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Sample records for allergic skin reaction

  1. Current concept of allergic skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Polak, L

    1980-10-01

    Synopsis On the basis of literature and experimental work the present views on the mechanism of the development of allergic skin reactions of the contact type are reviewed. Precursors of effector cells originating from stem cells are stimulated by the antigenic complex formed by the application of the hapten to the skin. Autologous skin proteins and macrophages play an important role in this preparatory and antigen recognition phases. Activated T lymphocytes proliferate in the draining lymph node and differentiate into effector and memory cells. The former react to a repeated application of the hapten with release of mediators inducing a skin inflammatory reaction. The latter produce further effector cells thus enhancing the degree of contact sensitivity (booster effect). The hapten application also activates a specific control mechanism consisting of lymphocytes with the same specificity but adverse activity. These cells, called suppressors, restrict the development of further effector cells thus limiting the degree of contact sensitivity. Elimination of suppressor cells leads to an enhancement of the degree of contact sensitivity whereas an intended extreme activation of these cells induces a state of specific immunological unresponsiveness (tolerance).

  2. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  3. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  4. Skin: major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens M; Neis, Mark M; Obrigkeit, Daniela Höller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  5. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  6. Systemic hydrocortisone/cortisol induces allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Reitamo, S; Maibach, H I

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether systemic hydrocortisone can elicit allergic skin reactions in patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, we studied four patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate and two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone. Open oral provocation with 100 or 250 mg hydrocortisone in patients with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity elicited cutaneous reactions at sites of previous allergic dermatitis caused by hydrocortisone in two patients and at sites of earlier allergic patch test reactions caused by hydrocortisone in the other two patients. Provocations in two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone remained negative. To determine whether the adrenal cortical hormone cortisol, which is identical to hydrocortisone, could induce similar skin reactions, one patient with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests; as a control, one hydrocortisone-sensitive patient underwent analogous provocations with placebo. After an 8-hour infusion with the adrenocorticotropic hormone analog tetracosactide, a similar skin reaction to that seen with oral hydrocortisone was observed, whereas provocations with placebo remained negative. We conclude that both oral hydrocortisone and intrinsic cortisol are able to induce allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

  7. Severe systemic reaction to diphosphonate bone imaging agents: skin testing to predict allergic response and a safe alternative agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Gabatin, A.; Orzel, J.A.; Maloney, T.R.; Murnane, J.E.; Borchert, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    We describe a severe systemic reaction which occurred in a patient on two occasions after i.v. injection of chemically related diphosphonate bone imaging agents. Skin testing showed reactivity to multiple commercially available diphosphonate compounds but no significant response to pyrophosphates. A subsequent pyrophosphate bone scan resulted in no adverse reaction. Severe systemic reactions to diphosphonates can occur, skin testing may prove useful in evaluating allergic reactions, and pyrophosphates appear to be a safe alternative agent in patients proven or suspected allergic to diphosphonates.

  8. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  9. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation.

  10. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA analysis is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding analysis, and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and additional therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA molecules. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with reduction in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.

  11. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2014. Studies on food allergy suggest worrisomely high rates of peanut allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations. Evidence is mounting to support the theory that environmental exposure to peanut, such as in house dust, especially with an impaired skin barrier attributed to atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene, is a risk factor for sensitization and allergy. Diagnostic tests are improving, with early studies suggesting the possibility of developing novel cellular tests with increased diagnostic utility. Treatment trials continue to show the promise and limitations of oral immunotherapy, and mechanistic studies are elucidating pathways that might define the degree of efficacy of this treatment. Studies have also provided insights into the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis and insect venom allergy, such as suggesting that baseline platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity levels are related to the severity of reactions. Advances in drug allergy include identification of HLA associations for penicillin allergy and a microRNA biomarker/mechanism for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Research identifying critical events leading to skin barrier dysfunction and the polarized immune pathways that drive AD have led to new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and management of AD.

  12. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insect stings.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2004-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insect venom that were reported primarily in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology from 2002 through 2003. Among the topics highlighted are new insights into the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and potential strategies for more effective treatment of the atopic march. Patients should remain supine with raised legs during anaphylactic shock because upper body elevation could result in sudden death from loss of venous return to the heart. A major advance in food allergy was that humanized, monoclonal anti-IgE antibody showed protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis. In addition to studies elucidating mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity, a clinical study showed patients with a history of prior penicillin allergy with negative penicillin allergy test results are unlikely to experience reactions or resensitization on subsequent oral courses of penicillin. Lastly, there are new recommendations for patients with convincing insect sting reaction histories but negative skin test responses to venom.

  13. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified.

  14. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2009-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects and in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2008. Key epidemiologic observations include a rise in anaphylaxis in a population-based study and lower rates of peanut allergy in Israel, where infants consume peanut early compared with the United Kingdom, where dietary introduction is generally delayed. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include IgE epitope mapping that discloses the likelihood and severity of allergy; studies correlating likelihood of clinical reactivity on the basis of food-specific IgE to sesame, peanut, milk, and tree nuts; and an observation that a low baseline angiotensin-converting enzyme level may be associated with having pharyngeal edema during a reaction. Molecular, immunologic, and genetic studies are discerning pathways that are key in development of food allergy, identifying new modalities to interrupt mast cell degranulation, and elucidating risks associated with penicillin allergy. Regarding treatment, clinical studies show a majority of children with milk and egg allergy tolerate these proteins in modest amounts when they are extensively heated in baked goods, and studies show promise for oral immunotherapy to treat milk allergy and sublingual immunotherapy for honey bee venom hypersensitivity. The importance of skin barrier dysfunction has continued to be highlighted in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). Research has also continued to identify immunologic defects that contribute to the propensity of patients with AD to develop viral and bacterial infection. New therapeutic approaches to AD, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported including use of probiotics, biologics, vitamin D, and skin barrier creams.

  15. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  16. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    PubMed

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  17. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  18. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  19. Accumulation of sup 111 In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J. )

    1989-05-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by white petrolatum on damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Tam, Christine C; Elston, Dirk M

    2006-12-01

    Petrolatum rarely causes hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of a 51-year-old white man with allergic contact dermatitis due to white petrolatum on damaged skin. The patient, who presented with a history of hand dermatitis and intolerance to ointments for years, was patch-tested with white petrolatum on scratched skin. Patch tests with the European Standard series, preservatives, steroids, vehicles, and emulsifiers were also performed. The patch-test reaction to white petrolatum on scratched skin was positive at 48 and 96 hours. All other patch-test results were negative.

  1. Allergic reactions to rubber condoms.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Forsyth, A

    1989-06-01

    With the increased use of condoms, contact dermatitis to rubber is being seen more often. To develop a rubber condom suitable for use by rubber sensitive people, a "hypoallergenic" condom, which is washed in ammonia to reduce the residues of rubber accelerators, has been manufactured. Fifty patients allergic to various rubber accelerators were patch tested with an ordinary condom and the new washed condom. Fifty patients undergoing routine patch test investigation who were not allergic to rubber were also tested as controls. Twenty two of the rubber sensitive patients had a positive reaction to the new rubber condom compared with four of the control patients. Washing rubber condoms in ammonia does not appear to reduce the residues of rubber accelerators sufficiently for their use by rubber sensitive people. A non-allergenic condom is required.

  2. ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO “KISSING BUG” BITES

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Norman; Green, Thomas W.

    1963-01-01

    In addition to local allergic skin reactions to the bite of the kissing bug, Triatoma protracta, the systemic reactions can vary from a mild urticarial reaction to a severe anaphylactoid reaction consisting of shock, generalized angioneurotic edema and laryngeal edema. The diagnosis can be established by the clinical history, the finding of an engorged kissing bug, the presence of typical local and systemic signs, and finally, a positive reaction to a skin test with an extract of the bug. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13938346

  3. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation.

    PubMed

    James, John M; Crespo, Jesús Fernández

    2007-06-01

    Although allergic reactions to foods occur most commonly after ingestion, inhalation of foods can also be an underlying cause of these reactions. For example, published reports have highlighted the inhalation of allergens from fish, shellfish, seeds, soybeans, cereal grains, hen's egg, cow's milk, and many other foods in allergic reactions. Symptoms have typically included respiratory manifestations such as rhinoconjunctivitis, coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and asthma. In some cases, anaphylaxis has been observed. In addition, there have been many investigations of occupational asthma following the inhalation of relevant food allergens. This report reviews the current literature focusing on allergic reactions to foods by inhalation.

  4. Allergic reaction to mint leads to asthma.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Barnett, Tisha

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory and cutaneous adverse reactions to mint can result from several different mechanisms including IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis), and nonimmunologic histamine release. Reactions to cross-reacting plants of the Labiatae family, such as oregano and thyme, as well as to the chemical turpentine, may clue the clinician in on the diagnosis of mint allergy. Contact dermatitis can result from menthol in peppermint. Contact allergens have been reported in toothpastes, which often are mint-flavored. Allergic asthma from mint is less well-recognized. A case of a 54-year-old woman with dyspnea on exposure to the scent of peppermint is presented in whom mint exposure, as seemingly innocuous as the breath of others who had consumed Tic Tac candies, exacerbated her underlying asthma. This case highlights the importance of testing with multiple alternative measures of specific IgE to mint, including skin testing with mint extract, and skin testing with fresh mint leaves. Additionally, this cases suggests that asthma can result from inhaling the scent of mint and gives consideration to obtaining confirmatory pre- and postexposure pulmonary function data by both impulse oscillometry and spirometry. PMID:22852115

  5. Allergic reaction to mint leads to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tisha

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory and cutaneous adverse reactions to mint can result from several different mechanisms including IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis), and nonimmunologic histamine release. Reactions to cross-reacting plants of the Labiatae family, such as oregano and thyme, as well as to the chemical turpentine, may clue the clinician in on the diagnosis of mint allergy. Contact dermatitis can result from menthol in peppermint. Contact allergens have been reported in toothpastes, which often are mint-flavored. Allergic asthma from mint is less well-recognized. A case of a 54-year-old woman with dyspnea on exposure to the scent of peppermint is presented in whom mint exposure, as seemingly innocuous as the breath of others who had consumed Tic Tac candies, exacerbated her underlying asthma. This case highlights the importance of testing with multiple alternative measures of specific IgE to mint, including skin testing with mint extract, and skin testing with fresh mint leaves. Additionally, this cases suggests that asthma can result from inhaling the scent of mint and gives consideration to obtaining confirmatory pre- and postexposure pulmonary function data by both impulse oscillometry and spirometry. PMID:22852115

  6. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  7. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  8. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  9. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  10. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  11. Allergic reaction after rubber dam placement.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, E D; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C; de Oliveira, M M

    2000-03-01

    In the last few years allergic reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) have increased in dental practice affecting both the dental team and patients. Some case reports discuss the potential risks of hypersensitivity to NRL products. An adverse patient reaction after dental rubber dam placement is reported. About 1 min after the isolation of the tooth with a rubber dam the patient presented signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity. Oxygen and intravenous hydrocortisone were administered and the patient kept under observation. After 2 h she had stable vital signs and no more allergics symptoms. It is unclear whether components of the NRL dam or the cornstarch powder incorporated with the rubber dam was responsible for the allergic reaction. Dentists must be aware of the health problem and be prepared for an adequate management in dental practice.

  12. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  13. Severe systemic allergic reaction induced by accidental skin contact with cow milk in a 16-year-old boy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; De Falco, F; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of food allergy are rarely induced by skin contact. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Allergology Centre after an episode of systemic symptoms triggered by accidental skin contact with a drop of cow milk (CM) dripped from a sandwich containing fresh cheese. The patient had been allergic to CM from the age of 24 months and had experienced several episodes of urticaria-angioedema after the ingestion of tiny or "hidden" amounts of CM proteins. In vivo and in vitro diagnostic procedures showed intense sensitisation to all CM proteins (1/100 dilutions of allergenic extracts produced large wheals, and class 4 specific IgE antibodies. Total IgE antibodies were elevate (770.0 UI/). A moderate degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was found (PC20 metacholine: 3.90 milligrams). This case report suggests that patients with a high degree of sensitisation to CM proteins should be alert to the danger of skin contact and should beware of "hidden" CM allergens.

  14. [Allergic reaction to products made of natural rubber].

    PubMed

    Antczak, M; Kuna, P; Cieślewicz, G

    In the previous few years, there has been a startling escalation in intraoperative and radiologic anaphylactic episodes, some of them lethal, that have been assigned to rubber exposure. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber pose a significant risk to patient with spina bifida and urogenital abnormalities, health care workers, and rubber industry workers. It has been estimated that 2% to 10% of physicians and nursing personnel are latex allergic. The clinical syndromes associated with reactions to latex may be divided into three broad categories a) contact dermatitis--limited to skin directly in contact with latex, b) contact urticaria syndrome a broad spectrum of contact reactions including not only immediate wheal and flare reactions, but also dyshidrotic vesiculation, and accelerated contact reactions including erythema, burning or pruritus occurring within 10-30 minutes after contact, c) systemic allergic reactions-including generalized urticaria or pruritus, rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma, as well as the multiple presentations of anaphylaxis. Contact dermatitis reactions are thought to be a T-cell mediated type IV reaction, systemic reactions to latex appear to be an IgE-mediated phenomenon. Contact urticaria syndrome seems to be a heterogeneous group of reactions. Diagnosis of latex allergy is made on clinical grounds, however, history alone is insufficient to recognize all patients at risk, and conscientious testing materials are not yet available. Prick tests utilizing extracts from latex gloves or from raw latex preparation can be used but the specificity of this test remains unknown. Skin prick testing must be considered experimental and should be only done by experienced physician. Serologic testing for latex allergy remains a safe alternative, although the sensitivity and specificity of this procedure is still undefined. Prophylactic regimes to avoid rubber exposure and decrease the antigen content of natural rubber products by the rubber

  15. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  16. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library School Tools Videos Virtual Allergist Education & Training Careers in ... reaction to a medication. These include: genetics, body chemistry, frequent drug exposure or the presence of an ...

  17. Idiosyncratic allergic reaction to textured saline implants.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, W H; Murphy, R X; Kucirka, S J; Okunski, W J

    1996-04-01

    In the literature, multiple conditions, including hematomas, self-limited cutaneous eruptions, and generalized systemic complaints, have been attributed to breast implants. We report the first case of idiosyncratic allergic reaction to the textured surface of a mammary prosthesis. The reaction was documented by patch testing of the textured surface compared with smooth-surface silicone controls. Symptoms resolved with removal of the implants and have not recurred after insertion of smooth-walled implants. Whereas the physiology of this condition remains unclear at this time, it is important to recognize the possibility of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction when considering reconstruction with a textured breast implant.

  18. Dangerous liaison: sexually transmitted allergic reaction to Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Bansal, A S; Chee, R; Nagendran, V; Warner, A; Hayman, G

    2007-01-01

    Brazil nuts are the second most frequent cause of nut allergy in the United Kingdom. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman with documented Brazil nut allergy who developed widespread urticaria and mild dyspnea after intercourse with her boyfriend who had earlier consumed Brazil nuts. Skin prick testing with the boyfriend's semen after Brazil nut consumption confirmed significant reactivity whereas a sample before nut consumption was negative. We believe this to be the first case of a sexually transmitted allergic reaction.

  19. Kounis syndrome secondary to allergic reaction following shellfish ingestion.

    PubMed

    Zavras, G M; Papadaki, P J; Kokkinis, C E; Kalokairinov, K; Kouni, S N; Batsolaki, M; Gouvelou-Deligianni, G V; Koutsojannis, C

    2003-09-01

    Two cases of allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction (Kounis syndrome) secondary to shellfish ingestion are described. The patients had pre-existing quiescent coronary artery disease (type II variant of the syndrome) and the allergic reaction following eating shellfish seemed to have triggered the development of an acute myocardial infarction. The clinical implications are also discussed.

  20. Allergic reaction to peanuts: can we predict reaction severity in the wild?

    PubMed

    Flinn, Aisling; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2013-12-01

    Peanut allergy (PNA) is the main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions are more likely to occur in older patients and those with underlying asthma. Skin prick testing and measuring serum-specific IgE and recombinant peanut protein levels have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of PNA and prediction of reactivity, but these tests are less consistent and reliable in terms of predicting the severity of reactions. Recent research has examined the role of biological mediators in allergic reactions such as platelet-activating factor. These may provide a future tool in predicting those at risk of severe reactions. Currently, there are no parameters that can predict with certainty those at risk of anaphylaxis, and management of PNA should continue to focus on patient and family education.

  1. Fetal distress during a maternal systemic allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Klein, V R; Harris, A P; Abraham, R A; Niebyl, J R

    1984-09-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to food ingestion rarely result in life-threatening situations. When these reactions occur during pregnancy, however, the accompanying physiologic changes may result in fetal distress. A case of repetitive late decelerations in the fetal heart rate during a maternal allergic reaction is presented. Prompt and aggressive medical management brought about total resolution of maternal and fetal compromise.

  2. Human skin safety test of green tea cell extracts in condition of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Sun Young; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of positive effects of green tea extracts had been studied for long time which included anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and cardiometabolic effects. Although topical steroid and non-steroidal calcineurin inhibitors may control clinical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis, some of patients also present allergic reaction to these topical agents. Therefore, we have tried green tea extracts for managing this skin disorder with expectation of anti-inflammatory effect without potential side effects including skin irritation and toxic responses. The toxicity test of green tea extract also did not show any sign of irritation in the skin throughout the test period. Moderate severity of allergic contact dermatitis presented satisfactory clinical outcome at second week follow-up which was final visit of outpatient. This result mean that green tea extract has a positive effect for managing allergic contact dermatitis but its potency and efficacy seem to be so not strong enough to control moderate severity allergy skin lesion. In this pilot study, we were able to conclude that green tea cell extracts might be applied for potential anti-inflammatory soaking without skin toxicity.

  3. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  4. THE USE OF RAW FOODS AS SKIN TESTING MATERIAL IN ALLERGIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Giacomo R.; Schumacher, Irwin C.

    1950-01-01

    Frozen foods for skin testing were prepared, stored and used by a simple, practicable, and inexpensive method. The capacity of raw foods to produce immunologically positive skin reactions by the scratch test method was reaffirmed. Storage in the frozen state for several months and thawing immediately before using for one series of tests did not affect the allergenic properties of the material. Raw foods were found to be innocuous to the skin and non-urticariogenic in allergic as well as in non-allergic persons. Raw foods, by the scratch test method, induced true positive reactions of a larger size and in greater numbers than the corresponding commercial extracts in the same series of subjects tested. PMID:14792335

  5. Systemic PPARgamma ligation inhibits allergic immune response in the skin.

    PubMed

    Dahten, Anja; Koch, Christin; Ernst, Dennis; Schnöller, Corinna; Hartmann, Susanne; Worm, Margitta

    2008-09-01

    We have shown previously that specific ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit the systemic allergic immune response. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARgamma-ligand treatment on the local allergic immune response. We established a murine model exhibiting clinical and histological features of AD-like skin lesions with high reproducibility. In this model, the PPARgamma ligand was applied in an either preventive or therapeutic manner via systemic and local routes. The affected skin areas were assessed by standardized skin score, histological analyses, and immunohistochemical examinations. Our data show that systemic application of PPARgamma ligand by a preventive protocol led to significantly reduced onset of eczematous skin lesions. This was confirmed by histology, showing decreased skin thickness accompanied by significantly reduced infiltrations of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but also mast cells. Additionally, early allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 responses were reduced (day 21/35), whereas IgG2a levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PPARgamma-ligand treatment inhibits not only systemic allergic immune response, but also local allergen-mediated dermatitis. Our findings point to therapeutic strategies, including a PPARgamma-ligand-based treatment. PMID:18401424

  6. Hymenopterid bites, stings, allergic reactions, and the impact of hurricanes on hymenopterid-inflicted injuries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Unrecognized anaphylactic reactions to hymenopterid stings by apids, or bees, and vespids, or wasps, are a significant cause of sudden and unanticipated deaths outdoors in young people, with and without atopic histories. Insect bites and stings, often complicated by allergic reactions or skin infections, by community-acquired pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are common sources of morbidity following hurricanes, tropical storms, and prolonged flooding. This article will review and critically analyze the descriptive epidemiology and outcomes of hymenopterid bites, stings, and allergic reactions, especially following hurricanes and prolonged flooding disasters; stratify the immunologic reactions to hymenopterid stings by clinical severity and outcomes; and present current recommendations for management, prophylaxis, and prevention of hymenopterid stings and reactions.

  7. Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

  8. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  9. Systemic immediate allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Most of the encounters with biting and stinging insects result in more or less pronounced localized reactions. Typically, urticarial wheals and papular reactions are observed. Less often local bullous or hemorrhagic or disseminated papular reactions, particularly in children and immunologically naive adults, may be seen. With the exception of bee and wasp venom allergies, immediate-type allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites are rare. Systemic IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has also been reported from additional hymenoptera species, e.g. hornets, bumble bees and ants. Rare are systemic reactions to mosquitoes, flies or kissing bugs and exceptional from ticks, bed bugs, moths, caterpillars and spiders. A major problem is the often lacking standardization of extracts for skin testing and for the determination of specific IgE. Some of the allergens have been characterized and few of them synthesized using recombinant techniques. Most investigations have been made with whole-body extracts or extracts from salivary glands, while desensitization has rarely been attempted. Currently, primary prevention by avoidance of stings and bites, and adequate instruction of sensitized individuals in the use of emergency drugs are mandatory. PMID:15724094

  10. Allergic reactions to Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Plesner, Anne-Marie

    2003-11-01

    The JEV widely is used in Asian countries each year and is an important vaccine for travelers to the East from other parts of the world. JE virus is a zoonotic disease with natural reservoirs and cannot be eliminated. Although a declining incidence of JE has been observed in Asia because of reduced transmission by agricultural approaches and vaccination, the most important control measure now, and in the future, is vaccination of humans against JE. The inactivated vaccine, produced from infected mouse-brain-derived tissue, is the only commercially available vaccine. There are several concerns with the use of this vaccine. It is expensive, requires two or three doses to achieve protective efficacy, and, in practice, requires further booster doses to maintain immunity. The apparent increase in allergic reactions in the first part of the 1990s has set focus on the safety of the JEV. A cheap, live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine is used almost exclusively in China and parts of Korea, but there have been no trials of SA 14-14-2 vaccine outside JE endemic countries. The vaccine seems to be highly efficient, and few adverse events have been observed; however, PHK cells are used for the production of this vaccine, and these cells are not approved by the WHO. A satisfactory cell substrate is needed. A committee under the WHO has proposed that for the live JEV, there should be validity of the assays for retrovirus when applied to PHK cell substrate and validity of the mouse assays for neurovirulence. Further information should be reviewed on the long-term follow-up of recipients of the vaccine. Several new types of vaccines have reached the phase of clinical trials; however, studies remain to be completed. Until a new vaccine is available, the priority of surveillance of adverse events and the continuous reporting of such events to the users of the vaccines must be of importance. This fact is highlighted by the possibility of the varying frequency of adverse events with

  11. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding. PMID:27803887

  12. Allergic and pseudoallergic reactions induced by glucocorticoids: a review.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M T; Muratore, L; Calogiuri, G F; Dagnello, M; Buquicchio, R; Nicoletti, A; Altamura, M; Sabbà, C; Tursi, A

    2003-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the most effective treatment for autoimmune and allergic diseases, even if collateral effects are not rare, especially endocrine and immunosuppressive manifestations. Moreover, these drugs can develop adverse immunological reactions of I, III or IV type. Though immediate adverse reactions caused by systemic therapy with GCs are not very frequent, the possible beginning of anaphylactic and pseudo-anaphylactic manifestations in patients undergoing therapy with these drugs has to be considered. It has been observed that immediate adverse reactions usually are happened in asthmatic patients and in patients obliged to assume GCs again and again because of their pathology (e.g, kidney transplant). Other risk factors resulted to be female sex and hypersensibility to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Both in the cases of pseudo-allergic and allergic reactions, the pharmacological principle is hardly the responsible agent for the reaction; instead the excipients in drugs are often implicated (succinate salt, sulphites and carboxy-methyl-cellulose). It is possible that the IgE-response is highly specific for a fixed GC molecule as well depending on the way of administration and its salification. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that in patients with a first type allergic reaction to GCs there is a fourth type, sensitization to GCs, which is not usually diagnosed and even comes before IgE sensitization. Third type hypersensibility reactions may occur, too. Since GCs are large-scale drugs, also in emergency medicine and reanimation, allergic sensitization towards them, although infrequent, gives many interventionist problems. In the light of this feature, it seems of crucial importance to verify the tolerance toward other GC molecules. And in particular, it has been noted that patients presenting immediate reactions to hydrocortisone (HC) and methylprednisolone (MP) could tolerate prednisone and prednisolone per os and second-generation GCs, such as

  13. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  14. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals.

  15. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals. PMID:20646673

  16. Skin prick test reactivity in allergic rhinitis patients to airborne pollens.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Cingi, Cemal; Ayranci, Unal; Gurbuz, Kezban Melek; Pehlivan, Sevil; Tokur, Suleyman

    2009-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pollen in determining allergic rhinitis. It was conducted with 130 patients with allergic rhinitis in three different sites in Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2000-2001, using a gravimetric method with a Durham sampler. Skin prick test results, the symptoms of patients and their findings all confirmed the presence of allergic reactions to pollen allergens in the patients observed. During the period, a total of 47,082 pollen grains/cm(2) belonging to 45 taxa were recorded. Of the total pollen grains, 81.0% were arboreal and 18% non-arboreal. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinaceae, Salix spp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae and Poaceae. Pollen concentrations reached the highest level in May (54.36%). The pollen allergens provoking severe sensitization were grasscereal mixtures (58.5%), followed by arboreals (33.8%). All patients (100.0%) were sensitive to grass. This study emphasizes the significance of determining the types and concentrations of pollen with a view to comparing changes in highly concentrated allergens. PMID:18461463

  17. Allergic Reactions to Dental Materials-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Radhika; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Utility of various dental materials ranging from diagnosis to rehabilitation for the management of oral diseases are not devoid of posing a potential risk of inducing allergic reactions to the patient, technician and dentist. This review aims to develop a systematic approach for the selection and monitoring of dental materials available in the market thereby giving an insight to predict their risk of inducing allergic reactions. Materials and Methods Our data included 71 relevant articles which included 60 case reports, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The source of these articles was Pub Med search done with the following terms: allergies to impression materials, sodium hypochlorite, Ledermix paste, zinc oxide eugenol, formaldehyde, Latex gloves, Methyl methacrylate, fissure sealant, composites, mercury, Nickel-chromium, Titanium, polishing paste and local anaesthesia. All the relevant articles and their references were analysed. The clinical manifestations of allergy to different dental materials based on different case reports were reviewed. Results After reviewing the literature, we found that the dental material reported to cause most adverse reactions in patients is amalgam and the incidence of oral lichenoid reactions adjacent to amalgam restorations occur more often than other dental materials. Conclusion The most common allergic reactions in dental staff are allergies to latex, acrylates and formaldehyde. While polymethylmethacrylates and latex trigger delayed hypersensitivity reactions, sodium metabisulphite and nickel cause immediate reactions. Over the last few years, due to the rise in number of patients with allergies from different materials, the practicing dentists should have knowledge about documented allergies to known materials and thus avoid such allergic manifestations in the dental clinic. PMID:26557634

  18. Immediate and delayed reactions to radiocontrast media: is there an allergic mechanism?

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut

    2009-08-01

    Radiocontrast media can cause immediate (1 hour) and nonimmediate (>1 hour) hypersensitivity reactions that remain unpredictable and a cause of concern for radiologists and cardiologists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions resemble anaphylaxis, whereas nonimmediate ones clinically are predominated by exanthemas. Increasing evidence indicates that immediate reactions and nonimmediate skin exanthemas may be allergic reactions involving either contrast media-reactive IgE or T cells, respectively. Skin testing is a useful tool for the diagnosis of contrast media allergy. It may have an important role in the selection of a safe product in previous reactors, although validation data are still lacking. In vitro tests to search for contrast media-specific cell activation are currently under investigation.

  19. [Tattoo skin reactions: Management and treatment algorithm].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2016-01-01

    So-called "allergic" reactions to ink or colouring agents constitute the main current complication associated with tattoos that lead individuals to consult. However, general practitioners are frequently at a loss about how to manage such complications. In order to assist clinicians in their daily practice, we propose an update of the modes of managing allergic reactions to tattoos, and we offer a therapeutic scale and a decision-making algorithm.

  20. [Tattoo skin reactions: Management and treatment algorithm].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2016-01-01

    So-called "allergic" reactions to ink or colouring agents constitute the main current complication associated with tattoos that lead individuals to consult. However, general practitioners are frequently at a loss about how to manage such complications. In order to assist clinicians in their daily practice, we propose an update of the modes of managing allergic reactions to tattoos, and we offer a therapeutic scale and a decision-making algorithm. PMID:27181822

  1. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  2. Frequency-selective quantification of skin perfusion behavior during allergic testing using photoplethysmography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Claudia; Pereira, Carina; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis of allergic immediate-type reactions is dependent on the visual assessment of the attending physician. With our novel non-obtrusive, camera-based photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) setup, perfusion in the allergic testing area can be quantified and results displayed with spatial resolution in functional mappings. Thereby, each PPGI camera pixel can be assumed to be a classical (skin-based) reflective mode PPG sensor. An algorithm for post-processing of collected PPGI video sequences was developed to transfer black-and-white PPGI images into virtual 3D perfusion maps. For the first time, frequency selected perfusion quantification was assessed. For the presented evaluation, PPGI data from our clinical study were used [1]. For this purpose, different concentrations of histamine dilutions were administered to 27 healthy volunteers. Our results show clear trends in an increase in heartbeat synchronous perfusion rhythms and, simultaneously, a decrease of lower frequency vasomotor rhythms in these areas. These results, published for the first time, allow new insight into the distribution of skin perfusion dynamics and demonstrate the intuitive clinical usability of the proposed system.

