower and upper respiratory tract symptoms than a control group of office workers. Inhaled wood dust, in particular from rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), was frequently cited by workers as being associated with respiratory tract symptoms. The wood workers' responses to the respiratory symptom questionnaire, and serial recordings of peak expiratory flow rate were used to screen the group for suspected cases of occupational asthma. Five cases fulfilled the study's criteria for suspected occupational asthma. In four of these, further evidence was found to support this diagnosis. We conclude that exposure to wood dust may cause occupational asthma in the woodworking industry in New Zealand.

  19. Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates among furniture-decoration students.

    PubMed

    Arbak, Peri; Bilgin, Cahit; Balbay, Oner; Yeşildal, Nuray; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ulger, Füsun

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of furniture production, mainly including fir tree (aberia mulleriana), on respiratory health of young workers and to compare the results with those obtained from previous studies. Sixty-four furniture-decoration students (57 males and 7 females) and 62 controls (54 male, 8 female) from different departments in the same school were included into the study. All participants were assessed with a questionnaire (concerning history of occupational exposure, work-related respiratory and other symptoms, smoking history, previous asthma history), full physical examination, spirometric evaluation and chest radiograph. Participants then performed serial monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) at work and away from work within a month. Mean age of students was 20.9 +/- 3.7 years, 20.5 +/- 2.6 years in controls. There was no difference between study and control groups with regard to age, gender, smoking status and previous asthma history. Reported cough (23.4 % vs. 8.1 %) and shortness of breath (18.8 % vs. 6.5 %) were significantly higher in furniture-decoration students than in controls (p = 0.016 and p = 0.034, respectively). Furniture-decoration students had higher conjunctivitis (34.4 % vs. 9.7 %, p = 0.001) and rhinitis (34.4 % vs. 19.4 %, p = 0.044) history when compared with controls. Both students and controls were normal in terms of respiratory examination. PEF recordings were performed for approximately one month. Diurnal variability greater than 20 % was seen in 12/64 (18.7 %) of students at work, whereas it was detected in 4/62 (6.4 %) of controls (p = 0.034). When comparing for the presence of diurnal variability greater than 20 % in weekends, no difference was found between groups (p = 0.457). In conclusion, early detection of work-related respiratory changes by serial monitoring of peak expiratory flows should save the workers from hazardous respiratory effects of the furniture production, especially in

  20. Study of Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is common among children and quite often represents a stage of the atopic march. Although sensitization to food and airborne allergens may appear in infancy and early childhood, symptoms of the disease are usually present after age 3. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent food and indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens involved in allergic rhinitis in children in the region of Piraeus. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic of otolaryngologic allergy of a general hospital. Fifty children (ranged 6–14 ) with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for IgE antibodies or skin prick tests were included in the study. Thirty six (72%) of the subjects of the study had intermittent allergic rhinitis. The most common aeroallergens determined were grass pollens and Parietaria, whereas egg and milk were the food allergens identified. The detection of indoor and outdoor allergens in the region of Piraeus, based on skin prick tests and RAST tests, showed high incidence of grasses and food allergens, which is similar to other Mediterranean countries. PMID:21760801

  1. An integrated analysis of the efficacy of fluticasone furoate nasal spray on individual nasal and ocular symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Maspero, Jorge F; Walters, Richard D; Wu, Wei; Philpot, Edward E; Naclerio, Robert M; Fokkens, Wytske J

    2010-01-01

    Intranasal steroids have been shown to affect ocular symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR). The results of the published literature, however, are not uniform across all products. This study was designed to evaluate whether the effects of fluticasone furoate nasal spray (FFNS) are consistent across different allergy seasons and different geographic regions for individual nasal and ocular symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). An integrated analysis was performed on data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trials, designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FFNS, 110 micrograms, once daily for 14 days in 1141 adult and adolescent SAR patients exposed to mountain cedar, ragweed, or grass pollen allergen. All patients evaluated severity of seven individual nasal and ocular symptoms on a 4-point categorical scale. The main efficacy measures included change from baseline in daily reflective, morning (A.M.) predose instantaneous, and daily A.M. and evening (P.M.) reflective score for each nasal/ocular symptom. FFNS significantly improved daily mean reflective, A.M. predose instantaneous, and daily A.M. and P.M. reflective scores for nasal itching, sneezing, congestion, rhinorrhea, and ocular itching/burning, tearing/watering, and redness, compared with placebo (p < 0.001 for all versus placebo). The least square (LS) mean treatment differences ranged from -0.44 to -0.33 (p < 0.0001) for the individual nasal symptoms and from -0.22 to -0.19 (p < 0.0001) for the individual ocular symptoms. FFNS also significantly improved daily reflective total nasal symptom scores (TNSS)/reflective total ocular symptom scores (TOSS), and A.M. predose instantaneous TNSS and instantaneous TOSS, compared with placebo (LS mean treatment differences = -1.47, -0.65, -1.49, and -0.63, respectively; p < 0.001 for all). FFNS, 110 micrograms, once daily consistently relieved all nasal and ocular symptoms of SAR across different allergy seasons

  2. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary impairment in male and female subjects with pottery workers' silicosis.

    PubMed

    Prowse, K; Allen, M B; Bradbury, S P

    1989-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, lung function and radiological category of silicosis were assessed in 276 present and former pottery workers who were receiving industrial disablement benefit for silicosis. There were 140 females and 136 males. The proportion with conglomerate disease (massive fibrosis) was similar in both sexes. The FEV1 declined with increasing X-ray category of silicosis irrespective of smoking habit and was most marked in subjects with symptomatic chronic bronchitis. In females who had never smoked the average decline of FEV1 in those with simple silicosis was 18 ml year-1 and for those with conglomerate disease 38 ml year-1. Symptomatic chronic bronchitis was common and only partly related to smoking, occurring in 69% of 101 nonsmoking female silicotic patients. No significant changes were observed in vital capacity, lung volume or transfer factor for carbon monoxide.

  3. Improved Exposure Characterization with Robotic (PIPER) Sampling and Association with Children's Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol particulate matter a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study is to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Methods Seventy-five households with children between 3-59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information and a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze [’recent’ (<1 year) and ’ever’], cough, asthma, and eczema were evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (Odds Ratio = 4.2; 95% Confidence Interval 0.7 – 24.0) was compared to measurements by SIM (Odds Ratio = 0.7; 95% Confidence Interval 0.2 – 2.6). Conclusions Measurement of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze than measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide

  4. Respiratory health symptoms among students exposed to different levels of air pollution in a Turkish city.

    PubMed

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22-2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19-2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk.

  5. Respiratory health symptoms among students exposed to different levels of air pollution in a Turkish city.

    PubMed

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22-2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19-2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  6. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Respiratory symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dockery, D.W. |; Cunningham, J.; Damokosh, A.I.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the respiratory health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among 13,369 white children 8 to 12 years old from 24 communities in the United States and Canada between 1988 and 1991. Each child`s parent or guardian completed a questionnaire. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for a 1-year period. We used a two-stage logistic regression model to analyze the data, adjusting for the period confounding effects of sex, history of allergies, parental asthma, parental education, and current smoking in the home. Children living in the community with the highest levels of particle strong acidity were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR) = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.48] to report at least one episode of bronchitis in the past year compared to children living in the least-polluted community. Fine particulate sulfate was also associated with higher reporting of bronchitis (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.12-2.42). No other respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in association with any of the air pollutants of interest. No sensitive subgroups were identified. Reported bronchitis, but neither asthma, wheeze, cough, nor phlegm, were associated with levels of particle strong acidity for these children living in a nonurban environment. 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. [A case of incidentally diagnosed retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomatosis with no respiratory symptoms].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken; Miyazaki, Jun; Uchida, Masahiro; Ichioka, Daishi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Oikawa, Takehiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Kawai, Koji; Uesugi, Noriko; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a large retroperitoneal tumor found incidentally in a routine examination. The 138×37×26 mm mass was located in the left paraaortic region. Blood tests and urinalyses including endocrinological examinations revealed no abnormalities. A chest computed tomography revealed multiple thin-walled pulmonary cysts, which is a characteristic of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Because the findings strongly suggested that the retroperitoneal tumor was an extrapulmonary manifestion of LAM, we performed laparoscopic resection of the tumor for diagnosis and treatment. The pathological diagnosis was LAM. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for α -smooth muscle actin and weakly positive for HMB45, which is consistent with LAM. The cells were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR). LAM is a rare progressive disease that affects mainly the lung, and leads to chronic respiratory failure. Extrapulmonary LAM without respiratory symptoms, is extremely rare. In the past, the prognosis of LAM was poor, with a median survival of 8-10 years, but now 85% survive more than 10 years. In the present case, deterioration of pulmonary lesions was not observed during the 10 months follow-up. Because ERand PgRfindings were positive, we will consider hormonal therapy as a treatment option, when the pulmonary lesions progress in the present case.

  8. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  9. [T-cells regulate the immune-response in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Böttcher, I

    2008-10-01

    Allergic diseases show a broad variety of symptoms, depending on the type of allergen and the location where it interacts with the human body. Contact of allergens with the upper respiratory tract result in conjunctivitis or allergic rhinitis. Apart from antigenpresenting cells, T-cells do play an important role in this hypersensibility reaction. Due to the production and secretion of cytokines, T-lymphocytes induce and maintain the corresponding Th-immuneresponse. In addition to regulatory functions, T-cells have potential influence on the chronic progression of allergic inflammatory reactions of the nasal mucosa and are therefore interesting target cells for specific immunotherapy as well as corticosteroid treatment. This article shows the specific function of T-cells during allergic rhinitis and reveals the basics for understanding the mechanism of immunotherapy and chronification of inflammatory allergic diseases of the nasal mucosa. PMID:18839392

  10. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and pneumoconiosis among self employed dental technicians.

    PubMed Central

    Choudat, D; Triem, S; Weill, B; Vicrey, C; Ameille, J; Brochard, P; Letourneux, M; Rossignol, C

    1993-01-01

    From the registry of self employed workers living in Paris, a group of 105 dental technicians was studied to evaluate occupational exposure, to determine respiratory manifestations, and to investigate immune disturbances. Seventy one dental technicians (age range 43-68: group D), 34 dental technicians younger than 43 or older than 68 (group d), and 68 control workers (age range 43-66: group C) were investigated. The demographic characteristics and the smoking habits of the groups D and C did not differ significantly. The dental technicians often worked alone (43.7%) or in small laboratories without adequate dust control. The mean duration of their exposure was long (group D 34.0 (SD 8.4) years). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms did not differ between groups D and C except for the occurrence of increased cough and phlegm lasting for three weeks or more over the past three years (group D 16.9%, group C 2.9%, p < 0.007). The effect of cigarette smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function was obvious. All mean values of lung function for dental technicians and controls were within normal limits. Significant decreases in all mean lung function values were found among smokers by comparison with non-smokers, however, and a positive interaction with occupational exposure was established. The x ray films of dental technicians (n = 102, groups D and d) were read independently by four readers and recorded according to the International Labour Office classification of pneumoconioses. The prevalence of small opacities greater than 1/0 was 11.8% with a significant increase with duration of exposure. The prevalence among dental technicians with 30 years or exposure or more was significantly higher (22.2%) than those with less than 30 years (3.5, p < 0.004). The prevalence of autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors, antinuclear antibodies, and antihistone antibodies) was not significantly different in the groups D and C. When positive, autoantibodies only occurred at low

  11. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  12. Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salamanca, Mexico occupied fourth place nationally in contaminating emissions. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air pollution on the frequency of pulmonary function alterations and respiratory symptoms in school-age children in a longitudinal repeated-measures study. Methods We recruited a cohort of 464 children from 6 to 14 years of age, from two schools differing in distance from the major stationary air pollution sources. Spirometry, respiratory symptoms and air pollutants (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, PM10,) were obtained for each season. Mixed models for continuous variables and multilevel logistic regression for respiratory symptoms were fitted taking into account seasonal variations in health effects according to air pollution levels. Results Abnormalities in lung function and frequency of respiratory symptoms were higher in the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources than in the distant school. However, in winter differences on health disappeared. The principal alteration in lung function was the obstructive type, which frequency was greater in those students with greater exposure (10.4% vs. 5.3%; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), followed by the mixed pattern also more frequent in the same students (4.1% vs. 0.9%; OR = 4.69, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1). PM10 levels were the most consistent factor with a negative relationship with FVC, FEV1 and PEF but with a positive relationship with FEV1/FVC coefficient according to its change per 3-month period. Conclusions Students from the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources had in general more respiratory symptoms than those from the distant school. However, in winter air pollution was generalized in this city and differences in health disappeared. PM10 levels were the most consistent factor related to pulmonary function according, to its change per 3-month period. PMID:21106102

  13. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function and symptoms in Mexico City schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.R.; Dockery, D.; Tosteson, T.; Baum, T.; Speizer, F.E. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of ambient ozone (O3) on respiratory function and acute respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 143 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren followed longitudinally at 1- to 2-wk intervals over a period of 6 months at three schools in Pedregal, Mexico City. The maximum O3 level exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 80 ppb and the U.S. standard of 120 ppb in every week. For an increase from lowest to highest in the mean O3 level during the 48 hr before spirometry (53 ppb), logistic regression estimated relative odds of 1.7 for a child reporting cough/phlegm on the day of spirometry. For the full population, the mean O3 level during the hour before spirometry, not adjusted for temperature and humidity, predicted a significant decrement in FVC but not in FEV1 or FEF25-75. In contrast, the mean O3 level during the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted significant decrements in FEV1 and FEF25-75 but not in FVC. Ozone was consistently associated with a greater decrement in lung function for the 15 children with chronic phlegm as compared with the children without chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or wheeze. Ozone in the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted decrements in FEV1 for children of mothers who were current or former smokers, but not for children of mothers who were never smokers. Many of these effects were reduced in multiple regression analyses including temperature and humidity, as temperature and O3 were highly correlated.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  15. Biomarkers of exposure, antibodies, and respiratory symptoms in workers heating polyurethane glue.

    PubMed Central

    Skarping, G; Dalene, M; Svensson, B G; Littorin, M; Akesson, B; Welinder, H; Skerfving, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathogenic basis of respiratory disorders associated with isocyanates are still obscure. One reason for this is the lack of good estimates of human exposure. In this study exposure was estimated by measurement of isocyanate metabolites in biological samples. METHODS: In a factory using isocyanate based polyurethane (PUR) glue, isocyanate concentrations in air were measured by liquid chromatography. Samples from 174 employees were analysed for metabolites of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in plasma (P-MDX) and urine (U-MDX). After hydrolysis, 4,4'-methylenedianiline was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The employees were screened for work related respiratory symptoms and tested for specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG antibodies directed against isocyanate conjugated to human serum albumin. RESULTS: The time weighted isocyanate concentrations in air were low (MDI < 0.2-7; hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) < 0.1-0.7; 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) < 0.1 microgram/m3). All subjects had detectable P-MDX and U-MDX. There were significant associations between the estimates of exposure to thermal degradation products of an MDI based glue and P-MDX (range < or = 0.10-5.5 micrograms/l); and U-MDX (< or = 0.04-5.0 micrograms/g creatinine); in cases of heavy exposure. P-MDX and U-MDX were associated with each other (r = 0.64; P = 0.0001), work related symptoms (P-MDX: P = 0.03; Mann-Whitney U test), and serum concentrations of MDI specific IgG antibodies (r = 0.26; P = 0.0007). Unexpectedly, high P-MDX and U-MDX concentrations were also encountered in workers cutting textile (P-MDX 2.4-4.5 micrograms/l; U-MDX 0.81-3.8 micrograms/g creatinine); the reason is still unknown. Equally unexpected, there were significant negative associations between P-MDX and liver function tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly show the value of biomarkers for isocyanate exposure; in particular, P-MDX is useful. Further, these results show

  16. Prenatal ambient air exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Aleksander; Pac, Agnieszka; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that infants with higher levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fossil fuel combustion may be at greater risk of developing respiratory symptoms. The study was carried out in a cohort of 333 newborns in Krakow, Poland, followed over the first year of life, for whom data from prenatal personal air monitoring of mothers in the second trimester of pregnancy were available. The relative risks of respiratory symptoms due to prenatal PAHs exposure were adjusted for potential confounders (gender of child, birth weight, maternal atopy, maternal education as a proxy for the socio-economic status, exposure to postnatal environmental tobacco smoke, and moulds in households) in the Poisson regression models. Increased risk related to prenatal PAH exposure was observed for various respiratory symptoms such as barking cough (RR = 4.80; 95% CI: 2.73-8.44), wheezing without cold (RR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.18-12.43), sore throat (RR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.38-2.78), ear infection (RR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), cough irrespective of respiratory infections (RR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and cough without cold (RR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02-2.92). The exposure to PAHs also had impact on the duration of respiratory symptoms. The effect of PAHs exposure on the occurrence of such symptoms as runny nose or cough was partly modified by the simultaneous exposure to postnatal passive smoking. The analysis performed for the duration of respiratory symptoms confirmed significant interaction between PAHs exposure and postnatal ETS for runny or stuffy nose (RR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.57-2.10), cough (RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99-1.40), difficulty in breathing (RR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-1.92) and sore throat (RR = 1.74; 1.26-2.39). Obtained results support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to immunotoxic PAHs may impair the immune function of the fetus and subsequently may be responsible for an increased susceptibility of newborns and

  17. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Amir A; Machaly, Shereen A; El-Dosoky, Mohammed E; El-Maghraby, Nermeen M

    2012-07-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and RA-lung disease in a group of Egyptian RA patients. Thirty-six RA patients were recruited; 34 females (94.4%) and 2 males (5.6%) with median age of 48.5 years, and none of them was smoker. Detailed medical and drug histories were obtained. PFT, plain X-ray of the chest, and HRCT were performed to all subjects involved. Nearly 64% of RA patients demonstrated abnormalities in PFT and 47% in HRCT. Mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern was the commonest. Nearly two-thirds of our patients reported one or more pulmonary symptom whether dyspnea, cough, wheezing, or phlegm. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Respiratory symptoms were statistically more common in patients with lung disease. The advanced age, high radiological score, and severity of rheumatoid disease were found to be predictive of lung involvement. Among respiratory symptoms, dyspnea and cough were associated with any pulmonary abnormalities. When specific pulmonary abnormalities were considered, only dyspnea was identified as predictor for restriction. For obstructive abnormality, both cough and wheezing provided valid prediction. We conclude that pulmonary involvement is a common manifestation in Egyptian RA patients, and the pattern of involvement is generally consistent with other studies that were performed worldwide. Specific respiratory symptoms could be used as practical, easy, and cost-effective method, especially in older and with more severe RA patients, to discriminate patients in need of subsequent PFT and HRCT imaging.

  18. Effect of Near-Road Particulate Matter on Respiratory Responses and Inflammation in Healthy and Ovalbumin-Allergic Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS) previously examined the association of near-roadway exposures to air pollutants and respiratory outcomes in children with asthma. This toxicological study was designed to complement NEXUS and determine which...

  19. Acute Effects of Asian Dust Events on Respiratory Symptoms and Peak Expiratory Flow in Children with Mild Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Do Kyun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of Asian dust events on respiratory health in asthmatic children. Fifty-two children with mild asthma were studied for eight consecutive weeks in the spring of 2004 (March 8 to May 2). During the study period, five Asian dust days were identified; we included a lag period of two days following each of the events. Subjects recorded their respiratory symptom diaries and peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily during the study period; and they underwent methacholine bronchial challenge tests. The subjects reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms during the Asian dust days than during the control days. They showed significantly more reduced morning and evening PEF values, and more increased PEF variability (10.1%±3.5% vs. 5.5%±2.2%) during the Asian dust days than during the control days. Methacholine PC20 was not significantly different between before and after the study period (geometric mean: 2.82 mg/mL vs. 3.16 mg/mL). These results suggest that the short-term Asian dust events might be associated with increased acute respiratory symptoms and changes in PEF outcomes. However, there might be little long-term influence on airway hyperresponsiveness in children with mild asthma. PMID:18303201

  20. Respiratory symptoms and asthma in primary school children in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Omar, A H

    1990-04-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, the prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm, persistent wheeze, and doctor-diagnosed asthma were 8.0%, 8.0% and 8.7%, respectively. The prevalence of asthma (defined as persistent wheeze and/or doctor-diagnosed asthma) was 13.8%. 4.3% experienced at least one episode of chest illness that resulted in inactivity for at least 3 days in the previous year. The mean age of commencement of symptoms in the doctor-diagnosed asthma group was 2.75 years. The prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm and persistent wheeze were highest among Indian children (p less than 0.05). More Malays had been diagnosed as having asthma than the other ethnic groups but the differences were not statistically significant. The patients' fathers' low levels of education were associated with chronic cough and/or phlegm (p less than 0.05) but not with other complaints. Asthma was significantly more common among boys than girls. No age differences were noted. Further analysis showed that persistent wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma were associated with increased likelihood of other respiratory illnesses or doctor-diagnosed allergy before the age of 2 years.

  1. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity to a sad film predicts depression symptom improvement and symptomatic trajectory.

    PubMed

    Panaite, Vanessa; Hindash, Alexandra Cowden; Bylsma, Lauren M; Small, Brent J; Salomon, Kristen; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity, an index of cardiac vagal tone, has been linked to self-regulation and the severity and course of depression (Rottenberg, 2007). Although initial data supports the proposition that RSA withdrawal during a sad film is a specific predictor of depression course (Fraguas, 2007; Rottenberg, 2005), the robustness and specificity of this finding are unclear. To provide a stronger test, RSA reactivity to three emotion films (happy, sad, fear) and to a more robust stressor, a speech task, were examined in currently depressed individuals (n=37), who were assessed for their degree of symptomatic improvement over 30weeks. Robust RSA reactivity to the sad film uniquely predicted overall symptom improvement over 30weeks. RSA reactivity to both sad and stressful stimuli predicted the speed and maintenance of symptomatic improvement. The current analyses provide the most robust support to date that RSA withdrawal to sad stimuli (but not stressful) has specificity in predicting the overall symptomatic improvement. In contrast, RSA reactivity to negative stimuli (both sad and stressful) predicted the trajectory of depression course. Patients' engagement with sad stimuli may be an important sign to attend to in therapeutic settings. PMID:26681648

  2. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  3. Lung Cancer in a Fluorspar Mining Community. II. Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, W. D.; Villiers, A. J. de; Bartlett, L. S.; Becklake, Margaret R.