  3. Epidermal Neuromedin U Attenuates IgE-Mediated Allergic Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mizukawa, Yoshiko; Doi, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kudo, Akihiko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation. PMID:27463114

  4. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:27343798

  5. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:25458838

  6. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye.

  7. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye.

  8. Repeated allergen challenge as a new research model for studying allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    de Bruin-Weller, M S; Weller, F R; De Monchy, J G

    1999-02-01

    Repeated allergen challenge might be a more relevant model for studying symptomatic disease, because it gives more information on the patient's handling of chronic allergen exposure. Thus, this experimental model has more resemblance to the situation of natural allergen exposure, and the allergen load can be standardized. However, the response to repeated allergen challenge in individual patients can show a large variation, that is from a strongly enhanced response to complete diminution of the response. Successful allergen immunotherapy can change the response pattern of repeated allergen challenge in the skin into down-regulation of the late reaction. Chronic or repeated allergen exposure may result in an enhanced allergen-specific allergic response, involving allergen-specific T-cell activation. Different subsets of T cells can exert either activating or suppressive effects on inflammatory cells involved in subsequent allergic reactions. CD8+ T cells might exert suppressive effects, because they seem to be associated with a subsequent down-regulation of the late skin reaction after repeated allergen challenge (Fig. 4). Further studies are needed to compare the responses to repeated allergen challenge with the response to natural seasonal allergen exposure in the same patients and to explore possible underlying mechanisms using, for example, nasal biopsies.

  9. [Allergic reaction after contact with Hura crepitans (sandbox tree)].

    PubMed

    Thumm, E J; Bayerl, C; Goerdt, S

    2002-03-01

    We describe a 36-year-old female patient with angioedema-like swellings and rhinoconjunctivitis for 1 year occurring exclusively at her home. The clinical history revealed no correlation with foods, food additives, drugs, or aeroallergens. The complaints always started immediately after contact with the sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) placed in her apartment. Scratch testing resulted in a two-fold positive reaction towards leaves and stem, while five controls remained negative. Thus we suggest the reaction of the patient to be allergic in nature. Hura crepitans belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, whose largest genera are Euphorbia and Croton. The toxic reactions to the milky sap, the so-called latex, of these plants are caused by ingredients such as phorbol esters, croton oil, lectins, and terpens. Various terpens are also well known as allergens. Phytotoxic and phytoallergic reactions are growing increasingly important and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in dermatology.

  10. Allergic reactions to medicines derived from Pelargonium species.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Hagemann, Ulrich; Bate, Jenny; Meyboom, Ronald H B

    2007-01-01

    Pelargonium (Pelargonium sidoides DC and P. reniforme Curtis) is reported to have immune modulating properties and antibacterial activity, and Pelargonium extracts have been used for the treatment of respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. Introduced in the early 1980s in Germany, Umckaloabo (ISO Arzneimittel), an ethanolic extract of the roots of P. sidoides and P. reniforme, was the first Pelargonium-derived product to be commonly used in a country in the EU. According to the Umckaloabo product information, this extract has no known adverse effects. However, there is a theoretical risk of interactions with anticoagulants such as warfarin, and antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). To date, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre has, through the WHO international pharmacovigilance programme, received 34 case reports of allergic reactions suspected to be associated with the use of Pelargonium extract, all originating from Germany. In a number of these reports, the description and timing of the event was indicative of an acute Coombs and Gell Type I hypersensitivity reaction; two of these patients needed treatment for circulatory failure. So far, the experience of such reactions is limited to Germany. Since Pelargonium-containing herbal products have recently been approved in a number of other countries, the possibility of the occurrence of allergic reactions has become of more general interest and further information regarding these products is needed.

  11. Allergic reaction to polyethylene glycol in a painter.

    PubMed

    Antolin-Amerigo, D; Sánchez-González, M J; Barbarroja-Escudero, J; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M; Álvarez-Perea, A; Alvarez-Mon, M

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of a male painter who visited our outpatient clinic after developing a distinct skin reaction 15 min after the ingestion of a laxative solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) prior to colonoscopy. He described suffering from the same skin reaction when he was previously exposed to paints that contained PEG-4000. An exposure challenge test with pure PEG-4000, simulating his workplace conditions, elicited a generalized urticarial reaction. Allergy to PEG should be considered in painters who develop urticarial or other systemic symptoms after handling PEG-containing products.

  12. Allergic Reaction to Ginkgo Nut on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Ji; Park, Hye Lim; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who previously underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. F FDG PET/CT images demonstrated multiple lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake in the neck, chest, and abdomen and diffusely increased FDG uptake in the spleen, which were highly suspicious findings for malignant lymphoma. However, subsequent biopsy of axillary lymph node presented reactive hyperplasia. Detailed history revealed that the patient had a history of generalized edema and severe arthralgia after contact with ginkgo nut one week ago. This case highlights allergic reaction mimicking lymphoma on FDG PET/CT. PMID:27276210

  13. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased.

  14. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  15. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation

  16. IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haoli; Oyoshi, Michiko K.; Le, Yi; Bianchi, Teresa; Koduru, Suresh; Mathias, Clinton B.; Kumar, Lalit; Le Bras, Séverine; Young, Deborah; Collins, Mary; Grusby, Michael J.; Wenzel, Joerg; Bieber, Thomas; Boes, Marianne; Silberstein, Leslie E.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Geha, Raif S.

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of intense pruritus, scratching, and epicutaneous (e.c.) sensitization with allergens. To explore the roles of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in AD, we examined skin lesions from patients with AD and used a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation. IL-21 and IL-21R expression was upregulated in acute skin lesions of AD patients and in mouse skin subjected to tape stripping, a surrogate for scratching. The importance of this finding was highlighted by the fact that both Il21r–/– mice and WT mice treated with soluble IL-21R–IgG2aFc fusion protein failed to develop skin inflammation after e.c. sensitization of tape-stripped skin. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific WT CD4+ T cells accumulated poorly in draining LNs (DLNs) of e.c. sensitized Il21r–/– mice. This was likely caused by both DC-intrinsic and nonintrinsic effects, because trafficking of skin DCs to DLNs was defective in Il21r–/– mice and, to a lesser extent, in WT mice reconstituted with Il21r–/– BM. More insight into this defect was provided by the observation that skin DCs from tape-stripped WT mice, but not Il21r–/– mice, upregulated CCR7 and migrated toward CCR7 ligands. Treatment of epidermal and dermal cells with IL-21 activated MMP2, which has been implicated in trafficking of skin DCs. These results suggest an important role for IL-21R in the mobilization of skin DCs to DLNs and the subsequent allergic response to e.c. introduced antigen. PMID:19075398

  17. Allergic contact granuloma: an uncommon reaction to pierced earrings in a child.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Lee, Jason B; Hyde, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis associated with pierced earrings typically presents as erythematous patches and plaques, with prominent spongiosis histologically. The most common inciting metal is nickel. Allergic contact granulomatous reactions to pierced earrings are rare, and are often more nodular in appearance and associated with metals other than nickel. We hereby report the first case of allergic contact granulomas associated with pierced earrings in a child.

  18. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Nikki B.; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M.; Kashon, Michael L.; Sharpnack, Douglas D.; Nayak, Ajay P.; Anderson, Katie L.; Meade, B. Jean; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%–3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%–0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86+GL-7+ B cells, CD80+CD86+ dendritic cells, GATA-3+OX-40+IL-4+IL-13+ Th2 cells and IL-17 A+ CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses. PMID:26048654

  19. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M; Kashon, Michael L; Sharpnack, Douglas D; Nayak, Ajay P; Anderson, Katie L; Jean Meade, B; Anderson, Stacey E

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%-3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%-0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86(+)GL-7(+) B cells, CD80(+)CD86(+) dendritic cells, GATA-3(+)OX-40(+)IL-4(+)IL-13(+) Th2 cells and IL-17 A(+) CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses.

  20. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  1. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions. PMID:27138061

  2. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions.

  3. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. PMID:27389548

  4. Allergic reaction to inadvertent peanut contact in a child.

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    1997-01-01

    Peanut anaphylaxis is a potentially near-fatal or fatal disease complicated by the fact that peanuts as well as other food items are commonly used as an adulterant in the preparation of foods. A boy is reported with peanut allergy to demonstrate, presumably for the first time, that contact urticaria occasionally provoked by peanuts can be associated with IgE-mediated allergy. Methods included skin prick tests, specific IgE determination, and open food challenge. All data were positive for an IgE-mediated allergy, and the open challenge with peanut resulted in systemic reactions. Food allergy is a common ailment in childhood. Although the ideal treatment is elimination of the offending allergen hidden, accidental, or unusual exposures can cause unwanted reactions, and anaphylaxis. The most reliable treatment appears to be prevention.

  5. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  6. Skin prick testing predicts peanut challenge outcome in previously allergic or sensitized children with low serum peanut-specific IgE antibody concentration.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Richard C; Richmond, Peter; Prescott, Susan L; Mallon, Dominic F; Gong, Grace; Franzmann, Annkathrin M; Naidoo, Rama; Loh, Richard K S

    2007-05-01

    Peanut allergy is transient in some children but it is not clear whether quantitating peanut-specific IgE by Skin Prick Test (SPT) adds additional information to fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) in discriminating between allergic and tolerant children. To investigate whether SPT with a commercial extract or fresh foods adds additional predictive information for peanut challenge in children with a low FEIA (<10 k UA/L) who were previously sensitized, or allergic to peanuts. Children from a hospital-based allergy service who were previously sensitized or allergic to peanuts were invited to undergo a peanut challenge unless they had a serum peanut-specific IgE>10 k UA/L, a previous severe reaction, or a recent reaction to peanuts (within two years). SPT with a commercial extract, raw and roasted saline soaked peanuts was performed immediately prior to open challenge in hospital with increasing quantity of peanuts until total of 26.7 g of peanut was consumed. A positive challenge consisted of an objective IgE mediated reaction occurring during the observation period. 54 children (median age of 6.3 years) were admitted for a challenge. Nineteen challenges were positive, 27 negative, five were indeterminate and three did not proceed after SPT. Commercial and fresh food extracts provided similar diagnostic information. A wheal diameter of >or=7 mm of the commercial extract predicted an allergic outcome with specificity 97%, positive predictive value 93% and sensitivity 83%. There was a tendency for an increase in SPT wheal since initial diagnosis in children who remained allergic to peanuts while it decreased in those with a negative challenge. The outcome of a peanut challenge in peanut sensitized or previously allergic children with a low FEIA can be predicted by SPT. In this cohort, not challenging children with a SPT wheal of >or=7 mm would have avoided 15 of 18 positive challenges and denied a challenge to one out of 27 tolerant children.

  7. Management of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Radiotherapy is a highly effective cancer treatment that not only offers cure but also excellent palliation of disease related symptoms and complications. Although radiotherapy is primarily an outpatient treatment, delivered within specialist centres, a diverse range of health professionals may be involved in the treatment pathway before, during and after treatment. Radiotherapy can, and does, make a significant contribution to improving a patient's wellbeing through effective symptom management. However, treatment-related side-effects do occur, with an acute skin reaction being one of the most common. It is imperative that radiotherapy-induced skin reactions are correctly assessed and appropriately managed in promoting patient comfort, treatment compliance and enhanced quality of life. This article describes how the use of a recognised assessment tool and evidence-based guidelines can facilitate consistent, high-quality care in the management of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions.

  8. Distinct parameters of the basophil activation test reflect the severity and threshold of allergic reactions to peanut

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; Du Toit, George; Douiri, Abdel; Radulovic, Suzana; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of peanut allergy relies on allergen avoidance and epinephrine autoinjector for rescue treatment in patients at risk of anaphylaxis. Biomarkers of severity and threshold of allergic reactions to peanut could significantly improve the care for patients with peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess the utility of the basophil activation test (BAT) to predict the severity and threshold of reactivity to peanut during oral food challenges (OFCs). Methods The severity of the allergic reaction and the threshold dose during OFCs to peanut were determined. Skin prick tests, measurements of specific IgE to peanut and its components, and BATs to peanut were performed on the day of the challenge. Results Of the 124 children submitted to OFCs to peanut, 52 (median age, 5 years) reacted with clinical symptoms that ranged from mild oral symptoms to anaphylaxis. Severe reactions occurred in 41% of cases, and 57% reacted to 0.1 g or less of peanut protein. The ratio of the percentage of CD63+ basophils after stimulation with peanut and after stimulation with anti-IgE (CD63 peanut/anti-IgE) was independently associated with severity (P = .001), whereas the basophil allergen threshold sensitivity CD-sens (1/EC50 × 100, where EC50 is half maximal effective concentration) value was independently associated with the threshold (P = .020) of allergic reactions to peanut during OFCs. Patients with CD63 peanut/anti-IgE levels of 1.3 or greater had an increased risk of severe reactions (relative risk, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.2). Patients with a CD-sens value of 84 or greater had an increased risk of reacting to 0.1 g or less of peanut protein (relative risk, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8). Conclusions Basophil reactivity is associated with severity and basophil sensitivity is associated with the threshold of allergic reactions to peanut. CD63 peanut/anti-IgE and CD-sens values can be used to estimate the severity and threshold of allergic reactions during OFCs. PMID

  9. Dissociation of cutaneous vascular permeability and the development of cutaneous late-phase allergic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Keahey, T.M.; Indrisano, J.; Kaliner, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    Cutaneous late-phase allergic reactions (LPR) are characterized by an early, immediate hypersensitivity whealing reaction followed by persistent, localized induration that peaks 6 to 8 hours later. In this study we used rodents to examine the relationship between vascular permeability (VP) and induration during LPR. Efflux of macromolecular tracers from the vasculature into skin was measured with the use of radiolabeled albumin and neutral dextran tracers having large molecular radii. To induce LPR immunologically, we used either intradermal injections of antirat IgE or passive cutaneous sensitization with IgE antidinitrophenyl followed 24 hours later by intravenous injection of albumin-dinitrophenyl. (/sup 125/I)albumin and (/sup 3/H)dextran tracers were injected intravenously before and at various intervals after the induction of LPR. Although a marked increase in VP occurred within the first 30 minutes after induction of mast cell degranulation, analysis of radiolabeled tracer accumulation at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours failed to demonstrate any further increase in VP. These findings indicate that the induration observed in rodent LPR is not associated with increased VP beyond the immediate hypersensitivity stage and suggest that impairment of lymphatic drainage, cellular infiltration, and/or fibrin deposition are contributing factors.

  10. Use of antihistamines after serious allergic reaction to methimazole in pediatric Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Toderian, Amy B; Lawson, Margaret L

    2014-05-01

    Antithyroid drugs are usually considered first-line therapy for management of pediatric Graves' disease because they avoid permanent hypothyroidism, provide a chance for remission, and are less invasive than the alternatives of thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine. Methimazole (MMI) is the only antithyroid drug recommended in pediatrics due to the risk of propylthiouracil-induced liver toxicity. Allergic reactions with MMI occur in up to 10% of patients and, when mild, can be managed with concurrent antihistamine therapy. Guidelines recommend discontinuation of MMI with serious allergic reactions. We present the case of an adolescent girl with Graves' disease and a serious allergic reaction after starting MMI whose family refused radioactive iodine and was reluctant to proceed to surgery. Antihistamine therapy was successfully used to allow continued treatment with MMI. This case demonstrates extension of management guidelines for minor cutaneous allergic reactions to MMI, through the use of antihistamines for a serious allergic reaction, allowing us to continue MMI and provide treatment consistent with the family's preferences and values.

  11. Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

  12. Do early childhood immunizations influence the development of atopy and do they cause allergic reactions?

    PubMed

    Grüber, C; Nilsson, L; Björkstén, B

    2001-12-01

    Concerns about allergic side-effects of vaccines and about a possible promotion of allergic diseases contribute to incomplete vaccination rates in childhood. This article reviews the current understanding of these issues. There is evidence that pertussis and diphtheria/tetanus antigens elicit immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody formation as part of the immune response. In murine models, pertussis toxin is an effective adjuvant for IgE formation against simultaneously administered antigens. In children, however, sensitization to unrelated antigens or development of allergic diseases do not seem to be augmented. In contrast, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccination have been proposed as suppressors of allergy because of their T helper 1 (Th1)-fostering properties. In the murine system, BCG inhibits allergic sensitization and airway hyper-reactivity. Some epidemiological studies in humans suggest an inhibitory effect of tuberculosis on allergy. BCG vaccination in children, however, has no or merely a marginal suppressive effect on atopy. Other vaccine components such as egg proteins, gelatin, and antibiotics are a potential hazard to children with severe clinical reactions to these allergens. These rare children should be vaccinated under special precautions. In conclusion, vaccination programs do not explain the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, but individual children may uncommonly develop an allergic reaction to a vaccine. The risks of not vaccinating children, however, far outweigh the risk for allergy. Therefore, childhood vaccination remains an essential part of child health programs and should not be withheld, even from children predisposed for allergy.

  13. Electrophilic reactions of skin-sensitizing sultones.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Williams, Douglas L; Bethell, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Reactions of the strong skin sensitizer hexadec-1-ene-1,3-sultone with sodium hydroxide, sodium methoxide, sodium metabisulfite, sodium butanethiolate, n-butylamine, and aniline have been investigated, and the reaction products have been identified. Most of the nucleophiles studied react by nucleophilic addition (Michael type addition) to the double bond at the 2-position, although in most cases the final products result from further reactions of the initital adducts. The findings are considered together with those reported by Meschkat, Barratt, and Lepoittevin for reactions of hex-1-ene-1,3-sultone and hexane-1,3-sultone, and the implications of the two sets of findings for the mechanism of skin-sensitizing action are discussed. It is concluded that nucleophilic attack at the 3-position of the alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones occurs only with those nucleophiles, which either have very low reactivity in nucleophilic addition or are unable to give rise to thermodynamically stable products via initial reaction at the 2-position. It is further concluded that the observed differences in electrophilic reactivity between alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones and alkane-1,3-sultones are not large enough to rationalize the differences in skin sensitization properties between the two types of sultone. It is suggested that the differences in specificity arise because the alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones act as Michael type electrophiles whereas the alkane sultones act as SN2 electrophiles. It is suggested that the reason for the greater potency of the alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones may be the ability of the initial C2 adducts with protein to undergo further reactions by substitution at C3, leading to cross-linking and consequent perturbation to the protein tertiary structure.

  14. Staphylococcus δ-toxin promotes mouse allergic skin disease by inducing mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuumi; Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B.; Chan, Susana M.; Muñoz-Planillo, Raul; Hasegawa, Mizuho; Villaruz, Amer E.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; McGavin, Martin J.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Otto, Michael; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15 to 30% of children and ~5% of adults in industrialized countries1. Although the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin E (IgE) immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction2. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to IgE-mediated allergic disorders including AD3. Upon activation, MCs release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of multiple molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of AD and host defense4. More than 90% of AD patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbor the pathogen5. Several Staphylococcal exotoxins (SEs) can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of AD6. However, the role of these SEs in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent MC degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified δ-toxin as the MC degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. MC degranulation induced by δ-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and calcium (Ca2+) influx, but unlike that mediated by IgE crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). In addition, IgE enhanced δ-toxin-induced MC degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from AD patients produced high levels of δ-toxin. Importantly, skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in δ-toxin, promoted IgE and IL-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of IgE production and dermatitis by δ-toxin was abrogated in KitW-sh/W-sh MC-deficient mice and restored by MC reconstitution. These studies identify δ-toxin as a potent inducer of MC degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease. PMID:24172897

  15. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  16. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  17. 495 Milk, the Most Commonly Undeclared Food Allergen Causing Unexpected Allergic Reactions in Sweden between 2004 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ferm, Monica; Sjogren-Bolin, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergy to milk proteins is a common allergic manifestation, especially among children. Different types of food products could be a risk factor for milk allergic individuals. According to the European Community Directive 2000/13/EC the list of ingredients shall include all the ingredients of the foodstuff, however with some exceptions. In 2003 Directive 2003/89/EC entered into force stating that milk and other ingredients, which are common elicitors of food allergic reactions, shall always be declared in the labeling. Objective To investigate which undeclared food allergen that most commonly has caused unexpected allergic reactions in Sweden between 2004 and 2011, ie, since 2003/89/EC entered into force, and to compile data regarding the reactions to this food allergen. Methods The medical care, school personnel and control authorities have since 1990 been encouraged to report allergic reactions to foods, which do not declare the ingredient causing the allergic reaction, to the Swedish National Food Administration. Also, the suspected foods have been provided for analyses. Food allergens, e.g. caseins (a group of milk proteins), were analyzed with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and/or Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis. Results Forty-eight cases of unexpected allergic reactions to foods, in which the causing food allergen was detected, were reported between 2004 and 2011. The most commonly detected food allergen was milk (21) followed by peanut (9), egg (6) and wheat (5). The persons who suffered from unexpected allergic reactions to milk were all children or teenagers. Mild symptoms were reported as well as anaphylactic reactions. One death was most likely caused by an allergic reaction to bread contaminated with milk. The lowest doses eliciting allergic reactions were calculated to be 2 to 6 mg casein. The types of foods causing the reactions were chocolate, ready-made meals, meat products, sauces, bread and a vegetarian milk substitute. The unexpected

  18. Variability of Offending Allergens of Allergic Rhinitis According to Age: Optimization of Skin Prick Test Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Chul; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Whun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed SPT results according to age to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to screen at least 93%-95% of AR patients. Allergic skin tests (common airborne indoor and outdoor allergens) were performed on 7,182 patients from January 2007 to June 2011. All patients were classified into 9 groups according to age; subsequently, we investigated offending allergens by age group. Results A total of 5,032 (70.1%) patients were found sensitized to at least one of the 55 aeroallergen extracts tested. The annual ranking of offending allergens was not significantly different from each other over the past 5 years. House dust mites (HDM) were the most prevalent allergens ranked from first to third for all 5 years. The allergens in the minimum test panel differed slightly among all age groups; in addition, the types of sensitized allergen sources were more diverse in the older versus younger age group. HDM covered a larger proportion of the sensitized allergens in the younger age group versus the older age group. Testing with 5 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, Tetranychus urticae, oak, mugwort and cockroach) adequately identified over 90% of the sensitized patients. Conclusions A SPT with around 5-7 allergens adequately detected most of the sensitization in the majority of the age groups in Korea. However, this study suggests that physicians perform the SPT with appropriately selected allergens in each age category for the screening of AR. PMID:24404393

  19. Skin prick test predictive value on the outcome of a first known egg exposure in milk-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, M C; Cerecedo, I; Muriel, A; Zamora, J; Sánchez-Cano, M; De la Hoz, B

    2008-06-01

    Children with milk allergy have higher incidence of other food allergies, especially egg allergy. The objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the prick test in children with IgE-mediated milk allergy for diagnosing egg allergy. Children under the age of 1 yr who came consecutively to Allergy Department 2003-05, and were diagnosed with IgE-mediated milk allergy were selected for this study. Egg introduction was completely avoided until the age of 14 months when clinical history, skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE antibodies determination and egg challenge test were performed. One hundred and four milk-allergic children were included. At least one positive prick test to any egg allergen was found in 65 out of the 104 (62.5%). Thirty-eight (36.5%) were allergic to egg proteins as well. Prick tests with egg white and ovomucoid (OVM) had the best diagnostic performances showing the largest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal diagnosis cut-off point was 6 mm for egg white and 5 mm for OVM. The positive likelihood ratios for these cut-off points were: 2.95 (95% CI: 1.74-4.99) for egg white prick test, and 20 (95% CI: 2.9-143.7) for OVM prick test. Children with specific IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy must be closely followed as a risk group for egg allergy. Early diagnosis is necessary and the SPT has shown itself to be a very useful tool for diagnosing immediate IgE reactions to egg on first known exposure.

  20. Anti-allergic effects of nilotinib on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis like reactions.

    PubMed

    El-Agamy, Dina S

    2012-04-01

    Nilotinib is a new orally bioavailable potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of BCR-ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. However, its effect on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is still not known. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of nilotinib on the anaphylactic allergic reaction and study its possible mechanism(s) of action. Nilotinib administration prevented systemic anaphylaxis in mice, mediated by compound 48/80, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Also, nilotinib significantly inhibited (P<0.05) allergic paw edema in rats. Furthermore, nilotinib significantly decreased (P<0.05) the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in a dose dependent manner. In addition, nilotinib dose-dependently reduced histamine release from the rat peritoneal mast cells activated either by compound 48/80 or by ovalbumin. Moreover, nilotinib attenuated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in the rat peritoneal mast cells. These findings provide evidence that nilotinib inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and so it could be a candidate as an anti-allergic agent.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis.

  2. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Older, Caitlin E.; Mansell, Joanne M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium—two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies. PMID:26542075

  3. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium--two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies.

  4. Skin Reactions to Pine Processionary Caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1–12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom. PMID:23781164

  5. [Reflections about allergic and crossed reactions to sulphonamides and drugs with radical-sulphonamide].

    PubMed

    Montes Montes, José; Alfonso Barrón, Enrique; Cruz Leyva, Jazmín del Alva; Flores Flores, José

    2004-01-01

    In the daily pharmacological therapy, some compounds may cause eventually allergic hypersensitivity reactions generating adverse effects. The objective of this study and its reflections has been to recommend caution, being prudent when expressing an opinion on risks and benefits of drugs themselves or some of their radicals that may contain because this attitude might produce a unsuitable concern. Drugs hypersensitivity (an unexpected pharmacological effect) may resemble a true allergic reaction but without the implication of IgE immunoglobulin. Such reactions are result of effector systems drug activation, leading to direct proallergic or proinflammatory chemical mediators release from mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Sulphonamides are an illustrative example because they possess a chemical core resembling that from other kind of drugs -furosemide, some COXIB and others- besides its haptenic capability (even though they have different chemical structure). Selective COX 2 inhibitors are considered an accepted symptomatic therapy in rheumatic diseases as well as some other conditions where pain and inflammation are present; based on its generalized use in such conditions, authors decided to perform this investigation in the allergy clinics of Hospital General de México and Hospital Español de México, looking for cases of true allergic, crossed or hypersensitivity reactions related to one COXIB that includes a sulphamidic radical in its chemical structure. No clinical significance was found concerning the above mentioned reactions and the antiinflammatory-analgesic compound (celecoxib).

  6. Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, J; Tsuchiya, T

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.

  7. Severe allergic reaction: management of anaphylaxis in hospital.

    PubMed

    Jevon, Phil

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, severe, hypersensitivity reaction that can lead to asphyxia, cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrest. This reaction is sudden, severe, and involves the whole body. Common causes include foods such as nuts, shellfish, dairy products and eggs. Non-food causes include bee/wasp stings, latex and drugs, e.g. penicillin. Common clinical features include urticaria, angioedema, respiratory distress and shock. Summoning expert help, reclining the patient flat, administering high concentration oxygen, and administering intramuscular adrenaline are key aspects of the nursing management of anaphylaxis in hospital. The aim of this article is to understand the management of anaphylaxis in hospital, with particular reference to national consensus guidelines.

  8. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication. PMID:25147796

  9. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for a child with severe allergic reaction to rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Liu, Man-Qing; Chen, Li; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2016-07-01

    Most adverse events (AEs) during the immunization of rabies vaccine were slight, there was little information about the allergic reaction induced by rabies vaccines and had to stop or change the immunization program. Here, we reported a case that a 4-year-old boy had category II exposure to rabies and showed severe allergic reaction after being immunized with lyophilized purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). After the anti-allergy therapy with hormone, allergy testing indicated medium allergy to egg and milk, and implied the allergic reaction most likely associated with animal-sourced gelatin in lyophilized PVRV. Therefore, a new immunization program with liquid PVRV without stabilizers under the Zegrab regimen (2-1-1) was enrolled at day 7 post-exposure. Although lower than the levels of normal <5 -year population at day 14 and 45, the neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers of this boy showed adequate protective antibody (≥ 0.5 IU/ml), even after 365 d post-immunization. This study not only highlighted the importance of several types of rabies vaccines co-existing in the market, but also implied the necessary for doctors to fully understand the allergies history of patients prior to immunize rabies vaccine. PMID:26900624

  10. Skin test, RAST and clinical reactions to peanut allergens in children.

    PubMed

    Kemp, A S; Mellis, C M; Barnett, D; Sharota, E; Simpson, J

    1985-01-01

    One-hundred-and-four children were skin-tested with four peanut-allergen preparations, a commercial extract, extracts of raw and roast peanuts prepared by NH4HCO3 extraction, and a wheatgerm lectin-reactive glycoprotein obtained by affinity chromatography. The presence of symptoms after ingestion of peanut or peanut products was also recorded. The roast allergen extract provided the greatest specificity with eight symptomatic children having a positive skin test and only one positive skin-test reaction in an asymptomatic child in the group of 104 children tested. Despite differences in the incidence of skin-test reactions there was a strong correlation between raw, roast and commercial RAST suggesting common allergens were being identified by circulating IgE. Clinical sensitivity was observed particularly in younger children with 75% of the children being under 4 years of age. A positive roast skin test or a RAST test adds confirmation to the clinical history of allergic reactions to peanuts.

  11. [Skin tests in the study of drug eruptions with suspected immuno-allergic mechanism].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, A; Béné, M C; Faure, G; Schmutz, J L

    2000-01-01

    Skin testing (patch tests, prick test and intradermal tests) with the suspected compound has been reported to be helpful in determining the cause of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but the value and specificity of these tests need to be determined. In a previously published study involving 72 patients, we observed positive results in 72% of the cases, in 43%, 24% and 67% in patch, prick and intradermal skin tests, respectively. The results of skin tests varied with the clinical type of cutaneous ADR, as a significantly higher number of positive patch tests was observed in maculopapular rashes (59%) than in urticarial reactions (13%) or in eythrodermic ADR (80%). The results of patch tests varied with the drug tested as frequent positive results were obtained with amoxicillin, pristinamycin, carbamazepine, pseudoephedrine, heparinoids... This study and the analysis of the literature support the value of careful sequential drug skin testing in establishing the cause of cutaneous ADR. Guidelines are proposed for performing these tests, and these include the use of appropriate negative control patients to avoid false-positive results, the determination of the relevance of positive patch tests, a contact sensitization to drug being able to elicite a positive result on patch tests with a preserved oral tolerance to the same drug. These tests have to be performed with a strict medical survey as they can induce a relapse of the cutaneous ADR.

  12. Allergic Reactions to Foods in Preschool-Aged Children in a Prospective Observational Food Allergy Study

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Tamara T.; Atkins, Dan; Wood, Robert A.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Henning, Alice K.; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine circumstances of allergic reactions to foods in a cohort of preschool-aged children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 5-site observational study of 512 infants aged 3 to 15 months with documented or likely allergy to milk or egg, and collected data prospectively examining allergic reactions. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 0–48.4), the annualized reaction rate was 0.81 per year (367/512 subjects reporting 1171 reactions [95% confidence interval: 0.76–0.85]). Overall, 269/512 (52.5%) reported >1 reaction. The majority of reactions (71.2%) were triggered by milk (495 [42.3%]), egg (246 [21.0%]), and peanut (93 [7.9%]), with accidental exposures attributed to unintentional ingestion, label-reading errors, and cross-contact. Foods were provided by persons other than parents in 50.6% of reactions. Of 834 reactions to milk, egg, or peanut, 93 (11.2%) were attributed to purposeful exposures to these avoided foods. A higher number of food allergies (P < .0001) and higher food-specific immunoglobulin E (P < .0001) were associated with reactions. Of the 11.4% of reactions (n = 134) that were severe, 29.9% were treated with epinephrine. Factors resulting in undertreatment included lack of recognition of severity, epinephrine being unavailable, and fears about epinephrine administration. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high frequency of reactions caused by accidental and nonaccidental exposures. Undertreatment of severe reactions with epinephrine was a substantial problem. Areas for improved education include the need for constant vigilance, accurate label reading, avoidance of nonaccidental exposure, prevention of cross-contamination, appropriate epinephrine administration, and education of all caretakers. PMID:22732173

  13. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  14. Determination of IgE in the serum of patients with allergic reactions to four species of fish-parasite anisakids.

    PubMed

    Valero, A; Terrados, S; Díaz, V; Reguera, V; Lozano, J

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates cross-reactions between somatic and metabolic antigens of various anisakids in the serum of patients with allergic processes. Twenty patients with allergic reactions after eating fish were studied using the skin-prick test for sensitivity to four species of anisakids. IgE was also determined, by blotting, in the serum of these patients when confronted with somatic and metabolic antigens of Anisakis simplex s.l. and Hysterothylacium aduncum, and somatic antigens of A. physeteris and H. fabri. The results obtained with both techniques basically agree, the following facts being of particular note: four patients presented specific IgE for A. simplex s.l. and 1 for Hysterothylacium sp. only, eight patients presented cosensitivity for A. simplex s.l. and A. physeteris, two for A. simplex s.l. and Hysterothylacium sp., one for A. physeteris and Hysterothylacium sp., and two for A. simplex s.l., A. physeteris and Hysterothylacium sp. Given the results obtained, it should be considered that other species of fish-parasite anisakids, apart from A. simplex s.l., may be involved in the allergic reactions presented by a large number of patients. PMID:12968392

  15. The kiss of death: a severe allergic reaction to a shellfish induced by a good-night kiss.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P

    2003-02-01

    True (IgE-mediated) allergic reactions to crustaceans are relatively common and can be serious. A young woman with a clinical history of multiple urticarial reactions after touching shrimp and lobster dishes was seen in an emergency department of a Mayo Clinic-affiliated hospital for an anaphylactic reaction that developed immediately after she kissed her boyfriend. The boyfriend had eaten several shrimp just before the kiss. It is important to warn susceptible patients that food does not actually have to be eaten to trigger an allergic reaction; touching the offending food and kissing or touching someone who has recently eaten the food can be enough to cause a major reaction.

  16. Life-threatening allergic reactions. Anticipating and preparing are the best defenses.

    PubMed

    Stafford, C T

    1989-07-01

    The sudden development of anaphylaxis or an anaphylactoid reaction is a medical emergency. It can cause death from upper airway edema and asphyxia, especially if the patient is at high risk (eg, has cardiac disease or bronchial asthma) and does not seek prompt attention or know how to administer self-treatment. Among the most common causes are administration of certain drugs and biologic agents, exposure to radiographic contrast media, ingestion of particular foods (eg, shellfish, nuts), and insect stings. Dr Stafford describes clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions that aid in its diagnosis, the many possible causes, a treatment protocol, and preventive measures.

  17. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Koo, H N; Myung, N I; Shin, M K; Kim, J W; Kim, D K; Kim, K S; Kim, H M; Lee, Y M

    2001-02-01

    The crude drug "Siberian Ginseng (SG)" has long been used in empirical Oriental medicine for the nonspecific enhancement of resistance in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell cultured SG by oral administration in mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. SG dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic allergy with doses of 10(-2) to 1 g/kg 1 h before oral administration. Of special note, SG inhibited systemic allergy with the dose of 1 g/kg by 25%. SG (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous allergic reaction by 51%. SG dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When SG (0.01 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 in antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody-stimulated mast cells was inhibited 39.5% and 23.3%, respectively. In addition, SG inhibited anti-DNP IgE antibody-stimulated TNF-alpha protein expression in mast cells. Our studies provide evidence that SG may be beneficial in the treatment of various types of allergic diseases.

  18. [Allergic risk in anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mertes, Paul Michel; De Blay, Frédéric; Dong, Siwei

    2013-03-01

    Anaphylactic reactions may be either of immune(allergy, usually IgE-mediated, sometimes IgG-mediated) or non-immune origin. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia varies between countries ranging from 1/1250 to 1/13,000 per procedure. In France, the estimated incidence of allergic reactions is 100.6 [76.2-125.3]/million procedures with a high female predominance (male: 55.4 [42.0-69.0], female: 154.9 [117.2-193.1]). This predominance is not observed in children. In adults, the most frequently incriminated substances are neuromuscular blocking agents, followed by latex and antibiotics. The estimated incidence of allergic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents is 184.0 [139.3-229.7]/million procedure. In most cases there is a close reaction between clinical symptoms and drug administration. When the reaction is delayed, occurring during the surgical procedure, a reaction involving latex, a vital dye, an antiseptic or a volume expanding fluid should be suspected. Reaction severity may vary. The most frequently reported initial symptoms are pulselessness, erythema, increased airway pressure, desaturation or decreased end-tidal CO2. Clinical symptoms may occur as an isolated condition, making proper diagnosis difficult. In some cases a cardiovascular arrest can be observed. Reaction mechanism identification relies on mediators (tryptase, histamine) measurement at the time of the reaction. In case of allergic reaction, the responsible drug can be identified by the detection of specific IgE using immunoassays or by skin tests performed 6 weeks after the reaction. Predictive allergy investigation to latex or anaesthetics in the absence of history of reaction should be restricted to at-risk patients. Premedication cannot prevent the onset of an allergic reaction. Providing a latex-free environment can be used for primary or secondary prevention. Treatment is based on allergen administration interruption, epinephrine administration in a titrated

  19. [Skin reactions on exposure to the pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa)].

    PubMed

    Vega, J; Vega, J M; Moneo, I

    2011-11-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar is the larval form of the Thaumetopoea pityocampa moth. Mediterranean forests regularly suffer plagues of this insect, which has been moving north as a result of global warming. When the small urticating hairs that develop during the last 3 larval stages are shed and can become airborne. If they come in contact with skin, they can cause a variety of reactions, notably contact urticaria and papular rashes. Irritation can also occur if the hairs lodge in the mucosa of the conjunctiva or in the respiratory tract. Several cases of anaphylactic reactions have been reported in recent years. Mechanical (irritative) mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of lesions, or immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic hypersensitivity reactions may be implicated when the process is rapid, recurrent, and progressively more severe.

  20. Coronary vasospasm secondary to allergic reaction following food ingestion: a case of type I variant Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tadashi; Abe, Mitsuru; Yagi, Nobuhito; Kokubu, Nobuaki; Kasahara, Yoichiro; Kataoka, Yu; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Goto, Yoichi; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    Coronary vasospasm can be induced by allergic reactions with some chemical mediators, and the angina and myocardial infarction secondary to allergy-induced coronary vasospasm are referred to as "Kounis syndrome." Only two cases of Kounis syndrome following food ingestion have been reported. However, they had pre-existing atheromatous coronary artery disease, and no provocation test to induce coronary vasospasm was done. We describe here another probable case of allergic vasospasm after food intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of a patient with food-induced allergic vasospasm subsequent to the provocation test with ergometrine maleate.

  1. Immediate allergic cross-reactivity to levobupivacaine and ropivacaine.

    PubMed

    Calderon, A L; Diot, N; Benatir, F; Christin, F; Hautin, E; Truc, C; Allaouchiche, B; Boselli, E

    2013-02-01

    Allergic reactions to amide local anaesthetic agents are rare. We report the case of a 74-year-old man who suffered anaphylaxis, presenting with cardiovascular collapse, immediately after receiving regional anaesthesia on two separate occasions, the first involving the use of levobupivacaine and the second using ropivacaine. Skin testing revealed positive reactions to both levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, and negative reactions to articaine and lidocaine. Severe allergic reactions can be caused by the amide local anaesthetic drugs, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine.

  2. Allergic reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... t bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... Common allergens include: Animal dander Bee stings or stings from other insects Foods, especially nuts, fish, and shellfish Insect bites Medicines Plants Pollens

  3. Allergic-like Reactions to the MR Imaging Contrast Agent Gadobutrol: A Prospective Study of 32 991 Consecutive Injections.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Talbot, Nancy; Kucharczyk, Walter; Mandell, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To determine the frequency and severity of allergic-like reactions to gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Data collection during the study period was part of a hospital quality assurance initiative to confirm the safety of gadobutrol after its introduction at this institute from 2010 to 2013. The study also included an electronic health records review approved by the institutional review board of the University Health Network, Toronto. The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. At the time of each reaction to contrast material, the patient's age and sex, whether premedication was given, the contrast agent used, the volume injected, the patient's symptoms, and the treatment administered were recorded. Allergic-like reactions from physiologic reactions were differentiated and the frequency and severity of allergic-like reactions, the prevalence of risk factors for reactions, the frequency of reactions despite the use of premedication (a "breakthrough reaction"), and the frequency of delayed reactions were calculated. A χ(2) test to determine whether there was a difference in reaction rates during the 4 years of the study was performed. Results The frequency of allergic-like reactions to gadobutrol was 0.32% (96 reactions among 30 373 gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance [MR] imaging examinations) during the study period. These 96 reactions occurred in 82 patients. There was only one severe reaction. There were identifiable risk factors in 40 of the 82 patients (48.8%). Of the 82 patients with an allergic-like reaction, 28 (34.1%) received a gadolinium-based contrast agent before and had no reaction. A total of 12 of 33 (36.4%) breakthrough reactions occurred, and there were 15 of 96 (15.6%) reactions with a delayed onset. Conclusion The frequency of allergic-like reactions to gadobutrol is very low, accounting for 96 reactions among 30 373 gadobutrol-enhanced MR imaging examinations (0.32%), and severe reactions are rare. In

  4. [Consensus position document on the child with an allergic reaction after vaccination or an allergy to vaccine components].

    PubMed

    Echeverría Zudaire, L; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Alonso Lebrero, E; Álvarez García, F J; Cortés Álvarez, N; García Sánchez, N; Martorell Aragonés, A

    2015-07-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is labeled to have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, the next immunizations will probably be suspended in that child, with the risks involved in this decision. The rate of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5-1/100,000 doses. The causes of allergic reactions to vaccines, more than the vaccine itself, are often due to residual protein components in the manufacturing process, such as gelatin or egg, and rarely to yeast or latex. Most of vaccine reactions are mild, localized at the site of injection, but in some circumstances, severe anaphylactic reactions can occur. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected when vaccinating, or a child allergic to some of the vaccine components has to be vaccinated, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergy has to be made. The usual components of each vaccine should be known, in order to determine if vaccination can be performed safely on the child. PMID:25648960

  5. Consensus document on the approach to children with allergic reactions after vaccination or allergy to vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Zudaire, Luis A; Ortigosa-del Castillo, Luis; Alonso-Lebrero, Elena; Álvarez-García, Francisco J; Cortés-Álvarez, Nuria; García-Sánchez, Nuria; Martorell-Aragonés, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is identified as having had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, subsequent immunisations will probably be suspended - with the risks such a decision implies. The incidence of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5 and 1 cases/100,000 doses. Rather than the vaccine antigens as such, the causes of allergic reactions to vaccines are often residual protein components of the manufacturing process such as gelatine or egg, and less commonly yeasts or latex. Most vaccine reactions are mild and circumscribed to the injection site; although in some cases severe anaphylactic reactions can be observed. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected at vaccination, or if a child with allergy to some of the vaccine components is scheduled for vaccination, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergic process must be made. The usual vaccine components must be known in order to determine whether vaccination can be safely performed.

  6. [Consensus position document on the child with an allergic reaction after vaccination or an allergy to vaccine components].

    PubMed

    Echeverría Zudaire, L; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Alonso Lebrero, E; Álvarez García, F J; Cortés Álvarez, N; García Sánchez, N; Martorell Aragonés, A

    2015-07-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is labeled to have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, the next immunizations will probably be suspended in that child, with the risks involved in this decision. The rate of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5-1/100,000 doses. The causes of allergic reactions to vaccines, more than the vaccine itself, are often due to residual protein components in the manufacturing process, such as gelatin or egg, and rarely to yeast or latex. Most of vaccine reactions are mild, localized at the site of injection, but in some circumstances, severe anaphylactic reactions can occur. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected when vaccinating, or a child allergic to some of the vaccine components has to be vaccinated, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergy has to be made. The usual components of each vaccine should be known, in order to determine if vaccination can be performed safely on the child.

  7. Experiencing a first food allergic reaction: a survey of parent and caregiver perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insufficient knowledge of food allergy and anaphylaxis has been identified by caregivers as an important barrier to coping, and a potential cause of fear and anxiety, particularly for those with children newly diagnosed with food allergy. The purpose of the study was to better understand the experiences of caregivers of children with a first allergic reaction to food, and to identify any deficiencies in the information received at diagnosis. Methods A mixed-methods study consisting of an online survey administered to the Anaphylaxis Canada online registry (a patient support group database of approximately 10,000 members), and a follow-up qualitative interview with a subset of survey participants. Analysis consisted of frequency analysis (quantitative and qualitative data) and descriptive statistics to calculate proportions and means with standard deviations. Qualitative analyses were guided by the constant comparative method of grounded theory methodology. Results Of 293 survey respondents, 208 were eligible to complete the survey (first allergic reaction to food within 12 months of the study), and 184 respondents consented. Identified gaps included education about food allergy, anaphylaxis management, for example, how to use epinephrine auto- injectors, and coping strategies for fear and anxiety. The qualitative follow-up study supported these findings, yielding 3 major themes: 1) lack of provision of information following the episode on the recognition and management of food allergy related allergic reactions, 2) prolonged wait times for an allergist, and 3) significant family anxiety. Conclusions The online survey highlighted multiple deficiencies at diagnosis, findings which were supported by the follow up qualitative study. Results will inform the development of educational strategies for patients newly diagnosed with food allergy. PMID:23718700

  8. Sonographic appearance of angioedema in local allergic reactions to insect bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ee Tein; Tsung, James W

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue infections and angioedema from insect bites and stings may be difficult to differentiate by inspection. We present sonographic findings of 4 cases of soft tissue swelling from insect bites and stings suggestive of angioedema. Sonographic features of soft tissue angioedema consist of thickened subcutaneous tissue layers with multiple linear, horizontal, striated, and hypoechoic lines following the tissue planes between soft tissue layers. In addition to the history and physical examination, sonographic findings may assist in differentiating between local allergic reactions and cellulitis in patients with insect bites and stings. Further study is warranted for clinical application.

  9. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  10. An analysis of skin prick test reactions in 656 asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, D J; Davies, R J; D'Souza, M F; Pepys, J

    1975-01-01

    Of 656 asthmatic patients referred specifically for allergy assessments, 544 (84 percent) gave positive immediate skin prick tests to at least one of 22 common allergens used routinely. Comparison of these skin test positive patients with the 102 (16 percent) who were skin test negative showed a number of significant differences. The majority of the skin test positive patients (52 percent) were less than 10 years old at the time of onset of the asthma, whereas, of the skin test negative patients, 56 percent were aged over 30 years at the time of onset. Seventy per cent report rhinitis compared with 48 per cent of the skin test negative patients, and 29 per cent reported infantile eczema compared with 9 per cent. Symptoms attributed to house dust, pollens, and animals were noted two to three times more frequently by the skin test positive patients, while corticosteroid drugs had been used more commonly by the skin test negative patients (45 percent compared with 35 percent). No significant differences were observed with the other factors studied, namely, history of urticaria or angio-oedema, family history of "allergic" disease, and awareness of sensitivity to foods, aspirin or penicillin. Prick test reactions in the skin test positive patients were most commonly seen to house dust or the acarine mite, Dermatophagoides farinae (82 percent), followed by pollens (66 percent), animal danders (38 percent), foods (16 percent), Aspergillus fumigatus (16 percent), and other moulds (21 percent). There was a highly significant association of positive history with positive prick test for all allergens studied. Images PMID:1168378

  11. Radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Samantha; Bryan, Julie

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy often experience a skin reaction to their treatment. In an attempt to assist clinicians in the recognition and care of these radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, an assessment and management tool has been designed for use. This patient-focused assessment tool has been distributed across the counties that the authors' trust serves. It has standardised the care of patients with these skin reactions, so that the patients can be treated with the same interventions whether they visit their GP, hospital or district nurse.

  12. Radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Samantha; Bryan, Julie

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy often experience a skin reaction to their treatment. In an attempt to assist clinicians in the recognition and care of these radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, an assessment and management tool has been designed for use. This patient-focused assessment tool has been distributed across the counties that the authors' trust serves. It has standardised the care of patients with these skin reactions, so that the patients can be treated with the same interventions whether they visit their GP, hospital or district nurse. PMID:26911177

  13. Severe Toxic Skin Reaction Caused by a Common Anemone and Identification of the Culprit Organism.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Özgür Deniz; Gözer, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    In a marine envenomation, identification of the culprit organism can be difficult. In this case report, we present our method to identify snakelocks anemone (Anemonia viridis or formerly Anemonia sulcata) as the culprit of a severe toxic skin reaction. A. viridis is one of the most common anemones of the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at a depth of up to 10 m. It is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, hydroids, and corals. They have toxic organelles called cnidocysts that have the capacity to inject venom with microscopic harpoon-like structures. The cnidocysts of A. viridis may cause toxic and allergic reactions, and although its venom is one of the most studied cnidarian venoms, detailed case reports are rare. PMID:26146820

  14. Eczema-Like Psoriasiform Skin Reaction due to Brazilian Keratin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni-Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis; Rochael, Mayra; Vilar, Enoï; Tanus, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-02-01

    The use of formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers in hair-straightening formulations started in Rio de Janeiro in 2003. The technique is known as BKT, Brazilian keratin treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of skin reactions presented by patients due to BKT. We describe 7 patients with severe erythema and scurf on the scalp which developed shortly after BKT. The lesions were eczema-like psoriasiform, located mainly on the scalp. Some patients also developed eczema-like lesions and pustules on the face, neck, upper arms, and upper trunk. Dermatoscopic findings included erythema, perifollicular and interfollicular scurf. The peripilar desquamation resembled the outer skin of an onion bulb. Scalp biopsies revealed psoriasiform and spongiotic psoriasiform patterns, one of them similar to anti-TNFα biologic drug psoriasiform alopecia. The possible consequences of the absorption of formaldehyde by hairdressers or clients are still to be verified by the scientific community; however, the skin and scalp reactions observed in our cases suggest a drug reaction phenomenon and not only eczemas of irritant or allergic origin. PMID:27172059

  15. Allergic reaction to epinephrine preparation in 2% lidocaine: two case reports.

    PubMed Central

    Kohase, Hikaru; Umino, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hypersensitivity to an epinephrine preparation in local anesthetics which were found by skin tests for local anesthetics. Both patients had uncomfortable episodes to local anesthetics at dental treatment. In both cases, the skin tests showed positive reactions to 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Furthermore drug lymphocyte stimulation test revealed positive reaction to epinephrine hydrochloride, epinephrine bitartrate in case 1, whereas in case 2, the drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed positive response to epinephrine bitartrate. Attention should be paid to exogenous epinephrine preparations that have the potential to induce hypersensitivity during dental treatment. PMID:15675262

  16. INCIDENCE OF APNEA ATTACK AS ALLERGIC REACTION AFTER ORAL FOOD CHALLENGE IN PATIENT WITH IgE-MEDIATED WHEAT ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and might cause death. Although wheezes, dyspnea or loss of consciousness are known to occur with severe allergic reactions with IgE-mediated food allergy, reports of apnea attack associated with IgE-mediated food allergy are rare. In this case, 9-year-old boy with IgE-mediated wheat allergy experienced apnea attack with strong desaturation after an immediate allergic reaction including erythema, abdominal pain, vomiting, and anaphylactic shock. The patient had asphyxia and cyanosis confirmed by medical staff when his oxygen saturation decreased to the 60% level, and he had occasional asphyxia over 10 seconds with no thoracic motion after a desaturation episode. Central apnea attack might be occurred in patient with IgE-mediated food allergy. However, the exact mechanism responsible remains unknown and further research is needed. PMID:27616176

  17. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  18. Acute allergic skin response as a new tool to evaluate the allergenicity of whey hydrolysates in a mouse model of orally induced cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Schouten, Bastiaan; Hofman, Gerard A; van Baalen, Ton; Nijkamp, Frans P; Knippels, Léon M J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Garssen, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Hypoallergenic milk formulae are used for cow's milk allergic infants and may be a good option for infants at risk. Clinical studies have shown that the protein source or the hydrolysis methodology used may influence the effectiveness in infants stressing the importance of adequate pre-clinical testing of hypoallergenic formulae in an in vivo model of orally induced cow's milk allergy. This study was undertaken to introduce a new read-out system to measure the residual allergenicity of whey hydrolysates on both the sensitization and challenge phase of orally induced cow's milk allergy in mice. Mice were sensitized orally to whey or a partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) to measure the residual sensitizing capacity. To predict the residual allergenicity of hydrolysates, whey allergic mice were challenged in the ear with pWH, extensive whey hydrolysate or an amino acid-based formula. An acute allergic skin response (ear swelling at 1 h), whey-specific serum antibodies, and local MCP-1 concentrations were measured. In contrast to whey, oral sensitization with pWH did not result in the induction of whey-specific antibodies, although a minor residual skin response to whey was observed after challenge. Skin exposure to whey hydrolysates showed a hydrolysation dependent reduction of the acute allergic skin response in whey allergic mice. In contrast to whey, skin exposure to pWH did not enhance tissue MCP-1 levels. The acute allergic skin response in mice orally sensitized to cow's milk proteins reveals a new pre-clinical tool which might provide information about the residual sensitizing capacity of hydrolysates supporting the discussion on the use of hypoallergenic formulae in high risk children. This mouse model might be a relevant model for the screening of new hypoallergenic formulae aimed to prevent or treat cow's milk allergy.

  19. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin.

  20. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin. PMID:26643682

  1. A retrospective analysis of allergic reaction severities and minimal eliciting doses for peanut, milk, egg, and soy oral food challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianmei; Pouillot, Régis; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest K; Luccioli, Stefano; Gendel, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern, affecting up to 6% of children and 2% of adults. The severity of allergic reactions can range from mild to potentially life-threatening. In addition, the minimum amount of protein needed to provoke an allergic reaction in an individual patient (the minimal eliciting dose (MED)) ranges from a few micrograms to several grams. To determine whether a retrospective analysis of published data from oral food challenges could be used to assess the potential relationship between MEDs and reaction severities at the MEDs, a three class (mild, moderate, severe) reaction grading system was developed by integrating previously published reaction grading systems. MEDs and symptoms were collected from food challenge studies and each reaction was graded using the integrated grading system. Peanut allergic patients who experienced severe reactions had significantly higher MEDs and threshold distribution doses than those who experienced mild and moderate reactions. No significant differences in threshold distributions according to the severity grading were found for milk, egg and soy. The relationship between threshold dose distribution and reaction severity based on these grading criteria differed between peanut and other allergens, and severe reactions were found to occur in some patients at low MEDs for all of these food allergens.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  3. [Evaluation and study of pseudo-allergic reactions of three kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and its mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yan; Li, Chun-ying; Zhang, Yu-shi; Zhao, Yong; Han, Jia-yin; Lu, Yu-ting; Liang, Ai-hua

    2015-07-01

    To evaluated the pseudo-allergic reactions of cordate houttuynia, pulse-activating and Qingkailing injection in mice, the ICR mouse were divided into different test groups, then were intravenously injected with three traditional Chinese medicine injections, positive control compound 48/80 and physiological saline as normal control. All test substances were mixed with 0.4% Evans blue. The reaction and vascular permeability of the ears were observed and measured 30 min after injection. At the same time, the mechanisms of the traditional Chinese injections' pseudo-allergic reactions was studyed. ICR mice were injected with the test substances as above without EB, blood in a part of mice were collected after 5 min, and the level of histamine in the plasma were measured. Blood in the other part of mice were collected after 30 min, and the level of VEGF, TNF-α and IL-10 in the serum were measured. The reasults showed that except the cordate houttuynia injection, pulse-activating injection in 1. 5 times clinical concentration and Qingkailing injection in 3.3 times clinical concentration caused mild pseudo-allergic reactions mainly for vascular permeability, no pseudo-allergic reactions occurred when the concentration of the two injections was below the concentration metioned above; 5 minutes after intravenous injection of the three TCM injections into ICR mice with the highest dose, the levels of histamine in plasma of pulse-activating injection and Qingkailing injection groups were increased significantly, 30 minutes later, the levels of VEGF, TNF-α and IL-10 in the serum of all groups were no significant change compared to normal group. The mouse of pulse-activating and Qingkailing injection groups showed inflammatory changes in ear and lung tissues. It can be conluded that when the dose or concentration increased to a certain extent, pulse-activating and Qingkailing injection could induce pseudo-allergic reactions on ICR mice, the increased histamine realease maybe

  4. Detailed analysis of allergic cutaneous reactions to spinal cord stimulator devices.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Zeshan Ahmed; Najib, Umer; Bajwa, Zahid H; Jacobs, W Carl; Sheikh, Javed; Simopoulos, Thomas T

    2013-01-01

    The use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices to treat chronic, refractory neuropathic pain continues to expand in application. While device-related complications have been well described, inflammatory reactions to the components of these devices remain underreported. In contrast, hypersensitivity reactions associated with other implanted therapies, such as endovascular and cardiac rhythm devices, have been detailed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical presentation and course of inflammatory reactions as well as the histology of these reactions. All patients required removal of the entire device after developing inflammatory reactions over a time course of 1-3 months. Two patients developed a foreign body reaction in the lead insertion wound as well as at the implantable pulse generator site, with histology positive for giant cells. One patient developed an inflammatory dermatitis on the flank and abdomen that resolved with topical hydrocortisone. "In vivo" testing with a lead extension fragment placed in the buttock resulted in a negative reaction followed by successful reimplantation of an SCS device. Inflammatory reactions to SCS devices can manifest as contact dermatitis, granuloma formation, or foreign body reactions with giant cell formation. Tissue diagnosis is essential, and is helpful to differentiate an inflammatory reaction from infection. The role of skin patch testing for 96 hours may not be suited to detect inflammatory giant cell reactions that manifest several weeks post implantation. PMID:23946668

  5. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  6. Post-marketing surveillance of immediate allergic reactions: polygeline-based versus polygeline-free pediatric TBE vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zent, Olaf; Hennig, Renald

    2004-12-16

    Scattered cases of immediate allergic reactions occurred in the nineties after widespread use of the original (polygeline-based) pediatric tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine and were reported to Pharmacovigilance, Chiron Vaccines. Although, still indicating a very rare frequency of about two cases per 100,000 doses sold, the benefit/risk assessment resulted in its withdrawal from the market in early 1998. An intensive evaluation revealed that polygeline used as a vaccine stabilizer was the most probable cause of the reported allergic reactions. Consequently, an improved pediatric TBE vaccine, free of polygeline and other protein-derived vaccine stabilizers, was developed. A post-marketing surveillance analysis covering the first two vaccination seasons after the introduction of this new pediatric TBE vaccine in early 2002 reveals a very low reporting rate of immediate allergic reactions post immunization (within the range as noted for other widely used vaccines for childhood immunization), i.e., 0.08-0.24 cases per 100,000 doses sold depending on case definition and medical assessment. In conclusion, this analysis provides post-marketing surveillance evidence that the change in the vaccine formulation, with regards to the potential risk of immediate allergic reactions, has led to an intended improvement in the vaccine's safety profile.