    1964-01-01

    A survey of respiratory symptoms, lung function tests, and chest radiography was carried out among the fluorspar miners of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland, in whom the incidence of carcinoma of the lung (De Villiers and Windish, 1964) had previously been shown to be 25 times greater than for the rest of the province. The incidence of pneumoconiosis among the exposed population was low (1·93%) and the incidence of `chronic bronchitis' comparable to that reported for miners elsewhere, enabling one to dismiss these as a relevant factor in the high incidence of carcinoma. The relevance of smoking is less easy to assess in these miners, among whom there are few non-smokers and many heavy smokers. Extrapolation from the data of Doll and Hill (1956) suggests, however, that the prevalence of heavy smoking among the miners cannot be the sole factor responsible for the higher incidence of carcinoma compared with the rest of Newfoundland, but it might well be a contributory one. It appears therefore that the main factor causing the high incidence of carcinoma among these miners was the high level of radioactivity in the air and water in the mines (De Villiers and Windish, 1964). The reduction in lung function tests appeared to be more closely related to the presence of bronchitis than to dust exposure, but the incidence of chronic bronchitis was apparently higher in men exposed for any length of time to dust risk than in men with insignificant exposure. PMID:14142516

  4. Beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Montalbano, Laura; Cilluffo, Giovanna; Malizia, Velia; Marchese, Donatella; La Grutta, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease, and its prevalence is increasing all over the world, both in adults and in children. Patients experience symptoms that may negatively impact on physical, social and psychological well-being. Hence, if left untreated, allergic rhinitis may significantly affect quality of life. Under current guidelines, intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective drugs and they are recommended as first-line therapy. Among the several corticosteroid intranasal sprays available, beclomethasone dipropionate is one of the most prescribed. Recently, new intranasal hydrofluoroalkane-propelled formulations with little or no impact on the ozone layer have been developed for the treatment of AR. The use of these devices might improve patients' adherence to treatment, avoiding some of the most common side effects associated with aqueous formulations. This review provides the most recent evidence for the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane nasal aerosol in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. PMID:26558604

  5. Beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Montalbano, Laura; Cilluffo, Giovanna; Malizia, Velia; Marchese, Donatella; La Grutta, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease, and its prevalence is increasing all over the world, both in adults and in children. Patients experience symptoms that may negatively impact on physical, social and psychological well-being. Hence, if left untreated, allergic rhinitis may significantly affect quality of life. Under current guidelines, intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective drugs and they are recommended as first-line therapy. Among the several corticosteroid intranasal sprays available, beclomethasone dipropionate is one of the most prescribed. Recently, new intranasal hydrofluoroalkane-propelled formulations with little or no impact on the ozone layer have been developed for the treatment of AR. The use of these devices might improve patients' adherence to treatment, avoiding some of the most common side effects associated with aqueous formulations. This review provides the most recent evidence for the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane nasal aerosol in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  6. ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND ADENOID HYPERTROPHY IN CHILDREN: IS ADENOIDECTOMY ALWAYS REALLY USEFUL?

    PubMed

    Colavita, L; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Stroscio, G; Visalli, C; Alterio, T; Pidone, C; Pizzino, M R; Arrigo, T; Chimenz, R; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and adenoid hypertrophy (AH) are common in children and are often associated with each other. Recent studies have shown improvement of respiratory symptoms and reduction in the adenoid volume after anti-allergic medical therapy (intranasal corticosteroids, antihistamines). The aim of our retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of adenoidectomy on respiratory symptoms in pediatric patients with AR. We recruited 404 pediatric patients with AR, and we divided them into 4 groups (1. intermittent-mild rhinitis; 2. intermittent-moderate/severe rhinitis; 3. persistent-mild rhinitis; 4. persistent-moderate/severe rhinitis), using ARIA classification. For each patient we evaluated: age at onset of AR; family history of allergy; the presence of other allergic diseases; serum total IgE values; skin prick test (SPT) results; presence of AH evaluated by rhino-laringeal fibroscopy; adenoidectomy and its efficacy on respiratory symptoms. Our data show an association between AR and AH: 90 of 404 (22%) children with AR had AH of a degree greater than 2nd. A significant percentage (80%) of children suffering from AR did not present satisfactory benefits from adenoidectomy. They reported persistence or recurrence of rhinitic symptoms after surgery or only partial benefits, especially of recurrent respiratory tract infections and nasal obstruction. The local allergic persistent inflammation on nasal mucosa and adenoid tissue is probably the cause of the unsatisfactory results of adenoidectomy, therefore surgery cannot be the first therapeutic step for these children. It is important to extinguish the local inflammation by medical anti-allergic therapy to obtain improvements of nasal symptoms and to prevent adenoid regrowth.

  7. The Po River Delta (north Italy) indoor epidemiological study: effects of pollutant exposure on acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in adults.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Marzia; Carrozzi, Laura; Baldacci, Sandra; Scognamiglio, Antonio; Di Pede, Francesco; Sapigni, Tristano; Viegi, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of relatively low doses of nitrogen dioxide and respirable suspended particulate matter (i.e., < 2.5 mu) on acute respiratory symptoms and on peak expiratory flow in 383 adults (15-72 yr of age) who lived in the Po River Delta area, located near Venice. During 2 wk-1 wk in winter and 1 wk in summer--the authors monitored each participant's house to measure nitrogen dioxide (in parts per billion) and respirable suspended particulate (microgram/m3) concentration. Information on sex, age, height, weight, daily activity patterns, active and passive smoking, chronic respiratory diseases, daily peak expiratory flow, and presence of acute respiratory symptoms during the weeks monitoring occurred were also collected. Peak expiratory flow variation was studied as mean amplitude percentage (i.e., amplitude/mean) and percentage of diurnal variation (maximum/minimum). The exposure indices to nitrogen dioxide (nitrogen dioxide--index of exposure) and to respirable suspended particulate matter (respirable suspended particulate matter-index of exposure) were computed as the product of pollutant concentration and time of exposure. The authors considered indices as "low" or "high" on the basis of the median value. The median nitrogen dioxide was 20 ppb in winter and 14 ppb in summer; the highest nitrogen dioxide levels occurred in the kitchen in the winter (33 ppb) and summer (20 ppb). The median respirable suspended particulate matter was 68 micrograms/m3 in winter and 45 micrograms/m3 in summer. Only in winter were there significant associations between bronchitic/asthmatic symptoms and "high" nitrogen dioxide and respirable suspended particulate matter indices. In subjects who did not smoke, a significant influence of the "high" respirable suspended particulate matter-index of exposure was also observed in summer. With respect to peak expiratory flow and its variability, respirable suspended particulate matter-index of exposure was associated with

  8. Validation of a short form Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21)

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Bruce; Brown, Roger L; Mundt, Marlon P; Thomas, Gay R; Barlow, Shari K; Highstrom, Alex D; Bahrainian, Mozhdeh

    2009-01-01

    Background The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS) is an illness-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire outcomes instrument. Objectives Research questions were: 1) How well does the WURSS-21 assess the symptoms and functional impairments associated with common cold? 2) How well can this instrument measure change over time (responsiveness)? 3) What is the minimal important difference (MID) that can be detected by the WURSS-21? 4) What are the descriptive statistics for area under the time severity curve (AUC)? 5) What sample sizes would trials require to detect MID or AUC criteria? 6) What does factor analysis tell us about the underlying dimensional structure of the common cold? 7) How reliable are items, domains, and summary scores represented in WURSS? 8) For each of these considerations, how well does the WURSS-21 compare to the WURSS-44, Jackson, and SF-8? Study Design and Setting People with Jackson-defined colds were recruited from the community in and around Madison, Wisconsin. Participants were enrolled within 48 hours of first cold symptom and monitored for up to 14 days of illness. Half the sample filled out the WURSS-21 in the morning and the WURSS-44 in the evening, with the other half reversing the daily order. External comparators were the SF-8, a 24-hour recall general health measure yielding separate physical and mental health scores, and the eight-item Jackson cold index, which assesses symptoms, but not functional impairment or quality of life. Results In all, 230 participants were monitored for 2,457 person-days. Participants were aged 14 to 83 years (mean 34.1, SD 13.6), majority female (66.5%), mostly white (86.0%), and represented substantive education and income diversity. WURSS-21 items demonstrated similar performance when embedded within the WURSS-44 or in the stand-alone WURSS-21. Minimal important difference (MID) and Guyatt's responsiveness index were 10.3, 0.71 for the WURSS-21 and 18.5, 0.75 for the WURSS

  9. [Comparative characterization of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract mucous membranes in bronchial asthma and allergic persistent rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, E E; Baturo, A P; Ulisko, I N

    2005-01-01

    A total of 250 patients with diagnosed bronchial asthma (BA) were examined by microbiological methods. Among them--188 children and 62 adults. In 87 patients the microflora of nasal mucosa was studied, in 40--of pharynx only and in 123 patients--both the nasal and the pharynx. For comparative analysis earlier data obtained in 69 patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) were used. The cultures isolated from the nasal mucosa of BA patients were shown to number 18 genera and 42 species, while among those isolated from pharynx mucosa 20 genera and 40 species. Monocultures were isolated from the nasal mucosa only in 23% of the examined patients and from the pharynx mucosa--only in 1.42%. Associations with different numbers of components were isolated from nasal and pharynx mucosa (2 to 6, 2 to 8 respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was regarded as the main species of nasal biocenosis in BA and PAR, as well as pharynx biocenosis in BA. Besides, in BA other Staphylococcus species (schleiferi, caprae, capitis, hominis, etc.), reversely related to the main species, could be isolated from both mucous membranes. Similarities and differences in microflora of biocenoses in both nosological forms, confirming links between PAR and BA, are considered. PMID:15881942

  10. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  11. Genetic variation of human respiratory syncytial virus among children with fever and respiratory symptoms in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Mu, Yonglin; Dong, Wei; Yao, Fujia; Wang, Lili; Yan, Huajie; Lan, Ke; Zhang, Chiyu

    2014-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) of genus Pneumovirus is one of the most common pathogens causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children. No information on the genotype distribution of HRSV is available in East China (e.g. Shanghai). From August 2009 to December 2012, 2407 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatient children with fever and respiratory symptoms in Shanghai. HRSV infection was determined using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. The second hypervariable region (HVR2) of G protein gene of HRSV was amplified and sequenced from HRSV positive samples. Genotypes were characterized by phylogenetic analyses. Of 2407 nasopharyngeal samples, 184 (7.6%) were tested as HRSV positive. From 160 positive subjects with sufficient nasopharyngeal samples, 69 HVR2 sequences were obtained by RT-PCR and sequencing. Three HRSV epidemic seasons were observed from August 2009 to December 2012, and an extreme outbreak of HRSV occurred in the 2009-2010 epidemic season. A genotype shift of predominant HRSV strains from B group in the 2009-2010 epidemic season to group A in the subsequent epidemic seasons was observed. Ten HRSV genotypes, including four group A genotypes NA1, NA3, NA4, and ON1, and six group B genotypes BA9, BA10, SAB4, CB1, BAc, and BA?, were detected in Shanghai. Seven genotypes (NA1, BA9-10, SAB4, CB1, BAc and BA?) were found in the 2009-2010 epidemic season. The co-circulation of multiple genotypes was associated with the extreme outbreak of HRSV among children with fever and respiratory symptoms in the 2009-2010 epidemic season.

  12. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Background The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. Methods A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood and prolonged hoarseness) and self-reported lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake and body mass index) were included in the analysis. Results A total of 49 706 individuals completed the questionnaire. 16 per cent reported at least one RAS. Prolonged coughing (8.4%) and shortness of breath (8%) were most prevalent, while coughing up blood was least prevalent (0.1%). More men than women reported RAS (p<0.001). Odds of reporting RAS increased with age (Ptrend<0.001). In men and women, former and current smoking was associated with reporting at least one RAS (former smoking: ORmen=1.42, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.56; ORwomen=1.25, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36; current smoking: ORmen=2.58, 95% CI 2.35 to 2.83; ORwomen=2.45, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.68). Individuals who were underweight or obese were significantly more likely to report at least one RAS. Odds of reporting at least one RAS increased with increasing alcohol intake for both genders (Ptrend<0.001). Conclusions RAS are common in the general population. Men experience more symptoms than women, and prevalence increases with age. Being a former or current smoker and being underweight or obese are positively associated with experiencing RAS. The likelihood of experiencing RAS increases with increasing alcohol intake. Future research should investigate healthcare seeking for RAS among individuals with

  13. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo’lin? Mapping children’s respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ms. Lisa; Diaz, Janet; Jenny, Alisa; Anaite, Diaz; Nigel, Bruce; John, Balmes

    2007-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of asthma is an epidemiologic challenge, particularly in rural areas of lesser-developed countries characterized by low literacy and poor access to health care. To avoid under- or over-reporting of symptoms, questionnaires must use terminology familiar to participants and that accurately describes the triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness characteristic of asthma. In preparation for a large longitudinal cohort study entitled Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) that will examine the effects of variable early lifetime woodsmoke exposure on the respiratory health of Mam-speaking children residing in communities in the western highlands of Guatemala, we conducted individual interviews (n=18) and five focus groups (n=46) with indigenous women from 17 of these communities to elicit and define local Mam and Spanish terms for common respiratory symptoms used to describe their own and their children’s respiratory symptoms. Focus group participants were also shown an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video of wheezing children and adults. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used as an efficient model for future studies investigating health and/or disease terminology in isolated communities, an integral step in the development of standardized questionnaires. Among this Mam-speaking population, wheeze was best described as: nxwisen or ntzarrin, “breathing sounds that are heard in the neck but come from the chest.” The variation in understanding of terms between women with and without children with a history of wheeze (such that for those without wheezing children some terms were virtually unrecognized), has important implications for large-scale populations surveys within countries and comparative surveys such as ISAAC. It is important to use linguistically and culturally appropriate terminology to describe wheeze in prevalence studies of

  14. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  15. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms.

  16. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  17. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Agustín; Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  18. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  19. Aspirin enhances the induction of type I allergic symptoms when combined with food and exercise in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Harada, S; Horikawa, T; Ashida, M; Kamo, T; Nishioka, E; Ichihashi, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effect of aspirin as a substitute for exercise in inducing urticaria/anaphylaxis in three patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Two of the patients had specific IgE antibodies to wheat and the other had antibodies to shrimp. Administration of aspirin before ingestion of food allergens induced urticaria in one patient and urticaria and hypotension in another, while aspirin alone or food alone elicited no response. The third patient developed urticaria only when he took all three items, i.e. aspirin, food and additional exercise, whereas provocation with any one or or two of these did not induce any symptoms. These findings suggest that aspirin upregulates type I allergic responses to food in patients with FDEIA, and further shows that aspirin synergizes with exercise to provoke symptoms of FDEIA. This is the first report of a synergistic effect of aspirin in inducing urticaria/anaphylaxis, which was confirmed using challenge tests in patients with FDEIA.

  20. Identifying Students with Self-Report of Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in an Urban, High School Setting

    PubMed Central

    Baptist, Alan P.; Stringer, Sonja; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Williams, L. Keoki; Peterson, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Strategies for identifying urban youth with asthma have not been described for high school settings. African-American high school students are rarely included in asthma studies, despite a high risk of asthma mortality when compared to other age and race groups. Identification and follow-up of children with uncontrolled respiratory symptoms are necessary to reduce the burden of asthma morbidity and mortality, especially in underserved areas. We describe a process used to identify high school students who could benefit from intervention based on self-report of asthma and/or respiratory symptoms, and the costs associated with symptom-identification. Letters announcing a survey were mailed to parents of 9th–11th graders by an authorized vendor managing student data for the school district. Scan sheets with student identifiers were distributed to English teachers at participating schools who administered the survey during a scheduled class. Forms were completed by 5,967 of the 7,446 students assigned an English class (80% response). Although prevalence of lifetime asthma was 15.8%, about 11% of students met program criteria for enrollment through report of an asthma diagnosis and recent symptoms, medication use, or health care utilization. Another 9.2% met criteria by reported symptoms only. Cost of symptom-identification was $5.23/student or $32.29/program-eligible student. There is a need for school-based asthma programs targeting urban adolescents, and program initiation will likely require identification of students with uncontrolled symptoms. The approach described was successfully implemented with a relatively high response rate. Itemized expenses are presented to facilitate modifications to reduce costs. This information may benefit providers, researchers, or administrators targeting similar populations. PMID:17200800

  1. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Eli O; Caballero, Fernan; Fromer, Leonard M; Krouse, John H; Scadding, Glenis

    2010-01-01

    Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1) diagnosis of the cause(s), (2) patient education and monitoring, (3) avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4) pharmacotherapy, and (5) immunotherapy (for patients with allergic rhinitis) or surgery for patients whose condition is otherwise uncontrolled. PMID:20463825

  2. Safety of a peanut oral immunotherapy protocol in peanut allergic children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alison M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.; Palmer, Kricia P.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Burks, A. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral immunotherapy offers a promising therapeutic option for peanut allergy. Given that during oral immunotherapy an allergic patient ingests an allergen that could potentially cause a serious reaction, safety of oral immunotherapy is of particular concern. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine safety during the initial escalation day, build-up phase, and home dosing phase in subjects enrolled in a peanut oral immunotherapy study. Methods Skin, upper respiratory, chest and abdominal symptoms were recorded with initial escalation day and build-up phase dosings. Subjects also maintained daily diaries detailing symptoms after each home dosing. A statistical analysis of this data was performed. Results Twenty of 28 patients completed all phases of the study. During the initial escalation day, upper respiratory (79%) and abdominal (68%) symptoms were the most likely symptoms experienced. The risk of mild wheezing during the initial escalation day was 18%. The probability of having any symptoms after a build-up phase dose was 46%, with a risk of 29% for upper respiratory symptoms and 24% for skin symptoms. The risk of reaction with any home dose was 3.5%. Upper respiratory (1.2%) and skin (1.1%) were the most likely symptoms after home doses. Treatment was given with 0.7% of home doses. Two subjects received epinephrine after one home dose each. Conclusions Subjects were more likely to have significant allergic symptoms during the initial escalation day when they were in a closely monitored setting than during other phases of the study. Allergic reactions with home doses were rare. PMID:19477496

  3. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  4. Infant Infections and Respiratory Symptoms in Relation to in Utero Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Li, Zhigang; Korrick, Susan A.; Spiegelman, Donna; Enelow, Richard; Nadeau, Kari; Baker, Emily; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arsenic has been linked to disrupted immune function and greater infection susceptibility in highly exposed populations. Well arsenic levels above the U.S. EPA limit occur in our U.S. study area and are of particular concern for pregnant women and infants. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero arsenic exposure affects the risk of infections and respiratory symptoms over the first year of life. Methods: We prospectively obtained information on infant infections and symptoms, including their duration and treatment (n = 412) at 4, 8, and 12 months using a parental telephone survey. Using generalized estimating equation models adjusted for potential confounders, we evaluated the association between maternal pregnancy urinary arsenic and infant infections and symptoms over the first year. Results: Each doubling of maternal urinary arsenic was related to increases in the total number of infections requiring prescription medication in the first year [relative risk (RR) = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2]. Urinary arsenic was related specifically to respiratory symptoms (difficulty breathing, wheezing, and cough) lasting ≥ 2 days or requiring prescription medication (RR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2; and RR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5, respectively), and wheezing lasting ≥ 2 days, resulting in a doctor visit or prescription medication treatment (RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7; RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.8, and RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2, respectively). Associations also were observed with diarrhea (RR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and fever resulting in a doctor visit (RR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5). Conclusions: In utero arsenic exposure was associated with a higher risk of infection during the first year of life in our study population, particularly infections requiring medical treatment, and with diarrhea and respiratory symptoms. Citation: Farzan SF, Li Z, Korrick SA, Spiegelman D, Enelow R, Nadeau K, Baker E, Karagas MR. 2016. Infant infections and respiratory symptoms in

  5. Investigation of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Associated with Metal Working Fluids at an Aircraft Engine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Francisco; Chen, Lilia; Hudson, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods 407 workers were categorized as MWF exposed or MWF unexposed and completed questionnaires. Estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of dermatitis, asthma, and work-related asthma (WRA) symptoms were calculated. Airborne concentrations of MWF and endotoxin were measured, and work practices observed. Results MWF exposed workers had a significantly higher prevalence of dermatitis on wrists/forearms (PR 2.59; 95% CI 1.22, 5.46), asthma symptoms (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05, 2.13) and WRA symptoms (PR 2.10; 95% CI 1.22, 3.30) than unexposed workers. Airborne concentrations of MWF were below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for MWF aerosols (thoracic particulate mass). Conclusions Despite MWF exposures below the NIOSH REL, exposed workers had a higher prevalence of asthma, WRA, and dermatitis symptoms than unexposed workers. Recommendations to reduce exposure included configuring mist collectors to automatically turn on when the machine is in use, and enforcing enclosure use. PMID:24122918

  6. Efficacy of intranasally applied dimethindene maleate solution as spray in adult volunteers with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in the Vienna challenge chamber.