  7. [Cytarabine and skin reactions in acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Grille, Sofía; Guadagna, Regina; Boada, Matilde; Irigoin, Victoria; Stevenazzi, Mariana; Guillermo, Cecilia; Díaz, Lilián

    2013-01-01

    Cytarabine is an antimetabolite used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It has many adverse effects as: myelosuppression, toxic reactions involving central nervous system, liver, gastrointestinal tract, eyes or skin. Dermatologic toxicity is often described as rare; nevertheless there are differences in the reported frequency. We performed a retrospective study including all AML treated with chemotherapy that involved cytarabine between 1st July of 2006 and 1st July of 2012; 46 patients were included with a median age of 55 years. The overall incidence of skin reactions was 39% (n = 18). Sex, age, history of atopy, history of drug reactions, or dose of cytarabine used, were not associated with them. Skin reactions were observed from 2 to 8 days after treatment started. Considering injury degree: 27.8% had grade 1, 38.9% grade 2 and 33.3% grade 3. We did not find any injury grade 4 or death associated with skin toxicity. As for the type of injury: 55.6% presented macules, 22.2% papules and 22.2% erythema. Lesions distribution was diffuse in 52% of patients, acral in 39.3%, and at flexural level in 8.7%. Adverse cutaneous reactions secondary to the administration of cytarabine are frequent in our service and include some cases with severe involvement. Although these reactions usually resolve spontaneously, they determine an increased risk of infection and a compromise of the patient quality of life.

  8. Mosla dianthera inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun . E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of Mosla dianthera (Maxim.) (AEMD) on the mast cell-mediated allergy model and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. AEMD inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. AEMD decreased immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AEMD attenuated intracellular calcium level and release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80. Furthermore, AEMD attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-{alpha}, IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of AEMD on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. AEMD decreased PMA and A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. Our findings provide evidence that AEMD inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  9. Gallic acid-grafted chitooligosaccharides suppress antigen-induced allergic reactions in RBL-2H3 mast cells.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-09-29

    In this study, a bioactive derivative of chitooligosaccharides (3-5 kDa) was synthesized via grafting of gallic acid onto chitooligosaccharides (G-COS) to enhance anti-allergic activity. Hence, G-COS was evaluated for its capabilities against allergic reactions in RBL-2H3 mast cells sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific immunoglobulin E antibody and stimulated by antigen dinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin. It was revealed that G-COS exhibited significant inhibition on histamine release and production as well as intracellular Ca(2+) elevation at the concentration of 200μg/ml. Likewise, the suppressive effects of G-COS on expression and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were evidenced. Moreover, G-COS treatment caused a remarkable blockade on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) protein, translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Notably, the inhibitory activities of G-COS on allergic reactions were found as a consequence of suppression of FcεRI expression in antigen-stimulated cells. Accordingly, G-COS was suggested to be a promising candidate of novel inhibitors against allergic reactions.

  10. Suppression of immediate and late anti-IgE-induced skin reactions by topically applied alcohol/onion extract.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, W; Ring, J

    1984-01-01

    In a double blind study, alcohol/onion extract (5% ethanol) was injected simultaneously with 20 IU and 200 IU rabbit anti-human-IgE intradermally in 12 adult volunteers (6 atopics, 6 non-atopics). Diameters of wheals and flares were measured 10 min after and compared with control sites challenged with 20 IU and 200 IU anti-IgE in a 5% ethanol solution. The skin sites were then treated epidermally with 45% alcohol/onion extract and 45% ethanol under occlusion. Diameters of late cutaneous reactions were measured hourly. Oedema formation was clinically estimated according to an arbitrary scale and skin thickness measured with a calliper. In the onion-treated skin sites the wheal areas were significantly reduced (20 IU: control: 108 +/- 53 mm2; onion 69 +/- 42 mm2, P less than 0.05; 200 IU anti-IgE: control: 152 +/- 25 mm2, onion: 138 +/- 26 mm2, P less than 0.02). The oedema formation during the late phase skin reaction was markedly depressed (P less than 0.005 at 2 h, P less than 0.01 at 4 and 6 h, P less than 0.02 at 8 h). The extent of late skin reactions was slightly, but not significantly reduced. Obviously, onions contain pharmacologically active substances with anti-inflammatory and/or allergic properties. PMID:6364880

  11. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  12. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from cardamom.

    PubMed

    Mobacken, H; Fregert, S

    1975-06-01

    A case is presented of a confectioner with a chronic hand dermatitis and positive patch test reactions to cardamom and certain terpenoid compounds present in the dried ripe seeds of cardamom. Cardamom is a popular traditional flavouring agent for baked goods and confectionery. Dermatitis from skin exposure to cardamom has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We report one case of allergic contact dermatitis to cardamom elicited by terpenes present in the seeds.

  14. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  15. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  16. Risk of skin reactions when using ibuprofen-based medicines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan

    2005-09-01

    Adverse reactions to drugs are a frequent cause of morbidity and medical consultation; it is no surprise that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) run second, after antibiotics, mainly of the beta-lactam group (penicillins and cephalosporins). Numerous clinical pictures involving the skin--various morbilliform rashes, urticaria and angioedema as the most common--due to hypersensitivity to a particular NSAID (i.e., ibuprofen) have been described; other clinically defined skin diseases such as vasculitis, Steven-Johnson's syndrome, photosensitivity, fixed drug eruptions, livedo-like dermatitis, linear drug eruption, lichenoid drug eruption, exanthematous pustulosis, eczematous eruption, contact dermatitis and pemphigoid have received the attention of physicians. Extensive use around the world makes it interesting to investigate adverse cutaneous reactions to ibuprofen and other members of the propionic acid derivative group, to ascertain their prevalence, clinical presentation and prevention. This paper presents a review of published literature concerning cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to ibuprofen and related arylpropionic acids.

  17. [Skin reaction to carbamazepine or DRESS syndrome: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fundora, Emigdio Jesús; Cabrera Osorio, Yuliet; Cabrera Osorio, Claudia

    2016-02-25

    Carbamazepine is a frequently used drug that can produce adverse reactions like vertigo, somnolence and severe skin reactions like Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome (DRESS Syndrome). This syndrome is characterized by a late-appearing, slow-progressing cutaneous eruption accompanied by atypical lymphocytes, eosinophilia, and systemic symptoms such as fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatic compromise, and renal dysfunction that can be severe enough to cause death. We present a case that aims to highlight the importance of an early diagnosis of DRESS syndrome to adjust therapy and improve survival. The patient is a female patient prescribed carbamazepine for trigeminal neuralgia who presented with skin lesions, which were initially attributed to a hypersensitivity reaction. The lesions worsened in spite of treatment and systemic symptoms ensued. A diagnosis of DRESS syndrome was proposed and steroid treatment was initiated with rapid improvement.

  18. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  19. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  20. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line. PMID:18413102

  1. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

  2. Mosla punctulata Inhibits Mast Cell-mediated Allergic Reactions Through the Inhibition of Histamine Release and Inflammatory Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Je, I. G.; Shin, T. Y.; Kim, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic inflammatory diseases such as food allergy, asthma, sinusitis and atopic dermatitis are increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. Aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic and immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis and it also reduced intracellular calcium level and down-streamed histamine release from mast cells. In addition, aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata decreased gene expression and secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha, an important proinflammatory cytokine, in mast cells. The inhibitory effect on tumour necrosis factor alpha expression was nuclear factor kappa B dependent. The results indicate that aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata inhibited mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction by suppressing histamine release and expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha, and involvement of calcium and nuclear factor kappa B in these effects. Hence it can be concluded that, the aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata might be a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders. PMID:24591741

  3. Repeat epinephrine treatments for food-related allergic reactions that present to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Aleena; Rudders, Susan A; Corel, Blanka; Garth, Alisha M; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To date, there are sparse data on epinephrine treatment for food-related anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to establish the frequency of more than one epinephrine treatment for adult patients who present with food-related anaphylaxis to the emergency department (ED). We performed a chart review, at two academic centers, of all adults presenting to the ED for food allergy (ICD9CM codes 693.1, 995.0, 995.1, 995.3, 995.7, 995.60-995.69, 558.3, 692.5, and 708.X) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2006. We focused on causative foods; treatments, including the number of epinephrine treatments given before and during the ED visit; and disposition. Through random sampling and appropriate weighting, the 486 reviewed cases represented a study cohort of 1286 patients. The median age was 36 years and the cohort was 62% women. Shellfish (23%), peanuts (12%), tree nuts (14%), and fish (14%) provoked the allergic reaction most commonly. Most patients (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 57-68%) met criteria for food-related anaphylaxis. In the ED, anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine (18%), antihistamines (91%), corticosteroids (81%), and inhaled albuterol (19%). Overall, 17% (95% CI, 9-25%) of patients with food-related anaphylaxis given epinephrine received >1 dose over the course of their reaction. Among anaphylaxis patients admitted to the hospital, only 10% included anaphylaxis in the discharge diagnosis. At ED discharge (82% of patients), 18% were referred to an allergist and 39% were prescribed self-injectable epinephrine. Among ED patients with food-related anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine, 17% were given >1 dose. This study supports the recommendation that patients at risk for food-related anaphylaxis should carry 2 doses of epinephrine.

  4. Drug metabolism in the skin.

    PubMed

    Baron, J M; Merk, H F

    2001-08-01

    The skin performs a wide range of active metabolic functions including xenobiotic metabolism involving metabolizing enzymes specific to the skin. In this review we focus on the role of drug metabolism: (i) in allergic reactions to substances of low molecular weight; (ii) in cutaneous vitamin A and D3 metabolism and its modulation; (iii) in the interaction of transport and metabolic enzymes in skin cells; and (iv) on novel tools for the measurement of drug metabolism in various compartments of the human skin.

  5. The risk of systemic reactions to skin prick-tests using food allergens: CICBAA data and literature review.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Morisset, M; Guénard, L; Rancé, F; Kanny, G; Lemerdy, Ph

    2006-02-01

    Prick-tests to foods are usually carried out as the first step in the diagnosis of food allergy. Severe anaphylaxis accounts for 4.9 % of allergies in children and occurs more frequently in adults, raising the possibility of systemic reactions to prick-tests in highly sensitized people. Several studies published in the literature have used commercial extracts. As for airborne allergens, concentrations causing a skin reaction of 15 mm do not present a risk of systemic reactions. Prick-tests to native foods--prick-in-prick tests--have been less extensively studied. The CICBAA1 data, from 1,138 food allergic patients of all ages, cover 34,905 prick-in-prick tests to foods. The wheal of these prick-tests has been regulary registered. The risk of systemic reactions can be evaluated at 0.008 %. There were no severe reactions and anti-histamine and corticosteroid therapy were sufficient. These results are similar to those of the large study in 2000 carried out by Devenney in neonates (0.005%). A review of the literature reveals only a few severe reactions in adults. The authors draw attention to the necessary precautions: temporary contra-indication for skin prick-tests in children and adults with grade 3 or 4 asthma, with particular attention to such foods as all kinds of nuts, fish, etc.

  6. Allogeneic versus xenogeneic immune reaction to bioengineered skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Erdag, Gulsun; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2004-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the survival and immune reaction to allografts and xenografts of cultured skin substitutes (CSS). In this study, we investigated the allogeneic and xenogeneic responses to CSS of human keratinocytes and genetically engineered CSS expressing keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) that forms a hyperproliferative epidermis. CSS (control and KGF modified) and neonatal human foreskins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of MHC class I and II. To study allograft rejection, grafts were transplanted to human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (huPBMC)-reconstituted SCID mice. To study xenograft rejection, grafts were transplanted to immunocompetent mice. Graft survival and immune reaction were assessed visually and microscopically. After transplantation, control CSS formed a normal differentiated epidermis, whereas KGF CSS formed a hyperproliferative epidermis. Control and KGF CSS expressed class I similar to neonatal foreskin, but did not express class II. In the allograft model, rejection of neonatal foreskins was between 5 and 9 days. In contrast, neither control nor KGF CSS was rejected by huPBMC-SCID mice. Histology showed dense mononuclear cell infiltration in human foreskins, with few, if any, mononuclear cells in control or KGF CSS. In contrast to the allogeneic reaction, CSS (control and KGF) were rejected in the xenograft model, but rejection was delayed (9-21 days) compared with neonatal skin (5-8 days). Humanized SCID mice rejected allografts of human neonatal foreskins, but did not reject control CSS or KGF CSS, even though the KGF CSS formed a hyperproliferative epidermis. Rejection of control and KGF CSS by immunocompetent mice in a xenograft model was comparable and their survival was significantly prolonged compared with neonatal skin. These results demonstrate that control CSS and hyperproliferative KGF CSS are less immunogenic than normal human skin and that sustained hyperproliferation of the epidermis

  7. Acute skin reaction suggestive of pembrolizumab-induced radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Sibaud, Vincent; David, Isabelle; Lamant, Laurence; Resseguier, Sarah; Radut, Roxana; Attal, Justine; Meyer, Nicolas; Delord, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The combination of localized radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a promising therapeutic strategy for various cancers, including metastatic melanoma. Radiation therapy may enhance tumor antigen presentation and cytokine release, which may optimize the systemic antitumor immune response induced by these immunotherapeutic antibodies, with a potential delayed abscopal effect. However, clinical experience of using immune checkpoint inhibitors with concurrent radiotherapy remains scarce. We report here for the first time a case suggestive of acute skin radiosensitization induced by pembrolizumab, with a suggestive time relationship between the completion of ionizing radiation, drug administration, and rapid onset of the skin reaction. This suggests that radiation therapy may also interact rapidly with anti-programmed-death 1 antibodies. Therefore, caution should be exercised when prescribing this combination therapy in advanced cancers.

  8. Radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: prevention and cure.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kàren

    This article describes the prophylactic use of Mepitel Film in three breast-cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Each patient had significant risk factors for developing severe radiotherapy-induced skin reactions. This article details the experience encountered by these patients through their treatment courses, with observations by the review radiographers responsible for the care and support of these patients during their radiotherapy and the patients themselves. The film was found to be easy to use by the clinical team and resulted in a significant reduction in adverse side effects to the skin, with an associated improvement in patient satisfaction. There was found to be a financial benefit with the use of Mepitel Film when compared to the foam dressings often required for wound management if the patients had suffered moist desquamation. PMID:25203851

  9. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  10. Inhibitory effects of BiRyuChe-bang on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions and inflammatory cytokines production.

    PubMed

    Moon, Phil-Dong; Choi, Il Sang; Go, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Byong-Joo; Kang, Sang Woo; Yoon, Sunhee; Han, Seung-Jun; Nam, Sun-Young; Oh, Hyun-A; Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Young-Sick; Kim, Ju-Sung; Kim, Myong-Jo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2013-01-01

    BiRyuChe-bang (BRC) is a Korean prescription medicine, which has been used to treat allergic rhinitis at Kyung Hee Medical Center. In this work, we investigated the effects of BRC on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions and inflammatory cytokines production, and identified the active component of BRC. Histamine release was measured from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). Ear swelling and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) were examined in mouse models. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-induced inflammatory cytokines production was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used for the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was analyzed by Western blotting. BRC significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced ear swelling response, histamine release from RPMCs, PCA activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE, and PMA plus A23187-induced inflammatory cytokines production (p < 0.05). In addition, BRC dose-dependently inhibited the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 as well as the activation of NF-κB in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. BRC inhibited the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice induced with PCA. Several components of BRC, such as 1,8-Cineole, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, α-Pinene, and α-Terpineol, significantly inhibited the release of histamine from RPMCs (p < 0.05). Among these components, Linalyl acetate was the most effective for inhibiting histamine release. These results indicate that BRC has a potential regulatory effect on allergic and inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  11. Anti-CD63 antibodies suppress IgE-dependent allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Stefan; Fleming, Tony; Billingsley, James M.; Lin, Shih-Yao; Jouvin, Marie-Hélène; Storz, Peter; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    High-affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRI) cross-linking on mast cells (MCs) induces secretion of preformed allergy mediators (degranulation) and synthesis of lipid mediators and cytokines. Degranulation produces many symptoms of immediate-type allergic reactions and is modulated by adhesion to surfaces coated with specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The signals involved in this modulation are mostly unknown and their contribution to allergic reactions in vivo is unclear. Here we report the generation of monoclonal antibodies that potently suppress FcɛRI-induced degranulation, but not leukotriene synthesis. We identified the antibody target as the tetraspanin CD63. Tetraspanins are membrane molecules that form multimolecular complexes with a broad array of molecules including ECM protein-binding β integrins. We found that anti-CD63 inhibits MC adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin. Furthermore, anti-CD63 inhibits FcɛRI-mediated degranulation in cells adherent to those ECM proteins but not in nonadherent cells. Thus the inhibition of degranulation by anti-CD63 correlates with its effect on adhesion. In support of a mechanistic linkage between the two types of inhibition, anti-CD63 had no effect on FcɛRI-induced global tyrosine phosphorylation and calcium mobilization but impaired the Gab2–PI3K pathway that is known to be essential for both degranulation and adhesion. Finally, we showed that these antibodies inhibited FcɛRI-mediated allergic reactions in vivo. These properties raise the possibility that anti-CD63 could be used as therapeutic agents in MC-dependent diseases. PMID:15684326

  12. Allergic Reaction to Drugs—A Survey on Hospital Practices of Soliciting Medical Information from Newly Admitted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Don Harper

    1964-01-01

    The matter of allergic reaction to drugs is causing serious medicolegal problems in hospitals to both physicians and hospitals. This survey seeks to alert the medical profession and hospitals to the problem, what is being done to cope with it in some hospitals, and to emphasize that the duty to make necessary inquiries belongs primarily to the medical profession. The form described at the end of this report is a suggestion and is not intended to be reproduced and used in all instances. The medical staff and administration of each hospital should develop a form that is appropriate for its use. PMID:14179533

  13. Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S; Pimpinelli, N

    2001-11-01

    Disturbances of skin barrier function occur in several skin diseases, e.g., atopic dermatitis (AD), irritant/allergic contact dermatitis (ICD, ACD). Skin barrier damage triggers the production of cytokines that stimulate lipogenesis which may also cause inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical skin lipid mixture in the treatment of ICD, ACD and AD. 580 consecutive patients suffering from ICD, ACD or AD were treated with a skin lipid mixture containing ceramide-3 and patented nanoparticles. Patients received the lipid mixture alone or in combination with topical corticosteroids until clearance or for 8 weeks. Both treatment groups statistically improved all parameters considered at week 4 and 8 as compared to baseline. Between the 2 treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of combined therapy for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): erythema, pruritus and overall disease severity; erythema and pruritus; erythema, pruritus, fissuring and overall disease severity. No statistically significant difference was found for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): dryness, scaling and fissuring; scaling, fissuring and overall disease severity; dryness and scaling. Between the 2 ACD treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skin lipid mixture for dryness. In conclusion, the study shows that balanced lipid mixtures are effective in improving barrier properties and the clinical condition of the skin in contact dermatitis. PMID:11722487

  14. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17a) cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases. PMID:27403198

  15. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17a) cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases. PMID:27403198

  16. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis.

  17. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5–50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153

  18. Persistent light reaction associated with photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette and allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    Megahed, M; Hölzle, E; Plewig, G

    1991-01-01

    A 57-year-old man suffering from persistent light reaction with photocontact allergy to musk ambrette and contact allergy to fragrance mix was evaluated. A lowered minimal erythema dose to UV-B (MED-UV-B) was seen. Reactions to long-wave UV-A and visible radiation were normal. A skin biopsy from one MED-UV-B, taken 24 h after irradiation, showed acute spongiotic dermatitis.

  19. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  20. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: impact on the gut immune system and allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Gourbeyre, Pascal; Denery, Sandra; Bodinier, Marie

    2011-05-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics, alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate the immune response. They may therefore be tools that can prevent or alleviate certain pathologies involving the gut immune system, such as allergies for which no treatment is yet available. This review focuses first on the definitions of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics and key cells in the gut immune system. It then discusses their effects on mucosal immune stimulation. Experimental findings suggest that different probiotic species have similar effects on innate immunity by improving the mechanisms of pathogen destruction. On the contrary, their impacts seem to be variable on the adaptive immune system. Prebiotics can also exert an influence on the gut immune system via the stimulation of the autochthonous bacteria metabolism. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of food supplements on allergy. Different studies performed in humans or rodents have supported a potential role for selected probiotics and prebiotics in reducing some allergic parameters. Probiotic effects on allergy treatment are unclear, especially in human studies. However, they are potentially effective at short-term for prevention when they are administered in perinatal conditions. A clinical study performed with an infant cohort revealed a beneficial effect of prebiotics in preventing allergic manifestations at long-term. Further studies are nonetheless essential to confirm these findings. Food supplements offer potential tools for the prevention or treatment of allergy, but insufficient evidence is available at present to recommend their use in clinical practice.

  1. Allergic Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  2. Skin Testing in the Evaluation and Management of Carboplatin-Related Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lax, Timothy; Long, Aidan; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a frequent occurrence in patients being retreated for malignancy. The most common and severe reactions are thought to be IgE mediated. Currently, skin testing is the only method used clinically to identify individuals sensitized to carboplatin. Despite almost 20 years of clinical use, a standardized approach to skin testing and its use in the management of carboplatin HSRs has not been well established. We review the utility of carboplatin skin testing and discuss factors that influence the interpretation of skin testing results. A risk stratification strategy using skin testing and desensitization to manage patients with carboplatin HSRs is proposed.

  3. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  4. [Study of allergic reactions in the body after experimental smallpox vaccination].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Afanas'ev, S S; Patrikeev, G T; Prigoda, A S; Podkuiĭko, V N

    1977-09-01

    Experiments on guinea pigs demonstrated a mixed cellular-humoral character of allergy in smallpox vaccination. The ratio of cellular and humoral components depended on the site of the vaccina application. Skin manifestations in smallpox vaccination (hyperemia, infiltration, papula) were due to the multiplication of the virus proper, increased sensitivity of the surrounding tissues to the live vibrio, and specific immunological reconstruction. The skin of the sensitized animal after the anaphylactic shock in response to the intracardiac injection of the challenging dose of the vaccine virus acquired areactivity to its subsequent application.

  5. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats. PMID:17845619

  6. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT.

  7. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P < 0.0001) on each assessment day. Pruritus scores decreased from 7.58 to 2.59 cm following oclacitinib treatment. The day 7 mean oclacitinib Veterinarian Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P < 0.0001) than placebo scores. Diarrhoea and vomiting were reported with similar frequency in both groups. Conclusions and clinical importance In this study, oclacitinib provided rapid, effective and safe control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  8. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu . E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

  9. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene.

    PubMed

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG(1) antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk. PMID:17481687

  10. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  11. Anti-Allergic Action of Aged Black Garlic Extract in RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA2, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  12. Anti-allergic action of aged black garlic extract in RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄ at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA₂, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  13. ALLERGIC REACTIONS CAUSED BY VENOM OF HYMENOPTEROUS STINGING INSECTS AND THE ROLE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Raafat Zaher; Mohamad, Hanaa Mahmoud; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-08-01

    The Hymenoptera are the third largest order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants. Worldwide, over 150,000 species are recognized, with many more remaining to be described. The name refers to the wings of the insects, but the original derivation is ambiguous. The Ancient Greek υμην (hymen) for membrane provides a pLusible etymology for the term because these insects have membranous wings. However, a key characteristic of this order is that the hind wings are connected to the fore wings by a series of hooks called hamuli. Thus, another plausible etymology involves, Hymen, the Ancient Greek god of marriage, as these insects have "married wings" in flight. Stinging insects and the medical risk associated with their venoms are complex topics, and presentation of information pertaining to them requires the use of technical terms. The most common reactions to these stings are transient pain and redness at the site lasting a few hours (local reaction), and exaggerated swelling lasting a few days (large local reaction). The most dangerous immediate reaction is anaphylaxis, which is potentially fatal. PMID:26485860

  14. Tropomyosin sensitization in house dust mite allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Gröger, Moritz; Canis, Martin; Pfrogner, Elisabeth; Kramer, Matthias F

    2012-04-01

    The growing popularity and frequency of consumption of seafood is accompanied by an increasing number of adverse reactions reported in literature. Allergic reactions to seafood can generate a variety of symptoms ranging from a mild oral allergy syndrome to keen anaphylactic reactions. Tropomyosin, the major shellfish allergen is regarded to be responsible for clinical cross-reactivity to inhaled house dust mites. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria and to compare the results with allergic symptoms. Sera of house dust mite allergic patients (positive skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE and intranasal provocation) were screened for IgE antibodies to tropomyosin (Der p 10). Patients were contacted by phone to evaluate allergic symptoms when consuming seafood. IgE antibodies to house dust mite tropomyosin (Der p 10) could be found in 4 out of 93 sera (4.3%). Two of these four patients (50%) showed itching and swelling of oral mucosa accompanied by bronchial obstruction after consumption of shrimp. Two patients had no problems when eating seafood. None of the seronegative patients complained about any health problems during or after consumption of seafood. In conclusion, cross-reactivity to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria, Germany is rarer than suspected. Beside the direct allergic reactions, a further part of reactions to seafood must therefore be ascribed to other mechanisms such as intoxication or intolerance to, e.g. additives in the food product.

  15. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  16. [Skin diseases in travellers returning from tropical countries].

    PubMed

    Blum, Johannes; Pletscher, Martin

    2013-06-01

    The most frequently observed skin lesions in travellers returning from tropical countries are insect bite reactions, bacterial skin diseases, creeping eruption and allergic reactions. The article describes these most relevant diseases and their differential diagnosis focussing on the diseases, which are potentially dangerous and which should not be missed, such as resistant staphylococci, chancre of rickettsia or sleeping sickness, cutaneous leishmaniasis or worms, which are not limited to the skin.

  17. The IgE-dependent pathway in allergic transfusion reactions: involvement of donor blood allergens other than plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Nobuki; Yasui, Kazuta; Amakishi, Etsuko; Hayashi, Tomoya; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Matsukura, Harumichi; Tani, Yoshihiko; Furuta, Rika A; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-07-01

    On transfusion, several plasma proteins can cause anaphylaxis in patients deficient in the corresponding plasma proteins. However, little is known about other allergens, which are encountered much more infrequently. Although it has been speculated that an allergen-independent pathway underlying allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) is elicited by biological response modifiers accumulated in blood components during storage, the exact mechanisms remain unresolved. Furthermore, it is difficult even to determine whether ATRs are induced via allergen-dependent or allergen-independent pathways. To distinguish these two pathways in ATR cases, we established a basophil activation test, in which the basophil-activating ability of supernatants of residual transfused blood of ATR cases to whole blood basophils was assessed in the presence or absence of dasatinib, an inhibitor of IgE-mediated basophil activation. Three of 37 supernatants from the platelet concentrates with ATRs activated panel blood basophils in the absence, but not in the presence, of dasatinib. The basophil activation was inhibited by treatment of anti-fish collagen I MoAb in one case, suggesting that the involvement of fish allergens may have been present in donor plasma. We concluded that unknown non-plasma proteins, some of which had epitopes similar to fish antigens, in blood component may be involved in ATRs via an allergen/IgE-dependent pathway. PMID:25840771

  18. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  19. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  20. [Some modern views of the role of the eosinophils in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma and a new method of detecting eosinophils in the bronchial secretion].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Lipcheva, N; Kis'ova, K

    1976-01-01

    A review of certain contemporary opinions of eosinophil function in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma is presented in this report. Phagocytosis and processing of the complexes antigenantibody, histamine inhibition and a histamine elimination elimination by a specific inhibitor, isolated from eosinophilis (EDI), stimulation of prostaglandines E release, which also inhibit histamine and have a bronchial dilataion effect. The new method is recommended for eosinophil detection in sputa based on the fluorescent principle as faster and more efficient.

  1. Allergic hypersensitivity to neomycin. Relationship between patch test reactions and 'use' tests.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, S D; Nonomura, J H; Smith, R W; Allen, A M

    1979-06-01

    The prevalence of neomycin patch test sensitivity in the general population is approximately 1%. We describe the relationship between positive neomycin patch tests and clinical "use tests" with two antibiotic combinations (Neosporin G cream and Neosporin ointment). The neomycin use test was positive in seven of eight subjects with a strongly positive patch test, and in two of four subjects with a weakly positive patch test. A positive use test usually occurred earlier and was always more intense with the cream base. The use test reactions were usually mild even with continued application of the antigen. Use tests with commercial products may be helpful in evaluating the clinical relevance of positive patch tests.

  2. Contact allergic reactions to diphenylthiourea and phenylisothiocyanate in PVC adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Fregert, S; Trulson, L; Zimerson, E

    1982-01-01

    28 patients reacting to a PVC adhesive tape used in routine patch testing gave positive reactions to diphenylthiourea (DPTU) and to phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) in low concentrations. DPTU is a heat stabilizer in the PVC and is partly decomposed to PITC. The two substances were found in another type of PVC. Thioureas giving isothiocyanates are also used in certain types of rubber. Isothiocyanates are present in plants, mainly of the Cruciferae family, and are also formed from thiuram sulfides and thiocarbamates. The connection between isothiocyanates derived from different sources should be investigated. PMID:6802568

  3. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  4. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  5. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  6. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  7. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests.