    PubMed

    Kyrein, H J; Horak, F; Nirnberger, G; Rehn, D

    1996-08-01

    Twelve asymptomatic subjects (4 female, 8 male), being allergic to grass pollen proved by positive anamnesis, positive Prick-test and positive nasal provocation test, were challenged under controlled conditions with purified airborne grass pollen of Dactylis glomerata in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC), located at the Universitätsklinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Allgemeines Krankenhaus (AKH), der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria) by means of a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, with 2 weeks wash-out periods between. Efficacy and safety of 2 concentrations of dimethindene (dimethindene maleate; DMM, CAS 3614-69-5, Fenistil resp. Foristal) 0.025% DMM, 0.1% DMM) were tested vs placebo as negative control and vs 0.1% azelastine as positive control, as topical nasal sprays. The tested nasal sprays were applied as single doses in the morning (2 puffs = 0.28 ml of the respective solution) to each nostril 15 min before the start of the 4 h lasting provocation procedure in the VCC, thus representing a total daily dose of 0.14 mg resp. 0.56 mg DMM and 0.56 mg azelastine, respectively. Compared to placebo, the objective variables nasal flow (150 Pa., measured by active anterior rhinomanometry) and nasal secretion (g), showed similar onset of antiobstructive and antisecretory effects in the nose after 0.1% DMM and 0.1% azelastine, respectively. The same applied for the subjective nasal symptom complex and for nasal symptom scores, evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS): Time curves showed statistically significant and clinically relevant superiority of 0.1% DMM and 0.1% azelastine vs placebo, during the 4 h lasting provocation period. 0.025% DMM was not significantly different from placebo. No systemic adverse events were reported after the 4 tested preparations. Only a total of 3 subjects reported very slight local irritations (1 subject after placebo, 1 subject after 0.025% DMM and 1 subject after 0.1% azelastine). However, after 0.1% DMM no local adverse

  7. Improving access to effective care for people with chronic respiratory symptoms in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory symptoms are amongst the most common complaints among low and middle-income country (LMICs) populations and they are expected to remain common over the 10 to 20 year horizon. The underlying diseases (predominantly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and tuberculosis) cause, and threaten to increasingly cause, substantial morbidity and mortality. Effective treatment is available for these conditions but LMICs health systems are not well set up to provide accessible clinical diagnostic pathways that lead to sustainable and affordable management plans especially for the chronic non communicable respiratory diseases. There is a need for clinical and academic capacity building together with well-conducted health systems research to underpin health service strengthening, policy and decision-making. There is an opportunity to integrate solutions for improving access to effective care for people with chronic respiratory symptoms with approaches to tackle other major population health issues that depend on well-functioning health services such as chronic communicable (e.g. HIV) and non-communicable (e.g. cardiovascular and metabolic) diseases.

  8. Respiratory and allergic health effects in a young population in proximity of a major industrial park in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Alwahaibi, Adil; Zeka, Ariana

    2016-01-01

    Background Sohar industrial zone (SIZ), Oman, which started operating in 2006, contains many industries that potentially affect the health of the local population. This study's aim was to evaluate the health effects in a young population living near SIZ. Methods Patient visits to state health clinics for acute respiratory diseases (ARD), asthma, conjunctivitis and dermatitis were obtained for the period of 2006 to 2010, for children ages <20 years old, for two large provinces around SIZ. Three exposure zones were defined on the basis of the distance from SIZ determined as: ≤5, >5 to 10, ≥20 km to represent high, intermediate and control exposure zones, respectively. Age-specific and gender-specific monthly counts of visits were modelled using generalised additive models controlling for time trends. The high and intermediate exposure zones were later combined together due to the similarity of associations. Exposure effect modification by age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES) was also tested. Results Living within 10 km from SIZ showed a greater association with ARD (risk ratio (RR)=2.5; 95% CI=2.3 to 2.7), asthma (RR=3.7; 95% CI=3.1 to 4.5), conjunctivitis (RR=3.1; 95% CI=2.9 to 3.5) and dermatitis (RR=2.7; 95% CI=2.5 to 3.0) when compared with the control zone. No differences in associations were found for gender and SES groups; greater effects were noticed in the ≤14-year-old group for asthma. Conclusions This is the first study conducted in Oman to examine the health effects of a young population living near an industrial park. We hope that these findings will contribute in future developments of environmental health policies in Oman. PMID:26359504

  9. Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating

    SciTech Connect

    Honicky, R.E.; Osborne, J.S.; Akpom, C.A.

    1985-03-01

    The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n . 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home used a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children.

  10. Azelastine and budesonide (nasal sprays): Effect of combination therapy monitored by acoustic rhinometry and clinical symptom score in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Natalia Zanellato; Abib-Jr, Eduardo; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effects of intranasal therapy with azelastine (AZE), budesonide (BUD), and combined AZE plus BUD (AZE/BUD) using a nasal provocation test (NPT) and acoustic rhinometry in patients with allergic rhinitis. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study with three treatment sequences was used. Thirty patients with persistent AR received the three treatments using a nasal spray twice daily for 30 days and were evaluated by an NPT with histamine before and after each period of treatment. The treatment comparison, assessed by the nasal responsiveness to histamine, was monitored based on subjective (symptom score) and objective parameters (acoustic rhinometry). The minimal cross-area 2 (MCA2) was measured by acoustic rhinometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 minutes after NPT for each histamine concentration administered (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg/mL) up to at least a 20% reduction in the MCA2 from baseline (NPT20). The subjects were scored regarding nasal response encompassing histamine dose and time after histamine administration that caused nasal obstruction (NPT20 score) to assess the treatments' effects. Combination therapy produced a significant increase in baseline MCA2, viz., the improvement of nasal patency (p = 0.005). The symptoms score was significantly decreased after treatment with AZE (p = 0.03), BUD (p < 0.0001), and AZE/BUD (p < 0.0001), compared with pretreatment. The NPT20 score was significantly higher (p = 0.0009) after AZE/BUD, compared with AZE and BUD on their own. Thus, AZE therapy combined with BUD might provide more therapeutic benefits than the isolated drugs for improving nasal patency. PMID:24988550

  11. Azelastine and budesonide (nasal sprays): Effect of combination therapy monitored by acoustic rhinometry and clinical symptom score in the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Natalia Zanellato; Abib-Jr, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effects of intranasal therapy with azelastine (AZE), budesonide (BUD), and combined AZE plus BUD (AZE/BUD) using a nasal provocation test (NPT) and acoustic rhinometry in patients with allergic rhinitis. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study with three treatment sequences was used. Thirty patients with persistent AR received the three treatments using a nasal spray twice daily for 30 days and were evaluated by an NPT with histamine before and after each period of treatment. The treatment comparison, assessed by the nasal responsiveness to histamine, was monitored based on subjective (symptom score) and objective parameters (acoustic rhinometry). The minimal cross-area 2 (MCA2) was measured by acoustic rhinometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 minutes after NPT for each histamine concentration administered (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg/mL) up to at least a 20% reduction in the MCA2 from baseline (NPT20). The subjects were scored regarding nasal response encompassing histamine dose and time after histamine administration that caused nasal obstruction (NPT20 score) to assess the treatments' effects. Combination therapy produced a significant increase in baseline MCA2, viz., the improvement of nasal patency (p = 0.005). The symptoms score was significantly decreased after treatment with AZE (p = 0.03), BUD (p < 0.0001), and AZE/BUD (p < 0.0001), compared with pretreatment. The NPT20 score was significantly higher (p = 0.0009) after AZE/BUD, compared with AZE and BUD on their own. Thus, AZE therapy combined with BUD might provide more therapeutic benefits than the isolated drugs for improving nasal patency. PMID:24988550

  12. The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol.

  13. Contrasting diagnosis performance of forced oscillation and spirometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Barbosa, Wellington Ribeiro; Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis is directly responsible for 10% to 20% of all mortality. The best way to improve the prognosis is early detection and treatment. The forced oscillation technique is easy to perform and offers a detailed exam, which may be helpful in the early detection of respiratory changes. This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the clinical potential of the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early respiratory alterations in rheumatoid arthritis patients with respiratory complaints and (2) to compare the sensitivity of forced oscillation technique and spirometric parameters. METHODS: A total of 40 individuals were analyzed: 20 healthy and 20 with rheumatoid arthritis (90% with respiratory complaints). The clinical usefulness of the parameters was evaluated by investigating the sensibility, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01641705. RESULTS: The early adverse respiratory effects of rheumatoid arthritis were adequately detected by the forced oscillation technique parameters, and a high accuracy for clinical use was obtained (AUC>0.9, Se = 80%, Sp = 95%). The use of spirometric parameters did not obtain an appropriate accuracy for clinical use. The diagnostic performance of the forced oscillation technique parameters was significantly higher than that of spirometry. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study provide substantial evidence that the forced oscillation technique can contribute to the easy identification of initial respiratory abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are not detectable by spirometric exams. Therefore, we believe that the forced oscillation technique can be used as a complementary exam that may help to improve the treatment of breathing disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:23018292

  14. VARIATIONS IN PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW MEASUREMENTS ASSOCIATED TO AIR POLLUTION AND ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN CHILDREN IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de M Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie; Claudio, Luz; Imazawa, Alice Takimoto; Eluf-Neto, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of allergic respiratory diseases worldwide and exposure to air pollution has been discussed as one of the factors associated with this increase. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air pollution on peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 in children with and without allergic sensitization. Methods Ninety-six children were followed from April to July, 2004 with spirometry measurements. They were tested for allergic sensitization (IgE, skin prick test, eosinophilia) and asked about allergic symptoms. Air pollution, temperature and relative humidity data were available. Results Decrements in PEF were observed with previous 24-h average exposure to air pollution, as well as with 3 to 10 day average exposure and were associated mainly with PM10, NO2 and O3. in all three categories of allergic sensitization. Even though allergic sensitized children tended to present larger decrements in the PEF measurements they were not statistically different from the non-allergic sensitized. Decrements in FEV1 were observed mainly with previous 24-h average exposure and 3-day moving average. Conclusions Decrements in PEF associated with air pollution were observed in children independent from their allergic sensitization status. Their daily exposure to air pollution can be responsible for a chronic inflammatory process that might impair their lung growth and later their lung function in adulthood. PMID:22544523

  15. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the control of respiration between the Stretta procedure and LTF (p>0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the

  16. An examination of the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on respiratory symptoms and COPD using propensity scores.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on public health consequences of mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining has been limited by the observational nature of the data. The current study used propensity scores, a method designed to overcome this limitation, to draw more confident causal inferences about mining effects on respiratory health using non-experimental data. These data come from a health survey of 682 adults residing in two rural areas of Virginia, USA characterized by the presence or absence of MTR mining. Persons with a history of occupational exposure as coal miners were excluded. Nine covariates including age, sex, current and former smoking, overweight, obesity, high school education, college education, and exposure to coal as a home-heating source were selected to estimate propensity scores. Propensity scores were tested for balance and then used as weights to create quasi-experimental exposed and unexposed groups. Results indicated that persons in the mountaintop mining group had significantly (p < 0.0001) elevated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results suggest that impaired respiratory health results from exposure to MTR environments and not from other risks.

  17. Lower respiratory symptoms among residents living near the World Trade Center, two and four years after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Morse, Dale; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether residents living near the World Trade Center (WTC) continued to experience respiratory problems several years after September 11, 2001 (9/11). Residents living within one mile of the WTC surveyed after 9/11 responded two and four years later to follow-up surveys that asked about lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), medical history, psychological stress, and indoor environmental characteristics. There were declines in the proportion of residents reporting LRS, new lower respiratory diagnoses, unplanned medical visits, and asthma medication use. However, the proportion of residents reporting any LRS in the affected area at follow-up remained higher than the original proportion in the control area; residents with multiple sources of potential 9/11-related exposures were at greatest risk for LRS at follow-up. Psychological stress, dust/odors, and moisture were significantly associated with LRS at follow-up. These data demonstrate that LRS continue to burden residents living in the areas affected by the WTC disaster. PMID:20166318

  18. Skin and respiratory symptoms from exposure to alkaline glutaraldehyde in medical services.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, D

    1988-12-01

    The prevalence of certain symptoms (eye, skin and airway symptoms, headache, nausea, and fatigue) were studied among hospital workers with and without exposure to glutaraldehyde during cold sterilization work. The exposure to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde was quantified by hygienic measurements in the breathing zone of the workers. Aldehydes were measured by a specific method, using sorbent tubes with Amberlite XAD-2 coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNF) and analyzed by liquid chromatography. The exposure measurements revealed that the present exposure to glutaraldehyde was intermittent and well below the Swedish occupational exposure limit. In spite of this low exposure, the exposed group exhibited a significantly increased frequency of skin and airway symptoms, as well as headache, in comparison with the unexposed group. A dose-response relationship between the frequency of exposure and the number of symptoms could also be demonstrated. No case of contact allergy to glutaraldehyde was found.

  19. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. Methods We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. Results The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function

  20. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  1. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  2. Relationship between omalizumab pharmacokinetics, IgE pharmacodynamics and symptoms in patients with severe persistent allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Philip J; Tannenbaum, Stacey; Gautier, Aurelie; Jimenez, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Omalizumab, a subcutaneously administered anti-IgE antibody, is effective for moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma. The aims were to (i) describe the population pharmacodynamics of free IgE with a mechanism-based, nonlinear, omalizumab–IgE binding model; (ii) deduce a target-free IgE suppression level by correlation with clinical outcomes; and (iii) check the adequacy of current approved dosing tables and explore potential doses and regimens beyond. METHODS Concentration data (omalizumab, free and total IgE) were obtained from 1781 patients aged 12–79 years, in four sparsely sampled randomized, placebo-controlled studies and 152 subjects in a richly sampled single-dose study. NONMEM predictive performance across the range of bodyweights (39–150 kg) and baseline IgE (19–1055 IU ml−1) was checked by simulation. Predicted free IgE levels were correlated with time-averaged patient diary clinical outcomes. RESULTS The model accurately predicted observed omalizumab, free and total IgE concentrations. Free IgE concentrations correlated well with clinical signs and symptoms, allowing a target concentration of 14 ng ml−1, at the midpoint of 4-week clinical observation periods, to be set for determining the dose and regimen for omalizumab. CONCLUSIONS The omalizumab–IgE binding model is predictive for free IgE and demonstrates a nonlinear time-dependent relationship between free IgE suppression and clinical outcomes in asthma. Although currently approved dosing tables are close to optimal, it should be possible to treat patients with higher levels of baseline IgE if higher doses can be administered. PMID:19660004

  3. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:19014608

  4. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  5. Denervation of nasal mucosa induced by posterior nasal neurectomy suppresses nasal secretion, not hypersensitivity, in an allergic rhinitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kikuta, Shu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. This rat model of PNN was characterized by the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides (eg, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y) in the nasal respiratory mucosa. These animals exhibited nasal gland and goblet cell hypertrophy in the septal mucosa and atrophy of the submucosal gland in the lateral nasal wall, as well as reduced nasal secretion due to deficient acetylcholine synthesis. In an ovalbumin-sensitized model of allergic rhinitis, PNN also induced the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in the nasal mucosa and suppressed nasal secretion. However, PNN did not affect mucosal thickening, eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ mRNA expression, and allergic symptoms (ie, sneezing and nasal scratching). These results suggest that the peripheral nerves and corresponding neuropeptides regulate nasal secretion, but not hypersensitivity, in allergic rhinitis, and that allergic rhinitis-related mucosal reactions occur in a highly denervated mucosa after PNN. Posterior nasal neurectomy may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperrhinorrhea, but not allergic rhinitis hypersensitivity. PMID:27322954

  6. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  7. Analgesic and Decongestant Efficacy of the Combination of Aspirin with Pseudoephedrine in Patients With Symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Ronald; Voelker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy of 1,000 mg aspirin (ASA) and 60 mg pseudoephedrine (PSE) on the symptoms of pain (combined score for headache and sore throat) and nasal congestion in 833 patients with acute upper respiratory tract viral infection (URTI), over 4 hours after a single dose in the clinic and over 3 days with multiple doses at home. The study demonstrated that over 4 hours in the clinic the combination ASA plus PSE was superior to PSE or placebo for relief of pain symptoms measured subjectively with pain scores, and was superior to ASA or placebo for relief of nasal congestion as measured objectively with rhinomanometry and subjectively with congestion scores. After 3 days of treatment, ASA plus PSE was superior to PSE but not to placebo or ASA for global pain assessments, and ASA plus PSE was superior to ASA and placebo but not to PSE for congestion assessments. No unexpected adverse events occurred and no serious adverse events were attributed to study medicines. This study demonstrates that a combination therapy of ASA plus PSE provides safe and effective relief of both common cold pain related symptoms and nasal congestion. PMID:26097788

  8. Relevance of Respiratory Symptoms and Signs to Ventilatory Capacity Changes after Exposure to Grain Dust and Phosphate Rock Dust

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, Bryan; Ritchie, Blair

    1966-01-01

    Ventilatory capacity was measured before and after exposure to high concentrations of wheat dust in 24 men, 18 of whom were similarly studied while working with calcium phosphate rock. Changes in ventilatory capacity were examined in relation to respiratory symptoms as commonly elicited in occupational surveys, and to the presence or absence of a productive cough on request and under observation. A significant decrease in the forced expiratory volume at one second was observed within half an hour of beginning work in the wheat dust, and this decrease was maintained throughout the work shift. A smaller significant decrease was found on exposure to phosphate rock over several hours, no significant change occurring within the first half-hour. Greater or more consistent decreases were recorded in those men who gave a history of persistent cough and sputum, and more particularly in those who had a productive cough on request, than in those without these features. A history of symptoms on exposure failed to define a group showing any more severe ventilatory reaction on exposure to wheat dust than the average. Some of the factors influencing the history of symptoms in occupational populations are reviewed, and the advantage of an objective sign, as provided by a deliberate cough, is indicated in defining an `abnormal' group within such a population. PMID:5946127

  9. Child sex and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as moderators of the relation between internalizing symptoms and aggression.

    PubMed

    Aults, Christopher D; Cooper, Patrick J; Pauletti, Rachel E; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Perry, David G

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have examined sex differences in physiological responding, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to changing stimulus conditions involving situation specific or gender related cues, in children and adolescents. The present study examined whether RSA reactivity moderates the relation between aggression and internalizing symptoms and whether there are sex differences in this effect. Participants were 82 adolescents (M age = 12.1 years; 44 girls) from the general middle-school population. Peer nominations assessed aggression and internalizing symptoms, and RSA reactivity (defined as change in RSA from baseline to task) was recorded while participants anticipated and responded to an 85 dB signaled white-noise burst. For girls, internalizing symptoms were associated with aggression only if girls showed low RSA reactivity from baseline to task; there was no effect for boys. This association was absent when girls showed high RSA reactivity. Thus, child sex appears to influence not only levels of physiological responding but also relations of physiological responding to comorbidity of adjustment problems.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and lung function 8–10 months after community exposure to chlorine gas: a public health intervention and cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We implemented a community based interventional health screening for individuals located within one mile of a 54 metric tons release of liquid chlorine following a 16 tanker car train derailment on 6 January, 2005 in Graniteville, South Carolina, USA. Public health intervention occurred 8–10 months after the event, and provided pulmonary function and mental health assessment by primary care providers. Its purpose was to evaluate those exposed to chlorine for evidence of ongoing impairment for medical referral and treatment. We report comparative analysis between self-report of respiratory symptoms via questionnaire and quantitative spirometry results. Methods Health assessments were obtained through respiratory symptom and exposure questionnaires, simple spirometry, and physical exam. Simple spirometry was used as the standard to identify continued breathing problems. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were applied to evaluate the validity of the respiratory questionnaire. We also identified the direction of discrepancy between self-reported respiratory symptoms and spirometry measures. Generalized estimation equations determined prevalence ratios for abnormal spirometry based on the presence of participant persistent respiratory symptoms. Covariate adjustment was made for participant age, sex, race, smoking and educational status. Results Two hundred fifty-nine people participated in the Graniteville health screening; 53 children (mean age = 11 years, range: <1-16), and 206 adults (mean age = 50 years, range: 18–89). Of these, 220 (85%) performed spirometry maneuvers of acceptable quality. Almost 67% (n = 147) displayed abnormal spirometry, while 50% (n = 110) reported persistent new-onset respiratory symptoms. Moreover, abnormal spirometry was seen in 65 participants (29%) who did not report any discernible breathing problems. This represented a net 16.8% underreporting of symptoms. Sensitivity and specificity of

  11. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  12. A health survey of granite workers in Finland: radiographic findings, respiratory function, hearing, electric sensory thresholds of the fingers and subjective symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ahlman, K; Backman, A L; Partanen, T

    1975-06-01

    Results from a health survey of 777 granite workers, exposed to quartz dust, noise and/or machine vibration, and 122 unexposed "controls" are reported. The survey included chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, a hearing examination, the determination of the electric sensory thresholds of the fingers, and questionnaires on the subjective symptoms of the respiratory system and upper limbs. The exposed workers' radiographic findings (except for a 2.6 % rate of silicosis), respiratory functions, and sensory thresholds did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Granite drillers had a high prevalence of hearing defects. Respiratory symptoms were common among drillers and sandblasters, and subjective symptoms of the upper limbs due to vibration occurred among the granite dressing workers who used pneumatic hammers. Both primary and secondary measures of prevention are strongly recommended for the granite industry, primarlily for quartz dust exposure and its health effects.