  8. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  9. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  10. Evaluation of immediate adverse reactions to foods in adult patients. I. Correlation of demographic, laboratory, and prick skin test data with response to controlled oral food challenge.

    PubMed

    Atkins, F M; Steinberg, S S; Metcalfe, D D

    1985-03-01

    Forty-five adult patients, referred to here as the index population, with a history of immediate adverse reactions after food ingestion were evaluated by history, physical examination, laboratory studies, and skin testing. Fifty-six percent of these patients reported adverse reactions to only one food, whereas 84% of the patients reported up to three foods as being capable of eliciting reactions. The average age obtained by history at which adverse reactions began to occur was 19 4/5 yr. The occurrence of these reactions persisted over an average of 14 4/5 yr. Most reactions involved the gastrointestinal tract alone or in combination with the skin or respiratory tract. The most frequently involved foods were shellfish, peanuts, eggs, fish, tomatoes, and walnuts. Twenty-five of the patients participated in oral challenge with the suspected food. The food challenge was positive in 10 patients. Comparison of information obtained by history including personal or family history of any other allergic disease, age of onset of sensitivity, the length of time of suspected sensitivity in years, and the number of foods to which the sensitivity was believed to exist revealed no significant differences between food challenge-positive (FC+) and food challenge-negative (FC-) patients. However, a significant difference in the reaction patterns reported by history in the FC+ and FC- patients was noted in that FC+ patients more often described reactions in which a combination of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and dermatologic symptoms occurred. The complete blood count with differential, blood chemistries, and serum immunoglobulin levels were similar in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  12. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.

  13. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J; Sun, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  14. Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of local bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, L E; Goldstein, G B

    1981-09-01

    A patient is presented who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after ingesting locally produced bee pollen to treat his spring hay fever. Evaluation revealed the patient to be extremely sensitive to mesquite pollen, a major component of the bee pollen he ingested. Passive transfer skin testing and neutralization techniques suggested that the mesquite pollen was the allergen which caused his anaphylactic reaction. Four other allergic patients were known to have systemic reactions after taking bee pollen. The patients received no warning that the bee pollen was potentially dangerous to an allergic person. It is recommended that vendors of bee pollen be required to alert allergic patients about possible risks.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to adhesive bandages.

    PubMed

    Norris, P; Storrs, F J

    1990-01-01

    More than two billion Band-Aid Brand Sheer Strips are used in the United States yearly, yet allergic contact dermatitis resulting from their use is nearly nonexistent. We report four patients with allergic reactions to these strips. One patient reacted to tricresyl phosphate, the plasticizer in the vinyl backing; another patient was allergic to 2,5-di(tertiary-amyl)hydroquinone, the antioxidant in the adhesive. In the other two patients, the allergic contact dermatitis remains unexplained.

  16. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms without skin rash

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Binitha, Manikoth P.; Manikath, Neeraj; Janardhanan, Anisha K.

    2015-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug hypersensitivity syndrome is considered as a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction which is most commonly precipitated by aromatic anticonvulsants, lamotrigine, dapsone, allopurinol, minocycline, and salazopyrin. Its clinical manifestations are often variable. On rare occasions, it can present with only systemic involvement without any cutaneous features. A complete drug history is of paramount importance in making an early diagnosis. We report the case of a male patient who presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and hepatitis, 2 weeks after starting salazopyrin. The presence of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral smear was indicative of a viral infection or a hematological dyscrasia. Bone marrow examination revealed a normocellular marrow with an increase in eosinophil precursors. Investigations for the common causes for fever and hepatitis were negative. The presence of eosinophilia, the temporal relationship of the symptoms with the initiation of treatment with salazopyrin, and the marked improvement on withdrawal of the drug along with the administration of systemic corticosteroids, were features consistent with the diagnosis of DRESS. With the incidence of this condition showing a rising trend, it is important for the clinician to be aware of its variable manifestations, as a delay in diagnosis and treatment can be fatal. PMID:26729967

  17. Orally-Induced Intestinal CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg Controlled Undesired Responses towards Oral Antigens and Effectively Dampened Food Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Orsini Delgado, María Lucía; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2015-01-01

    The induction of peripheral tolerance may constitute a disease-modifying treatment for allergic patients. We studied how oral immunotherapy (OIT) with milk proteins controlled allergy in sensitized mice (cholera toxin plus milk proteins) upon exposure to the allergen. Symptoms were alleviated, skin test was negativized, serum specific IgE and IgG1 were abrogated, a substantial reduction in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 by antigen-stimulated spleen cells was observed, while IL-13 gene expression in jejunum was down-regulated, and IL-10 and TGF-β were increased. In addition, we observed an induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells and IL-10- and TGF-β-producing regulatory T cells in the lamina propria. Finally, transfer experiments confirmed the central role of these cells in tolerance induction. We demonstrated that the oral administration of milk proteins pre- or post-sensitization controlled the Th2-immune response through the elicitation of mucosal IL-10- and TGF-β-producing Tregs that inhibited hypersensitivity symptoms and the allergic response. PMID:26517875

  18. Reactions of ozone with human skin lipids: Sources of carbonyls, dicarbonyls, and hydroxycarbonyls in indoor air

    PubMed Central

    Wisthaler, Armin; Weschler, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This study has used proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for direct air analyses of volatile products resulting from the reactions of ozone with human skin lipids. An initial series of small-scale in vitro and in vivo experiments were followed by experiments conducted with human subjects in a simulated office. The latter were conducted using realistic ozone mixing ratios (≈15 ppb with occupants present). Detected products included mono- and bifunctional compounds that contain carbonyl, carboxyl, or α-hydroxy ketone groups. Among these, three previously unreported dicarbonyls have been identified, and two previously unreported α-hydroxy ketones have been tentatively identified. The compounds detected in this study (excepting acetone) have been overlooked in surveys of indoor pollutants, reflecting the limitations of the analytical methods routinely used to monitor indoor air. The results are fully consistent with the Criegee mechanism for ozone reacting with squalene, the single most abundant unsaturated constituent of skin lipids, and several unsaturated fatty acid moieties in their free or esterified forms. Quantitative product analysis confirms that squalene is the major scavenger of ozone at the interface between room air and the human envelope. Reactions between ozone and human skin lipids reduce the mixing ratio of ozone in indoor air, but concomitantly increase the mixing ratios of volatile products and, presumably, skin surface concentrations of less volatile products. Some of the volatile products, especially the dicarbonyls, may be respiratory irritants. Some of the less volatile products may be skin irritants. PMID:19706436

  19. Delayed-type skin reaction to the heparin-alternative danaparoid.

    PubMed

    Szolar-Platzer, C; Aberer, W; Kränke, B

    2000-11-01

    Eczematous, infiltrated plaques at the site of subcutaneously administered heparin appear to be common. Heparinoids cannot be recommended in general as a substitute for heparin or low molecular weight heparin because delayed-type skin reactions to these molecules can also occur, as demonstrated in this case report. PMID:11044823

  20. [The feasibility of Erwinia asparaginase for pediatric patients who developed an allergic reaction to E.coli asparaginase during treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroyoshi; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Motohiro; Isobe, Kiyotaka; Yasui, Naoko; Mori, Makiko; Akiyama, Kosuke; Kikuchi, Akira; Hanada, Ryoji

    2013-04-01

    Asparaginase (ASNase) is one of the most important key drugs in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, clinical hypersensitivity reactions often occur and lead to the discontinuation of ASNase treatment. Here, we report a retrospective study of 68 Erwinia ASNase (Erw-ASNase) administrations in 11 patients with childhood ALL who developed allergic reactions to E.coli-ASNase in our hospital between 2006 and 2012. The median age of the patients was 6 (range, 0 to 14). Erw-ASNase purchased overseas by the patients' guardians had already been administered when we obtained informed consent from the guardians. In all patients, fibrinogen and/or anti-thrombin III levels were decreased, but thrombosis did not develop. There was only one mild adverse event (grade 2 urticaria) in one patient, in whom Erw-ASNase could be continued after increasing the doses of premedication with antihistamine and prednisolone. Erw-ASNase could be safely administered to all patients.

  1. Late skin reaction to iodixanol (Visipaque): clinical manifestations, patch test study, and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Jimenez, Yolanda; Perez-Gala, Silvia; Aragüés, Maximiliano; Sanchez-Perez, Javier; Garcia-Diez, Amaro

    2006-12-01

    Late reactions to iodinated contrast media are frequent. Cutaneous manifestations are the commonest, in which maculopapular exanthema, a type of cutaneous presentation, is widespread. Controversy exists about the utility of the skin test in the management of these reactions. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical characteristics, the histopathological findings, and the results of the patch test in patients who developed a late skin reaction (LSR) to the nonionic, dimeric, iodinated contrast media Visipaque. We retrospectively reviewed the patients with LSR to Visipaque, seen in the Dermatology Department between 1999 and 2005. A total of 12 patients participated in this study (7 men and 5 women), ages ranging from 39 to 76 years (mean 56). 11 of the patients had significant medical history. All the patients developed a maculopapular exanthema between 2 hr and 3 days after the radiological examination, involving the trunk and proximal limbs, although some of the patients showed involvement of distal areas. The skin biopsy, performed in 6 patients, showed nonspecific findings consistent with drug reaction. In 3 patients, patch tests to Visipaque and iodixanol were positive. The most frequent manifestation of LSR to iodixanol is a maculopapular exanthema, involving the trunk and the limbs, although distal involvement can be seen. Histopathological findings are nonspecific and cannot be distinguished from other drug reaction. Patch tests have a limited value, and in cases where they were negative, reintroduction of the drug triggered a new LSR.

  2. Dorsal skin reactions of hairless dogs to topical treatment with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Doi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dorsal skin reactions to continuous topical treatment with different types of corticosteroids were histologically investigated in hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs. The preparations tested were prednisolone (ST-1; weak), fluocinolone acetonide (ST-2; moderate), diflucortolone valrerate (ST-3; strong), and mometasone furoate (ST-4; very strong). Grossly, the sites treated with ST-3 and ST-4 showed moderate inflammatory reactions. After completion of the corticosteroid treatment, both sites were less pigmented and had a thin texture. The severity of histologic changes in the skin was dependent on the efficacy of the corticosteroids. The epidermis was prominently thinned from 1 wk after treatment with the corticosteroids, resulting in a flat dermis-epidermis junction. By the end of the corticosteroid treatment, these lesions became progressively more severe. At 2 wk after completion of topical treatment, the epidermal thickness in the sites treated with ST-1 and ST-2 began to return to normal values, whereas the epidermis of the skin treated with ST-3 and ST-4 became thinner. At 3-4 wk after topical treatment with ST-3 and ST-4, the dermis showed hyalinization of collagen bundles. These dermatologic findings in hairless dogs are in accordance with steroid-induced skin atrophy of human beings. These results suggest that the skin of hairless dogs responds sensitively to topical corticosteroids and that these animals are a useful model for investigating the efficacy and adverse effects of cutaneous topical corticosteroids. PMID:10528632

  3. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  4. Post-treatment skin reactions reported by cancer patients differ by race, not by treatment or expectations

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J L; Bole, C; Hickok, J T; Figueroa-Moseley, C; Colman, L; Khanna, R C; Pentland, A P; Morrow, G R

    2007-01-01

    Cancer patients may experience skin problems while undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Frequency of skin reactions may be influenced by skin pigmentation and psychological factors. A Symptom Inventory completed by 656 cancer patients nationwide before and after chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy plus radiation therapy was analysed to determine if treatment type, race (Black vs White), and pretreatment expectations influenced post-treatment skin reactions. Subsequent analysis of a local Symptom Inventory completed weekly for 5 weeks by 308 patients receiving radiation therapy examined severity of reported skin reactions. Significantly more patients receiving radiation therapy had stronger expectations of skin problems (62%) than patients receiving chemotherapy (40%, P=0.001) or chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (45%, P=0.003). Overall, expectations did not correlate with patient reported post-treatment skin problems in white (r=0.014, P=0.781) or black (r=0.021, P=0.936) patients. Although no significant difference was found between black and white patients in their pretreatment expectations of skin problems (P=0.32), black patients (10 out of 18, 56%) reported more skin problems than white patients (90 out of 393, 23%, P=0.001). Similarly, the local study showed that significantly more black patients (1 out of 5, 20%) reported severe skin reactions at the treatment site than white patients (12 out of 161, 8%). A direct correlation was observed between severity of skin problems and pain at the treatment site (r=0.541, P<0.001). Total radiation exposure did not significantly correlate with the report of skin problems at the treatment site for white or black patients. Overall, black patients reported more severe post-treatment skin problems than white patients. Our results suggest that symptom management for post-treatment skin reactions in cancer patients receiving radiation treatment could differ depending on their racial background. PMID

  5. Periostin in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Inamitsu, Masako; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  6. [A case of an allergic reaction due to Anisakis simplex possibly after the ingestion of squid--successful detection of four A. simplex allergens, Ani s 1, Ani s 2, Ani s 12 and troponin C-like protein].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Shigeruko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Hidetaka; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2012-08-01

    A 62-year-old man ingested dressed salmon and its roe (ikura) and grilled mackerel and one hour later further ingested raw tuna and squid as an evening meal at a bar. Soon after the ingestion of raw seafood, he showed wheals, loss of consciousness and low blood pressure. Specific serum IgE to the nematode Anisakis simplex was positive but those to some seafoods were negative. Moreover, a skin prick test using the crude extract was positive for A. simplex but negative for the seafoods, which he ingested on the day of the above episode. When the A. simplex extract was analyzed by IgE-binding immunoblot analysis using the patient serum, two highly intense protein bands were recognized at 18 and 17 kDa, one intense band at 35 kDa and two weak bands at 28 and 26 kDa. ELISA with 11 natural or recombinant A. simplex allergens (Ani s 1-6, 8, 9, 11 and 12 and troponin C-like protein) showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 1 and Ani s 12 and weakly to Ani s 2 and troponin C-like protein. Based on these results, he was diagnosed as IgE-mediated A. simplex allergy due to four allergens (Ani s 1, Ani s 2, Ani s 12 and troponin C-like protein), possibly infested in the raw squid which he had ingested just before manifestation of allergic reactions.

  7. The action spectrum for vitamin D3: initial skin reaction and prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Arjan; den Outer, Peter; van Kranen, Henk; Slaper, Harry

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D3 photosynthesis in the skin is formulated as a set of reaction equations, including side-reactions to lumisterol, tachysterol and toxisterols, and the accompanying reverse reactions, isomerisation of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 and photodegradation of vitamin D3. The solution of this set is given for the stationary irradiance spectrum. The effective action spectrum for the instantaneous vitamin D3 production changes shape as a function of exposure, and therefore, no single action spectrum can be used. We assessed the action spectrum for unexposed skin and for skin that has been exposed to 7.5 Standard Erythemal Doses (SED). We constructed two new estimates: (1) the RIVM action spectrum, based on absorption spectra, quantum yields and skin transmission spectra, and (2) the modified QUT action spectrum, which is adjusted for self-absorption and skin transmission. For previously unexposed skin, the modified QUT action spectrum gives a qualitatively similar, but larger estimate than the RIVM action spectrum. We have not been able to solve the lack of quantitative agreement between the vitamin D production estimates from the three action spectrum estimates (RIVM, modified QUT and CIE). All new action spectra have stronger emphasis on the short wavelengths than the CIE action spectrum. We showed that, for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, the bandwidth that was used in the experiment that formed the basis of the CIE action spectrum, gives a red-shift of about 1 nm. Generally, with the formation of previtamin D3, the return reaction to provitamin D3 limits the production of vitamin D3. After some exposure, the new action spectrum has negative values for the longer wavelengths in the UVB. For the RIVM action spectrum, this happens after 7.5 SED, for the modified QUT action spectrum already after 1.25 SED, and after 7.5 SED the net production rate is largely cancelled. Thus prolonged exposure of previously unexposed skin saturates vitamin D3 formation. For maximum

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo. PMID:22181557

  9. Isolation of a thiol-dependent serine protease in peanut and investigation of its role in the complement and the allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Javaux, Cédric; Stordeur, Patrick; Azarkan, Mohamed; Mascart, Françoise; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    A serine protease activity was detected in aqueous peanuts seeds extracts, partially purified and characterized as a thiol-dependent serine protease. The potential role of this proteolytic activity on allergic reaction to peanuts was prospected through complement activation studies in human plasma and serum, and MDCK cells to investigate a possible occludin degradation in tight junctions. The peanut protease activity induced the production of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, and of the terminal membrane attack complex SC5b-9 whatever the complement activation pathway. The protease activity was also involved in the partial digestion of occludin within tight junctions, with for result, an increase of the epithelial permeability to antigen absorption.

  10. Acute erythema and edematous skin reaction and ectropion following docetaxel in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ali Osman; Buyukberber, Suleyman; Coskun, Ugur; Yildiz, Ramazan; Ozturk, Banu; Yaman, Emel; Adisen, Esra; Gureli, Mustafa; Benekli, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Docetaxel can cause skin reactions such as hypersensitivity, edema, and erythrodysesthesia syndrome as well as side effects involving the skin, including alopecia, nail onycholysis, nail pigmentation, photosensitivity, scleroderma, and paresthesia. In this case report, a patient was admitted to the hospital with widespread erythematous and edematous eruption in the head, neck, trunk, and lower and upper extremities, erythema around the eyes, and drooping of the lower eyelids that developed about 2 hours after receiving chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel. Use of the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale--a method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions--indicated a probable relationship between the skin reaction and docetaxel therapy in this patient. Docetaxel-associated skin reactions that are so extensive and severe as to lead to eye madarosis and ectropion are reported rarely in the literature.

  11. Relationship between severity of the local skin reactions and the rate of local skin reaction resolution in patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel

    PubMed Central

    Jim On, Shelbi C; Knudsen, Kim Mark; Skov, Torsten; Lebwohl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingenol mebutate gel is a topical field treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). The treatment elicits application-site reactions in most patients. This analysis evaluated the relationship between the severity of reactions and the speed of their resolution. Methods Patients in Phase III studies were treated for AKs on the face (n=218), scalp (n=56), and trunk and extremities (n=209). All of the patients were treated with either ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% once daily for three consecutive days (face/scalp) or ingenol mebutate gel 0.05% once daily for two consecutive days (trunk/extremities). Local skin reactions (LSRs) were assessed on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4 in six categories, yielding composite scores in the range of 0 to 24. Results The composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel was an important predictor of the speed of resolution of LSRs. The rate of resolution was greatest for AKs treated on the face, followed by the scalp, and then the trunk and extremities. All patients were expected to have minimal LSR scores for the face and scalp at 2 weeks, and for the trunk and extremities at 4 weeks. Conclusion The absolute reduction in LSR scores was proportional to the composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel treatment. The rate of resolution for LSRs was dependent on the anatomic site treated as well as the day 4 composite score.

  12. Relationship between severity of the local skin reactions and the rate of local skin reaction resolution in patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel

    PubMed Central

    Jim On, Shelbi C; Knudsen, Kim Mark; Skov, Torsten; Lebwohl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingenol mebutate gel is a topical field treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). The treatment elicits application-site reactions in most patients. This analysis evaluated the relationship between the severity of reactions and the speed of their resolution. Methods Patients in Phase III studies were treated for AKs on the face (n=218), scalp (n=56), and trunk and extremities (n=209). All of the patients were treated with either ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% once daily for three consecutive days (face/scalp) or ingenol mebutate gel 0.05% once daily for two consecutive days (trunk/extremities). Local skin reactions (LSRs) were assessed on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4 in six categories, yielding composite scores in the range of 0 to 24. Results The composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel was an important predictor of the speed of resolution of LSRs. The rate of resolution was greatest for AKs treated on the face, followed by the scalp, and then the trunk and extremities. All patients were expected to have minimal LSR scores for the face and scalp at 2 weeks, and for the trunk and extremities at 4 weeks. Conclusion The absolute reduction in LSR scores was proportional to the composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel treatment. The rate of resolution for LSRs was dependent on the anatomic site treated as well as the day 4 composite score. PMID:27601928

  13. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-03-16

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  14. Hypersensitivity reaction to pine nuts (pinon nuts--pignolia).

    PubMed

    Fine, A J

    1987-09-01

    This report describes two patients with allergic reactions due to the ingestion of pine nuts. Skin testing to the aqueous allergen revealed immediate positive prick test reactions suggesting an IgE-mediated response. No reported cases have been found previously in a review of the medical literature.

  15. The skin: target organ in immunotoxicology of small-molecular-weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Baron, J

    2001-01-01

    Immunotoxicology studies two different effects of xenobiotics: immunosuppression and dysregulation of immune responses leading to hypersensitivity or autoimmunity. The skin is a major target organ of immunotoxicity which is provoked by small-molecular-weight compounds. Methods may be helpful for immunotoxicological investigations and screenings for adverse effects of xenobiotics which are used for diagnosis or studies on the pathophysiology of skin disorders such as allergic contact dermatitis, cutaneous drug-allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases of the skin. Examples include well-designed patch tests, assays involving antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, but also T lymphocytes, basophiles or keratinocytes.

  16. Diagnosis of Mesobuthus eupeus envenomation by skin test: reverse passive Arthus reaction.

    PubMed

    Khoobdel, M; NikbakhtBoroujeni, Gh; ZahraeiSalehi, T; Khosravi, M; Sasani, F; Bokaei, S; Koochakzadeh, A; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, M; Akbari, A

    2014-01-01

    While being stung by two large families of scorpions, Buthidae and Scorpionidae have different symptoms and complications, a similar maintenance treatment usually considers as the scorpion species could not be identified easily. Therefore, this study was an attempt to develop an immunologic response for designing a skin sensitivity test that can be used to determine the poisoning. The sensitivity and the specificity of RPA reaction for detecting experimental envenomated mice were evaluated. The inflammatory response for detection of envenomation was obtained by the injection of a solution containing complement, polyelectrolytes and purified monovalent antibodies. As the result, 84.44% sensitivity and 100% specificity recorded 15 min after challenge. Macroscopic findings were also confirmed histologically. No cross-reactions were observed with other species of scorpions and snake venoms. Designed Skin test induced obvious inflammatory reaction without any histological lesions. Besides adding the complement components and polyelectrolyte to the monovalent antibody leads to an increased susceptibility of inflammatory cells in this reaction, resulting in forming a visible inflammation in a short time. According to satisfactory specificity and sensitivity and visible results in about 15 min, non-harmful and cost benefity of reverse passive Arthus test can be used for diagnosis of scorpion envenomation. PMID:24269785

  17. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  18. Exercise with latex sport bands represents a risk for latex allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Lukschal, Anna; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Harwanegg, Christian; Breiteneder, Heimo; Jarisch, Reinhard; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2008-01-29

    Based on two clinical observations of adverse reactions during exercise with latex sport bands, we aimed to assess the possible risk for allergic patients posed by this equipment by investigating allergen content and IgE binding potential. Protein extracts of three different latex sport bands were characterized with sera of latex allergic patients. The IgE recognition profile of the allergic patients was identified by component resolved diagnosis and the allergen composition of the extracts was characterized by inhibition assays with the recombinant latex allergens Hev b 1, 3, 5, 6.02, and 8. The sera showed pronounced IgE binding to all three blotted extracts, however with diverse patterns. Inhibition assays revealed the presence of Hev b 1, 3, 5, and 8 in latex sport band extracts. The clinical relevance of contained allergens was demonstrated by strong skin reactions when testing with latex sport bands. From our results we conclude that latex sport bands contain clinically relevant allergens and may cause latex allergic individuals to experience allergic symptoms, potentially amplified by exercise-induced mechanisms. Even though latex is labeled on products, it is important that patients as well as athletic trainers and physical therapists recognize the risk of adverse reactions with these bands.

  19. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Karen N.; Doll, Helen A.; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Skin toxicity (hand-foot syndrome/hand-foot skin reaction, HFS/R) related to antineoplastic therapy is a significant issue in oncology practice, with potentially large impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Materials and Methods. A patient-reported questionnaire, the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life (HF-QoL) questionnaire was developed to measure the HFS/R symptoms associated with cancer therapeutic agents and their effect on daily activities. The validity and reliability of the HF-QoL questionnaire was tested in a randomized trial of capecitabine with sorafenib/placebo in 223 patients with locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Other measures completed included patient ratings of condition severity, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast cancer (FACT-B), and the clinician-rated National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 3.0, hand-foot skin reaction grade. The psychometric properties of the HF-QoL tested included structural validity, internal consistency, construct validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Finally, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was estimated. Results. The HF-QoL instrument comprises a 20-item symptom scale and an 18-item daily activity scale. Each scale demonstrated excellent measurement properties and discriminated between NCI-CTCAE grade and patient-rated condition severity with large effect sizes. The daily activity scale had excellent internal consistency and correlated with the FACT-B and HF-QoL symptom scores. Both HF-QoL scale scores increased linearly with increasing patient-rated condition severity. The MCIDs were estimated as 5 units for daily activities and 8 units for symptoms mean scores. Conclusion. The HF-QoL was sensitive to symptoms and HRQL issues associated with HFS/R among participants treated with capecitabine with and without sorafenib. The HF-QoL appears suitable for assessing the HRQL

  20. The chemical mediation of delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions. I. Purification of a macrophage-chemotactic factor from bovien gamma-globulin-induced skin reactions in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Kambara, T.; Ueda, K.; Maeda, S.

    1977-01-01

    A macrophage-chemotactic factor (MCFS) was extracted in the pseudoglobulin fraction from delayed hypersensitivity skin lesions induced by bovine gamma-globulin in guinea pigs. Its chemotactic activity was estimated by a modification of Boyden's method using Nuclepore filter. After chromatography of the protein fraction using Sephadex G-50 and DEAE-cellulose, in that order, two chemotactic fractions were obtained. The chemotactic factor with stronger activity (MCFS-1) was further highly purified (488-fold) by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. This factor migrated in a single band on acrylamide disc gel electrophoresis and was found to be a protein that was free of nucleic acid. Gel filtration showed that its molecular weight was similar to that of IgG. Its chemotactic activity was heat labile. Intradermal injection of this factor into normal guinea pigs induced a pronounced mononuclear cell emigration from venules. These findings are pertinent to understanding macrophage reaction in the delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Am J Pathol 87:359-374, 1977). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:66878

  1. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knackstedt, R. W.; Dixon, J. A.; O'Neill, P. J.; Herrera, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent. PMID

  2. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, R W; Dixon, J A; O'Neill, P J; Herrera, F A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent.

  3. Effects of Leukoreduction and Premedication With Acetaminophen and Diphenhydramine in Minimizing Febrile Nonhemolytic Transfusion Reactions and Allergic Transfusion Reactions During and After Blood Product Administration: A Literature Review With Recommendations for Practice.

    PubMed

    Duran, Joana; Siddique, Sulman; Cleary, Myra

    2014-05-01

    Transfusion-related reactions cause unwanted interruptions in blood-product administration and potential complications for patients. The most common reactions are febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) and allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs). The presence of leukocytes in blood products has been associated with these reactions, and efficacy of leukoreduction in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs has recently been investigated. In addition, premedication with acetaminophen and diphenhydramine is the most widely used practice in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs, yet the benefit of this is not supported by research. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate the potential benefits of both of these interventions in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs and provide recommendations for practice. We found moderate quality evidence with strong recommendations for the practice of leukoreduction in minimizing FNHTRs but not ATRs. We did not find evidence to support the use of premedications in minimizing transfusion-related reactions, and we question the need for this practice in settings where leukoreduction is used.

  4. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  5. Evaluation of Clinical and Immunological Responses: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Children with Allergic Rhinitis due to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Moed, Heleen; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Hendriks, Rudi W.; van der Wouden, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Allergic rhinitis is a disease with polarization towards Th2 and a defect of regulatory T cells. Immunological changes have been reported after immunotherapy treatment. However, there is not much known about the natural course of allergic rhinitis with respect to clinical manifestation and the relation with immunological responses. Objective. To evaluate clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis, in relation to in vivo allergen-specific skin responses and in vitro allergen-specific effector and regulatory T cells determined at baseline and after two years. Methods. From a large trial, 59 children were randomly selected. The following variables were compared: clinical symptoms, allergen skin tests, specific IgE, T-cell proliferation, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-10, TGF-beta, CD4+CD25hi cells, and Foxp3 expression. Results. Allergic symptoms had decreased after two years. Whereas skin test reactions correlated between years 0 and 2, there was no change in the size of the reaction. Also, proinflammatory reactions did not change after two years, with a positive correlation between years 0 and 2. No relevant changes were observed with respect to regulatory cells. Conclusion. Whereas, comparable to immunotherapy, allergic complaints decrease, the immunological changes of specific T-cell activity (both effector cells and regulator cells) which are observed after immunotherapy, do not change. PMID:23737646

  6. Textile dye allergic contact dermatitis following paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Helen; O'Brien, Timothy; Nixon, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Textile dye allergy is frequently caused by azo dyes, which can cross-react with structurally similar compounds, including paraphenylenediamine. A case of allergic contact dermatitis to azo textile dyes, presenting principally as a sock dermatitis, is presented. The patient also gave a history of an episode of scalp dermatitis consistent with contact allergy to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye. It is proposed that paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary skin tattoo may have been the primary sensitizing event for these reactions. PMID:15527435

  7. Textile dye allergic contact dermatitis following paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Helen; O'Brien, Timothy; Nixon, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Textile dye allergy is frequently caused by azo dyes, which can cross-react with structurally similar compounds, including paraphenylenediamine. A case of allergic contact dermatitis to azo textile dyes, presenting principally as a sock dermatitis, is presented. The patient also gave a history of an episode of scalp dermatitis consistent with contact allergy to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye. It is proposed that paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary skin tattoo may have been the primary sensitizing event for these reactions.