  13. Reducing antibiotics for respiratory tract symptoms in primary care: consolidating 'why' and considering 'how'.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, C C; Rollnick, S; Kinnersley, P; Jones, A; Stott, N

    1998-01-01

    We summarize recently published evidence showing that antibiotic treatment offers little or no benefit to most patients presenting with sore throats, acute otitis media, maxillary sinusitis, and acute bronchitis. Despite this research, the prescription of antibiotics for respiratory tract conditions is rising in Britain. This wastes money, encourages people to consult for self-limiting conditions, and causes bacteria to become resistant to antimicrobials. Ways of changing present practice are underresearched. Enhanced consulting skills, guidelines and monitoring strategies, patient education, and anti-inflammatory drugs for recurrent and chronic sufferers all hold promise. PMID:10198512

  14. Respiratory symptoms associated with low level sulphur dioxide exposure in silicon carbide production workers.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W; Greaves, I A; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Robins, J M; Thériault, G

    1989-01-01

    Relations between pulmonary symptoms and exposure to respirable dust and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for 145 silicon carbide (SiC) production workers with an average of 13.9 (range 3-41) years of experience in this industry. Eight hour time weighted average exposures to SO2 were 1.5 ppm or less with momentary peaks up to 4 ppm. Cumulative SO2 exposure averaged 1.94 (range 0.02-19.5) ppm-years. Low level respirable dust exposures also occurred (0.63 +/- 0.26 mg/m3). After adjusting for age and current smoking status in multiple logistic regression models, highly significant, positive, dose dependent relations were found between cumulative and average exposure to SO2, and symptoms of usual and chronic phlegm, usual and chronic wheeze, and mild exertional dyspnoea. Mild and moderate dyspnoea were also associated with most recent exposure to SO2. Cough was not associated with SO2. No pulmonary symptoms were associated with exposure to respirable dust nor were any symptoms attributable to an interaction between dust and SO2. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but not dyspnoea. A greater than additive (synergistic) effect between smoking and exposure to SO2 was present for most symptoms. These findings suggest that long term, variable exposure to SO2 at 1.5 ppm or less was associated with significantly raised rates of phlegm, wheezing, and mild dyspnoea in SiC production workers, and that current threshold limits for SO2 may not adequately protect workers in this industry. PMID:2789966

  15. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. PMID:26316421

  16. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  17. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  18. Respiratory conditions in Malaysian asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Lim, H H; Rampal, K G; Joginder, S; Bakar, C M Abu; Chan, K H; Vivek, T N

    2002-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers. PMID:12440274

  19. [Allergic risk in anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mertes, Paul Michel; De Blay, Frédéric; Dong, Siwei

    2013-03-01

    Anaphylactic reactions may be either of immune(allergy, usually IgE-mediated, sometimes IgG-mediated) or non-immune origin. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia varies between countries ranging from 1/1250 to 1/13,000 per procedure. In France, the estimated incidence of allergic reactions is 100.6 [76.2-125.3]/million procedures with a high female predominance (male: 55.4 [42.0-69.0], female: 154.9 [117.2-193.1]). This predominance is not observed in children. In adults, the most frequently incriminated substances are neuromuscular blocking agents, followed by latex and antibiotics. The estimated incidence of allergic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents is 184.0 [139.3-229.7]/million procedure. In most cases there is a close reaction between clinical symptoms and drug administration. When the reaction is delayed, occurring during the surgical procedure, a reaction involving latex, a vital dye, an antiseptic or a volume expanding fluid should be suspected. Reaction severity may vary. The most frequently reported initial symptoms are pulselessness, erythema, increased airway pressure, desaturation or decreased end-tidal CO2. Clinical symptoms may occur as an isolated condition, making proper diagnosis difficult. In some cases a cardiovascular arrest can be observed. Reaction mechanism identification relies on mediators (tryptase, histamine) measurement at the time of the reaction. In case of allergic reaction, the responsible drug can be identified by the detection of specific IgE using immunoassays or by skin tests performed 6 weeks after the reaction. Predictive allergy investigation to latex or anaesthetics in the absence of history of reaction should be restricted to at-risk patients. Premedication cannot prevent the onset of an allergic reaction. Providing a latex-free environment can be used for primary or secondary prevention. Treatment is based on allergen administration interruption, epinephrine administration in a titrated

  20. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  1. Broad implications for respiratory sinus arrhythmia development: Associations with childhood symptoms of psychopathology in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Lorenzi, Jill; Scarpa, Angela; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the group-based developmental trajectory methodology from our prior study (Patriquin, Lorenzi, Scarpa, & Bell, 2014), the current study examines the development of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across a new, larger cohort of typically developing children at 5, 10, 24, 36, and 48 months of age and examines the trajectory relationship with symptoms of childhood psychopathology. Group-based developmental trajectory modeling replicated our prior findings of a two-group model fit: a “High RSA” and “Low RSA” group. The “Low RSA” group, which demonstrated lower baseline RSA across all time points, had significantly more childhood problems at 48 months, namely increased withdrawal, aggressive behavior, pervasive developmental problems, and oppositional defiant problems. All participants for whom there were developmental or autism spectrum concerns (n = 6; based on maternal report at 48 months) were allocated to the Low RSA trajectory group. These results suggest that consistent developmental trajectories of RSA may point to protective factors (i.e., high RSA) against developing symptoms of childhood psychopathology. PMID:25503815

  2. Survey of symptoms, respiratory function, and immunology and their relation to glutaraldehyde and other occupational exposures among endoscopy nursing staff

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, A; Pickering, C; Oldham, L; Francis, H; Fletcher, A; Merrett, T; Niven, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To find the nature and incidence of symptoms experienced by a large sample of hospital endoscopy nurses. To find whether nurses in endoscopy units develop asthma under current working conditions in endoscopy units. To obtain analytically reliable data on exposure concentrations of glutaraldehyde (GA) vapour in endoscopy units, and to relate them to individual hygiene and work practices. To characterise any exposure-response relations between airborne GA and the occurrence of work related symptoms (WRSs). Due to the growing concern about the perceived increase in WRSs among workers regularly exposed to biocides, all of whom work within a complex multiexposure environment, a cross sectional study was designed.
METHODS—Current endoscopy nurses (n=348) from 59 endoscopy units within the United Kingdom and ex-employees (who had left their job for health reasons (n=18) were surveyed. Symptom questionnaires, end of session spirometry, peak flow diaries, skin prick tests (SPTs) to latex and common aeroallergens, and measurements of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE specific to GA and latex were performed. Exposure measurements included personal airborne biocide sampling for peak (during biocide changeover) and background (endoscopy room, excluding biocide changeover) concentrations.
RESULTS—All 18 ex-employees and 91.4% of the current nurses were primarily exposed to GA, the rest were exposed to a succinaldehyde-formaldehyde (SF) composite. Work related contact dermatitis was reported by 44% of current workers exposed to GA, 56.7% of those exposed to SF composite, and 44.4% of ex-employees. The prevalence of WRSs of the eyes, nose, and lower respiratory tract in current workers exposed to GA was 13.5%, 19.8%, and 8.5% respectively and 50%, 61.1%, and 66.6% in the ex-employees. The mean percentage predicted forced expired volume in 1 second (ppFEV1) for ex-employees (93.82, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 88.53 to 99.11) was significantly lower

  3. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M.

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  5. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  6. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-10-16

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km(-1). By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, -0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function.

  7. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  8. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  9. Prevalence and triggers of allergic rhinitis in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Allergic rhinitis is a morbid condition that is frequently overlooked by patients and physicians. This type of atopy has not been adequately investigated in the United Arab Emirates. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based observational study was conducted in the seven Emirates (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, and Fujairah). It used the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II) to screen for allergic rhinitis in people living in this region. Results Symptoms of allergic rhinitis were present in 85 (7%) of the 1,229 study population. Only 33 (39%) patients received treatment. Seventy-six (89%) patients had asthma. Thirty-seven (44%) patients were poly-sensitized. Symptoms were aggravated by dust (59%), grass/pollens (44%) and proximity to animals (21%). Winter was the peak season (37%), followed by spring (30%), autumn (18%) and summer (15%). Grass/pollen allergies were clustered in the winter, spring and summer (p ≤ 0.001). Dust was non-seasonal (p ≥ 0.121) and animal allergy was worse in the winter (p = 0.024) and spring (p = 0.044). Spring symptoms were less common in people living in the inner city (p = 0.003). Conclusions At least 7% of the studied population had allergic rhinitis. Most (71%) of these patients had environmental triggers and remained untreated. Allergic rhinitis awareness and measures to control allergens and dust are needed. The impact of preventing allergic rhinitis on other common atopies in the region deserves future studies. PMID:25097721

  10. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  11. Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Wood Combustion and Association with Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Nonsmoking Women: Results from the RESPIRE Trial, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Lie, Rolv T.; Bakke, Per; Balmes, John R.; Smith, Kirk R.; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background With 40% of the world’s population relying on solid fuel, household air pollution (HAP) represents a major preventable risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Meta-analyses have confirmed this relationship; however, constituent studies are observational, with virtually none measuring exposure directly. Objectives We estimated associations between HAP exposure and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young, nonsmoking women in rural Guatemala, using measured carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in exhaled breath and personal air to assess exposure. Methods The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) Guatemala study was a trial comparing respiratory outcomes among 504 women using improved chimney stoves versus traditional cookstoves. The present analysis included 456 women with data from postintervention surveys including interviews at 6, 12, and 18 months (respiratory symptoms) and spirometry and CO (ppm) in exhaled breath measurements. Personal CO was measured using passive diffusion tubes at variable times during the study. Associations between CO concentrations and respiratory health were estimated using random intercept regression models. Results: Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or chest tightness) during the previous 6 months were positively associated with breath CO measured at the same time of symptom reporting and with average personal CO concentrations during the follow-up period. CO in exhaled breath at the same time as spirometry was associated with lower lung function [average reduction in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) for a 10% increase in CO was 3.33 mL (95% CI: –0.86, –5.81)]. Lung function measures were not significantly associated with average postintervention personal CO concentrations. Conclusions: Our results provide further support for the effects of HAP exposures on airway inflammation. Further longitudinal research modeling continuous

  12. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  13. The Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus Viability and Sensitization to Its Allergens on the Murine Allergic Asthma Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sumali; Hoselton, Scott A.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitously present respiratory pathogen. The outcome of a pulmonary disease may vary significantly with fungal viability and host immune status. Our objective in this study was (1) to assess the ability of inhaled irradiation-killed or live A. fumigatus spores to induce allergic pulmonary disease and (2) to assess the extent to which inhaled dead or live A. fumigatus spores influence pulmonary symptoms in a previously established allergic state. Our newly developed fungal delivery apparatus allowed us to recapitulate human exposure through repeated inhalation of dry fungal spores in an animal model. We found that live A. fumigatus spore inhalation led to a significantly increased humoral response, pulmonary inflammation, and airway remodeling in naïve mice and is more likely to induce allergic asthma symptoms than the dead spores. In contrast, in allergic mice, inhalation of dead and live conidia recruited neutrophils and induced goblet cell metaplasia. This data suggests that asthma symptoms might be exacerbated by the inhalation of live or dead spores in individuals with established allergy to fungal antigens, although the extent of symptoms was less with dead spores. These results are likely to be important while considering fungal exposure assessment methods and for making informed therapeutic decisions for mold-associated diseases. PMID:24063011

  14. Exposure to secondhand smoke from neighbours and respiratory symptoms in never-smoking adolescents in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lok Tung; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home from neighbours in Hong Kong adolescents and its association with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 79 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants 61 810 secondary 1 (USA grade 7) to 7 students, in which 50 762 never-smokers were identified and included in the analysis of the association between SHS exposure at home from neighbours and respiratory symptoms. Main outcome measures Smoking status, family smoking status, SHS exposure at home from inside the home and from neighbours in the past 7 days, respiratory symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics were reported. Adjusted ORs (AORs) of respiratory symptoms for SHS exposure from the 2 sources in never-smokers were calculated using logistic regression. Results In all students, 33.2% were exposed to SHS at home, including 16.2% from inside the home only, 10.0% from neighbours only and 7.0% from both. The prevalence of SHS exposure from neighbours was 17.1%, including 13.5% for 1–4 days/week and 3.6% for 5–7 days/week. In never-smokers (n=50 762), respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with SHS exposure from neighbours with AORs (95% CI) of 1.29 (1.20 to 1.39) for any exposure (p<0.001), 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31) for 1–4 days/week (p<0.001) and 1.63 (1.44 to 1.86) for 5–7 days/week (p<0.001) (P for trend <0.001). Compared with no SHS exposure at home from any source, the AORs were 1.16 (1.07 to 1.25) for SHS from inside the home only (p<0.001), 1.20 (1.11 to 1.31) from neighbours only (p<0.001), and 1.74 (1.56 to 1.94) from both (p<0.001). Conclusions SHS exposure at home from neighbours was prevalent in Hong Kong adolescents, and was associated with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. SHS exposure at home may be underestimated by ignoring the neighbouring source. Smoke-free housing policy is needed to protect children and adolescents from harms of SHS

  15. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis.

    PubMed

    Kebbe, Jad; Mador, M Jeffery

    2016-07-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  16. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  17. A prospective study of respiratory symptoms associated with chronic arsenic exposure in Bangladesh: findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS)

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Hassan, Rabiul; Yunus, Mahbub; Haque, Syed E; Balac, Olgica; Graziano, Joseph H

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water on respiratory symptoms using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Exposure Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a large prospective cohort study established in Ariahazar, Bangladesh in 2000–2002. A total of 7.31, 9.95 and 2.03% of the 11 746 participants completing 4 years of active follow-up reported having a chronic cough, breathing problem or blood in their sputum, respectively, as assessed by trained physicians. Methods Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs for respiratory symptoms during the follow-up period in relation to levels of chronic As exposure assessed at baseline, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, education and arsenic-related skin lesion status. Results Significant positive associations were found between As exposure and respiratory symptoms. As compared with those with the lowest quintile of water As level (≤7 μg/l), the HRs for having respiratory symptoms were 1.27 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.48), 1.39 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.63), 1.43 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.68) and 1.43 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.68) for the second to fifth quintiles of baseline water As concentrations (7–40, 40–90, 90–178 and >178 μg/l), respectively. Similarly, the corresponding HRs in relation to the second to fifth quintiles of urinary arsenic were 1.10 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.27), 1.11 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.29), 1.29 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.49) and 1.35 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.56), respectively. These associations did not differ appreciably by cigarette smoking status. Conclusions This prospective cohort study found a dose–response relationship between As exposure and clinical symptoms of respiratory diseases in Bangladesh. In particular, these adverse respiratory effects of As were clearly evident in the low to moderate dose range, suggesting that a large proportion of the country's population may be at risk of developing serious lung diseases in the

  18. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms in children: application of measurement error correction techniques to utilize data from multiple surrogates.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Weller, Edie; Dockery, Douglas W; Neas, Lucas M; Spiegelman, Donna

    2006-07-01

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), a byproduct of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1,159 white children aged 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983 to 1988. For each 15 p.p.b. increment of NO(2), the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=[1.1, 1.7]). Although indoor NO(2) concentration in the ambient air was assessed only in a subset of the children, the prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms and surrogate exposure variables were available in all of the children at the time of the indoor monitoring program. This paper evaluates the effect of indoor NO(2) exposure on the annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms by applying a regression calibration method to the 2,891 children in the overall study with complete covariate and outcome data, 1,137 of whom had NO(2) directly measured and 1,754 of whom only surrogate exposure data were available. An estimate of the indoor annual NO(2) exposure effect (p.p.b.) is obtained, which is adjusted for measurement error induced by the use of surrogate NO(2) sources among the 1,754. These sources include the presence of a gas stove with or without a pilot light, the presence of a kerosene space heater, the presence of a wood stove, and the usage of a stove for heating, and residential characteristics, including fan usage for kitchen ventilation and the total number of rooms in the home. After adjusting for age, gender, city, parental history of respiratory diseases, and smoking inside the children's home (packs/day), a 15-p.p.b. increment in NO(2) exposure was found to be associated with a significant 50% increased annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms (OR=1.5, 95% CI=[1.2, 1.8]). Simulation results indicated that, under conditions similar to those observed in these data, the estimator is unbiased and has a coverage probability close to the nominal value. Using the

  19. Respiratory symptoms and lung function effects of domestic exposure to tobacco smoke and cooking by gas in non-smoking women in Singapore.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Hui, K P; Tan, W C

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES--To investigate the effects of passive exposure to tobacco smoke and gas cooking at home on respiratory symptoms and lung function of non-smoking women. SETTING--Evidence on the effects of passive smoking and exposure to nitrogen dioxide from gas cooking on the respiratory health of adults is limited and variable. Over 97% of women in Singapore do not smoke, and a principal source of indoor air pollution for housewives is passive smoking and gas cooking. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional (prevalence) study of a population based sample of 2868 adults aged 20 to 74 years in Singapore. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect data on passive smoking, gas cooking, respiratory symptoms, and other relevant variables. Passive smoking was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke from one or more members of the household who had ever smoked. Gas cooking was defined in terms of the weekly frequency of gas cooking, as well as the frequency with which the respondent's kitchen was filled with heavy cooking fumes (rarely, occasionally, often). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured by using a portable Micro-spirometer. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate relative odds of association for respiratory symptoms and FEV1 effect, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. PARTICIPANTS--Of a total of 1438 women in the sample, 1282 women who had never smoked provided questionnaire data and 1008 women provided acceptable readings of FEV1 for analysis. MAIN RESULTS--Passive smoking was significantly associated with greater relative odds of usual or chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, and breathlessness on exertion, as well as lower FEV1. Greater relative odds of respiratory symptoms were also associated with the weekly frequency of gas cooking, although these results were statistically insignificant. Chronic cough and phlegm and breathlessness on exertion, however, were significantly

  20. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms in children: application of measurement error correction techniques to utilize data from multiple surrogates.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Weller, Edie; Dockery, Douglas W; Neas, Lucas M; Spiegelman, Donna

    2006-07-01

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), a byproduct of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1,159 white children aged 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983 to 1988. For each 15 p.p.b. increment of NO(2), the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=[1.1, 1.7]). Although indoor NO(2) concentration in the ambient air was assessed only in a subset of the children, the prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms and surrogate exposure variables were available in all of the children at the time of the indoor monitoring program. This paper evaluates the effect of indoor NO(2) exposure on the annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms by applying a regression calibration method to the 2,891 children in the overall study with complete covariate and outcome data, 1,137 of whom had NO(2) directly measured and 1,754 of whom only surrogate exposure data were available. An estimate of the indoor annual NO(2) exposure effect (p.p.b.) is obtained, which is adjusted for measurement error induced by the use of surrogate NO(2) sources among the 1,754. These sources include the presence of a gas stove with or without a pilot light, the presence of a kerosene space heater, the presence of a wood stove, and the usage of a stove for heating, and residential characteristics, including fan usage for kitchen ventilation and the total number of rooms in the home. After adjusting for age, gender, city, parental history of respiratory diseases, and smoking inside the children's home (packs/day), a 15-p.p.b. increment in NO(2) exposure was found to be associated with a significant 50% increased annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms (OR=1.5, 95% CI=[1.2, 1.8]). Simulation results indicated that, under conditions similar to those observed in these data, the estimator is unbiased and has a coverage probability close to the nominal value. Using the

  1. Management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Solelhac, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke. PMID:25374672

  2. Pulmonary involvement in lifelong non-smoking patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis without respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ayhan-Ardic, F Figen; Oken, Oznur; Yorgancioglu, Z Rezan; Ustun, Nilgun; Gokharman, F Dilek

    2006-03-01

    Pulmonary involvement seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been detected increasingly by using highly sensitive diagnostic techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, HRCT findings in healthy controls and the effects of smoking and drugs have not been well studied. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the relationships between disease-specific clinical, laboratory, HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings in 20 RA patients using methotrexate (MTX) and 20 AS patients using sulphasalazine who were non-smokers and exhibited asymptomatic respiratory signs. For this purpose, a total of 60 persons (40 patients and 20 healthy controls) were included in this study. A restrictive pattern on PFT was detected in four patients (20%) with AS, one patient with RA and one control (p<0.05). Fourteen patients (70%) with RA and ten patients (50%) with AS had positive HRCT findings. Only one patient (5%) in the control group had abnormal HRCT findings (p<0.05). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) was the most frequently seen HRCT finding in both the RA (35%) and AS (20%) groups. The chest expansion measurement, the score of the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were statistically significantly better in patients with AS having normal HRCT than in those with abnormal findings (p<0.05). There was no correlation detected between HRCT and duration of disease, disease activity markers, functional indexes and PFT in patients with RA and AS. HRCT is a sensitive tool in detecting ILD in patients with RA and AS with no signs and symptoms of pulmonary involvement and may be an integral part of such work-up. However, future prospective studies are needed to better determine if HRCT is in fact a predictor of subsequent MTX toxicity.

  3. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  4. HLA class II DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 genotypic associations with occupational allergic cough to Bunashimeji mushroom.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Tanaka, H; Sahara, H; Tanaka, N; Tamura, Y; Naruse, T; Inoko, H; Tsushima, K; Kubo, K; Abe, S; Sato, N

    2005-05-01

    We previously reported that two-third of workers in a Bunashimeji mushroom (Hypsizigus marmoreus) farm complained of respiratory allergic symptoms, but one-third workers did not suffer from such symptoms even when working for a long period. CD4+ T-helper (Th) cells increased, and Th2/Th1 ratio increased in the allergic workers. To address these immunological backgrounds, we have investigated whether there is any relationship between mushroom allergy and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles of DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing-based typing methods. We observed that the allele frequencies of DQA1*0103, DQB1*0601, and DRB1*0803 were significantly higher in the workers having no allergic symptoms than allergic workers (DQA1*0103: 57 vs 25%, DQB1*0601: 49 vs 14%, and DRB1*0803: 29 vs 0%). However, this phenomenon was not seen in workers producing another kind of mushroom, Honshimeji (Lyophyllum aggregatum). The HLA-DRB1*0803 allele alone, the DRB1*0803, DQA1*0103, DQB1*0601 haplotype, or both were negatively associated with allergy to Bunashimeji, and these alleles might be involved in the prevention of Bunashimeji mushroom-specific respiratory allergy.

  5. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    PubMed

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time.

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    PubMed

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. PMID:26826976

  7. Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Arja; Ruoppi, Pirkko; Remes, Sami; Koistinen, Tiina; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili

    2007-08-01

    Enzymes are high-molecular-weight proteins and highly sensitizing occupational allergens used widely in industrial processes. Lactase has been described to cause work-related respiratory and conjunctival immunoglobulin (Ig)-E-mediated sensitizations in workers in the pharmaceutical industry. In these previous reports, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma was confirmed with prick tests but not by challenge tests. Lactase previously has not been described as a cause of immediate or delayed contact skin reaction. Furthermore, there are no previous reports of lactase-specific IgE. We report a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a pharmaceutical worker. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific IgE antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions and their specificities were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. Our results have confirmed the previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE-mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but they show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.

  8. Acute respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects living near a coal-fired plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pershagen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Daily symptom rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects with presumed high sensitivity to air pollution who lived near a coal-fired power plant were compared with 24 h ambient air concentrations of NO/SUB/2, SO/SUB/2, soot and suspended particles, as well as with emissions from the plant. The mean concentrations of each of the pollutants during the 4-month study period were below 30GAMMA/m/SUP/3, and no single 24h concentration exceeded 100GAMMA/m/SUP/3. There were no consistent associations between plant emissions and pollutant levels, or between these two variables and daily symptom rates. The results indicate that the coal-fired plant was not of major importance for the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms in the surrounding population.