  8. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  9. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  10. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  11. The impact of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Carren Teh Sui; Gopala, Krishnan; Manuel, Anura Michelle

    2013-08-01

    Atopy is a syndrome characterized by immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental antigens. The "hygiene hypothesis" stipulates that childhood infections are associated with a lower risk of allergies. Not much has been published about the effects that the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has on allergies, specifically allergic rhinitis. We conducted a study to investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in patients with pulmonary TB before and after treatment of their TB. Our initial study group was made up of 121 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB who were followed up by questionnaire. In addition to demographic data, they provided information about their personal and family history of atopy and their current status with regard to allergic rhinitis. After providing informed consent, all patients underwent skin-prick testing with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Blomia tropicalis allergens before and after TB treatment. Stool samples were obtained to identify patients with worm infestation, and they were excluded from the study. In all, 94 patients completed treatment and follow-up, and their data were included in the final analysis. Of this group, 31 patients (33.0%) exhibited symptoms of allergic rhinitis prior to TB treatment, and 26 (27.7%) had a positive skin-prick test. Following treatment, only 12 patients (12.8%) reported allergic rhinitis symptoms (p = 0.004), but there was no significant reduction in the number of patients with a positive skin-prick test (n = 20 [21.3%]; p = 0.555). We conclude that the treatment of pulmonary TB results in significant relief of atopy, particularly allergic rhinitis symptoms.

  12. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  13. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on allergic reactions and airway responsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Wu, Zhong-Xin; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M; Dey, Richard D; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in rats reduced OVA-induced airway inflammation. In the present study, Brown Norway rats were first sensitized to OVA (42.3 +/- 5.7 mg/m3) for 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15, then exposed to filtered air or DEP (22.7 +/- 2.5 mg/m3) for 4 h/day on days 24-28, and challenged with OVA on day 29. Airway responsiveness was examined on day 30, and animals were sacrificed on day 31. Ovalbumin sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils into the lung, elevated presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung draining lymph nodes, and increased production of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG. Diesel exhaust particles pre-exposure augmented OVA-induced production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG and pulmonary inflammation characterized by marked increases in T lymphocytes and infiltration of eosinophils after OVA challenge, whereas DEP alone did not have these effects. Although OVA-sensitized rats showed modest response to methacholine challenge, it was the combined DEP and OVA exposure that produced significant airway hyperresponsiveness in this animal model. The effect of DEP pre-exposure on OVA-induced immune responses correlated with an interactive effect of DEP with OVA on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells, NO levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the induction of inducible NO synthase expression in AM and ATII cells, and a depletion of total intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes. These results show that DEP pre-exposure exacerbates the allergic responses to the subsequent challenge with OVA in OVA-sensitized rats. This DEP effect may be, at least partially, attributed to the elevated generation of ROS in AM and ATII cells, a depletion of GSH in AM and

  14. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.B.; Travis, E.L.

    1995-07-15

    To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and (c) when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logit analysis and ED{sub 50} values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED{sub 50} values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED{sub 50} values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1 week after irradiation. Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  16. Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Arja; Ruoppi, Pirkko; Remes, Sami; Koistinen, Tiina; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili

    2007-08-01

    Enzymes are high-molecular-weight proteins and highly sensitizing occupational allergens used widely in industrial processes. Lactase has been described to cause work-related respiratory and conjunctival immunoglobulin (Ig)-E-mediated sensitizations in workers in the pharmaceutical industry. In these previous reports, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma was confirmed with prick tests but not by challenge tests. Lactase previously has not been described as a cause of immediate or delayed contact skin reaction. Furthermore, there are no previous reports of lactase-specific IgE. We report a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a pharmaceutical worker. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific IgE antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions and their specificities were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. Our results have confirmed the previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE-mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but they show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.

  17. Evaluation of Apoptosis in Skin Biopsies of Patients of Borderline Leprosy and Lepra Type 1 Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Agarwal, Sarla; Sharma, Sonal; Sharma, Satendra; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of apoptosis is not clear in leprosy and lepra reactions. Objectives: To evaluate frequency of apoptosis in skin lesions of borderline leprosy and Type 1 lepra reaction. Methods: Sixty patients with borderline leprosy (30 with clinically diagnosed Type 1 reaction (T1R) (Group I) and 30 without clinical evidence of reaction (Group II)) were analyzed in this prospective study. Apoptosis was detected by two different methods for comparison, that is, histopathologic examination (HPE) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and electrophoresis. Quantification of apoptotic bodies/10 high power fields (HPF) was also done. Results: Out of 30 cases, apoptosis was detected in 29 cases in Group I and 24 cases in Group II by HPE (P = 0.103), whereas, with the use of DNA electrophoresis it was detected in 24 cases in Group I and 18 cases in Group II (P = 0.091). On quantitative estimation it was found that number of apoptotic bodies are higher in Group I in comparison to Group II (2.77 vs 1.99), which is statistically significant. Conclusions: There was moderate agreement (κ = 0.47) between the two methods of apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was seen more in patients with T1R both qualitatively (statistically nonsignificant) and quantitatively (statistically significant). Clinical significance of this novel finding is that apoptosis can be used as one of the variables for diagnosis of T1R to increase detection rate. PMID:25657399

  18. The effect of concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin on the ultrastructure and permeability of rat intestine. A possible model for an intestinal allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Sjölander, A; Magnusson, K E; Latkovic, S

    1984-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to lectins, either concanavalin A (Con A) or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The lectins were instilled into a ligated segment of the distal small intestine together with permeability markers, fluoresceinated dextran (MW 3,000) or a mixture of differently sized polyethylene glycols (MW 400, 600 and 1,000). WGA-treated rats showed a decreased permeability to small molecules (MW less than 600) of polyethylene glycol but an increase for a larger dextran molecule (MW 3,000). These effects as well as the morphological findings might mimic the situation in patients with food allergy or celiac disease. Con A-treated rats had decreased intestinal permeability to the larger dextran molecules (MW 3,000), whereas the passage of small molecules was unaffected and the ultrastructural effects were minute. The Con A-induced changes could result from a mucotractive effect, associated with a low-grade gut allergy. These observations suggest that lectins can affect both the ultrastructure and the permeability of the intestine, in a way assumed to mimic allergic reactions to food constituents.

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  20. Probing the neutron-skin thickness by photon production from reactions induced by intermediate-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gao-Feng

    2015-07-01

    The photon from neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in p +Pb reactions is examined as a potential probe of the neutron-skin thickness in different centralities and at different proton incident energies. It is shown that the best choice of reaction environment is about 140 MeV for the incident proton and the 95%-100% centrality for the reaction system since the incident proton mainly interacts with neutrons inside the skin of the target and thus leads to different photon production to a maximal extent. Moreover, considering two main uncertainties from both photon production probability and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the reaction, I propose to use the ratio of photon production from two reactions to measure the neutron-skin thickness because of its cancellation effects on these uncertainties simultaneously, but preserved about 13%-15% sensitivities on the varied neutron-skin thickness from 0.1 to 0.3 fm within the current experimental uncertainty range of the neutron-skin size in 208Pb.

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V 100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V 100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  2. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits. PMID:22115797

  3. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits.

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by temporary black henna tattoos in two siblings].

    PubMed

    Hjuler, Kasper F; Otkjær, Aksel

    2014-06-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in black henna tattoo mixes is widely recognised as a cause of type-IV allergic contact dermatitis. Legislation in Western countries prohibits the use of PPD on the skin and limits the use in hairdye. In this report, we present a case of two brothers aged five and eight years with classical sensitization and illustrative contact dermatitis after repeatedly exposure to black henna. The hyper-sensitivity reaction to PPD was confirmed in later patch testing. The case serves as a reminder on the potential consequences of a seemingly harmless skin drawing.

  5. Prevention of skin reactions due to teletherapy in women with breast cancer: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Marceila; Clapis, Maria José; do Nascimento, Talita Garcia; Gozzo, Thaís de Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    One of the possible courses of cancer treatment is teletherapy, and one of the most important adverse side effects are skin reactions, an ailment more commonly called radiodermatitis. The main purpose of this study is to analyze knowledge of the evidence about topical products used in the prevention of radiodermatitis, to support care delivery to women with breast cancer during teletherapy. The research method used here is the comprehensive literature review. Four databases were used to select the bibliography. The sample consists of 15 articles. The data shows that, among the topical products analyzed here, Calendula, corticosteroids and Xclair have shown significant protective effects, underlining their actions. The lack of articles published in Brazil highlights the need for further research in this area, seeking better care quality through the use of products with scientifically proven efficiency.

  6. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using random forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers were 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the ScoreCard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. PMID:25560674

  7. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  8. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  9. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Kunbootsri, Narupon; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chainansamit, Seksun; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks. There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u.), PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u.) at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group. Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergic rhinitis patients.

  10. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Joya S.; Scott, Danny W.; Miller, William H.; Tranchina, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported. PMID:22753962

  11. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  12. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  13. Epidemiology and current status of allergic rhinitis and asthma in Thailand -- ARIA Asia-Pacific Workshop report.

    PubMed

    Bunnag, C; Jareoncharsri, P; Tantilipikorn, P; Vichyanond, P; Pawankar, R

    2009-03-01

    The allergic diseases of the airway, i.e. allergic rhinitis and asthma, are on the increase in Thailand and their prevalence shows no signs of abating. When compared with a previous study, the incidence of wheezing had increased 4 fold (from 4.2% to 18.3%), and allergic rhinitis increased nearly 3 fold (from 17.9% to 44.2%). The results of the ISAAC phase III study revealed that the frequency of allergic diseases of the respiratory tract increased significantly from the ISAAC phase I survey performed in 1995; i.e. asthma increased from 12.2% to 14.5%, and allergic rhinitis from 37.9% to 50.6%. Allergic rhinitis exerts a major impact on the quality of life of Thai patients. The results of skin prick testing have indicated the leading causes of indoor (house-dust mites, house dust, cockroaches, dogs and cats) and outdoor pollen (Bermuda grass, para grass, sedge, careless weed) allergens. Molds (represented by Cladosporium), although prominent in an aeroallergen survey, returned a low percentage of positive skin prick reactions, and therefore, were considered low in allergenicity. In Thailand, there are clinical practice guidelines for both allergic rhinitis and asthma which are comparable to the international guidelines like ARIA and GINA. Sufficient kinds of pharmacotherapy are on the National List of Essential Drugs. Yet due to the limited number of trained allergists, many patients are seen by general physicians, and often, the appropriate diagnostic tests and treatments are not provided. In addition, the financial burden for quality health care may be prohibitive for those without private health insurance in spite of the implementation of a universal health care system for all Thai citizens, which is less than optimal.

  14. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  15. Allergic manifestation by black gram (Vigna mungo) proteins in allergic patients, BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Roy, Ruchi; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of black gram (Vigna mungo) induced allergic reactions are reported from several parts of the world including Asia and Australia. But, a thorough exploration of the allergic reactions induced by black gram proteins is still lacking. Therefore, efforts have been made to explore black gram allergy using in vivo and in vitro approaches. In this study, Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) assay and IgE immunoblotting were carried out to identify clinically relevant allergens of black gram. BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells were used for elucidation of allergenic reactions of black gram proteins. Further, this study was extended to screen black gram sensitive patients among nasobronchial allergic patients on the basis of clinical history, skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE levels and IgE immunoblotting. Enhanced levels of specific IgE, IgG1/IgG2a (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), clinical symptoms, pathological indications in the lungs, intestine and spleen were evident in black gram sensitized BALB/c mice. Moreover, the expression of Th2 cytokine transcripts and GATA-3/T-bet ratio was found enhanced in the treated group. In vitro studies on RBL-2H3 cells,showed increased release of β-hexosaminidase (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), cysteinyl leukotriene (p<0.05) and prostaglandin D2 (p < 0.05). Further, 8.5% of screened patients were found allergic to black gram and concomitant sensitization with other allergens has shown the possibility of further enhancement in allergenic problem. Conclusively, the present study suggested that black gram consumption may be responsible for inducing immediate type of allergic sensitization in susceptible subjects.

  16. Regorafenib-associated hand–foot skin reaction: practical advice on diagnosis, prevention, and management

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, B.; Ciardiello, F.; Lacouture, M. E.; Segaert, S.; Van Cutsem, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regorafenib is an orally available, small-molecule multikinase inhibitor with international marketing authorizations for use in colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In clinical trials, regorafenib showed a consistent and predictable adverse-event profile, with hand–foot skin reaction (HFSR) among the most clinically significant toxicities. This review summarizes the clinical characteristics of regorafenib-related HFSR and provides practical advice on HFSR management to enable health care professionals to recognize, pre-empt, and effectively manage the symptoms, thereby allowing patients to remain on active therapy for as long as possible. Design This review is based on a systematic literature search of the PubMed database (using synonyms of HFSR, regorafenib, and skin toxicities associated with targeted therapies or cytotoxic chemotherapy). However, as this search identified very few articles, the authors also use their clinical experience as oncologists and dermatologists managing patients with treatment-related HFSR to provide recommendations on recognition and management of HFSR in regorafenib-treated patients. Results Regorafenib-related HFSR is similar to that seen with other multikinase inhibitors (e.g. sorafenib, sunitinib, cabozantinib, axitinib, and pazopanib) but differs from the hand–foot syndrome seen with cytotoxic chemotherapies (e.g. fluoropyrimidines, anthracyclines, and taxanes). There have been no controlled trials of symptomatic management of regorafenib-related HFSR, and limited good-quality evidence from randomized clinical trials of effective interventions for HFSR associated with other targeted therapies. Recommendations on prevention and management of regorafenib-related HFSR in this review are therefore based on the expert opinion of the authors (dermatologists and oncologists with expertise in the management of treatment-related skin toxicities and oncologists involved in clinical trials of regorafenib) and

  17. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  18. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins. PMID:19808007

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins.

  1. Safety First: Preventing Allergic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2015-01-01

    All elementary teachers should be aware of their students' allergies especially when they are planning to use plants or animals in the classroom or interacting with them in the field. This knowledge is essential because allergy symptoms can range from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock. This column shares safety information for the science…

  2. Mast cells contribute to fibrin deposition in reverse passive Arthus reaction in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Ramos, B F; Zhang, Y; Jakschik, B A

    1992-09-01

    The activation of the clotting system is an important process during inflammation to contain the injury and initiate tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated the effect of mast cells on fibrin deposition in reverse passive Arthus reaction in mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv(W/Wv) and control WBB6F1-(+)/+(+/+) mice, that were given 125I-labeled fibrogen intravenousty. An antibody dose-dependent increase in radioactivity was observed in the challenged skin sites. Sequential water and urea extractions characterized the radioiodinated fibrinogen derivatives present in the tissue. The radioactivity found in the various fractions of the stimulated samples from +/+ was 2-10-fold higher than that in specimens from W/Wv mice. The greatest difference was observed in the urea-insoluble pellet (cross-linked fibrin and its early degradation products). Reconstitution of W/Wv mice with mast cells augmented the response to levels similar to those in +/+ mice. Pretreatment with the antihistamine pyrilamine blocked the accumulation of 125I-labeled fibrinogen and its derivatives by approximately 70% in +/+ but not in W/Wv mice. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis by A-63162 markedly decreased the accumulation of iodinated fibrinogen in both +/+ and W/Wv mice. The data suggest that mast cells and their vasoactive mediator histamine contribute to the exudation of clotting factors, which results in fibrin deposition and that mast cells also enhance fibrin cross-linkage.

  3. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process

    PubMed Central

    Flegg, Jennifer A.; Menon, Shakti N.; Maini, Philip K.; McElwain, D. L. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:26483695

  4. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  5. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  6. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  7. [Allergy to shrimp. A contribution to reactions after ingestion of seafood and fishes].

    PubMed

    Schmid, M H; Wüthrich, B

    1997-08-01

    Adverse reactions to seafood are common and may cause many types of symptoms that are difficult to define. The nature of these reactions are variable including allergic and toxic reactions as well as infectious diseases. The differentiation between these entities is essential in choosing therapy. We describe 9 patients with IgE mediated allergic reactions due to crustaceans and fish diagnosed from case history, clinical findings, skin tests and specific IgE antibodies. Most symptoms of a IgE mediated allergic reaction appear within 30 minutes after ingestion. Characteristics clinical features may include an urticarial rash, gastrointestinal symptoms and even anaphylaxis. In this case immediate therapy with intravenous glucocorticoids, antihistamine and perhaps subcutaneous epinephrine is required.

  8. Thermographic assessment of skin prick tests in comparison with the routine evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Rokita, Eugeniusz; Tatoń, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz; Śliwa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The skin prick test is still the first and basic procedure in the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The possibility of using a sensitive thermographic method supported by the mathematical model for the assessment of skin test results will be highlighted in the studies. Aim To compare the proposed approach with routine planimetric and thermographic methods. Material and methods A mathematical model of allergic reaction was developed. Simplifying assumptions of the IgE-mediated skin reaction is the essence of the model. Investigations were performed in a group of 40 patients. Results Using the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature distributions, the ratios of the histamine released from mast cells to the control histamine were determined. The obtained values very well correlate with the standard evaluation of skin prick tests (correlation coefficient = 0.98). Conclusions The proposed method of skin test evaluation presents several advantages. The continuous acquisition of data provides the monitoring of time course of the allergic response. The transport of mediator and its concentration were distinctly discriminated, which may be diagnostically useful, especially for abnormal cases. The high sensitivity of the method enables studying patients regardless of age and skin sensitivity. PMID:27512354

  9. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  10. The inflammatory nature of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Durham, S R

    1998-12-01

    The allergic inflammatory response in allergic rhinitis has been studied extensively owing to the high frequency of the condition, the significant morbidity it causes and the accessibility of the nasal tissue. The allergic inflammatory response is characterized by IgE synthesis, IgE-dependent mast cell activation and infiltration of the nasal mucosa by T lymphocytes and eosinophils. The immediate-phase response is mediated by a range of inflammatory mediators (such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins), resulting in vasodilatation, oedema, mucus secretion, itching and sneezing. Individuals who experience a late-phase response have further nasal symptoms 4-24 h after the initial challenge with allergen. Results of nasal biopsy studies indicate that the late-phase allergic response involves T-lymphocyte activation, production of TH2-type cytokines and tissue eosinophilia. Corticosteroids potently inhibit T-lymphocyte responses, and clinical studies in subjects with allergic rhinitis have demonstrated that they are extremely effective in blocking both early- and late-phase allergic reactions. Topical aqueous triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray represents a novel formulation of a topical corticosteroid for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Data from controlled clinical studies indicate that it is effective in treating seasonal and perennial disease, is well tolerated, does not suppress adrenocortical function, is odourless, and can be administered as a once-daily dose. PMID:9988430

  11. Penaeus monodon tropomyosin induces CD4 T-cell proliferation in shrimp-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Delgado, Julio C; Ravkov, Eugene; Eckels, David D; Georgelas, Ann; Pavlov, Igor Y; Cusick, Matthew; Sebastian, Kate; Gleich, Gerald J; Wagner, Lori A

    2012-04-01

    Shellfish allergy affects approximately 2% of the population and can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, swelling, difficulty breathing, and, in some cases, anaphylaxis. Tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen and binds IgE in two-thirds of patients. A total of 38 shrimp-allergic patients and 20 negative control subjects were recruited and evaluated on the basis of history, skin prick testing, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to shrimp tropomyosin or shrimp tropomyosin-derived peptides. Of the classically allergic patients by history, 59% tested positive for serum shrimp IgE antibodies. Of patients with shrimp-specific IgE in sera, 70% also had significant IgE levels specific for shrimp tropomyosin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from classically shrimp-allergic patients proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in response to to tropomyosin. In addition, a T-cell line derived from a shrimp-allergic patient proliferated specifically in response to tropomyosin-derived peptides. These studies suggest a strategy for immunotherapy using a tropomyosin-derived T-cell epitope vaccination.

  12. Parallel intraindividual evaluation of the vasoconstrictory action and the anti-allergic activity of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Di Nardo, A; Mantovani, L; Giannetti, A

    1997-04-01

    The human skin blanching assay is a well established method for ranking the efficacy of corticosteroids after epicutaneous application. Vasoconstriction is a pharmacological activity, which correlates well with the clinical efficacy, the intensity of skin blanching after a single application under occlusion corresponding, generally, to the clinical efficacy after repeated application without occlusion. However, in studies dealing with the comparison between the vasoconstriction assay and the evaluation of the clinical effects on inflammatory skin diseases, some exceptions to this correlation have been reported. Therefore, in a pre-clinical phase, it would be useful to combine the blanching assay with at least one anti-inflammatory assay. In the present study the blanching assay and the allergic contact dermatitis inhibition test were performed in parallel, in order to compare the two testing procedures in the same group of subjects, utilizing standardized study designs supported by objective means of evaluation. Three commercial preparations of corticosteroids containing clobetasol propionate (CP), clobetasone butyrate (CB) and hydrocortisone acetate (HA), respectively, were employed both to treat nickel-induced positive patch test responses on the volar forearms, and to perform a vasoconstrictor assay on normal forearm skin in 16 nickel-sensitized healthy volunteers. For evaluating skin blanching, we employed colorimetric measurements, whereas for the quantitative determination of the inhibition of the intensity of allergic patch test reactions, 20 MHz B-scanning supported by image analysis was used. Both colorimetric and echogenicity values enabled us to distinguish between the three corticosteroids (at the 17 h evaluation and the 64 h assessment, respectively). A fair correlation was noted between colorimetric and echogenicity values. Both testing procedures ranked the three corticosteroids in the expected order. Corticosteroid preparations should be compared

  13. Safety of a peanut oral immunotherapy protocol in peanut allergic children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alison M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.; Palmer, Kricia P.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Burks, A. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral immunotherapy offers a promising therapeutic option for peanut allergy. Given that during oral immunotherapy an allergic patient ingests an allergen that could potentially cause a serious reaction, safety of oral immunotherapy is of particular concern. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine safety during the initial escalation day, build-up phase, and home dosing phase in subjects enrolled in a peanut oral immunotherapy study. Methods Skin, upper respiratory, chest and abdominal symptoms were recorded with initial escalation day and build-up phase dosings. Subjects also maintained daily diaries detailing symptoms after each home dosing. A statistical analysis of this data was performed. Results Twenty of 28 patients completed all phases of the study. During the initial escalation day, upper respiratory (79%) and abdominal (68%) symptoms were the most likely symptoms experienced. The risk of mild wheezing during the initial escalation day was 18%. The probability of having any symptoms after a build-up phase dose was 46%, with a risk of 29% for upper respiratory symptoms and 24% for skin symptoms. The risk of reaction with any home dose was 3.5%. Upper respiratory (1.2%) and skin (1.1%) were the most likely symptoms after home doses. Treatment was given with 0.7% of home doses. Two subjects received epinephrine after one home dose each. Conclusions Subjects were more likely to have significant allergic symptoms during the initial escalation day when they were in a closely monitored setting than during other phases of the study. Allergic reactions with home doses were rare. PMID:19477496

  14. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  15. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  16. Skin reactions triggered by the use of cosmetic products in nonspecific lipid transfer protein-sensitive patients.

    PubMed

    Giani, M; Pirotta, L; Locanto, M; Cadoni, S; Puddu, P; De Pità, O

    2010-01-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are members of the prolamine superfamily and they are found in pollen and food, as well as in latex. Due to the strong stability both against pepsin digestion and thermal denaturation, sensitisation towards these proteins is often associated with severe systemic reactions (angioedema, urticaria, asthma, anaphylaxis, etc.) following the ingestion of both raw or fresh food and cooked or preserved food. Many studies have shown reactivity towards nsLTPs both via inhalation and orally and in this study we present two cases of nsLTPs-sensitive patients who manifested the immediate onset of skin reactions following the use of cosmetic products containing these proteins. Thus, in order to prevent immediate reactions linked to their use, it is necessary to recommend nsLTPssensitive patients to avoid the topical use of products containing these proteins (and obviously the ingestion of foods containing these proteins).

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  18. The clinical features of migraine as a manifestation of allergic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. W.; Kirker, J. G.; Warnes, H.; O'Malley, M.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with a clinical history of migraine were evaluated psychiatrically, and by electroencephalography. They were challenged with food antigens by skin-prick test, and abdominal symptoms were evaluated following oral ingestion of food allergens. A significant correlation was found between challenge with specific food allergens and the development of migraine headaches, the appearance of abdominal symptoms and the occurrence of positive skin reactions. Psychiatric abnormalities and EEG alterations were associated with the occurrence of headaches and allergic clinical features. It is suggested that the clinical features of migraine can be explained as a result of release of chemical mediators following antigen-antibody reactions in the brain and other tissues where specific antibodies are localized. The continuous ingestion of the responsible food allergens would account for the raised tissue concentrations of noradrenaline, histamine and other mediators to which the clinical features of migraine are attributed. PMID:7465468

  19. Prophylactic use of danaparoid in high-risk pregnancy with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia-positive skin reaction.

    PubMed

    Myers, Bethan; Westby, John; Strong, Jane

    2003-07-01

    We describe a case where danaparoid was used prophylactically in a high-risk twin pregnancy following the development of heparin-allergy while on prophylactic dalteparin. Danaparoid was substituted for dalteparin at 20 weeks of pregnancy following the development of a severe skin reaction while on the low molecular weight heparin. Although there was no significant fall in platelet count, an aggregation assay for heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia was positive. The skin lesions rapidly resolved following the change to subcutaneous danaparoid. Delivery was by emergency caesarian section at 35 weeks under a general anaesthetic, as a dose of danaparoid had been given 6 h prior to delivery. A sample of breast milk showed no anti-activated factor X activity. Danaparoid was continued post-delivery until the patient was fully warfarinized. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of the use of danaparoid in this setting. PMID:12851535

  20. Non-sting barrier cream in radiotherapy-induced skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Audrey

    A pilot evaluation was undertaken in 13 patients with head and neck cancer exploring the use of a non-sting barrier film (Sorbaderm(®,) Aspen Medical Europe Ltd). The Society of Radiographers issued guidance in 2013 warning their members that the use of Aqueous cream for moisturising the skin during radiotherapy was potentially harmful. Patients were monitored over a period of 6 weeks and the aim was to explore whether applying non-sting barrier cream provided a protective barrier that did not impair treatment, slowed or prevented skin damage, was easy and simple to apply for patients and carers, improved quality of life for patients during radiotherapy or aided healing. There appeared to be a delay in skin breakdown in this evaluation from week 3 to week 4 and then only mild pain was recorded and with a maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale of 2.5 in the patient that had combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patients' overall assessment demonstrated that the use of non-sting barrier cream provided symptom relief in both dry, tightening and itching of the skin associated with radiotherapy. All except one patient found the cream easy to apply. The head and neck nursing team rated the product as 'good' to 'very good'.

  1. Non-sting barrier cream in radiotherapy-induced skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Audrey

    A pilot evaluation was undertaken in 13 patients with head and neck cancer exploring the use of a non-sting barrier film (Sorbaderm(®,) Aspen Medical Europe Ltd). The Society of Radiographers issued guidance in 2013 warning their members that the use of Aqueous cream for moisturising the skin during radiotherapy was potentially harmful. Patients were monitored over a period of 6 weeks and the aim was to explore whether applying non-sting barrier cream provided a protective barrier that did not impair treatment, slowed or prevented skin damage, was easy and simple to apply for patients and carers, improved quality of life for patients during radiotherapy or aided healing. There appeared to be a delay in skin breakdown in this evaluation from week 3 to week 4 and then only mild pain was recorded and with a maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale of 2.5 in the patient that had combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patients' overall assessment demonstrated that the use of non-sting barrier cream provided symptom relief in both dry, tightening and itching of the skin associated with radiotherapy. All except one patient found the cream easy to apply. The head and neck nursing team rated the product as 'good' to 'very good'. PMID:26018180

  2. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-01

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea.

  3. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  4. Allergic Disease and Autoimmune Effectors Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, Menachem; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Allergy and autoimmunity result from dysregulation of the immune system. Until recently, it was generally accepted that the mechanisms that govern these disease processes are quite disparate; however, new discoveries suggest possible common pathogenetic effector pathways. This review illustrates the concomitant presentation of these conditions and the potential relationship or common mechanism in some cases, by looking at the key elements that regulate the immune response in both allergic and autoimmunite conditions: mast cells, antibodies, T cells, cytokines, and genetic determinants. The parallel appearance of allergic and autoimmune conditions in the some patients may reveal that such aberrations of the immune system have a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Mast cells, which play a key role in allergic reactions, and the wealth of inflammatory mediators they express, make it likely that they have profound effects on many autoimmune processes. Activation of protein kinases by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses may contribute to both allergic and autoimmune diseases. The presence of autoantibodies in some allergic conditions suggests an autoimmune basis for these conditions. Because of the central role T cells play in immune reactivity, the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci have long been considered important candidates for common disease susceptibility within the immune system such as asthma, atopy, and autoimmunity. Immunomodulation is the key to a successful treatment of allergic and autoimmune conditions. PMID:12885156

  5. [Monoclonal antibody therapy for allergic asthma].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masanori; Matsuse, Takeshi

    2002-03-01

    Allergic responses at the level of the respiratory system are mostly mediated by IgE-dependent mechanisms. The first selective anti-IgE therapy, a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody(rhuMAb-E25), binds with high affinity to the Fc epsilon RI receptor binding site on IgE, thereby reducing the amount of free IgE available to bind to Fc epsilon RI receptors on mast cells and basophils. In addition, administration of rhuMAb-E25 indirectly reduces Fc epsilon RI receptor density on cells involved in allergic responses. rhuMAb-E25 has been shown to reduce allergic responses in atopic individuals and to improve symptoms and reduce rescue medication and corticosteroid use in patient with allergic asthma. The clinical effectiveness of rhuMAb-E25 supports the central role of IgE in allergic reaction and the viability of anti-IgE therapy as an effective immunological intervention for allergic asthma.