  9. An epidemiologic investigation of forced expiratory volume at 1 second and respiratory symptoms among employees of a toluene diisocyanate production plant.

    PubMed

    Olsen, G W; Shellenberger, R; Bodner, K M; Flores, G H; Emmitte, J A; Bond, G G; Saunders, J H

    1989-08-01

    Pulmonary function tests were done and compared to current and past potential exposure levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) for 57 TDI manufacturing workers and 89 workers not exposed to TDI or other known respiratory hazards. The average TDI plant experience was 4.1 years (standard deviation = 2.8). Routine industrial hygiene measurements have shown TDI exposure below a time-weighted average of 0.005 parts per million and a short-term exposure level of 0.02 parts per million. A certified industrial hygienist ranked department and job classification by level of potential exposure to TDI (none, low, moderate, and high). A questionnaire was administered to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Using backward regression analysis, cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking and prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms were statistically significant predictors of a standardized forced expiratory volume at 1 second observed v expected difference; however, TDI exposure, whether classified as current, highest career level, cumulative, or cumulative highest-to-date, was not associated with a decline in forced expiratory volume. PMID:2547915

  10. Living near main streets and respiratory symptoms in adults: the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Schindler, Christian; Hazenkamp-von Arx, Marianne E; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Keidel, Dirk; Rapp, Regula; Künzli, Nino; Braendli, Otto; Burdet, Luc; Sally Liu, L-J; Leuenberger, Philippe; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula

    2006-12-15

    The Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), conducted in 1991 (SAPALDIA 1) in eight areas among 9,651 randomly selected adults aged 18-60 years, reported associations among the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, nitrogen dioxide, and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microg/m3. Later, 8,047 subjects reenrolled in 2002 (SAPALDIA 2). The effects of individually assigned traffic exposures on reported respiratory symptoms were estimated, while controlling for socioeconomic and exposure- and health-related factors. The risk of attacks of breathlessness increased for all subjects by 13% (95% confidence interval: 3, 24) per 500-m increment in the length of main street segments within 200 m of the home and decreased in never smokers by 12% (95% confidence interval: 0, 22) per 100-m increment in distance from home to a main street. Living within 20 m of a main street increased the risks of regular phlegm by 15% (95% confidence interval: 0, 31) and wheezing with breathing problems by 34% (95% confidence interval: 0, 79) in never smokers. In 2002, the effects related to road distance were different from those in 1991, which could be due to changes in the traffic pollution mixture. These findings among a general population provide strong confirmation that living near busy streets leads to adverse respiratory health effects. PMID:17032694

  11. Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma in a cohort of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; O'Toole, Brian I; Leeder, Stephen R

    2004-05-01

    We enrolled a cohort of primary school children with a history of wheeze (n=148) in an 11-month longitudinal study to examine the relationship between ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidity. We obtained daily air pollution (ozone, particulate matter less than 10 microm, and nitrogen dioxide), meteorological, and pollen data. One hundred twenty-five children remained in the final analysis. We used logistic regression models to determine associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There were no associations between ambient ozone concentrations and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There was, however, an association between PM(10) concentrations and doctor visits for asthma (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04-1.19) and between NO(2) concentration and wet cough (RR=1.05, 95% CI=1.003-1.10) in single-pollutant models. The associations remained significant in multipollutant models. There was no consistent evidence that children with wheeze, positive histamine challenge, and doctor diagnosis of asthma reacted differently to air pollution from children with wheeze and doctor diagnosis of asthma and children with wheeze only. There were significant associations between PM(10) levels and doctor visits for asthma and an association between NO(2) levels and the prevalence of wet cough. We were, however, unable to demonstrate that current levels of ambient air pollution in western Sydney have a coherent range of adverse health effects on children with a history of wheezing.

  12. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  13. Epidemiology and current status of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and associated allergic diseases in Korea: ARIA Asia-Pacific workshop report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Sim; Choi, Gil Soon; Cho, Joong Sang; Kim, You-Young

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma has recently increased in Korea, and both conditions are recognized as major chronic respiratory diseases requiring active intervention. The prevalence of rhinitis among asthmatic patients is high, ranging from 60 to 80%, and could seriously affect asthma severity and outcome. We suggest that allergic rhinitis should be properly evaluated in asthmatic patients to achieve better asthma control.

  14. Characterization of serum platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase. Correlation between deficiency of serum PAF acetylhydrolase and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, M; Miyake, T; Yamanaka, T; Sugatani, J; Suzuki, Y; Sakata, S; Araki, Y; Matsumoto, M

    1988-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase has been recognized as an enzyme that inactivates PAF. We developed a convenient and reproducible method for determining human serum PAF acetylhydrolase activity. The assay was based on measurement of [14C]acetate produced from 1-O-alkyl-2-[14C]-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon precipitation of the complex of radioactive substrate and albumin with TCA. The apparent Km value of PAF acetylhydrolase (near the physiological concentration of serum protein) was 1.5 X 10(-4) M PAF. 32 subjects with serum PAF acetylhydrolase deficiency were found among 816 healthy Japanese adults. The low PAF acetylhydrolase activity in the deficient serum might not be due to the presence of enzyme inhibitor. Both the sensitivity to PAF and the metabolism of PAF in platelets from PAF acetylhydrolase-deficient subjects were almost the same as those of normal subjects. Deficiency in serum PAF acetylhydrolase appeared to be transmitted by autosomal recessive heredity among five Japanese families. Among healthy adults, healthy children, and asthmatic children, who were grouped into five classes on the basis of respiratory symptoms (remission, wheezy, mild, moderate, and severe groups), the probability of PAF acetylhydrolase deficiency was significantly higher in groups with severe symptoms (moderate and severe) (P less than 0.01). These results suggest that deficiency of serum PAF acetylhydrolase might be one of the factors leading to severe respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. Images PMID:3198761

  15. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  16. Allergic Rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms are worse on hot, dry days when wind carries the pollen. On rainy days, pollen often ... pollution Cold temperatures Humidity Irritating fumes Tobacco smoke Wind Wood smoke Other Organizations American Academy of Allergy, ...

  17. Allergic and mixed rhinitis: Epidemiology and natural history.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2010-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a prevalent chronic respiratory problem in the United States associated with significant comorbidities and health care costs. Recent surveys suggest that mixed rhinitis (MR), which refers to patients with nonallergic AR (NAR) and AR, is a specific rhinitis subtype that may represent between 50 and 70% of all AR patients although the true prevalence of these conditions has not been confirmed. It is important to make a clear distinction between these chronic rhinitis (CR) phenotypes as symptom triggers; response to treatment and prevalence of comorbidities such as sinusitis may be significantly different. Incorporating patient centric questionnaires that can reliably characterize AR, MR, and NAR phenotypes will improve our ability to further investigate the natural history/epidemiology, mechanisms, and development of novel therapies for NAR-related CR subtypes.

  18. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes. PMID:25971810

  19. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Lisa M.; Togias, Alkis

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman has a history of nasal congestion on most days of the year, dating back to her late teens. She has chronic nasal drainage, which is clear and thick. Her congestion is worst in the late summer and early fall and again in the early spring; at these times, she also has sneezing, nasal itching, and cough. Five years ago, she had an episode of shortness of breath with wheezing on a day when her nasal symptoms were severe, but this episode resolved spontaneously and has not recurred. Her eyes do not bother her. Over-the-counter oral antihistamines help her symptoms a little, as do nasal decongestants, which she uses occasionally. Her 6-year-old son has similar symptoms. How should this case be managed? PMID:25629743

  20. Effect of BETA 1, 3/1, 6 GLUCAN on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Mood State in Marathon Athletes.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Shawn; Talbott, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind study designed to evaluate the effect of a commercially available dietary supplement on upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTI) and mood state. Seventy-five marathon runners (35 men, 40 women) ranging in age from 18-53 years, mean age: 36 ± 9, self-administered placebo, 250 mg or 500 mg of BETA 1,3/1,6 GLUCAN (commercial name Wellmune WGP(®)) daily during the 4 week post-marathon trial period following the 2007 Carlsbad Marathon. Subjects filled out the profile of mood state (POMS) assessment and a questionnaire style health log measuring health status and URTI symptoms after 2- and 4-week treatment administrations. During the course of the 4-week study, subjects in the treatment groups (250 mg and 500 mg BETA-GLUCAN per day) reported significantly fewer URTI symptoms, better overall health and decreased confusion, fatigue, tension, and anger, and increased vigor based on the POMS survey compared to placebo. BETA-GLUCAN may prevent URTI symptoms, and improve overall health and mood following a competitive marathon. Key pointsBeta-Glucan supplementation maintains immune function in endurance athletes.Beta-Glucan supplementation reduces post-exercise URTIs in marathon runners.Maintenance of post-exercise immune function is associated with improved mood state, including reduced fatigue and increased vigor in athletes.

  1. Effect of BETA 1, 3/1, 6 GLUCAN on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Mood State in Marathon Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Shawn; Talbott, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind study designed to evaluate the effect of a commercially available dietary supplement on upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTI) and mood state. Seventy-five marathon runners (35 men, 40 women) ranging in age from 18-53 years, mean age: 36 ± 9, self-administered placebo, 250 mg or 500 mg of BETA 1,3/1,6 GLUCAN (commercial name Wellmune WGP®) daily during the 4 week post-marathon trial period following the 2007 Carlsbad Marathon. Subjects filled out the profile of mood state (POMS) assessment and a questionnaire style health log measuring health status and URTI symptoms after 2- and 4-week treatment administrations. During the course of the 4-week study, subjects in the treatment groups (250 mg and 500 mg BETA-GLUCAN per day) reported significantly fewer URTI symptoms, better overall health and decreased confusion, fatigue, tension, and anger, and increased vigor based on the POMS survey compared to placebo. BETA-GLUCAN may prevent URTI symptoms, and improve overall health and mood following a competitive marathon. Key points Beta-Glucan supplementation maintains immune function in endurance athletes. Beta-Glucan supplementation reduces post-exercise URTIs in marathon runners. Maintenance of post-exercise immune function is associated with improved mood state, including reduced fatigue and increased vigor in athletes. PMID:24149590

  2. Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

  3. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found for chromium and manganese in PM2.5 and in blood. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheeze of children was higher in Guiyu compared to Haojiang (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for the prevalence of asthma in children between Guiyu and Haojiang. Living in Guiyu was positively associated with blood lead (B = 0.196, p < 0.001), blood cadmium (B = 0.148, p < 0.05) and cough (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.30-4.32; p < 0.01). Blood lead>5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16-77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma. PMID:26803791

  4. Utilization of the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) Survey for Symptoms, Tests, and Diagnosis of Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Assessment of Second hand Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ocasio, Manuel A.; Wanner, Adam; Fleming, Lora E.; Lee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory diseases encompass a number of complex disorders that constitute a major cause of both morbidity and mortality worldwide with a major burden to the afflicted as well as the health care systems that care for them. Although the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) has been decreasing in industrialized countries due to a decreasing number of smokers and stricter laws aimed at reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), the burden of CRDs in developing world populations is expected to worsen due to communicable disease prevention programs, aging populations, environmental air pollution, and continued tobacco smoke exposure. Although tobacco smoking has been shown to be significantly associated with many CRDs, evidence linking SHS exposure to different CRDs is mixed, especially with low levels of SHS exposure. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a series of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of non-institutionalized adults and children in the United States (U.S.). In addition to being used to monitor the health of the U.S. population, NHANES data allow for research into prevalent health problems and their risk factors in the population, such with CRDs and SHS exposure. NHANES data can be utilized to explore a variety of issues related to the assessment of SHS exposure and its association to respiratory symptoms and illnesses. Results First, we provide a brief review of NHANES including its strengths and limitations. We then provide a summary of the variables and publically available population based data that can be used to study associations between SHS exposure and CRD symptoms, testing and diagnoses. Conclusion Rich and cost effective, NHANES data provide a unique opportunity for research into the risk factors for CRDs in the U.S. population, particularly into the possible health effects of low levels of SHS exposure. PMID:26052473

  5. Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Particulate matter air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects. The fraction of ambient particles that are mainly responsible for the observed health effects is still a matter of controversy. Better characterization of the health relevant particle fraction will have major implications for air quality policy since it will determine which sources should be controlled. The RUPIOH study, an EU-funded multicentre study, was designed to examine the distribution of various ambient particle metrics in four European cities (Amsterdam, Athens, Birmingham, Helsinki) and assess their health effects in participants with asthma or COPD, based on a detailed exposure assessment. In this paper the association of central site measurements with respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities is examined. Methods At each centre a panel of participants with either asthma or COPD recorded respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities in a diary for six months. Exposure assessment included simultaneous measurements of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles at a central site. Data on gaseous pollutants were also collected. The associations of the 24-hour average concentrations of air pollution indices with the health outcomes were assessed in a hierarchical modelling approach. A city specific analysis controlling for potential confounders was followed by a meta-analysis to provide overall effect estimates. Results A 10 μg/m3 increase in previous day coarse particles concentrations was positively associated with most symptoms (an increase of 0.6 to 0.7% in average) and limitation in walking (OR= 1.076, 95% CI: 1.026-1.128). Same day, previous day and previous two days ozone concentrations were positively associated with cough (OR= 1.061, 95% CI: 1.013-1.111; OR= 1.049, 95% CI: 1.016-1.083 and OR= 1.059, 95% CI: 1.027-1.091, respectively). No consistent associations were observed between fine particle concentrations, nitrogen dioxide and respiratory

  6. Computational fluid dynamics: a suitable assessment tool for demonstrating the antiobstructive effect of drugs in the therapy of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Achilles, N; Pasch, N; Lintermann, A; Schröder, W; Mösges, R

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review aims first to summarize the previous areas of application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and then to demonstrate that CFD is also a suitable instrument for generating three-dimensional images that depict drug effects on nasal mucosa. Special emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional visualization of the antiobstructive effect of nasal steroids and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In the beginning, CFD technology was only used to demonstrate physiological and pathophysiological airflow conditions in the nose and to aid in preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring of surgical outcome in the field of rhinosurgery. The first studies using CFD examined nasal respiratory physiology, important functions of the nose, such as conditioning and warming of inspired air, and the influence of pathophysiological changes on nasal breathing. Also, postoperative outcome of surgical procedures could be "predicted" using the nasal airflow model. Later studies focused on the three-dimensional visualization of the effect of nasal sprays in healthy subjects and postoperative patients. A completely new approach, however, was the use of CFD in the area of allergic rhinitis and the treatment of its cardinal symptom of nasal obstruction. In two clinical trials, a suitable patient with a positive history of allergic rhinitis was enrolled during a symptom-free period after the pollen season. The patient developed typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after provocation with birch pollen. The 3-D visualization showed that the antiallergic treatment successfully counteracted the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nasal airflow. These observations were attributed to the antiobstructive effect of a nasal steroid (mometasone furoate) and a systemic antihistamine (levocetirizine), respectively. CFD therefore constitutes a non-invasive, precise, reliable and objective examination procedure for generating three-dimensional images that

  7. Computational fluid dynamics: a suitable assessment tool for demonstrating the antiobstructive effect of drugs in the therapy of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Achilles, N; Pasch, N; Lintermann, A; Schröder, W; Mösges, R

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review aims first to summarize the previous areas of application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and then to demonstrate that CFD is also a suitable instrument for generating three-dimensional images that depict drug effects on nasal mucosa. Special emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional visualization of the antiobstructive effect of nasal steroids and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In the beginning, CFD technology was only used to demonstrate physiological and pathophysiological airflow conditions in the nose and to aid in preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring of surgical outcome in the field of rhinosurgery. The first studies using CFD examined nasal respiratory physiology, important functions of the nose, such as conditioning and warming of inspired air, and the influence of pathophysiological changes on nasal breathing. Also, postoperative outcome of surgical procedures could be "predicted" using the nasal airflow model. Later studies focused on the three-dimensional visualization of the effect of nasal sprays in healthy subjects and postoperative patients. A completely new approach, however, was the use of CFD in the area of allergic rhinitis and the treatment of its cardinal symptom of nasal obstruction. In two clinical trials, a suitable patient with a positive history of allergic rhinitis was enrolled during a symptom-free period after the pollen season. The patient developed typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after provocation with birch pollen. The 3-D visualization showed that the antiallergic treatment successfully counteracted the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nasal airflow. These observations were attributed to the antiobstructive effect of a nasal steroid (mometasone furoate) and a systemic antihistamine (levocetirizine), respectively. CFD therefore constitutes a non-invasive, precise, reliable and objective examination procedure for generating three-dimensional images that

  8. General practitioners’ prescribing behaviour as a determinant of poor persistence with inhaled corticosteroids in children with respiratory symptoms: mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Ad A; Duiverman, Eric; Oldenhof, Frank S; Brand, Paul L P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate general practitioners’ (GPs’) prescribing behaviour as a determinant of persistence with and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in children. Design Prospective observational study of persistence with and adherence to ICS followed by a focus group study of the GPs prescribing this treatment. Setting 7 primary care practices in the area of Zwolle, the Netherlands. Participants 134 children aged 2–12 years had been prescribed ICS in the year before the study started by their 19 GPs. Main outcome measures Patterns and motives of GPs’ prescribing behaviour and the relationship with persistence with and adherence to ICS. Results GPs’ prescribing behaviour was characterised by prescribing short courses of ICS to children with various respiratory symptoms without follow-up for making a diagnosis of asthma. This was driven by the GPs’ pragmatic approach to deal with the large number of children with respiratory symptoms, and by beliefs about ICS which differed from currently available evidence. This prescribing behaviour was the main reason why 68 (51%) children did not persist with the use of ICS. In children with persistent use of ICS and a GP's advice to use ICS on a daily basis, the median (IQR) adherence was 70% (41–84%), and was similar for patients with persistent asthma and children lacking a diagnosis or symptoms of asthma. Conclusions Inappropriate prescription of ICS to children by GPs is common and drives the lack of persistence with ICS therapy in primary care. This finding should be taken into account when interpreting data from large prescription database studies. Improving primary healthcare providers’ knowledge and competence in diagnosing and managing asthma in children is needed. PMID:23558733

  9. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  10. The inflammatory nature of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Durham, S R

    1998-12-01

    The allergic inflammatory response in allergic rhinitis has been studied extensively owing to the high frequency of the condition, the significant morbidity it causes and the accessibility of the nasal tissue. The allergic inflammatory response is characterized by IgE synthesis, IgE-dependent mast cell activation and infiltration of the nasal mucosa by T lymphocytes and eosinophils. The immediate-phase response is mediated by a range of inflammatory mediators (such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins), resulting in vasodilatation, oedema, mucus secretion, itching and sneezing. Individuals who experience a late-phase response have further nasal symptoms 4-24 h after the initial challenge with allergen. Results of nasal biopsy studies indicate that the late-phase allergic response involves T-lymphocyte activation, production of TH2-type cytokines and tissue eosinophilia. Corticosteroids potently inhibit T-lymphocyte responses, and clinical studies in subjects with allergic rhinitis have demonstrated that they are extremely effective in blocking both early- and late-phase allergic reactions. Topical aqueous triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray represents a novel formulation of a topical corticosteroid for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Data from controlled clinical studies indicate that it is effective in treating seasonal and perennial disease, is well tolerated, does not suppress adrenocortical function, is odourless, and can be administered as a once-daily dose. PMID:9988430

  11. METALS, PARTICLES AND IMPACT UPON PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The increase in allergic asthma over the past few decades has prompted investigations into whether air pollution may affect either the incidence or severity of allergic lung disease. Population studies have demonstrated that as air pollution rises, symptoms, medication use a...

  12. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  13. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  14. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2011-01-01

    Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae. PMID:22053309

  15. Molecular mechanisms underpinning laser printer and photocopier induced symptoms, including chronic fatigue syndrome and respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness: pharmacological treatment with cinnamon and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kurt; Maes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of laser printers and photocopiers (LP&P) may be associated with health problems. The aim of this review is to describe the clinical picture that is triggered by exposure to LP&P and the molecular mechanisms underpinning the symptoms. Exposure to LP&P to vulnerable subjects may cause a symptom complex consisting of 1) irritation and hyperresponsiveness of the upper and lower respiratory tract; and 2) chronic fatigue (syndrome, CFS). Symptoms occur within hours after L&P exposure and may last for some days or become chronic with exacerbations following LP&P exposure. Substances that can be found in toners or are generated during the printing process are Silica nanoparticles, Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles, Carbon Black, metals, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOC), etc. The latter may generate oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), damage-associated molecular patterns molecules, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and modulate Toll Like Receptor 4 (TRL4)‑related mechanisms. It is concluded that LP&P emissions may cause activation of the TLR4 Radical Cycle and thus be associated with the onset of chronic inflammatory and O&NS illnesses, such as CFS, in some vulnerable individuals. Cinnamon, an antagonist of the TLR4 complex, and Hydrogen, a potent antiinflammatory and oxygen radical scavenger, may have efficacy treating LP&P-induced illness.