  6. Study of Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is common among children and quite often represents a stage of the atopic march. Although sensitization to food and airborne allergens may appear in infancy and early childhood, symptoms of the disease are usually present after age 3. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent food and indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens involved in allergic rhinitis in children in the region of Piraeus. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic of otolaryngologic allergy of a general hospital. Fifty children (ranged 6–14 ) with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for IgE antibodies or skin prick tests were included in the study. Thirty six (72%) of the subjects of the study had intermittent allergic rhinitis. The most common aeroallergens determined were grass pollens and Parietaria, whereas egg and milk were the food allergens identified. The detection of indoor and outdoor allergens in the region of Piraeus, based on skin prick tests and RAST tests, showed high incidence of grasses and food allergens, which is similar to other Mediterranean countries. PMID:21760801

  7. Therapeutics interventions with anti-inflammatory creams in post radiation acute skin reactions: a systematic review of most important clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Koukourakis, Georgios V; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John; Beli, Ivelina K; Kouloulias, Vassilios E

    2010-06-01

    The majority of cancer patients will receive radiation therapy treatment at some stage during their malignancy. An acute skin reaction represents a common post radiation side effect with different grade of severity. In order to investigate the optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy we have conducted a systematic review on this topic. It seems that skin washing, including gentle washing with water alone with or without mild soap, should be permitted in patients receiving radiation therapy, to prevent acute skin reaction. In addition, a low dose (i.e., 1%) corticosteroid cream may be beneficial in the reduction of itching and irritation. We have concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific topical or oral agents for the prevention or management of acute skin reaction. There is a need for further research to review treatments that have produced promising results in the reviewed research studies and to evaluate other commonly recommended topical treatments. The purpose of this patent and literature review is to advocate the current management of acute skin reaction.

  8. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  10. Oleanolic acid controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivitis, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases.

  11. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  12. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update on pharmacogenetics studies in drug-induced severe skin reaction.

    PubMed

    Rufini, Sara; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Politi, Cristina; Giardina, Emiliano; Novelli, Giuseppe; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe, life-threatening drug reactions involving skin and membranes mucous, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and triggered, especially by drug exposure. Different studies have demonstrated that drug response is a multifactorial character and that the interindividual variability in this response depends on both environmental and genetic factors. The last ones have a relevant significance. In fact, the identification of new specific genetic markers involved in the response to drugs, will be of great utility to establish a more personalized therapeutic approach and to prevent the appearance of these adverse reactions. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the Pharmacogenetics studies related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis reporting the major genetic factors identified in the last years as associated with the disease and highlighting the use of some of these genomic variants in the clinical practice.

  13. Granulomatous dysimmune reactions (sarcoidosis, granuloma annulare, and others) on differently injured skin areas.

    PubMed

    Lo Schiavo, Ada; Ruocco, Eleonora; Gambardella, Alessio; O'Leary, Ryan E; Gee, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatous disorders are chronic cell-mediated immune responses histologically characterized by collections of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells. This disease spectrum often has an infectious origin, but sometimes neither an infective agent nor an inciting antigenic stimulus can be identified. The skin may be a preferential target for these disorders, especially in the areas that have been damaged by various forms of skin injury (eg, herpetic infections, trauma, thermal or solar burns, vaccinations, tattoos). These damaged skin sites frame the new concept of an immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD), which defines a skin area with acquired immune dysregulation that can pave the way for the local onset of opportunistic disorders, such as infections, tumors, and granulomatous disorders. Sarcoidosis, granuloma annulare (GA), and forms of granulomatous vasculitis, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), are the most common granulomatous disorders that occur in an ICD and may share common pathogenic mechanisms. Recent studies have found clinical and pathologic overlapping features across noninfectious granulomas. Although no unifying etiology exists, the development of granulomatous processes in the ICD has often been reported and the literature contains various hypotheses to explain it: (1) overactive immune response in a previously injured region with or without loss of immune tolerance; (2) overall reduced immune response; (3) retention of an exogeneous antigen or foreign body; (4) altered neural signaling; and (5) a combination of all the aforementioned processes. T helper cells, T regulatory cells, and macrophages, as well as a number of antigenic proteins, have been identified as potential contributing factors. In addition, a genetic predisposition and an intact systemic immune system are both instrumental for the persistence of local granuloma formation in the ICD. PMID:25160106

  14. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V.; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E.; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F.

    2014-01-01

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m−1 lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m−1 in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:24647908

  15. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F

    2014-06-01

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m(-1) lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m(-1) in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  17. Two-eyed versus one-eyed salamanders: does binocularity enhance the optically evoked skin blanching reactions of Ambystoma larvae?

    PubMed

    Pietsch, P; Schneider, C W

    1990-08-01

    A wide variety of visual functions show increases attributable to binocularity, and the question pursued here was whether a second eye enhances the visually stimulated skin blanching reaction of the larval salamander. Dermal melanin spots (produced by the aggregations of melanosomes within dermal melanophores and which contract or expand to lighten or darken the skin) were measured in eyeless (controls), one-eyed and two-eyed Ambystoma punctatum larvae after chronic adaptation of the subjects to a white background (i.e., stimulus conditions for maximum blanching). The eyeless subjects showed no blanching (thus remained dark) in white cups, and they exhibited melanin spots 7 or 8 times the size of those of the other two groups. All one-eyed or two-eyed subjects exhibited blanching reactions; planometric comparison revealed a significantly larger melanin spot area for one-eyed than for two-eyed animals; i.e., the binocular condition permitted greater contraction of the pigment spots than did the monocular condition. Analytical data compared favorably with independently ascertained pigmentation indices. The results indicate that a second eye quantitatively elevates the blanching maximum of a larval salamander.

  18. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  19. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    PubMed

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  20. In vivo nickel allergic contact dermatitis: human model for topical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chang, Y C; Singh, M; Maibach, H I

    1999-04-01

    Techniques to determine efficacy of topical agents on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may benefit from refinement. The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo human model system for the bioengineering and visual quantification of the effect of topical agents on nickel ACD, and to correlate ACD parameters. 14 nickel patch-test-positive subjects were included in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study after a pre-screening procedure with a standard diagnostic patch test with nickel sulfate in 54 healthy human volunteers. 5% nickel sulfate in petrolatum in a Finn Chamber was applied on forearm skin for 48 h to create a standardized dermatitis. Thereafter, the dermatitis was treated with a model topical agent and a placebo control while recording endpoint parameters daily for 10 days. Resolution was quantified with 4 parameters: visual scoring (VS), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Tewameter), skin blood flow volume (BFV) (laser Doppler flowmeter), and skin color (a* value) (Colorimeter). The model agent reduced cutaneous allergic reactions, especially on day 8 to 10, in comparison with the placebo control. A highly significant linear relationship exists among all parameters, except between a* and BFV. This model may provide robust biometrics for determining the efficacy of topical therapeutics on experimentally induced ACD. PMID:10208508

  1. An Adverse Reaction in the Pediatric Sleep Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Reppucci, Diana; Medin, Debra; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Smith, Mary Jane; Barter, Jill; Amin, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (NIPBL gene mutation). On a PSG, central sleep apnea (central apnea-hypopnea index of 19/hour) and nocturnal hypoventilation (transcutaneous CO2 > 50 mmHg for 53% of the night) were found. A positive pressure initiation study was aborted because the patient developed a serious adverse reaction. The differential diagnosis included a skin fragility condition versus an allergic contact dermatitis to the interface; this could be from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface or from the plastic of the interface itself. A skin biopsy was performed which was normal. The reaction was likely secondary to an allergic contact dermatitis from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface. The patient is currently tolerating NiPPV. PMID:27445573

  2. An Adverse Reaction in the Pediatric Sleep Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reppucci, Diana; Medin, Debra; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Smith, Mary Jane; Barter, Jill; Amin, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (NIPBL gene mutation). On a PSG, central sleep apnea (central apnea-hypopnea index of 19/hour) and nocturnal hypoventilation (transcutaneous CO2 > 50 mmHg for 53% of the night) were found. A positive pressure initiation study was aborted because the patient developed a serious adverse reaction. The differential diagnosis included a skin fragility condition versus an allergic contact dermatitis to the interface; this could be from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface or from the plastic of the interface itself. A skin biopsy was performed which was normal. The reaction was likely secondary to an allergic contact dermatitis from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface. The patient is currently tolerating NiPPV. PMID:27445573

  3. Does effect of BCG vaccine decrease with time since vaccination and increase tuberculin skin test reaction?

    PubMed

    Subramani, R; Datta, Manjula; Swaminathan, S

    2015-10-01

    The protective efficacy of BCG was studied for over 15 years, from 1968, in South India. A secondary analysis of data was performed to investigate the relationship between Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and tuberculosis (TB) disease and between BCG and positive tuberculin skin test for different time periods among children aged less than 10 years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, where 281,161 persons were allocated to receive BCG 0.1mg, BCG 0.01mg or placebo. Tuberculin skin test was performed at baseline and at 4 years after BCG vaccination. Surveys were conducted every 2.5 years to detect all new cases of culture-positive/smear-positive TB occurring in the community over a 15-year period. Relative risk (RR) was obtained from the ratio of incidence among the vaccinated and the placebo groups. Among those children vaccinated with 0.1mg of BCG, the RR for TB was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.32-0.87, P=0.01) at 12.5 years but increased to 0.73 later. Similar pattern was seen with 0.01mg. The increase in the number of skin test positives with 0.1mg of BCG was 57.8%, 49.4% and 34% for cut-off points at ≥10mm, ≥12mm and ≥15mm, respectively. The study suggests that the effect of BCG may decrease since vaccination and the tuberculin positive was higher at post-vaccination test period due to BCG.

  4. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. PMID:26336294

  5. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented.

  6. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Marcos V.; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, André De A. R.; Csordas, Barbara G.; Szabó, Matias P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host–parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. PMID:26336294

  7. GC-MS quantitation of fragrance compounds suspected to cause skin reactions. 1.

    PubMed

    Chaintreau, Alain; Joulain, Daniel; Marin, Christophe; Schmidt, Claus-Oliver; Vey, Matthias

    2003-10-22

    Recent changes in European legislation require monitoring of 24 volatile compounds in perfumes as they might elicit skin sensitization. This paper reports a GC-MS quantitation procedure for their determination in fragrance concentrates. GC and MS conditions were optimized for a routine use: analysis within 30 min, solvent and internal standard selection, and stock solution stability. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 2-100 mg/L with coefficients of determination in excess of 0.99. The method was tested using real perfumes spiked with known amounts of reference compounds.

  8. Prevalence of food allergy in 137 latex-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, K T; Hussain, H

    1999-01-01

    There have been reports of increased prevalence of certain food allergies in patients with Type I latex allergy (LA). A detailed food allergy history was obtained from 137 patients with LA. Latex allergy was defined by positive history of IgE mediated reactions to contact with latex and positive skin prick test to latex and/or positive in vitro test (AlaSTAT and/or Pharmacia CAP). Food allergy was diagnosed by a convincing history of possible IgE mediated symptoms occurring within 60 minutes of ingestion. We identified 49 potential allergic reactions to foods in 29 (21.1%) patients. Foods responsible for these reactions include banana 9 (18.3%), avocado 8 (16.3%), shellfish 6 (12.2%), fish 4 (8.1%), kiwi 6 (12.2%), tomato 3 (6.1%), watermelon, peach, carrot 2 (4.1%) each, and apple, chestnut, cherry, coconut, apricot, strawberry, loquat, one (2.0%) each. Reactions to foods included local mouth irritation, angioedema, urticaria, asthma, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, or anaphylaxis. Our study confirms the earlier reports of increased prevalence of food allergies in patients with LA. We also report increased prevalence of shellfish and fish allergy not previously reported. The nature of cross reacting epitopes or independent sensitization between latex and these foods is not clear.

  9. The relationship between exposure to fragrance materials and persistent light reaction in the photosensitivity dermatitis with actinic reticuloid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Addo, H A; Ferguson, J; Johnson, B E; Frain-Bell, W

    1982-09-01

    Contact allergic sensitivity to allergens such as plants of the Compositae family is a feature of the chronic skin reaction seen in the photosensitivity dermatitis with actinic reticuloid syndrome. In fifty patients with this syndrome an increased incidence of contact allergic sensitivity to some common fragrance materials was demonstrated. Evidence is also presented, both by in vitro and in vivo studies, which indicates that a phototoxic mechanism is involved. The relevance of continued exposure to common allergens and their involvement in photosensitization mechanisms is discussed in an attempt to explain the state of 'persistent light reaction'.

  10. Epidermal RAF prevents allergic skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Josipa; Jeric, Ines; Niault, Theodora; Nowacka, Joanna Daniela; Kuzet, Sanya Eduarda; Rupp, Christian; Fischer, Irmgard; Biggi, Silvia; Borsello, Tiziana; Baccarini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The RAS pathway is central to epidermal homeostasis, and its activation in tumors or in Rasopathies correlates with hyperproliferation. Downstream of RAS, RAF kinases are actionable targets regulating keratinocyte turnover; however, chemical RAF inhibitors paradoxically activate the pathway, promoting epidermal proliferation. We generated mice with compound epidermis-restricted BRAF/RAF1 ablation. In these animals, transient barrier defects and production of chemokines and Th2-type cytokines by keratinocytes cause a disease akin to human atopic dermatitis, characterized by IgE responses and local and systemic inflammation. Mechanistically, BRAF and RAF1 operate independently to balance MAPK signaling: BRAF promotes ERK activation, while RAF1 dims stress kinase activation. In vivo, JNK inhibition prevents disease onset, while MEK/ERK inhibition in mice lacking epidermal RAF1 phenocopies it. These results support a primary role of keratinocytes in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, and the animals lacking BRAF and RAF1 in the epidermis represent a useful model for this disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14012.001 PMID:27431613

  11. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization. PMID:9789357

  12. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics.

  13. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  15. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  16. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  17. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  18. [Severe drug-induced skin reactions. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis].

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, M

    2014-05-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are characterized by extensive blistering of the skin and mucosa; they are considered as one disease entity with varying severity. They are rare but potentially life-threatening and accompanied by high mortality. A clear clinical diagnosis is needed to direct specific therapy, but supportive therapy remains most important. In order to identify and withdraw the inducing drug, a very detailed and thorough medication history has to be obtained. Among the highly suspected (strongly associated) agents are allopurinol, antibacterial sulfonamides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of the oxicam type, various anti-epileptics and nevaripine. Together they account for more than half of the cases of SJS/TEN. Although a drug is not always the cause, it is considered very like in approximately 75% of cases. Infections have also to be considered as etiologic factors. PMID:24820799

  19. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis due to prednicarbate].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kunz, R; Köllner, A; Kunze, J

    1991-01-01

    Two female patients developed an allergic contact dermatitis after using Dermatop cream and -ointment for several weeks. Patch tests were positive with the reagent prednicarbate itself. No cross reactions to other glucocorticosteroids were observed. Type-IV-sensitization to glucocorticosteroids should be considered if chronic dermatitis does not improve, or even becomes worse, in spite of adequate therapy. With regard to possible cross reactions or multiple sensitization, epicutaneous tests with other glucocorticosteroids are necessary.

  1. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  2. Outpatient penicillin use after negative skin testing and drug challenge in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Picard, Matthieu; Paradis, Louis; Nguyen, Mélanie; Bégin, Philippe; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The practice of elective penicillin skin testing could be compromised by the fact that patients, their parents, or their physicians remain reluctant to reuse penicillin-class antibiotics (PCAs) despite a negative evaluation by an allergist. This study addresses reuse of PCAs in a pediatric population after negative penicillin skin testing and drug challenge and factors associated with its reluctance. All children evaluated for a history of penicillin allergy at the CHU Sainte-Justine Allergy Clinic between January 1998 and June 2000 with negative skin testing and drug challenge were included in the study. A telephone survey was conducted between May and October 2002 to assess the perception of the initial reaction by the parents, subsequent use of antibiotics, and antibiotic-related adverse reactions. Among the 200 children selected, parents of 170 (85%) children completed the survey. Since the allergist evaluation, 130 (76%) children had received antibiotics. PCA was used in 59 (45%) children. Parents of 24 (18%) children refused PCAs because they still feared an adverse reaction. They were more likely to have been very frightened by their child's allergic reaction than other parents whose children had used PCAs (p = 0.008). Although elective penicillin skin testing is useful and safe in the pediatric population, a significant proportion of parents still refuse PCAs even though they are needed. Identification of parents that were very frightened by their children's allergic reactions and additional reassurance could improve this situation.

  3. In situ identification of T lymphocyte subsets and HLA-DR expressing cells in the human skin tuberculin reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Klareskog, L; Forsum, U

    1982-01-01

    T lymphocyte subsets and HLA-DR expressing cells were studied with an immunohistochemical double staining technique in frozen sections of human skin 6, 48 and 96 hr after intradermal PPD injections. The number of lymphocytes reacting with monoclonal Leu 1 antibodies (all mature peripheral T cells) increased with time. The majority of the T lymphocytes at 48 and 96 hr reacted with Leu 3a ('helper/inducer' phenotype) antibodies and a few with Leu 2a ('suppressor/cytotoxic' phenotype) antibodies. Apposition of T lymphocytes of both subsets to HLA-DR expressing cells occurred in the dermis as well as in the epidermis. The study gives a morphological picture of the cell-mediated immune reactions in delayed type of hypersensitivity consistent with in vitro experiments on proliferative responses to soluble antigens. Images p328-a PMID:6751638

  4. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  5. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients with type B acute and chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Nagafuchi, S; Kashiwagi, S; Hayashi, S; Inoue, T; Imayama, S; Takeshita, M; Kikuchi, M

    1985-01-01

    Skin reactivity to HBsAg was studied in patients with type B acute and chronic hepatitis and in healthy controls. HBsAg preparations containing 50 micrograms/ml of antigen both with and without alum elicited positive skin reactions in all seven anti-HBs+ persons. Histological examination of skin tissue from the reactive area using monoclonal antibodies to the cell surface of lymphocytes revealed accumulation of Leu-3a positive lymphocytes, showing that the inflammation was a typical delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. Irrespective of the presence of HBeAg and anti-HBe, patients with chronic type B hepatitis responded clearly to PPD and SK/SD antigens, whereas they did not exhibit DTH skin reactivity to HBsAg. In contrast, although patients with acute type B hepatitis did not exhibit specific DTH a reaction to HBsAg in the acute period, they began to develop DTH skin reactivity to HBsAg in the convalescent phase of the disease preceding the appearance of anti-HBs antibody. It is suggested that DTH reaction to HBsAg might play an important role in the pathogenesis of type B viral hepatitis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:4075587

  6. Drug-induced skin disease.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, A P

    1984-10-01

    Drug-induced cutaneous reactions encompass a wide variety of rashes that depend in part on route of administration (e.g., contact versus systemic) as well as type of cutaneous response and molecular mechanism underlying the reaction. One such reaction is a type IV immunologic reaction (delayed hypersensitivity) manifest as contact dermatitis and commonly elicited by drugs such as antihistamines, antibiotic ointments, local anesthetics, and paraben esters in cosmetic creams and lotions. A generalized eruption of this sort will occasionally occur with systemic administration of a drug to someone previously sensitized by topical application. Systemic administration of agents can cause nonspecific pruritus or maculopapular eruptions that resemble visual exanthemas. The pathogenesis is unclear and no immune mechanism has been demonstrated. If the drug is continued, exfoliative dermatitis can result. Other types of reactions are urticarial in nature and include acute urticaria/angioedema, erythema multiforme (bullous and nonbullous), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria in association with serum sickness-like reactions, and urticaria associated with anaphylactoid reactions. In many of these, an allergic reaction in which there is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-dependent release of mediators in the skin causes hives or swelling. In others, circulating immune complexes may be present, often involving IgG antibody complexed with drug and complement fixation; hives may then be caused by anaphylatoxin release or a concomitant IgE-mediated reaction. In some instances, a cellular reaction may augment the aforementioned inflammatory reactions, perhaps as part of a late-phase reaction or a true delayed hypersensitivity component.

  7. [Anaphylactoid Reactions Suspected to Be Caused by Neostigmine in Pediatric Patients under General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Iwasai, Sayo; Kinoshita, Yoko; Asagoe, Yutaro; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Arai, Minako; Sato, Tetsufumi

    2016-04-01

    Anaphylactoid reaction is a rapid systemic allergic reaction to many kinds of allergen. The peak age of onset is in the forties and there are not many reports on anaphylactoid reactions in pediatric patients. We report two cases of pediatric patients who underwent surgical treatment on retinoblastoma and developed anaphylactoid reaction probably caused by neostigmine. General anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, sevoflurane, dinitrogen monoxide, and rocronium. The procedure was uneventfully completed. Just after the administration of neostigmine to reverse rocronium, the patients showed red flare on the face and chest, and wheezes were heard, but the vital signs were relatively stable. The rapid onset from the administration of neostigmine to the allergic reaction accompanied by skin and respiratory manifestations strongly suggested the anaphylactoid reaction to neostigmine. PMID:27188110

  8. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools. PMID:26880774

  9. Effect of topical preparation of mycophenolic acid on experimental allergic contact dermatitis of guinea-pigs induced by dinitrofluorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Fukumura, T; Kudo, M; Yanagawa, A; Shimada, J; Mizushima, Y

    1994-08-01

    The effects of a topical preparation of mycophenolic acid on the experimental allergic contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene was investigated. Visual assessment of skin reactions showed significant efficacy of a topical preparation of mycophenolic acid. This efficacy appeared from the early stage and endured up to 3 days. Morphological changes in the epidermis and dermis layers of animals treated with a mycophenolic acid cream were moderate compared with that in animals treated with vehicle only. In particular, hyperkeratosis was strongly suppressed. Since suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration was also observed, this efficacy might reach to the epidermis and dermis layer.

  10. Peptide Reactivity of Isothiocyanates – Implications for Skin Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Isabella; Samuelsson, Kristin; Ponting, David J.; Törnqvist, Margareta; Ilag, Leopold L.; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Skin allergy is a chronic condition that affects about 20% of the population of the western world. This disease is caused by small reactive compounds, haptens, able to penetrate into the epidermis and modify endogenous proteins, thereby triggering an immunogenic reaction. Phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and ethyl isothiocyanate (EITC) have been suggested to be responsible for allergic skin reactions to chloroprene rubber, the main constituent of wetsuits, orthopedic braces, and many types of sports gear. In the present work we have studied the reactivity of the isothiocyanates PITC, EITC, and tetramethylrhodamine-6-isothiocyanate (6-TRITC) toward peptides under aqueous conditions at physiological pH to gain information about the types of immunogenic complexes these compounds may form in the skin. We found that all three compounds reacted quickly with cysteine moieties. For PITC and 6-TRITC the cysteine adducts decomposed over time, while stable adducts with lysine were formed. These experimental findings were verified by DFT calculations. Our results may suggest that the latter are responsible for allergic reactions to isothiocyanates. The initial adduct formation with cysteine residues may still be of great importance as it prevents hydrolysis and facilitates the transport of isothiocyanates into epidermis where they can form stable immunogenic complexes with lysine-containing proteins. PMID:26883070

  11. Requirements in cosmetics for black skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B A

    1988-07-01

    As large, well-funded cosmetics houses are taking more interest in the needs of black consumers, so should the dermatologist. The dermatologist should be able to discuss intelligently with patients those products that are intended for black skin and hair. Patients also appreciate a referral to a hair stylist or cosmetologist that the doctor is familiar with. As outlined in this article, the most common cosmetics problems encountered by black consumers include the lack of selection of appropriate shades of cosmetics; greasy and irritating "black" make-up; irritant or allergic reactions to fragrance and other cosmetic ingredients; acne from "oil-free" products; and a shortage of effective products to treat "ashiness." It is hoped that this review will help the reader understand what black patients may expect from their skin and hair cosmetics.

  12. Assessment of local skin reactions with a sequential regimen of cryosurgery followed by ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, in patients with actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Gary; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-directed and field-directed therapies are used to treat actinic keratosis (AK). Therapeutic approaches that combine both types of therapies may improve the successful elimination of AKs. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topical field treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after cryosurgery to AKs on the face and scalp. Patients with 4-8 visible discrete AKs in a 25-cm(2) contiguous area received cryosurgery of all AKs at baseline. After a 3-week healing period, patients applied ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, or vehicle gel once daily for 3 consecutive days to the treatment area. The incidence, severity, and time course of the development and resolution of local skin reactions were measured from baseline to week 11. Local skin reactions peaked shortly after completion of ingenol mebutate treatment and generally resolved within 2 weeks. The mean (95% confidence interval) composite score (maximum range, 0-24) for these reactions was higher in patients with treatment of AKs on the face, 9.3 (8.5-10.1), as compared with the scalp, 5.8 (4.3-7.4). Erythema and flaking/scaling were the major contributors to the composite local skin reaction score. These results show that local skin reactions associated with ingenol mebutate treatment of the face or scalp are well tolerated after recent cryosurgery. PMID:25565875

  13. Assessment of local skin reactions with a sequential regimen of cryosurgery followed by ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, in patients with actinic keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Gary; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-directed and field-directed therapies are used to treat actinic keratosis (AK). Therapeutic approaches that combine both types of therapies may improve the successful elimination of AKs. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topical field treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after cryosurgery to AKs on the face and scalp. Patients with 4–8 visible discrete AKs in a 25-cm2 contiguous area received cryosurgery of all AKs at baseline. After a 3-week healing period, patients applied ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, or vehicle gel once daily for 3 consecutive days to the treatment area. The incidence, severity, and time course of the development and resolution of local skin reactions were measured from baseline to week 11. Local skin reactions peaked shortly after completion of ingenol mebutate treatment and generally resolved within 2 weeks. The mean (95% confidence interval) composite score (maximum range, 0–24) for these reactions was higher in patients with treatment of AKs on the face, 9.3 (8.5–10.1), as compared with the scalp, 5.8 (4.3–7.4). Erythema and flaking/scaling were the major contributors to the composite local skin reaction score. These results show that local skin reactions associated with ingenol mebutate treatment of the face or scalp are well tolerated after recent cryosurgery. PMID:25565875

  14. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  15. Serum sickness reaction with skin involvement induced by bee venom injection therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom injection therapy is an alternative treatment sometimes used for chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, to reduce pain. Several chemical components of bee venom have anti-inflammatory effects, and apitoxin, one of the mixed components, has been used for pain prevention therapy. However, there have been no large-scale investigations regarding the efficacy or side effects or apitoxin. In this study, a case of serum sickness reaction that developed after receiving bee venom injection therapy is reported. PMID:26539406

  16. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed.