  16. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value. PMID:26706728

  17. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  18. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  19. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  20. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  1. Prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in 10- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chen, Yu-Huan; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Huang, Jing-Long

    2007-03-01

    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was distributed through 14 schools and was completed by 11,874 students out of which are parents of 4,167 children aged between 10 and 12 years old and 7,677 older children aged between 13 and 15 years in central Taiwan. The overall cumulative and 12-month prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema were 7.4%, 43.0%, and 7.2%, respectively. It was shown that boys had significantly higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001) when compared to girls in central Taiwan. The study also found that prevalence rates among younger children with symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and recurrent itchy rash in the past 12-month (8.2%, 44.4%, and 8.8%) were higher than that among older children (6.9%, 42.2%, and 6.3%, respectively). In conclusion, boys had significantly higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis than girls while younger children tend to have higher prevalence of the disorders than those that are older in age.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds Enhance Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Ulrike; Böhme, Alexander; Kohajda, Tibor; Mögel, Iljana; Schütze, Nicole; von Bergen, Martin; Simon, Jan C.; Lehmann, Irina; Polte, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and adverse allergic and respiratory symptoms. However, whether VOCs exhibit a causal role as adjuvants in asthma development remains unclear. Methods To investigate the effect of VOC exposure on the development of allergic airway inflammation Balb/c mice were exposed to VOCs emitted by new polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring, sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and characterized in acute and chronic murine asthma models. Furthermore, prevalent evaporated VOCs were analyzed and mice were exposed to selected single VOCs. Results Exposure of mice to PVC flooring increased eosinophilic lung inflammation and OVA-specific IgE serum levels compared to un-exposed control mice. The increased inflammation was associated with elevated levels of Th2-cytokines. Long-term exposure to PVC flooring exacerbated chronic airway inflammation. VOCs with the highest concentrations emitted by new PVC flooring were N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB). Exposure to NMP or TXIB also increased the allergic immune response in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro or in vivo exposure to NMP or TXIB reduced IL-12 production in maturing dendritic cells (DCs) and enhanced airway inflammation after adoptive DC transfer into Balb/c mice. At higher concentrations both VOCs induced oxidative stress demonstrated by increased isoprostane and glutathione-S-transferase-pi1 protein levels in the lung of non-sensitized mice. Treatment of PVC flooring-exposed mice with N-acetylcysteine prevented the VOC-induced increase of airway inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that exposure to VOCs may increase the allergic immune response by interfering with DC function and by inducing oxidative stress and has therefore to be considerate as risk factor for the development of allergic diseases. PMID:22802943

  3. Prevalence of Bordetella holmesii and Bordetella bronchiseptica in respiratory tract samples from Belgian patients with pertussis-like symptoms by sensitive culture method and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, D; De Bel, A; De Smet, D; Heylen, O; Vekens, E; Vandoorslaer, K; Soetens, O; Piérard, D

    2013-01-01

    Insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001 are targets for molecular detection of respectively Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. There is a raising concern about specificity of these targets due to sequence similarity with Bordetella holmesii and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The likelihood of false (para)pertussis diagnoses should be correlated with the prevalence of these organisms in the respiratory tract (RT). From October 2010 until September 2011, 2,207 RT samples were submitted to the Belgian reference laboratory for pertussis diagnosis. End-point IS481/IS 1001 PCR and culture were performed for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. We developed a sensitive culture method followed by screening with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to look for B. holmesii and B. bronchiseptica in our samples,. Only one B. bronchiseptica and no B. holmesii were detected in RT samples from Belgian patients with pertussis-like symptoms.

  4. Salivary IgA response and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms during a 21-week competitive season in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Mortatti, Arnaldo L; Arruda, Ademir F S; Freitas, Camila G; de Arruda, Miguel; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-02-01

    Sports training and competition are significant sources of stress, especially for young athletes. It is well known that physiological and psychological stressors induce neuroendocrine responses that could modulate immune system function. However, to date, little is known about the immune responses of young soccer players during a competitive season. Therefore, this study examined the effects of a 21-week competitive season divided into preseason, competitive season, and detraining on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms, and salivary cortisol in preadolescent male soccer players. Thirty-four young soccer players agreed to participate, and 26 (12.9 ± 0.2 years) completed the entire study. The investigation period was structured as follows: a 12-week preparatory training phase (preseason training), a 7-week competitive and a 2-week detraining phase. Resting saliva samples were taken to determine cortisol and SIgA responses. The players were required to complete a weekly log during the entire investigation reporting every sign or symptoms consistent with URTI. A significant increase in SIgA secretion rate and a decrease in URTI symptoms were observed after the 2-week detraining period (p < 0.05). No change was observed for cortisol during the study. These results indicate that training and competition demands affect the mucosal immune responses of young athletes. In addition, a short-prophylactic period (2-week detraining period) after a competitive period may attenuate mucosal immunosuppression related to URTI symptoms. Sport coaches should monitor markers of mucosal immune function to minimize illness that ultimately might lead to a decrease in performance.

  5. Contributions of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein to a diagnosis of pneumonia in acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hopstaken, R M; Muris, J W; Knottnerus, J A; Kester, A D; Rinkens, P E; Dinant, G J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests enabling general practitioners (GPs) to differentiate rapidly between pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are needed to prevent increase of bacterial resistance by unjustified antibiotic prescribing. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) for pneumonia; to derive a prediction rule for the presence of pneumonia; and to identify a low-risk group of patients who do not require antibiotic treatment. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Fifteen GP surgeries in the southern part of The Netherlands. METHOD: Twenty-five GPs recorded clinical information and diagnosis in 246 adult patients presenting with LRTI. Venous blood samples for CRP and ESR were taken and chest radiographs (reference standard) were made. Odds ratios, describing the relationships between discrete diagnostic variables and reference standard (pneumonia or no pneumonia) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of ESR, CRP, and final models for pneumonia was performed. Prediction rules for pneumonia were derived from multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Dry cough, diarrhoea, and a recorded temperature of > or = 38 degrees C were independent and statistically significant predictors of pneumonia, whereas abnormal pulmonary auscultation and clinical diagnosis of pneumonia by the GPs were not. ESR and CRP had higher diagnostic odds ratios than any of the symptoms and signs. Adding CRP to the final 'symptoms and signs' model significantly increased the probability of correct diagnosis. Applying a prediction rule for low-risk patients, including a CRP of < 20, 80 of the 193 antibiotic prescriptions could have been prevented with a maximum risk of 2.5% of missing a pneumonia case. CONCLUSION: Most symptoms and signs traditionally associated with pneumonia are not predictive of pneumonia in general practice. The prediction rule for low

  6. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR. PMID:26012287

  7. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR.

  8. Notes from the Field: Respiratory Symptoms and Skin Irritation Among Hospital Workers Using a New Disinfection Product - Pennsylvania, 2015.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Brie; Casey, Megan L; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Edwards, Nicole; Fedan, Kathleen B; Cummings, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    In March 2014, a new disinfection product, consisting of hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, and acetic acid, was introduced at a Pennsylvania hospital to aid in the control of health care-associated infections. The product is an Environmental Protection Agency-registered non-bleach sporicide advertised as a one-step cleaner, disinfectant, and deodorizer. According to the manufacturer's safety data sheet, the product requires no personal protective equipment when it is diluted with water by an automated dispenser before use. On January 30, 2015, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH) received a confidential employee request to conduct a health hazard evaluation at the hospital. The request cited concerns about exposure of hospital environmental services staff members to the product and reported symptoms among persons who had used the product that included eye and nasal problems, asthma-like symptoms, shortness of breath, skin problems, wheeze, chest tightness, and cough.

  9. Notes from the Field: Respiratory Symptoms and Skin Irritation Among Hospital Workers Using a New Disinfection Product - Pennsylvania, 2015.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Brie; Casey, Megan L; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Edwards, Nicole; Fedan, Kathleen B; Cummings, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    In March 2014, a new disinfection product, consisting of hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, and acetic acid, was introduced at a Pennsylvania hospital to aid in the control of health care-associated infections. The product is an Environmental Protection Agency-registered non-bleach sporicide advertised as a one-step cleaner, disinfectant, and deodorizer. According to the manufacturer's safety data sheet, the product requires no personal protective equipment when it is diluted with water by an automated dispenser before use. On January 30, 2015, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH) received a confidential employee request to conduct a health hazard evaluation at the hospital. The request cited concerns about exposure of hospital environmental services staff members to the product and reported symptoms among persons who had used the product that included eye and nasal problems, asthma-like symptoms, shortness of breath, skin problems, wheeze, chest tightness, and cough. PMID:27100053

  10. Absence of back to school peaks in human rhinovirus detections and respiratory symptoms in a cohort of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Tovey, Euan R; Willenborg, Christiana M; Toelle, Brett G; Ampon, Rose; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Strachan, Roxanne; Belessis, Yvonne; Jaffe, Adam; Reddel, Helen K; Crisafulli, Daniel; Marks, Guy B; Rawlinson, William D

    2016-04-01

    Much of what is known about the seasonality of human rhinovirus (hRV) infections has been learned from the study of acute asthma exacerbations presenting to emergency care, including those among children at the start of the school term. Much less is known about the patterns of hRVs in the community. In this study, viruses and day-to-day symptoms of asthma and colds were monitored twice weekly in 67 children with asthma aged 5-12 years, over a 15 month period in Sydney, Australia. Overall hRV was detected in 314/1232 (25.5%) of nasal wash samples and 142/1231 (11.5%) of exhaled breath samples; of these, 231 and 24 respectively were genotyped. HRVs were detected with similar prevalence rate throughout the year, including no peak in hRV prevalence following return to school. No peaks were seen in asthma and cold symptoms using twice-weekly diary records. However, over the same period in the community, there were peaks in asthma emergency visits both at a large local hospital and in state-wide hospitalizations, following both return to school (February) and in late autumn (May) in children of the same age. This study suggests that hRV infections are common throughout the year among children, and differences in virus prevalence alone may not account for peaks in asthma symptoms.

  11. Allergic reaction after rubber dam placement.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, E D; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C; de Oliveira, M M

    2000-03-01

    In the last few years allergic reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) have increased in dental practice affecting both the dental team and patients. Some case reports discuss the potential risks of hypersensitivity to NRL products. An adverse patient reaction after dental rubber dam placement is reported. About 1 min after the isolation of the tooth with a rubber dam the patient presented signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity. Oxygen and intravenous hydrocortisone were administered and the patient kept under observation. After 2 h she had stable vital signs and no more allergics symptoms. It is unclear whether components of the NRL dam or the cornstarch powder incorporated with the rubber dam was responsible for the allergic reaction. Dentists must be aware of the health problem and be prepared for an adequate management in dental practice.

  12. PRIMARY NOCTURNAL ENURESIS IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND SEVERE ADENOTONSILLAR HYPERTROPHY: A SINGLE CENTER PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Chimenz, R; Manti, S; Fede, C; Stroscio, G; Visalli, C; Nicotera, A; Di Rosa, G; Romeo, A C; Salpietro, V; Cuppari, C

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep that occurs at least twice a week for three consecutive months. There is no unifying etiology for nocturnal enuresis in the pediatric population and the disorder is likely to be multifactorial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between primary nocturnal enuresis, allergic rhinitis, and related complications in a paediatric case series from a single Center. We retrospectively reviewed and prospectively followed-up at our Institution (i) 32 children (14 females, 18 males; mean age 6.31±1.21 yrs) affected by allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophygrade I-II (group A) and (ii) 27 children (11 females, 16 males; mean age 6.52±1.33 yrs) affected by allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy grade III-IV (group B). Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed on the basis of (a) typical nasal symptoms due to atopic sensitization (e.g., rhinorrhea , itching, sneezing fits, and nasal congestion and obstruction) and (b) positive skin prick testing and/or increased level of total serum IgE. We identified discrepancies between group A and group B in terms of risk of primary nocturnal enuresis. In fact, only 1 child of group A (3.12%) reported uncomplicated primary nocturnal enuresis; conversely, 6 children of group B (22.22%) showed a history of uncomplicated primary nocturnal enuresis (p=0.040). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of atopic sensitization and serum total IgE levels (p=0.43). Allergic rhinitis may potentially influence the onset and the natural history of nocturnal enuresis in some children. Children with allergic rhinitis and more severe respiratory manifestations, seem to be more prone to developing primary nocturnal enuresis, likely due to potential multi-factorial causes (e.g., sleep disorders, chronic phlogosis, immune deregulation).

  13. [Associations between bioaerosols coming from livestock facilities and asthmatic symptoms in children].

    PubMed

    Hoopmann, M; Hehl, O; Neisel, F; Werfel, T

    2006-01-01

    Although health effects of occupational exposures to livestock emissions are known, potential associations between living in the neighbourhood of intensive livestock facilities and the risk of developing respiratory or allergic diseases are still under discussion. During routine school entry examinations in selected rural districts in Lower Saxony we asked parents about respiratory and allergic symptoms of their 5-6 year old children. A questionnaire with standardised questions of the ISAAC-Studies for respiratory and allergic symptoms and corresponding risk factors was used. Complementarily the children were examined for visible signs of flexural dermatitis and in a subsample the SX1-test was used as an in vitro test for inhalative IgE mediated sensibilisations in capillary blood. Individual exposure to bioaerosols (endotoxin, fungi, bacteria and total dust) coming from livestock facilities was estimated using a Lagrange dispersion model based on the emission rates and locations of the lifestock facilities. A total of 7943 questionnaires (response rate over 85%) were analysed, of which 3867 could be used for the correlation analyses between exposition to endotoxin and asthmatic symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were analyzed, considering an atopic disease of the parents as a potential effect modifier and not as a confounder. The prevalence of allergic and asthmatic symptoms is similar to the results of other comparable studies, e. g. "wheezing in the last 12 months" 15.9% for boys and 12.9% for girls. An increase in the prevalence of asthmatic symptoms for higher endotoxin levels was observed only for children of atopic parents. The multivariate controlled odds ratio for one unit logarithm endotoxin concentrations is 1.15, p-value 0.016. Similar effects were observed for other asthma indicators, but not for subjective criteria of the exposition, e. g. the distance to the next large livestock facility guesstimated by parents. Among the overall

  14. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, K F; Grimwood, K; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M; Acworth, J P; Phillips, N; Goyal, V; Chang, A B

    2016-06-01

    Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15 years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12 months = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24 months = 6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60 months = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized. PMID:26916343

  15. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, K F; Grimwood, K; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M; Acworth, J P; Phillips, N; Goyal, V; Chang, A B

    2016-06-01

    Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15 years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12 months = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24 months = 6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60 months = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized.

  16. Nut allergy: symptom and severity reporting.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, H; Luyt, D

    1999-01-01

    Nut allergy, in particular peanut allergy, is becoming more common in children. Immune sensitisation to nuts appears to be occurring earlier in life. High incidence of other allergic diseases in children with nut allergy. Onset of anaphylactic symptoms is quick but symptoms last for a short time. Necessity for hospital admission due to severity of allergic reaction is low.

  17. Laser surgery for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fukutake, T; Yamashita, T; Tomoda, K; Kumazawa, T

    1986-12-01

    The inferior turbinates of 140 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis were vaporized by a defocused carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam, using specially designed handpieces. Among these patients, 131 showed improvement in subjective symptoms one month after laser surgery. Excellent or good results were obtained in 27 of 35 patients who were followed up more than one year after laser surgery. The histopathologic changes observed in the nasal mucous membrane after surgery were fibrous proliferation and scar formation in the superficial layer of the submucosa. This surgery can be done under surface anesthesia as an outpatient procedure, and it is painless, with no bleeding.

  18. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  19. Does traffic exhaust contribute to the development of asthma and allergic sensitization in children: findings from recent cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence from recent prospective studies that long-term traffic pollution could contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms and allergic sensitization in children. We have reviewed cohort studies published since 2002 and found in PubMed in Oct 2008. In all, 13 papers based on data from 9 cohorts have evaluated the relationship between traffic exposure and respiratory health. All surveys reported associations with at least some of the studied respiratory symptoms. The outcome varied, however, according to the age of the child. Nevertheless, the consistency in the results indicates that traffic exhaust contributes to the development of respiratory symptoms in healthy children. Potential effects of traffic exhaust on the development of allergic sensitization were only assessed in the four European birth cohorts. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants had no association with sensitization in ten-year-old schoolchildren in Norway. In contrast, German, Dutch and Swedish preschool children had an increased risk of sensitization related to traffic exhaust despite fairly similar levels of outdoor air pollution as in Norway. Traffic-related effects on sensitization could be restricted to individuals with a specific genetic polymorphism. Assessment of gene-environment interactions on sensitization has so far only been carried out in a subgroup of the Swedish birth cohort. Further genetic association studies are required and may identify individuals vulnerable to adverse effects from traffic-related pollutants. Future studies should also evaluate effects of traffic exhaust on the development and long term outcome of different phenotypes of asthma and wheezing symptoms. PMID:19371435

  20. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials. PMID:22686617

  1. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  2. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  4. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  5. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  6. Environmental chemicals relevant for respiratory hypersensitivity: the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Becher, R; Hongslo, J K; Jantunen, M J; Dybing, E

    1996-08-01

    The allergenic constituents of non-industrial indoor environments are predominantly found in the biologic fraction. Several reports have related biological particles such as mites and their excreta, dander from pets and other furred animals, fungi and bacteria to allergic manifestations including respiratory hypersensitivity among the occupants of buildings. Also, bacterial cell-wall components and the spores of toxin-producing moulds may contribute to the induction of hypersensitivity, but the relevance for human health is not yet determined. The knowledge regarding hypersensitivity and asthmatic reactions after exposure to chemical agents is primarily based on data from occupational settings with much higher exposure levels than usually found in non-industrial indoor environments. However, there is evidence that indoor exposure to tobacco smoke, some volatile organic compounds (VOC) and various combustion products (either by using unvented stoves or from outdoor sources) can be related to asthmatic symptoms. In some susceptible individuals, the development of respiratory hypersensitivity or elicitation of asthmatic symptoms may also be related to the indiscriminate use of different household products followed by exposure to compounds such as diisocyanates, organic acid anhydrides, formaldehyde, styrene and hydroquinone. At present, the contribution of the indoor environment both to the development of respiratory hypersensitivity and for triggering asthmatic symptoms is far from elucidated.

  7. Allergic rhinitis in preschool children from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chong Neto, H J; Rosário, C S; Rosário, B A; Chong, F H; Grasselli, E A; Silva, F C; Bojarski, L F M; Rosário, N A

    2014-04-01

    There are few published studies on prevalence of allergic rhinitis in preschool children. The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms in the first year of life adding supplementary questions to the EISL instrument. A cross-sectional study used Phase III EISL written questionnaire in addition to modified allergic rhinitis ISAAC questions. One thousand and three parents of infants answered the questionnaire: 484 (48.3%) had at least one sneezing, or a runny or blocked nose episodes without cold or flu in the first year of life. A quarter of infants had recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) and more frequent in the presence of AR symptoms. Physician diagnosis of AR and the use of intranasal steroids and both antihistamines and intranasal steroids were more common among those infants with AR symptoms. The prevalence of AR symptoms was high and starting early in life.

  8. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  9. Treatment strategies designed to minimize medical complications of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fireman, P

    1997-01-01

    Perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis affect many million Americans and account for close to $2 billion annually in medical costs and lost productivity. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and pruritus are, at best, very annoying and may be quite debilitating in some patients, causing irritability, insomnia, and fatigue. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is often not self-limiting and can contribute to serious medical complications such as sinusitis and otitis. Aggressive medical management of allergic rhinitis is important in the therapy for chronic sinusitis and otitis media and may prevent progression to more serious disease. Accurate diagnosis and initiation of environmental control measures to reduce exposure to causative factors should accompany initiation of pharmacotherapy. Antihistamines form the cornerstone of pharmacologic therapy, and use of the newer nonsedating antihistamines such as loratadine, terfenadine, and astemizole is not associated with the sedation produced by the classic antihistamines. Both loratadine and terfenadine are available in combination with a decongestant. Topical intranasal corticosteroids are another important component of pharmacologic management of allergic rhinitis. Allergen immunotherapy (hyposensitization) is used in those patients not adequately managed with pharmacotherapy. The relative safety and convenient dosing schedule of the newer medications should be accompanied by enhanced patient compliance and, hence, better control of allergic symptoms, halting progression of allergic rhinitis to serious medical complications. PMID:9129750

  10. Evaluation of a Web-based Intervention Providing Tailored Advice for Self-management of Minor Respiratory Symptoms: Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Judith; Michie, Susan; Weal, Mark; Wills, Gary; Little, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been relatively little research on the role of web-based support for self-care in the management of minor, acute symptoms, in contrast to the wealth of recent research into Internet interventions to support self-management of long-term conditions. Objective This study was designed as an evaluation of the usage and effects of the “Internet Doctor” website providing tailored advice on self-management of minor respiratory symptoms (eg, cough, sore throat, fever, runny nose), in preparation for a definitive trial of clinical effectiveness. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of using the Internet Doctor webpages on patient enablement and use of health services, to test whether the tailored, theory-based advice provided by the Internet Doctor was superior to providing a static webpage providing the best existing patient information (the control condition). The second aim was to gain an understanding of the processes that might mediate any change in intentions to consult the doctor, by comparing changes in relevant beliefs and illness perceptions in the intervention and control groups, and by analyzing usage of the Internet Doctor webpages and predictors of intention change. Methods Participants (N = 714) completed baseline measures of beliefs about their symptoms and self-care online, and were then automatically randomized to the Internet Doctor or control group. These measures were completed again by 332 participants after 48 hours. Four weeks later, 214 participants completed measures of enablement and health service use. Results The Internet Doctor resulted in higher levels of satisfaction than the control information (mean 6.58 and 5.86, respectively; P = .002) and resulted in higher levels of enablement a month later (median 3 and 2, respectively; P = .03). Understanding of illness improved in the 48 hours following use of the Internet Doctor webpages, whereas it did not improve in the control group (mean change from baseline 0.21 and

  11. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  12. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  13. Airborne fungi in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.

    Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 μm were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 μm were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.

  14. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  15. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  17. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  18. Levels of household mold associated with respiratory symptoms in the first year of life in a cohort at risk for asthma.

    PubMed

    Gent, Janneane F; Ren, Ping; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-12-01

    We assessed prospectively the risk of increased incidence of respiratory symptoms after exposure to particular fungal genera in a susceptible population--namely, infants (n = 880) at high risk for developing asthma. Days of wheeze or persistent cough, information on maternal allergy and asthma, socioeconomic variables, and housing characteristics were collected over the course of the infant's first year of life. Exposure to mold was assessed by airborne samples collected at one time early in the infant's life. Fungi were identified to genus level, recorded as colony-forming units per cubic meter (CFU/m3), and then categorized into four levels: 0 (undetectable), 1-499 CFU/m3 (low), 500-999 CFU/m3 (medium), and greater than or equal to 1,000 CFU/m3 (high). Effects of mold on wheeze and persistent cough, adjusting for potential confounding factors, were examined with Poisson regression analyses. The two most commonly found genera were Cladosporium (in 62% of the homes) and Penicillium (41%). Cladosporium was associated with reported mold (p < 0.02) and water leaks (p < 0.003). Rate of persistent cough was associated with reported mold [Rate ratio (RR) = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18-1.88]. The highest level of Penicillium was associated with higher rates of wheeze (RR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.34-3.46) and persistent cough (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.31-3.24) in models controlling for maternal history of asthma and allergy, socioeconomic status, season of mold sample, and certain housing characteristics. We conclude that infants in this high-risk group who are exposed to high levels of Penicillium are at significant risk for wheeze and persistent cough.

  19. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-01

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  20. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  1. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  2. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Piette, Vincent; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Demoly, Pascal

    2006-05-01

    Numerous pregnant women suffer from allergic rhinitis, and particular attention is required when prescribing drugs to these patients. In addition, physiologic changes associated with pregnancy could affect the upper airways. Evidence-based guidelines on the management of allergic rhinitis have been published. Medication can be prescribed during pregnancy when the apparent benefit of the drug is greater than the apparent risk. Usually, there is at least one "safe" drug from each major class used to control symptoms. All glucocorticosteroids are teratogenic in animals but, when the indication is clear (for diseases possibly associated, such as severe asthma exacerbation), the benefit of the drug is far greater than the risk. Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (eg, beclomethasone or budesonide) have not been incriminated as teratogens in humans and are used by pregnant women who have asthma. A few H1-antihistamines can safely be used as well. Most oral decongestants (except pseudoephedrine) are teratogenic in animals. There are no such data available for intranasal decongestants. Finally, pregnancy is not considered to be a contraindication for the continuation of immunotherapy.

  3. Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hajat, S; Haines, A; Atkinson, R W; Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Emberlin, J

    2001-04-01

    Few published studies have looked at the health effects of air pollution in the primary care setting, and most have concentrated on lower rather than upper respiratory diseases. The authors investigated the association of daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis with air pollution in London, United Kingdom. Generalized additive models were used to regress time series of daily numbers of patients consulting for allergic rhinitis against 1992--1994 measures of air pollution, after control for possible confounders and adjustment for overdispersion and serial correlation. In children, a 10th--90th percentile increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) levels 4 days prior to consultation (13-31 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 24.5% increase in consultations (95% confidence interval: 14.6, 35.2; p < 0.00001); a 10th--90th percentile increase in averaged ozone (O(3)) concentrations on the day of consultation and the preceding 3 days (6--29 parts per billion) was associated with a 37.6% rise (95% confidence interval: 23.3, 53.5; p < 0.00001). For adults, smaller effect sizes were observed for SO(2) and O(3). The association with SO(2) remained highly significant in the presence of other pollutants. This study suggests that air pollution worsens allergic rhinitis symptoms, leading to substantial increases in consultations. SO(2) and O(3) seem particularly responsible, and both seem to contribute independently. PMID:11282799

  4. Dietary n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period as a strategy to minimize childhood allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria; Gunaratne, Anoja W; Collins, Carmel T

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the modulation of the immune response during early childhood and whether this may translate to a reduction in childhood allergic disease. Several randomized controlled trials of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been reported, largely involving children who are at high hereditary risk of developing allergies. These studies relatively consistently indicate that supplementation during pregnancy results in fewer children with atopic eczema in early childhood. On the other hand, supplementation studies confined exclusively to the postnatal period have demonstrated mixed results with one trial showing no effect and the other suggesting a transient effect on symptoms of respiratory disease. In summary, supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period and before allergic response is established may be a useful strategy to prevent early childhood allergic disease in children at high hereditary risk. Further work is needed to establish the optimal period of supplementation and whether longer term benefits exist. PMID:24107505

  5. Dietary n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period as a strategy to minimize childhood allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria; Gunaratne, Anoja W; Collins, Carmel T

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the modulation of the immune response during early childhood and whether this may translate to a reduction in childhood allergic disease. Several randomized controlled trials of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been reported, largely involving children who are at high hereditary risk of developing allergies. These studies relatively consistently indicate that supplementation during pregnancy results in fewer children with atopic eczema in early childhood. On the other hand, supplementation studies confined exclusively to the postnatal period have demonstrated mixed results with one trial showing no effect and the other suggesting a transient effect on symptoms of respiratory disease. In summary, supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period and before allergic response is established may be a useful strategy to prevent early childhood allergic disease in children at high hereditary risk. Further work is needed to establish the optimal period of supplementation and whether longer term benefits exist.

  6. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis and risk factors in 6- to 7-yearold children in İstanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akçay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Güler, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and its relationship with various risk factors in 6-7-year-old children living in İstanbul. A total of 11,483 children aged 6-7 years in 75 primary schools from all districts of İstanbul were surveyed. Prevalence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis was assessed using a translated version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Of them, 9,875 (50.7% M, 49.3% F) questionnaires were appropriately completed by the parents. The prevalence rates of lifetime, current and physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis were 44.3%, 29.2% and 8.1%, respectively. There was nearly a two-fold variation in the prevalence rates of rhinitis between the districts of İstanbul. Frequent paracetamol and antibiotic use in the first year of life, history of frequent upper respiratory tract infections, adenotonsillectomy, breastfeeding less than six months, dog at home or perianal redness in the first year of life, and frequent trucks passing near the home were independent risk factors.

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  8. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  9. Treatment of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Demoly, Pascal; Piette, Vincent; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a frequent problem during pregnancy. In addition, physiological changes associated with pregnancy can affect the upper airways. Evidence-based guidelines on the management of allergic rhinitis have recently been published, the most recent being the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)--World Health Organization consensus. Many pregnant women experience allergic rhinitis and particular attention is required when prescribing drugs to these patients. Medication can be prescribed during pregnancy when the apparent benefit of the drug is greater than the apparent risk. Usually, there is at least one drug from each major class that can be safely utilised to control symptoms. All glucocorticosteroids are teratogenic in animals but, when the indication is clear (for diseases possibly associated, such as severe asthma exacerbation), the benefit of the drug is far greater than the risk. Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (e.g. beclomethasone or budesonide) have not been incriminated as teratogens in humans and are used by pregnant women who have asthma. A few histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists (H(1)-antihistamines) can safely be used as well. Most oral decongestants (except pseudoephedrine) are teratogenic in animals. There are no such data available for intra-nasal decongestants. Finally, pregnancy is not considered as a contraindication for the continuation of allergen specific immunotherapy.

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Like Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Se Hee; You, Ji Hee; Baek, Hyung Tae; Na, Chul; Kim, Bung Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:25110499

  11. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tam, Elizabeth K.; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James A.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean ± s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3 ± 0.2 ppb, 2.5 ± 1.2 μg/m3, 0.6 ± 1.1 nmol H +/m3), 2) Intermittent (1.6 ± 1.8 ppb, 2.8 ± 1.5 μg/m3, 4.0 ± 6.6 nmol H +/m3), 3) Frequent (10.1 ± 5.2 ppb, 4.8 ± 1.9 μg/m3, 4.3 ± 6.7 nmol H +/m3), and 4) Acid (1.2 ± 0.4 ppb, 7.2 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 25.3 ± 17.9 nmol H +/m3). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC < 0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

  12. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  14. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  15. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  16. Respiratory diseases and the impact of cough in Taiwan: Results from the APBORD observational study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Cahill, Camilla L; Hamrosi, Kim K; Wang, De Yun

    2016-07-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study was a cross-sectional, observational study which examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across Asia-Pacific using 1 standard protocol. Here we report symptoms, healthcare resource use (HCRU), work impairment, and associated cost in Taiwan.Consecutive participants aged ≥ 18 years presenting to a physician with symptoms meeting the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants and their treating physician completed surveys detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Costs including direct medical costs and indirect costs associated with lost work productivity were calculated.The study enrolled 1001 patients. AR was the most frequent primary diagnosis (31.2%). A quarter of patients presented with a combination of respiratory diseases, with AR and asthma being the most frequent combination (14.1%). Cough or coughing up phlegm was the primary reason for the medical visit for patients with asthma and COPD, whereas nasal symptoms (watery runny nose, blocked nose, and congestion) were the primary reasons for AR and rhinosinusitis. Specialists were the most frequently used healthcare resource by patients with AR (26.1%), asthma (26.4%), COPD (26.6%), and rhinosinusitis (47.3%). The mean annual cost per patient with a respiratory disease was US$4511 (SD 5395). The cost was almost double for employed patients (US$8047, SD 6175), with the majority attributable to lost productivity.Respiratory diseases have a significant impact on disease burden in Taiwan. Treatment strategies that prevent lost work productivity could greatly reduce the economic burden of these diseases.

  17. Respiratory diseases and the impact of cough in Taiwan: Results from the APBORD observational study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Cahill, Camilla L; Hamrosi, Kim K; Wang, De Yun

    2016-07-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study was a cross-sectional, observational study which examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across Asia-Pacific using 1 standard protocol. Here we report symptoms, healthcare resource use (HCRU), work impairment, and associated cost in Taiwan.Consecutive participants aged ≥ 18 years presenting to a physician with symptoms meeting the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants and their treating physician completed surveys detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Costs including direct medical costs and indirect costs associated with lost work productivity were calculated.The study enrolled 1001 patients. AR was the most frequent primary diagnosis (31.2%). A quarter of patients presented with a combination of respiratory diseases, with AR and asthma being the most frequent combination (14.1%). Cough or coughing up phlegm was the primary reason for the medical visit for patients with asthma and COPD, whereas nasal symptoms (watery runny nose, blocked nose, and congestion) were the primary reasons for AR and rhinosinusitis. Specialists were the most frequently used healthcare resource by patients with AR (26.1%), asthma (26.4%), COPD (26.6%), and rhinosinusitis (47.3%). The mean annual cost per patient with a respiratory disease was US$4511 (SD 5395). The cost was almost double for employed patients (US$8047, SD 6175), with the majority attributable to lost productivity.Respiratory diseases have a significant impact on disease burden in Taiwan. Treatment strategies that prevent lost work productivity could greatly reduce the economic burden of these diseases. PMID

  18. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself.

  19. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself. PMID:10589473

  20. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  1. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  2. Sublingual immunotherapy for pediatric allergic rhinitis: The clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Licari, Amelia; Caimmi, Silvia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect 10%-20% of pediatric population and it is caused by the IgE-sensitization to environmental allergens, most importantly grass pollens and house dust mites. Allergic rhinitis can influence patient's daily activity severely and may precede the development of asthma, especially if it is not diagnosed and treated correctly. In addition to subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents the only treatment being potentially able to cure allergic respiratory diseases, by modulating the immune system activity. This review clearly summarizes and analyzes the available randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials, which aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and the safety of grass pollen and house dust mite SLIT for the specific treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis. Our analysis demonstrates the good evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT for allergic rhinitis to grass pollens in children, whereas trials regarding pediatric allergic rhinitis to house dust mites present lower quality, although several studies supported its usefulness. PMID:26862501

  3. Escaping the trap of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Oliviero; Massaro, Ilaria; Caminati, Marco; Quecchia, Cristina; Fassio, Filippo; Heffler, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2015-01-01

    Rhinitis is often the first symptom of allergy but is frequently ignored and classified as a nuisance condition. Ironically it has the greatest socioeconomic burden worldwide caused by its impact on work and on daily life. However, patients appear reticent to seek professional advice, visiting their doctor only when symptoms become 'intolerable' and often when their usual therapy proves ineffective. Clearly, it's time for new and more effective allergic rhinitis treatments. MP29-02 (Dymista®; Meda, Solna, Sweden) is a new class of medication for moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or intranasal corticosteroids is not considered sufficient. MP29-02 is a novel formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP). It benefits not only from the incorporation of two active agents, but also from a novel formulation; its lower viscosity, smaller droplet size, larger volume (137 μl) and wider spray angle ensure optimal coverage of, and retention on the nasal mucosa and contribute to its clinical efficacy. In clinical trials, patients treated with MP29-02 experienced twice the symptom relief as those treated with FP and AZE, who in turn exhibited significantly greater symptom relief than placebo-patients. Indeed, the advantage of MP29-02 over FP was approximately the same as that shown for FP over placebo. The advantage of MP29-02 was particularly evident in those patients for whom nasal congestion is predominant, with MP29-02 providing three times the nasal congestion relief of FP (p = 0.0018) and five times the relief of AZE (p = 0.0001). Moreover, patients treated with MP29-02 achieved each and every response up to a week faster than those treated with FP or AZE alone and in real life 1 in 2 patients reported the perception of well-controlled disease after only 3 days. MP29-02's superiority over FP was also apparent long-term in patients with perennial

  4. Antihistamine treatment for allergic rhinitis: different routes, different outcomes?

    PubMed

    Chipps, Bradley E; Harder, Julia M

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic disorders in the United States, causing patients significant discomfort and interfering with quality of life and functioning. Histamine is the primary mediator in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms and is a primary therapeutic target. Guidelines, both in the United States and globally, recommend antihistamines as first-line therapy of allergic rhinitis. This article discusses the outcomes associated with intranasal versus oral administration of antihistamines. Both oral and intranasal antihistamines are approved for the first-line treatment of allergic rhinitis and both formulations result in a reduction in symptoms and an improvement in quality of life. Intranasal agents may be preferred in patients in whom nasal congestion is particularly bothersome or in cases where a more rapid onset of action is desired. Oral agents would be a better choice in young children (especially children who are at risk of developing asthma), in cases of poor medication compliance, and in patients who are bothered most by histamine-associated symptoms, such as itching or red and watery eyes. Both oral and intranasal antihistamines are safe and well tolerated and meet the needs of patients with allergic rhinitis, especially those with mild to moderate disease. PMID:20031005

  5. Prevalence of IgE reactivities in mold-allergic subjects to commercially available fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Horner, W Elliott; Armstrong, Maricelis; El-Dahr, Jane; McCants, Marjorie; Reese, Gerald; Kobernick, Aaron K; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are important aeroallergens. However, fungal allergen sources of consistent quality for clinical testing are not readily available. Because some allergens have been identified as enzymes, we assessed the prevalence of IgE reactivity to commercially available fungal enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine IgE antibody reactivity by radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) to commercially available fungal enzymes in mold-allergic individuals. Sera from 20 subjects with symptoms of respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity to 2 or more fungal allergens (4 conidial [imperfecti] fungi and/or 8 basidiomycetes) were selected. Controls were six atopic individuals with neither history of fungal allergy nor skin test reactivity to fungi. Seventeen commercial fungal enzymes were used as antigens to evaluate the subjects' IgE antibody reactivity by RAST. Sera from most fungus-allergic individuals showed substantial IgE antibody reactivity to enzymes; control sera showed little or no reactivity. The mean reactivity to all commercial enzymes of all subjects tested was RAST > or = 3% with only one exception. The most reactive fungal enzymes were invertase (bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cellulase (Trichoderma viride), and glucosidase (brewers yeast, S. cerevisiae) with mean binding of 14.6, 9.5, and 8.8%, respectively. Using RAST results with a combination of four enzymes from S. cerevisiae (brewers yeast glucosidase, bakers' yeast maltase, invertase, and invertase V), a sensitivity of 100% was shown for detecting mold-allergic patients. The studies suggest that fungal enzymes may be useful source materials for the identification of fungal allergens and may also provide readily available source materials to produce improved diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  6. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  7. Periostin in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Inamitsu, Masako; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  8. Tropomyosin sensitization in house dust mite allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Gröger, Moritz; Canis, Martin; Pfrogner, Elisabeth; Kramer, Matthias F

    2012-04-01

    The growing popularity and frequency of consumption of seafood is accompanied by an increasing number of adverse reactions reported in literature. Allergic reactions to seafood can generate a variety of symptoms ranging from a mild oral allergy syndrome to keen anaphylactic reactions. Tropomyosin, the major shellfish allergen is regarded to be responsible for clinical cross-reactivity to inhaled house dust mites. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria and to compare the results with allergic symptoms. Sera of house dust mite allergic patients (positive skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE and intranasal provocation) were screened for IgE antibodies to tropomyosin (Der p 10). Patients were contacted by phone to evaluate allergic symptoms when consuming seafood. IgE antibodies to house dust mite tropomyosin (Der p 10) could be found in 4 out of 93 sera (4.3%). Two of these four patients (50%) showed itching and swelling of oral mucosa accompanied by bronchial obstruction after consumption of shrimp. Two patients had no problems when eating seafood. None of the seronegative patients complained about any health problems during or after consumption of seafood. In conclusion, cross-reactivity to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria, Germany is rarer than suspected. Beside the direct allergic reactions, a further part of reactions to seafood must therefore be ascribed to other mechanisms such as intoxication or intolerance to, e.g. additives in the food product.

  9. ALLERGIC DISEASES AND ASTHMA IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Khachapuridze, D; Katamadze, N; Chkuaseli, N

    2015-06-01

    The goal of our research was to find out, whether asthma phenotyping, based on presence of accompanying allergic diseases is significant for asthma classification or not. Research was conducted on the basis of questioning of random and representative cohorts of Tbilisi children's population, by cross-section method of epidemiological research. Special extended screening questionnaire was developed for epidemiological study of allergic diseases. Diagnostic criterion for allergy was analyzed and representative cohort was selected. Research was conducted in 2010-2014 period. Studied population included 1450 children from 2 to 17 years age representing Tbilisi general population (of them, 850 girls and 600 boys). As a result of research the following findings were made: asthma was confirmed where at least two of the listed was present: diagnosis of asthma made by doctor, asthma symptoms and consumption of drugs against asthma. Allergic rhinitis was confirmed, where more than one of the listed symptoms was present and children should not have caught cold, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction or snore, combined or IgE with some inhalation allergen. Atopic dermatitis was confirmed if the subject had atopic dermatitis at a time of interview or clinical study. Markers of asthma severity were based on number of asthma episodes and number of symptoms, or regular consumption of corticosteroids, number of missed days at school and answer of subjects to the question: for the past year what was the degree of discomfort attributable to asthma ("very high" - "absolutely not"). Allergic sensitization was assessed based on the skin prick-test and test of specific immunoglobulin E in serum and was deemed positive where the average diameter of blebs in skin prick tests was 3 mm larger than negative control and IgE-0,35kU/l. Lung function was assessed by means of respirometers, by evaluating maximal forced expiration data and flow-volume curves. Allergic rhinitis was regarded as the most

  10. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  11. [Modern threats and burden of respiratory system diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-11-01

    Polish population according to the National Census of Population and Housing, which was conducted in 2011, was 38 511.8 thousand. The average life expectancy in Poland is 71.0 years for men and 79.7 years for women. The reason for hospitalization in Poland are primarily cardiovascular disease (18%), tumors (11.4%), digestive diseases (10.6%), respiratory (9.3%), trauma (9.1%), infectious diseases (2.3%) and others (39%). Mortality rates determined on the basis of the analyzes and simulations in different disease groups indicates that the predominant causes of death of Polish citizens are strongly cardiovascular disease and cancer. Respiratory diseases occupy fourth place. World analyses clearly show that the number of deaths in 2030 due to lung diseases will be the fourth (COPD), fifth (pneumonia) and sixth (lung cancer) cause of death. As it turns out, the existence of various pathologies affecting the country's economic status. Respiratory allergies are observed more often, including in approximately 20% of Europeans are symptoms of allergic rhinitis (15-20% severe) and in 5-11% are diagnosed with asthma. Malignant tumors are the second most common causes of death in the group with the highest risk of life for the residents of Polish, particularly for men, is lung cancer, because of which in 2001, 20 570 people died. Incurred costs of the social security system are mainly caused by inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, which corresponds to the number of days of sick leave, especially in the age group 19-28 years, with a decrease in the age group above 59 years of age. Numbers hospitalized for respiratory diseases according to data from the National Health Fund also clearly indicate the cause of inflammation and cancer, and in the population aged 41-60 years, the need for hospital treatment is multiplied. The data indicate the constant threat of respiratory diseases.

  12. Role of Crosstalk between Epithelial and Immune Cells, the Epimmunome, in Allergic Rhinitis Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Yamashita, Keiji; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Ichimiya, Shingo; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'master switches' in allergic disease. In addition, new roles have been identified for follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells in allergic disease, and they are considered to be promising targets for new therapies. Thus, crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells, the epimmunome, underlies the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Greater understanding of the epimmunome may lead to breakthroughs in the development of new treatments for allergic rhinitis and will help us cure many patients suffering from its severe symptoms in the future. PMID:27116609

  13. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes. PMID:25075882

  14. ACUTE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PEAK FLOW MEASUREMENTS OF SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC CHILDREN IN NIZHNI TAGIL, RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A panel study with 85 elementary school children of 9 to 11 years old was carried out during March 16 - May 16, 1998 in Nizhni Tagil, Russia. All of the children were recruited from a single school and their respiratory health status was characterized through questionnaires and...

  15. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  16. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  17. Characterization of the non-coding control region of polyomavirus KI isolated from nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and from blood from healthy blood donors in Norway.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobo; Van Ghelue, Marijke; Ludvigsen, Maria; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Ehlers, Bernhard; Moens, Ugo

    2016-07-01

    Seroepidemiological studies showed that the human polyomavirus KI (KIPyV) is common in the human population, with age-specific seroprevalence ranging from 40-90 %. Genome epidemiological analyses demonstrated that KIPyV DNA is predominantly found in respiratory tract samples of immunocompromised individuals and children suffering from respiratory diseases, but viral sequences have also been detected in brain, tonsil, lymphoid tissue studies, plasma, blood and faeces. Little is known about the sequence variation in the non-coding control region of KIPyV variants residing in different sites of the human body and whether specific strains dominate in certain parts of the world. In this study, we sequenced the non-coding control region (NCCR) of naturally occurring KIPyV variants in nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and in blood from healthy donors in Norway. In total 86 sequences were obtained, 44 of which were identical to the original isolated Stockholm 60 variant. The remaining NCCRs contained one or several mutations, none of them previously reported. The same mutations were detected in NCCRs amplified from blood and nasopharyngeal samples. Some patients had different variants in their specimens. Transient transfection studies in HEK293 cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid demonstrated that some single mutations had a significant effect on the relative early and late promoter strength compared with the Stockholm 60 promoter. The effect of the NCCR mutations on viral replication and possible virulence properties remains to be established. PMID:27031170

  18. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  19. Clinical and allergic sensitization characteristics of allergic rhinitis among the elderly population in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ayse Bilge; Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; Olmez, Merve Ozata

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in elderly population in Turkey is not known. Studies on the prevalence and features of allergy in older adults are needed to identify safe and effective diagnostic/therapeutic methods for elderly AR patients. We aimed to identify the clinical and allergic characteristics of sensitization to aeroallergens among individuals aged ≥60 years with allergic rhinitis admitted to an allergy outpatient clinic in Istanbul. Of 109 patients, 33.9 % were atopic. Sixty-five percent of subjects were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 17 % to a grass-pollen mixture, 8 % to Aspergillus fumigatus, and 8 % to Blattella germanica. There was no difference between mono- and polysensitized patients in terms of the duration of rhinitis and symptom severity. No significant difference was observed between the two groups according to age, sex, smoking status, AR onset (<40 or ≥40 years), or duration/severity of disease. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevalence of asthma and conjunctivitis, (p = 0.256). Atopic dermatitis/eczema was more prevalent in those with AR (p = 0.046). Clinical characteristics of AR in the elderly could be different from those in non-allergic patients, and the prevalence of allergy may be higher than expected.

  20. PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADOLESCENTS WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Manjavidze, N; Ubiria, I; Saginadze, L

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a widespread allergic disease, with 35-40% prevalence in the world population. It is characterized with increasing frequency, particularly in children's population. Goal of the work - study of psycho-emotional profile in adolescents with allergic rhinitis of different severity. Single-stage research was conducted, in compliance with the ethical norms. Study included 86 children (41% girls and 45% boys) of age from 11 to 13 years with allergic rhinitis of different severity and 30 healthy children. For the purpose of study of the patients' psychological profile Esenek Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) intended for assessment of characterological and individual psychological features in children and adolescents (10-15 years) was used. Psycho-emotional sphere of the adolescents with allergic rhinitis was assessed also by Psychopathologic Symptom Checklist (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised-SCL-90-R). Clinical scale of self-assessment of psychical condition is widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice. At the final stage of research the mathematical-statistical data processing was provided by means of SPSS/v12 software package. According to the research results, susceptibility to significant and mild introversion was identified in severe and average AR cases. Such patients are often locked into their inner world. These children are reserved, communicate with the parents and close friends only. They make decisions with due care, love order, control their emotions, are pessimistic and rarely aggressive. Results of neuroticism study by G. Esenek techniques are provided in Table. Neuroticism is associated with the lability of nervous system, characterizes emotional condition or emotional lability (emotional stability or instability). According to the research results, allergic rhinitis is characterized with emotional instability, anxiety, as manifested by unsatisfactory adaptation, instable nature, depression, low resistance to the stress situations

  1. Idiosyncratic allergic reaction to textured saline implants.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, W H; Murphy, R X; Kucirka, S J; Okunski, W J

    1996-04-01

    In the literature, multiple conditions, including hematomas, self-limited cutaneous eruptions, and generalized systemic complaints, have been attributed to breast implants. We report the first case of idiosyncratic allergic reaction to the textured surface of a mammary prosthesis. The reaction was documented by patch testing of the textured surface compared with smooth-surface silicone controls. Symptoms resolved with removal of the implants and have not recurred after insertion of smooth-walled implants. Whereas the physiology of this condition remains unclear at this time, it is important to recognize the possibility of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction when considering reconstruction with a textured breast implant.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, L J

    1995-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is frequently seen by primary care providers. Symptoms include rhinorrhea, itching of nose and eyes, nasal congestion, and sneezing. They occur when the patient is exposed to antigens stimulating mediator release. History is essential to assist differential diagnosis and provide education. This article reviews common findings of the physical exam, diagnostic testing, and differential diagnosis. The first line of treatment is avoidance, followed by medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal steroids. If these treatments are not effective, then referral to an allergist is necessary for further workup and possible treatment with immunotherapy.

  3. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis. PMID:17344114

  4. Regulation of allergic lung inflammation by endothelial cell transglutaminase 2.

    PubMed

    Soveg, Frank; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Campbell, Jackson; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2015-09-15

    Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an enzyme with multiple functions, including catalysis of serotonin conjugation to proteins (serotonylation). Previous research indicates that TG2 expression is upregulated in human asthma and in the lung endothelium of ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice. It is not known whether endothelial cell TG2 is required for allergic inflammation. Therefore, to determine whether endothelial cell TG2 regulates allergic inflammation, mice with an endothelial cell-specific deletion of TG2 were generated, and these mice were sensitized and challenged in the airways with OVA. Deletion of TG2 in endothelial cells blocked OVA-induced serotonylation in lung endothelial cells, but not lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, deletion of endothelial TG2 reduced allergen-induced increases in respiratory system resistance, number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage, and number of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Endothelial cell deletion of TG2 did not alter expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines, or chemokines that regulate leukocyte recruitment, consistent with other studies, demonstrating that deletion of endothelial cell signals does not alter lung cytokines and chemokines during allergic inflammation. Taken together, the data indicate that endothelial cell TG2 is required for allergic inflammation by regulating the recruitment of eosinophils into OVA-challenged lungs. In summary, TG2 functions as a critical signal for allergic lung responses. These data identify potential novel targets for intervention in allergy/asthma.

  5. Nasal filters: a novel approach to tackling allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Tovey, Euan Roger

    2014-09-01

    More than 300 million individuals in industrialized countries suffer from allergic rhinitis. Rhinitis is a disease characterized by stuffy or runny nose, followed by red, itchy watering eyes and repeated sneezing. But more common problems for rhinitis patients are the overlooked social difficulties, with the majority reporting tiredness, feeling miserable or irritable. Often, medication is not able to adequately control symptoms and there is a need for other aids against the disease. Here, we describe the current situation after five trials using nasal filters in the remediation of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  6. The ocular surface: from physiology to the ocular allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galicia-Carreón, Jorge; Santacruz, Concepción; Hong, Enrique; Jiménez-Martínez, María C

    2013-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva secondary to an immune response to exogenous antigens, usually called allergens. In fact, AC is a syndrome that involves the entire ocular surface, including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, and tear film. The signs and symptoms of AC have a meaningful effect on comfort and patient health, and could be influenced by environment, genetics and immune regulation mechanisms, all of which work together in a complex immunological homeostasis. Dysregulation in such immune responses could turn into a variety of ocular allergic diseases (OAD). This review describes some of the current understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in different OAD.

  7. Allergic rhinitis: meaningful and less meaningful combination treatments including reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I

    2014-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) results from a complex allergen-driven mucosal inflammation in the nasal cavity. Current guideline-based therapy for allergic rhinitis include oral and nasal antihistamines, topical and systemic glucocorticoids, decongestants, antimuscarinic agents, mast cell stabilizing drugs, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and others. In spite of guideline recommendations, most patients are using multiple therapies in an attempt to achieve symptom control. Therefore, more effective therapies for the management of AR are clearly required. Recently, a novel fixed dose combination containing azelastine and fluticasone propionate has successfully been introduced. At present, it represents the only meaningful topical drug combination. Perhaps, it will be followed by others. PMID:24974572

  8. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  9. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  10. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  11. A new era of targeting the ancient gatekeepers of the immune system: toll-like agonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Zahra; Holgate, Stephen T; Radzioch, Danuta; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) belong to a large family of pattern recognition receptors known as the ancient 'gatekeepers' of the immune system. TLRs are located at the first line of defense against invading pathogens as well as aeroallergens, making them interesting targets to modulate the natural history of respiratory allergy. Agonists of TLRs have been widely employed in therapeutic or prophylactic preparations useful for asthma/allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. MPL® (a TLR4 agonist) and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide of 1018 ISS, a TLR9 agonist, show strong immunogenicity effects that make them appropriate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Targeting the TLRs can enhance the efficacy of specific allergen immunotherapy, currently the only available 'curative' treatment for respiratory allergies. In addition, intranasal administration of AZD8848 (a TLR7 agonist) and VTX-1463 (a TLR8 agonist) as stand-alone therapeutics have revealed efficacy in the relief of the symptoms of AR patients. No anaphylaxis has been so far reported with such compounds targeting TLRs, with the most common adverse effects being transient and local irritation (e.g. redness, swelling and pruritus). Many other compounds that target TLRs have been found to suppress airway inflammation, eosinophilia and airway hyper-responsiveness in various animal models of allergic inflammation. Indeed, in the future a wide variability of TLR agonists and even antagonists that exhibit anti-asthma/AR effects are likely to emerge.

  12. Sinobronchial allergic aspergillosis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a less common co-existence

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Kant, Surya; Prakash, Ved; Saheer, S

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological pulmonary disorder that is characterised by a hyper-responsiveness of the airways to Aspergillus fumigatus. Although several other fungi may also present with similar clinical conditions, Aspergillus remains the most common fungal pathogen causing airway infections. Co-existence of ABPA with allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is an uncommon presentation. The concept of one airway/one disease justifies the co-existence of ABPA with AAS, but it does not always hold true. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of bronchial asthma. On further investigation, the radiological pattern showed fleeting shadows and CT scan showed central cystic bronchiectatic changes characteristic of ABPA. The nasal secretions were investigated for the presence of Aspergillus and were found to be positive. Hence a diagnosis of ABPA with AAS was established. The patient was treated with oral steroids and antifungal drugs. PMID:25371437

  13. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  14. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study. PMID:24504215

  15. ANIMAL MODELS FOR PROTEIN RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein induced respiratory hypersensitivity, particularly atopic disease in general, and allergic asthma in particular, has increased dramatically over the last several decades in the U.S. and other industrialized nations as a result of ill-defined changes in living conditions i...

  16. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    PubMed

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  17. Effectiveness of azelastine nasal solution in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Storms, W W; Pearlman, D S; Chervinsky, P; Grossman, J; Halverson, P C; Freitag, J J; Widlitz, M D

    1994-06-01

    Azelastine is a novel antiallergy medication currently under investigation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Pharmacologic studies in laboratory animals and in vitro model systems indicate that azelastine exerts multiple actions including modulation of airways smooth muscle response, interference with inflammatory processes, and inhibition of allergic reactions. In a previous controlled clinical trial, azelastine nasal solution (ASTELIN N.S.) demonstrated effectiveness in controlling symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The objective of this 2-week double-blind, parallel-group study was to further assess the effectiveness of azelastine nasal solution in improving allergic rhinitis symptoms. Two hundred forty-seven patients (> or = 12 years) with symptomatic SAR who satisfied a minimum symptoms score during a 1-week, single-blind, baseline evaluation period were randomized to receive azelastine 2 sprays per nostril bid, azelastine 2 sprays per nostril qd, chlorpheniramine 12 mg bid, or placebo using a double-dummy technique to insure blinding. The primary efficacy variables were changes in Major Symptom Complex (nose blows, sneezes, runny nose/sniffles, itch nose, and watery eyes) and Total Symptom Complex (Major plus itchy eyes/ears/throat/palate, cough, and postnasal drip) severity scores. Patients treated with azelastine nasal solution qd and bid had mean percent improvements in the Total and Major Symptom Complex severity scores that were clinically significant (> or = 50% improvement over placebo) after both weeks, at endpoint, and overall. The improvements for the azelastine bid group were statistically significant (P < or = .05) at all evaluation points. Adverse experiences occurred infrequently, and none was considered serious or potentially limiting to the clinical utility of the nasal solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  20. Burden of respiratory disease in Thailand: Results from the APBORD observational study.

    PubMed

    Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Aeumjaturapat, Songklot; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Baidya, Santwona; Wang, De Yun

    2016-07-01

    Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) was a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of respiratory disease in adults across 6 Asia-Pacific countries.This article reports symptoms, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), work impairment and cost burden associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis in Thailand.Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled at 4 hospitals in Thailand during October 2012 and October 2013. Participants completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Locally sourced unit costs were used in the calculation of total costs.The study enrolled 1000 patients. The most frequent primary diagnosis was AR (44.2%), followed by rhinosinusitis (24.1%), asthma (23.7%), and COPD (8.0%). Overall, 316 (31.6%) of patients were diagnosed with some combination of the 4 diseases. Blocked nose or congestion (17%) and cough or coughing up phlegm (16%) were the main reasons for the current medical visit. The mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US$1495 (SD 3133) per patient. Costs associated with work productivity loss were the principal contributor for AR and rhinosinusitis patients while medication costs were the highest contributor for asthma and COPD patients.The study findings highlight the burden associated with 4 prevalent respiratory diseases in Thailand. Thorough investigation of concomitant conditions and improved disease management may help to reduce the burden of these respiratory diseases.

  1. Burden of respiratory disease in Thailand: Results from the APBORD observational study

    PubMed Central

    Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Aeumjaturapat, Songklot; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Baidya, Santwona; Wang, De Yun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) was a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of respiratory disease in adults across 6 Asia-Pacific countries. This article reports symptoms, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), work impairment and cost burden associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis in Thailand. Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled at 4 hospitals in Thailand during October 2012 and October 2013. Participants completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Locally sourced unit costs were used in the calculation of total costs. The study enrolled 1000 patients. The most frequent primary diagnosis was AR (44.2%), followed by rhinosinusitis (24.1%), asthma (23.7%), and COPD (8.0%). Overall, 316 (31.6%) of patients were diagnosed with some combination of the 4 diseases. Blocked nose or congestion (17%) and cough or coughing up phlegm (16%) were the main reasons for the current medical visit. The mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US$1495 (SD 3133) per patient. Costs associated with work productivity loss were the principal contributor for AR and rhinosinusitis patients while medication costs were the highest contributor for asthma and COPD patients. The study findings highlight the burden associated with 4 prevalent respiratory diseases in Thailand. Thorough investigation of concomitant conditions and improved disease management may help to reduce the burden of these respiratory diseases. PMID:27428193

  2. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  3. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-07-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  4. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  5. Characteristics and predictors of allergic rhinitis undertreatment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Murgia, N; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Pala, A P; Casciari, C; dell'Omo, M; Viegi, G

    2016-03-01

    Although allergic rhinitis is considered a raising medical problem in many countries it is often undertreated. The reasons for this phenomenon are not completely clear.The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment.A sample of 518 allergic rhinitis patients recruited by their primary care physicians, as a part of the ARGA study, were invited to fill in a specific questionnaire regarding rhinitis symptoms, treatment, and rhinitis-related work/social disability. Chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to assess risk factors for allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment.Over one out of four patients had no treatment despite the symptoms and 13.5% were inadequately treated. Participants with asthma (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.75) and conjunctivitis (0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71) were at lower risk of allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment: in asthmatics this reduction was related mainly to the concomitant asthma treatment (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.37).Asthmatics with under-/not treated rhinitis had the highest prevalence of rhinitis-related quality of life impairment.Under-/no treatment for allergic rhinitis is still rather frequent despite the relevance of this disease. The simultaneous presence of asthma and an anti-asthmatic therapy are able to influence positively the treatment. Targeted interventions toward a better characterization and a tight follow-up of rhinitis patient without asthma are needed.

  6. A common cold virus, rhinovirus 16, potentiates airway inflammation after segmental antigen bronchoprovocation in allergic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, W J; Dick, E C; Schwartz, L B; Busse, W W

    1994-01-01

    Many patients with asthma have increased wheezing with colds. We hypothesized that rhinovirus colds might increase asthma by augmenting airway allergic responses (histamine release and eosinophil influx) after antigen challenge. Seven allergic rhinitis patients and five normal volunteers were infected with rhinovirus type 16 (RV16) and evaluated by segmental bronchoprovocation and bronchoalveolar lavage. Segmental challenge with saline and antigen was performed 1 mo before infection, during the acute infection, and 1 mo after infection. Lavage was performed immediately and 48 h after antigen challenge. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, and a P value of < or = 0.05 was considered to be significant. All volunteers inoculated with RV16 developed an acute respiratory infection. BAL fluid obtained from allergic rhinitis subjects during the acute viral infection, and 1 mo after infection, showed the following significant RV16-associated changes after antigen challenge: (a) an enhanced release of histamine immediately after local antigen challenge; (b) persistent histamine leak 48 h afterwards; and (c) a greater recruitment of eosinophils to the airway 48 h after challenge. These changes were not seen in non-allergic volunteers infected with RV16 and challenged with antigen, nor in allergic volunteers repetitively challenged with antigen but not infected with RV16, nor in RV16 infected allergic volunteers sham challenged with saline. We conclude that rhinovirus upper respiratory infection significantly augments immediate and late allergic responses in the airways of allergic individuals after local antigen challenge. These data suggest that one mechanism of increased asthma during a cold is an accentuation of allergic responses in the airway which may then contribute to bronchial inflammation. PMID:7989575

  7. Application of vitamin E to antagonize SWCNTs-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinquan; Li, Li; Chen, Hanqing; Chang, Qing; Liu, Xudong; Wu, Yang; Wei, Chenxi; Li, Rui; Kwan, Joseph K C; Yeung, King Lun; Xi, Zhuge; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The aggravating effects of zero-dimensional, particle-shaped nanomaterials on allergic asthma have been previously investigated, but similar possible effects of one-dimensional shaped nanomaterials have not been reported. More importantly, there are no available means to counteract the adverse nanomaterial effects to allow for their safe use. In this study, an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rat asthma model was established to investigate whether single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggravate allergic asthma. The results showed that SWCNTs in rats exacerbated OVA-induced allergic asthma and that this exacerbation was counteracted by concurrent administration vitamin E. A mechanism involving the elimination of reactive oxygen species, downregulation of Th2 responses, reduced Ig production, and the relief of allergic asthma symptoms was proposed to explain the antagonistic effects of vitamin E. This work could provide a universal strategy to effectively protect people with allergic asthma from SWCNTs or similar nanomaterial-induced aggravating effects. PMID:24589727

  8. Application of vitamin E to antagonize SWCNTs-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinquan; Li, Li; Chen, Hanqing; Chang, Qing; Liu, Xudong; Wu, Yang; Wei, Chenxi; Li, Rui; Kwan, Joseph K. C.; Yeung, King Lun; Xi, Zhuge; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The aggravating effects of zero-dimensional, particle-shaped nanomaterials on allergic asthma have been previously investigated, but similar possible effects of one-dimensional shaped nanomaterials have not been reported. More importantly, there are no available means to counteract the adverse nanomaterial effects to allow for their safe use. In this study, an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rat asthma model was established to investigate whether single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggravate allergic asthma. The results showed that SWCNTs in rats exacerbated OVA-induced allergic asthma and that this exacerbation was counteracted by concurrent administration vitamin E. A mechanism involving the elimination of reactive oxygen species, downregulation of Th2 responses, reduced Ig production, and the relief of allergic asthma symptoms was proposed to explain the antagonistic effects of vitamin E. This work could provide a universal strategy to effectively protect people with allergic asthma from SWCNTs or similar nanomaterial-induced aggravating effects. PMID:24589727

  9. Efficacy of mometasone furoate and fluticasone furoate on persistent allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Salina; Rahman, Roslenda Abdul; Van Dort, Dexter; Abdullah, Asma; Gendeh, Balwant S.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis denotes both nasal and ocular manifestation of allergy, which may be solely treated with intranasal steroid. This study compares the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (NS) and fluticasone furoate NS in treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The secondary objective is to study the severity of baseline ocular symptoms in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Seventy-eight patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were assessed subjectively and objectively using twice-daily symptom scores for nasal (reflective total nasal symptom score [rTNSS] and instantaneous TNSS [iTNSS]) and ocular (reflective total ocular symptom score [rTOSS] and instantaneous TOSS [iTOSS]) symptoms, rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaires (RQOLQs), and acoustic rhinometry. All measurements were taken at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Sixty-three patients who were randomized into the mometasone furoate group (n = 36) and the fluticasone furoate group (n = 27) completed the study. Seventy-six percent of patients had mild ocular symptoms, 20.5% had moderate symptoms, and only 2.6% had severe symptoms at baseline based on the iTOSS; 65.1% had mild nasal symptoms and 3% had severe nasal symptoms. There was significant reduction in the symptom scores after 1 week (p < 0.05). Both groups had significant improvement in RQOLQ scores after 1 month, which further improved at 2 months (p < 0.05). The nasal dimensions also improved in both groups (p < 0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Both mometasone furoate and fluticasone furoate are effective as single-modality treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients manifest mild ocular symptoms that may be solely treated with intranasal steroids. PMID:24498516

  10. Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-11-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis.

  11. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  12. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yukselen, Ayfer

    2016-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  13. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  14. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  15. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  16. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy. PMID:8669268

  17. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy.

  18. Assessment of allergen-induced respiratory hyperresponsiveness before the prescription of a specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Argentão, Daiana Guedes Pinto; dos Santos Lima, Regiane Patussi; da Silva, Mariana Dias; dos Santos, Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves; Fabbri, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic sensitization is a frequent condition that must be considered before the indication of allergic-specific immunotherapy. Objective: The aim of this study was to appreciate and correlate the local and spirometric changes elicited by the allergen-specific nasal provocation test (NPT) to define practical and feasible guidelines for the allergist/immunologist to demonstrate specific respiratory hyperresponsiveness before the indication of allergic-specific immunotherapy. Methods: A total of 172 subjects (children and adults) with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis were submitted to flow-volume spirometry immediately before and after the NPT performed with Dermatophagoides antigens. The differences between the pre- and postspirometric estimated values of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFdif%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1dif%), and forced vital capacity (FVCdif%) were correlated with the results of the nasal provocation test symptom score (NPT-SS). Results: There were 119 subjects (69%) with NPT-SS > 2. Among these patients who were reactive, the mean NPT-SS was 6.3. The Spearman's correlation between PEFdif% and NPT-SS was r = −0.44 (p = 0.01); the Spearman's correlation between FEV1dif% and NPT-SS was r = −0.22 (p = 0.01), and the Spearman's correlation between FVCdif% and NPT-SS was r = −0.21 (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The combined utilization of the allergen-specific NPT-SS with the spirometry (or PEF meter) is a safe methodology to evaluate allergen-specific nasal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (which sometimes acts as a bronchial provocation test) in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma due to hypersensitivity who are candidates for allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:26302728