  17. A quantitative analysis of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria; de França, Emmanuel Rodrigues; Magalhães, Marcelo; Lins, Ana Kelly; Brandão, Laura Costa; Magalhães, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of progressive macular hypomelanosis, although it has been suggested that Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role. While microbiological culture is commonly employed to identify Propionibacterium acnes, new identification methods have been under investigation, amongst them polymerase chain reaction. To determine the cut-off point for the number of genome copies of Propionibacterium acnes in the lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis as a positive marker, employing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and anaerobic culture, considered gold standard. An observational study with a comparison group, included 35 patients with dermatosis, attended at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil, between March and May 2008. Lesional skin was compared to non-lesional skin through positive testing with real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 12.0, was employed for the association analysis with the McNemar test, and the cut-off point with the ROC curve for maximum values. Propionibacterium acnes was most frequently encountered in lesional areas (p<0,025). The cut-off point of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional skin was 1,333 genome copies, with a sensitivity of 87,9% and a specificity of 100,0%. Since Propionibacterium acnes is a saprophyte, identifying the cut-off point may assist in determining its positivity in lesional skin in patients suffering with this dermatosis. PMID:24031649

  18. Epicoccum allergy: skin reaction patterns and spore/mycelium disparities recognized by IgG and IgE ELISA inhibition.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, J; Chapman, J; Burge, H; Muilenberg, M; Solomon, W

    1987-07-01

    Comparable degrees of skin reactivity were observed towards spore and mycelium extracts from two isolates of Epicoccum and to one preparation of Alternaria in 35 rural and 120 university patients. The best experimental extracts detected Epicoccum sensitivity in 70% of the group tested while the commercial extract detected sensitivity in only 6%. Skin reaction correlations were greatest within isolates (eg, spore-A/mycelium-A), then for specific fungus parts (eg, spore-A/spore-B), then between isolates and parts (spore-A/mycelium-B). High correlations were found between individual IgG and IgE ELISA values for all antigens using serum from Epicoccum skin-reactive patients. ELISA inhibition results suggested that significant cross-reactivity exists between Epicoccum and Alternaria antigens recognized by IgG but not by IgE. ELISA inhibition cross-reaction patterns among Epicoccum antigens were comparable to skin reactions while IgG patterns showed little variability. Further characterization of spore/mycelium and interstrain recognition patterns among different immunoglobulin isotypes will be necessary before complete standardization of extracts from different parts of fungi will be possible. The use of spore material for skin testing and treatment of Epicoccum sensitivity appears to be both premature and unnecessary at this time. PMID:3605796

  19. Successful removal of hyperkeratotic-lichenoid reaction to red ink tattoo with preservation of the whole tattoo using a skin grafting knife.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Boštjan

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of tattoo body decorations, reports of medical complications with tattoos have increased in parallel. Although tattoo reactions can resolve spontaneously, they often last for months or even years, despite the various treatment methods. In our case, we present the successful removal of hyperkeratotic-lichenoid reaction to red ink using a simple and cheap skin grafting knife. The entire tattoo was preserved with a good aesthetic result with minimal scarring. PMID:26697733

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  2. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  3. Comparison of acute skin reaction following morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer who have undergone curative surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hyojung; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Seol, Seung Won; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the time of radiotherapy (RT) and treatment outcomes in breast cancer. Patients with pathologic T1–2N0–1 breast cancer who received adjuvant RT in the morning (before 10:00 AM) or late afternoon (after 3:00 PM) were eligible for inclusion in this study. We retrospectively compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, acute skin reaction, and survival outcomes according to the time of RT. The median follow-up duration was 83 months (range, 10–131 months). From the 395 eligible patients, 190 (48.1%) and 205 (51.9%) patients were classified into the morning RT group and the afternoon RT group, respectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics were relatively well balanced between the treatment groups, except for pathologic N-stage (P = 0.0409). Grade 2 or higher acute skin reaction according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria was observed in 39 (9.9%) patients, with a higher frequency in the afternoon RT group than the morning RT group (13.7% vs 5.8%, respectively; P = 0.0088). There was no difference in the failure patterns or survival outcomes between the treatment groups. RT in late afternoon was associated with increased Grade 2 or more skin reaction after RT for breast cancer patients, but treatment outcomes did not differ according to the time of RT. Individualized considerations for treatment should be taken into account to reduce the risk of skin reactions. PMID:24385471

  4. Allergic response to metabisulfite in lidocaine anesthetic solution.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. R.; Maestrello, C. L.; Campbell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    True allergies to local anesthetics are rare. It is common for practitioners to misdiagnose a serious adverse event to local anesthetics as an allergic reaction. The most likely causes for an allergic response are the preservative, antioxidant, or metabolites and not the anesthetic itself. This case report illustrates the need for practitioners to understand the many potential allergens in local anesthetics and to correctly diagnose patients that are truly allergic to the local anesthetic. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figures 4 and 5 PMID:11495401

  5. Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

  6. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  8. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  9. The utility of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sharawi, S S A; Abd El-Rahim, I H A

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) occurred among cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt in 2006. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) were compared. Eight of ten (80%) tissue specimens from diseased cattle were positive with AGPT while 100% were positive with PCR. Of ten tissue specimens from diseased water buffaloes, 70% were positive with AGPT while 100% were positive with PCR. Ten milk samples were obtained from diseased water buffaloes; PCR detected nucleic acid of LSD virus (LSDV) in 50% while AGPT failed to detect LSDV antigen. Water buffaloes are susceptible to LSDV infection. The clinical signs of LSD were less severe in water buffaloes, but the virus was excreted in their milk. Diagnosis of LSD outbreaks by PCR will facilitate rapid application of control measures. Mass vaccination should be applied in both cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt using an effective specific vaccine against LSD, such as the attenuated Neethling strain vaccine or a recombinant vaccine.

  10. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  11. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on allergic dermatitis rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangchen; Liu, Yingqin; Zhu, Jinling; Iguchi, Miki; Yoshioka, Saburo; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro

    2010-01-01

    We examined the immunomodulatory effect of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract (ESE) on rat allergic dermatitis elicited by repeated dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) application on the ear. Oral administration of ESE significantly inhibited development of allergic dermatitis based on lower ear thickness and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the lesional skin were determined. Oral administration of ESE significantly decreased IL-4 while significantly increasing IL-10 in lesional skin, and the lower levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 were reversed by oral administration of ESE. The infiltration of eosinophils in the lesional skin was decreased by oral administration of ESE. These results suggested that ESE exerts anti-allergic actions by improving the balance of Th1/Th2 in allergic dermatitis.

  13. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    PubMed

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement.

  14. A practical approach to common skin problems in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Brigid M

    2009-05-01

    Skin diseases are the third most common cause of morbidity in returning travellers and may affect 8% of travellers during travel. Classic tropical diseases account for one quarter and the remainder are cosmopolitan diseases. The majority are of infectious origin, and of these bacterial infections are the most common and lead to the most hospitalisations. The ten most frequently encountered diagnoses comprise four classical tropical infections (cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, tungiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis) and six nontropical diseases (bacterial skin infections, arthropod bites, allergic reactions, scabies, animal bites and superficial fungal infections). Other notable skin problems include swimmer's itch, dengue fever presenting with a rash and rickettsial infections presenting with a rash or eschar. Delayed diagnosis, especially of tropical diseases, is common and may be reduced by improved knowledge and a systematic approach to skin problems. This involves a thorough travel specific, traveller specific and skin problem based history, combined with targeted examination and investigations. A frequency weighted differential diagnosis of the most common skin lesions is presented. An increased emphasis on preventative advice in relation to skin disease is encouraged during pre-travel consultations.

  15. [If you go looking for trouble you'll find it. Urticarial reactions to insects of our local areas].

    PubMed

    Maitre, Sylvie; Kaeser, Amelie; Di Lucca, Julie; Spertini, François; Ribi, Camillo

    2016-04-01

    Itchy skin rashes are a frequent reason to seek medical advice. The symptoms may be caused by hypersensitivity reactions to arthropod bites, waterborne parasites or setae from moth caterpillars and are sometimes mistaken for spontaneous urticaria or eczema. Some of these pests are resurging in Switzerland and elsewhere and increasingly responsible for emergency consultation. In this article we review itchy skin rashes caused by bed bugs, scabies, lice, cercariae, Pyemotes spp, caterpillars and harvest mites, which may be confounded with urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis. We detail here clinical manifestations, topographical distribution of skin lesions, epidemiology, treatment and preventive measures. PMID:27197324

  16. ALLERGIC DISEASES AND ASTHMA IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Khachapuridze, D; Katamadze, N; Chkuaseli, N

    2015-06-01

    The goal of our research was to find out, whether asthma phenotyping, based on presence of accompanying allergic diseases is significant for asthma classification or not. Research was conducted on the basis of questioning of random and representative cohorts of Tbilisi children's population, by cross-section method of epidemiological research. Special extended screening questionnaire was developed for epidemiological study of allergic diseases. Diagnostic criterion for allergy was analyzed and representative cohort was selected. Research was conducted in 2010-2014 period. Studied population included 1450 children from 2 to 17 years age representing Tbilisi general population (of them, 850 girls and 600 boys). As a result of research the following findings were made: asthma was confirmed where at least two of the listed was present: diagnosis of asthma made by doctor, asthma symptoms and consumption of drugs against asthma. Allergic rhinitis was confirmed, where more than one of the listed symptoms was present and children should not have caught cold, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction or snore, combined or IgE with some inhalation allergen. Atopic dermatitis was confirmed if the subject had atopic dermatitis at a time of interview or clinical study. Markers of asthma severity were based on number of asthma episodes and number of symptoms, or regular consumption of corticosteroids, number of missed days at school and answer of subjects to the question: for the past year what was the degree of discomfort attributable to asthma ("very high" - "absolutely not"). Allergic sensitization was assessed based on the skin prick-test and test of specific immunoglobulin E in serum and was deemed positive where the average diameter of blebs in skin prick tests was 3 mm larger than negative control and IgE-0,35kU/l. Lung function was assessed by means of respirometers, by evaluating maximal forced expiration data and flow-volume curves. Allergic rhinitis was regarded as the most

  17. Persulfate hair bleach reactions. Cutaneous and respiratory manifestations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A; Dooms-Goossens, A

    1976-10-01

    Ammonium persulfate is widely used to "boost" peroxide hair bleaches. These persulfates can produce a variety of cutaneous and respiratory responses, including allergic eczematous contact dermatitis, irritant dermatitis, localized edema, generalized urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, and syncope. Some of these reactions appear to be truly allergic while others appear to be due to the release of histamine on a nonallergic basis. Patch tests may be performed with 2% to 5% aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate. Scratch tests may result in asthma and syncope. In some patients, merely rubbing a saturated solution of ammonium persulfate into the skin will evoke a large urticarial wheal. Hairdressers should be made aware that these ammonium persulfate hair bleach preparations may provoke severe reactions and should seek medical attention if the client complains of severe itching, tingling, a burning sensation, hives, dizziness, or weakness.

  18. Persulfate hair bleach reactions. Cutaneous and respiratory manifestations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A; Dooms-Goossens, A

    1976-10-01

    Ammonium persulfate is widely used to "boost" peroxide hair bleaches. These persulfates can produce a variety of cutaneous and respiratory responses, including allergic eczematous contact dermatitis, irritant dermatitis, localized edema, generalized urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, and syncope. Some of these reactions appear to be truly allergic while others appear to be due to the release of histamine on a nonallergic basis. Patch tests may be performed with 2% to 5% aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate. Scratch tests may result in asthma and syncope. In some patients, merely rubbing a saturated solution of ammonium persulfate into the skin will evoke a large urticarial wheal. Hairdressers should be made aware that these ammonium persulfate hair bleach preparations may provoke severe reactions and should seek medical attention if the client complains of severe itching, tingling, a burning sensation, hives, dizziness, or weakness. PMID:962335

  19. Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S

    2006-01-01

    The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies. PMID:16766877

  20. Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S

    2006-01-01

    The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies.

  1. A case of hydrocortisone desensitization in a patient with radiocontrast-induced anaphylactoid reaction and corticosteroid allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee-Wong, Mary; McClelland, Suzanne; Chong, Kaman; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R; Fernandez, Evans

    2006-01-01

    Allergic reactions and systemic desensitization to corticosteroids have been documented rarely in English language literature. These reactions appear more often when the agent is applied topically and may lead to dangerous complications in patients if administered i.v. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of using an i.v. corticosteroid for desensitization in a patient who has a history of allergy to corticosteroid must be weighed carefully, especially when the aim of its use is to prevent an allergic reaction from a second drug. We report a case of successful systemic hydrocortisone desensitization in a patient with radiocontrast-induced anaphylactoid reaction and corticosteroid allergy. Sensitization to corticosteroids was determined through skin testing. The patient was desensitized to hydrocortisone and premedicated with hydrocortisone and diphenhydramine and subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization with radiocontrast without adverse reaction.

  2. [Immunologic reactions, respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in jute and sisal textile workers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegović, J; Kern, J

    1993-03-01

    Allergic reactions in relation to respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 41 textile workers employed in the processing of jute and sisal. Only 5.0% of the jute workers and 9.5% of the sisal workers demonstrated positive skin reactions to jute or sisal allergens. Increased IgE was found in 9.8% of the textile workers. Among 35 control workers 11.4% reacted with a positive skin reaction to the jute or sisal allergen and 2.9% had increased IgE. Chronic respiratory symptoms as well as changes in ventilatory capacity were found in textile workers with positive and negative skin tests. Our data suggest that immunological reactions are not likely to be responsible for the development of respiratory impairment in textile workers exposed to jute and sisal dust.

  3. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  4. Atypical skin reaction in a patient treated with gefitinib for advanced lung cancer: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    FERRAZZI, ANNA; RUSSO, IRENE; PASELLO, GIULIA; ALAIBAC, MAURO

    2016-01-01

    Gefitinib is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor utilized for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma. The most commonly reported adverse event during gefitinib therapy is skin rash, particularly a papulopustular acne-like eruption. Cutaneous toxicities can affect treatment compliance and the quality of life of the patient. The present study reports a case of gefitinib-induced atypical skin reaction in a 73-year-old woman with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, who developed a squamous-crusted eruption on her face after 4 weeks of oral treatment with gefitinib at a dose of 250 mg/day. The patient was treated with 100 mg minocyclin (2 tablets/day, orally) and with ryfamicin topically. A complete resolution of the lesions was observed 2 weeks later. The present case report explored the pathogenesis of this skin manifestation, focusing on the underlying immunological mechanisms. A review of the literature concerning skin reactions to gefitinib was also conducted. PMID:26889239

  5. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Sharan, Krishna; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  6. Management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Solelhac, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke. PMID:25374672

  7. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  8. Utility of a single nasal polymerase chain reaction assay in predicting absence of skin and environmental contamination in hospitalized patients with past methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Dubert M; Wagner, Matthew; Carson, Grace; Hanish, Christine; Thompson, Jody; Orr, Megan; Roth, Felix; Carson, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated hospitalized patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for persistent colonization and need for contact precautions. Up to 3 daily cultures of nares, skin, and any present wounds were compared with a single nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Most patients (76.2%) were no longer colonized with MRSA. A single PCR assay was sufficient to exclude persistent colonization and environmental contamination and remove the contact precautions.

  9. [Immunoallergic reaction with hepatitis induced by minocycline].

    PubMed

    Pavese, P; Sarrot-Reynauld, F; Bonadona, A; Massot, C

    1998-12-01

    We report the case of a 19-year old black West Indian woman who had been treated for acne for two years with oral minocycline (50 mg per day) and topical of benzoyle peroxide (5%). She was admitted for fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia and widespread pruritus. We observed several skin lesions of hyperpigmentation, biological signs of hepatitis, and significant levels of antinuclear, anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies. Minocycline was immediately stopped. Two months later, all of the biological abnormalities had disappeared but the skin lesions seemed to be irreversible. Minocycline is largely used for the treatment of acne and may induce severe immuno-allergic reactions. Several cases of induced lupus, autoimmune hepatitis, eosinophilic pneumonia, hypersensitivity syndrome, serum-sickness-like illness and Sweet's syndrome have already been described. These side effects are rare but may be life-threatening. So, minocycline should be used as a second-line treatment for acne and should be avoided in black people whom seem to be at risk of such reactions. If, despite those precautions, minocycline-induced immuno-allergic reactions occur, the treatment should be immediately stopped and never prescribed again.

  10. Allergic contact cheilitis and perioral dermatitis caused by propolis: case report.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Vice; Brailo, Vlaho; Alajbeg, Ivan; Vučićević Boras, Vanja; Budimir, Jozo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of propolis allergy in an 18-year-old female patient. Medical history revealed self-prescribed topical use of propolis spray as a medication for gingival swelling caused by orthodontic molar bands. After 24 hours, the patient developed lip edema and erythema of the perioral skin accompanied by burning pain in her lips. Discrete erosions were present in the corners of her lips. Erythema of the right infraorbital region was also observed. The patient was prescribed betamethasone propionate cream two times daily. Complete recovery was observed after 10 days. Propolis allergy was confirmed by a patch test. We believe that the use of propolis for the treatment of oral diseases should be avoided due to sparse evidence of its efficacy and numerous cases of allergic reactions. PMID:23069305

  11. Suspected allergic contact dermatitis to iodopropynyl butylcarbamate in an alcohol hand rub commonly used in Australian health-care settings.

    PubMed

    Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of suspected allergic contact dermatitis to the preservative and uncommon allergen iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, found in Microshield Angel hand gel, a skin cleanser commonly used in Australian health-care settings. PMID:24433373

  12. Attenuation of UVB-induced sunburn reaction and oxidative DNA damage with no alterations in UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in Nrf2 gene-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Xu, Xuezhu; Taguchi, Shiroma; Sakurai, Hideko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Furuta, Junichi; Takahashi, Takenori; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Otsuka, Fujio

    2008-07-01

    UV radiation is an important environmental factor in the pathogenesis of skin aging and cancer. Many harmful effects of UV radiation are associated with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cellular antioxidants prevent the occurrence and reduce the severity of UV-induced photoaging and diseases of the skin. The transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) and its negative regulator protein, Keap1 (Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1), are central regulators of cellular antioxidant responses. We used nrf2-null mice to investigate the roles of the Nrf2-Keap1 system in protection of skin from harmful effects of UVB irradiation. A single irradiation with UVB induced stronger and longer lasting sunburn reaction in nrf2-null mice. Histological changes, including epidermal necrosis, dermal edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, sunburn cell formation, TUNEL-positive apoptotic cell formation, and accumulation of oxidative DNA products such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine after UVB irradiation, were more prominent in nrf2-null mice. These findings indicate that the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway plays an important role in protection of the skin against acute UVB reactions, including cutaneous cell apoptosis and oxidative damage. However, there were no significant differences in skin carcinogenesis between nrf2-null and wild-type mice exposed to chronic UVB irradiation, suggesting that there is a complex and subtle balance between factors promoting and preventing photocarcinogenesis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2008) 128, 1773-1779; doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5701245; published online 17 January 2008.

  13. Genetic Variation along the Histamine Pathway in Children with Allergic versus Nonallergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Sara; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Dai, Hongying; Jones, Bridgette L

    2015-12-01

    Histamine is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma. Variation in genes along the histamine production, response, and degradation pathway may be important in predicting response to antihistamines. We hypothesize that differences exist among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the histamine pathway between children with allergic versus nonallergic asthma. Children (7-18 yr of age; n = 202) with asthma were classified as allergic or nonallergic based on allergy skin testing. Genotyping was performed to detect known SNPs (n = 10) among genes (HDC, HNMT, ABP1, HRH1, and HRH4) within the histamine pathway. Chi square tests and Cochran-Armitage Trend were used to identify associations between genetic variants and allergic or nonallergic asthma. Significance was determined by P < 0.05 and false-positive report probability. After correction for race differences in genotype were observed, HRH1-17 TT (6% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04), HNMT-464 TT (41% allergic versus 29% nonallergic; P = 0.04), and HNMT-1639 TT (30% allergic versus 20% nonallergic; P = 0.04) were overrepresented among children with allergic asthma. Genotype differences specifically among the African-American children were also observed: HRH1-17 TT (13% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04) and HNMT-1639 TT (23% allergic versus 3% nonallergic; P = 0.03) genotypes were overrepresented among African-American children with allergic asthma. Our study suggests that genetic variation within the histamine pathway may be associated with an allergic versus nonallergic asthma phenotype. Further studies are needed to determine the functional significance of identified SNPs and their impact on antihistamine response in patients with asthma and allergic disease.

  14. Immunoregulatory Role of HLA-G in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Puppo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are sustained by a T-helper 2 polarization leading to interleukin-4 secretion, IgE-dependent inflammation, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, play a central role in modulation of immune responses. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis to seasonal and perennial allergens and correlate with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption, and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. sHLA-G molecules are also found in airway epithelium of patients with allergic asthma and high levels of sHLA-G molecules are detectable in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic patients correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Finally, HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages, and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Collectively, although at present it is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation. PMID:27413762

  15. Immunoregulatory Role of HLA-G in Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Puppo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are sustained by a T-helper 2 polarization leading to interleukin-4 secretion, IgE-dependent inflammation, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, play a central role in modulation of immune responses. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis to seasonal and perennial allergens and correlate with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption, and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. sHLA-G molecules are also found in airway epithelium of patients with allergic asthma and high levels of sHLA-G molecules are detectable in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic patients correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Finally, HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages, and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Collectively, although at present it is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation. PMID:27413762

  16. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  17. Contact Allergic Cheilitis Secondary to Latex Gloves: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rangare, Anusha; Babu, Subhas; Rao, Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of allergic chelitis secondary to latex in an elderly diabetic patient. There are very few reported cases of allergic cheilitis in literature. Most of the reported cases of allergic chelitis were secondary to cosmetics, tooth pastes or impression materials. Few cases of rubber dam induced allergic cheilitis and stomatitis reported. Methods Since the patient was diabetic on insulin therapy and belonged to the elderly age group, utmost caution was observed while performing diagnostic tests and treatment procedures. The use test was performed to detect the allergen (latex) because of short contact time to the skin surface. Results The patient was followed-up for a period of eight months, complete healing of the lesions was witnessed. The patient has not reported of any lesions later. Conclusions Appropriate diagnostic test and interdisciplinary approach in consultation with medical specialists would be ideal for the management of allergic cheilitis especially in diabetic elderly patients. PMID:24421987

  18. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia akari in Skin Biopsy Specimens Using a Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Amy M.; Amin, Bijal D.; Nicholson, William L.; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia akari are the most common causes of spotted fever group rickettsioses indigenous to the United States. Infected patients characteristically present with a maculopapular rash, often accompanied by an inoculation eschar. Skin biopsy specimens are often obtained from these lesions for diagnostic evaluation. However, a species-specific diagnosis is achieved infrequently from pathologic specimens because immunohistochemical stains do not differentiate among the causative agents of spotted fever group rickettsiae, and existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays generally target large gene segments that may be difficult or impossible to obtain from formalin-fixed tissues. Methods This work describes the development and evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of these 3 Rickettsia species from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skin biopsy specimens. Results The multiplex PCR assay was specific at discriminating each species from FFPE controls of unrelated bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal pathogens that cause skin lesions, as well as other closely related spotted fever group Rickettsia species. Conclusions This multiplex real-time PCR demonstrates greater sensitivity than nested PCR assays in FFPE tissues and provides an effective method to specifically identify cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, rickettsialpox, and R. parkeri rickettsiosis by using skin biopsy specimens. PMID:24829214

  19. Adverse skin reactions due to pegylated interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Kanto, Hiromi; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2007-08-01

    Pegylated interferon (IFN)-alpha-2b with ribavirin has recently replaced "standard" IFN-alpha for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The most common side-effect of pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy is localized inflammatory skin lesions at the site of injection. A 66-year-old female treated with once-weekly pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin for active chronic hepatitis C developed inflammatory skin lesions 2 months after starting antiviral treatment. The type of skin reactions observed were vesicle erythematous eruptions at the injection sites, and pruritic papular erythematous eruptions located on the face, neck, distal limbs, dorsa of the hands, trunk and buttocks away from the injection sites. Histological examination was performed on the pruritic papular erythematous eruption located on the left forearm, away from the injection sites. It showed epidermal spongiosis, a spongiotic microvesicle, and perivascular infiltration of the upper dermis with lymphocytes. The treatment was interrupted subsequently and the patient was rechallenged with pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy, oral prednisolone with olopatadine hydrochloride and topical 0.1% diflucortolone valerate, which led to a significant improvement of skin lesions. Erythema with infiltration can occur at the injection sites of pegylated IFN-alpha-2b. However, the occurrence of vesicle erythematous eruptions away from the injection sites and autosensitization dermatitis apart from injection sites have not yet been frequently reported. PMID:17683392

  20. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Morris, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Waern, Ida; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Page, Clive; Schmidt, Eric P; Wernersson, Sara; Li, Jin-Ping; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/-) mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT) control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil) recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  1. A skin sensitization safety assessment of a new bleach activator technology in detergent applications.

    PubMed

    Roggeband, R; Helmlinger, G; Smith, I; Wilhelm, K-P; Ryan, C A; Gerberick, G F

    2002-04-01

    A new chemical called nonanoyl amido caproylacid oxybenzenesulphonate (NACAOBS) is being developed for use as a bleach activator in laundry detergents. Bleach activators, like NACAOBS, are typically used at levels between 2% and 6% in laundry detergents. NACAOBS is stable in aqueous solutions, but undergoes rapid perhydrolysis when combined with water and peroxygen bleach in laundry detergents. Animal testing demonstrated that NACAOBS, as a raw material, is a weak skin sensitizer. Clinical testing, including extended simulated laundry pretreatment, human repeat insult patch testing and home use testing was then undertaken, following sufficient reassurance of 1) the weak sensitization potential of the substance, 2) its rapid degradation in laundry wash solutions and, consequently, 3) low-to-negligible consumer dermal exposures to the native substance. Results confirmed the skin sensitization safety profile of laundry detergents containing NACAOBS, namely the absence of any reaction suggestive of contact sensitization (even under exaggerated dermal exposure conditions in a detergent matrix), and a skin compatibility profile comparable to that of current detergents. Further confirmation of the skin safety profile was obtained from a successful 12-month market test of a granular detergent containing 3.6% of the new substance, during which not a single adverse skin reaction was reported. In addition, NOBS (an oxybenzenesulphonate structural analogue to NACAOBS) has similar toxicological properties and has been safely marketed in detergents at similar levels for many years. It can be concluded that the likelihood of NACAOBS to induce skin sensitization or even elicit allergic reactions in consumer detergent use scenarios is negligible.

  2. Nanostructured polymer and lipid carriers for sunscreen. Biological effects and skin permeation.

    PubMed

    Marcato, P D; Caverzan, J; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Pinto, E F; Machado, D; Silva, R A; Justo, G Z; Ferreira, C V; Durán, N

    2011-03-01

    The interest in developing new sunscreens is increasing due to the harmful effects of UV radiation on the skin, such as erythema, accelerated skin ageing (photoageing) and the induction of skin cancer. However, many molecular sunscreens penetrate into the skin causing photoallergies, phototoxic reactions and skin irritation. Thus, the aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles to act carriers of benzophenone-3 (BZ3), aiming to improve the safety of sunscreen products by increasing the sun protection factor (SPF), decreasing BZ3 skin penetration and decreasing BZ3 concentration in sunscreen formulation. BZ3 was encapsulated in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation method and in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by the hot high pressure homogenization method. The particles were stable for 40 days. The BZ3 encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles was released faster than BZ3 encapsulated in SLN. The sun protection factor increased when BZ3 was encapsulated in both nanostructures. However, BZ3 encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles decreased its skin permeation more than SLN-BZ3. Furthermore, BZ3 encapsulated in SLN did not exhibit cytotoxic or phototoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and BABL/c 3T3 fibroblasts, whereas PCL nanoparticles with BZ3 showed phototoxic potential in HaCaT cells. Nevertheless, BZ3 free and encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles or in SLN did not show allergic reactions in mice. Our results suggest that these nanostructures are interesting carriers for sunscreen.

  3. Skin reaction and antibody responses in guinea-pigs sensitized to human leukaemia cells or their nuclei in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R M; Lewis, C M; Pegrum, G D; Prince, G H

    1976-12-01

    Guinea-pigs sensitized by subcutaneous injection of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) cells combined with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) displayed good skin reacitons 24 and 48 h after challenge with CLL cells. Equally good responses were also demonstrated using nuclei from the leukaemic cells in combination with BCG. These reactions were significantly greater than those produced in the same manner but without BCG. Sera form the animals were examined for the presence of antibodies against CLL cells by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques. Only samples from guinea-pigs innoculated with CLL cells were found to contain significant antibodies. Histological examination showed that whereas leukaemic cells persisted at the sensitizing injection site leukaemic cell nuclei could not be visualized. It is suggested that because leukaemic cell nuclei in combination with BCG are able to induce good skin reactivity without provoking a vigorous humoral antibody response they may have possible advantages over leukaemic cells when used for immunotherapy.

  4. An overview of parabens and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products. However, since the 1960s, controversy has surrounded its use and safety as a potential cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the cloud of suspicion that has hovered over parabens ever since, these ubiquitous compounds have withstood four decades of extensive skin testing conducted by a variety of organizations, both North American and European, and now, it seems parabens have shown to be one of the least sensitizing preservatives in commercial use. Of the very limited reports of paraben-induced allergic contact dermatitis, these cases are often attributable to the application of parabens on damaged skin.

  5. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  6. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion.

  7. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  8. [T-cells regulate the immune-response in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Böttcher, I

    2008-10-01

    Allergic diseases show a broad variety of symptoms, depending on the type of allergen and the location where it interacts with the human body. Contact of allergens with the upper respiratory tract result in conjunctivitis or allergic rhinitis. Apart from antigenpresenting cells, T-cells do play an important role in this hypersensibility reaction. Due to the production and secretion of cytokines, T-lymphocytes induce and maintain the corresponding Th-immuneresponse. In addition to regulatory functions, T-cells have potential influence on the chronic progression of allergic inflammatory reactions of the nasal mucosa and are therefore interesting target cells for specific immunotherapy as well as corticosteroid treatment. This article shows the specific function of T-cells during allergic rhinitis and reveals the basics for understanding the mechanism of immunotherapy and chronification of inflammatory allergic diseases of the nasal mucosa. PMID:18839392

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R

    1994-10-01

    Thiourea compounds are mainly used as accelerators in the rubber industry, but also in other industries, e.g., as antioxidants in the graphics industry. Thiourea compounds may provoke allergic contact dermatitis, although the number of reported cases is relatively low. During 1985-1991, we had 5 patients with allergic patch test reactions caused by thiourea compounds. 1 of our patients had to use a knee brace after an occupational accident. He developed allergic contact dermatitis caused by the knee brace, probably because he had become sensitized to diethylthiourea. 2 patients were probably sensitized by diphenylthiourea in neoprene gloves. A florist had an allergic patch test reaction to diphenylthiourea and might have been sensitized by fungicides or pesticides, which break down into thioureas. It is often difficult, however, to detect the source of thiourea compound sensitization. If the patient has contact dermatitis and has been exposed to products that may contain thiourea compounds (or compounds that break down into thiourea compounds), such as rubber, PVC plastic or adhesive, diazo paper, paints or glue remover, anticorrosive agents, fungicides or pesticides, patch testing with a series of thiourea compounds needs to be performed. If patch testing with thiourea compounds is not performed, allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds is not likely to be diagnosed. PMID:7842680

  10. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  11. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  12. Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-11-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis.

  13. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Corticosteroids: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications used widely to treat allergic inflammation. Although the endocrine and gastrointestinal side effects of corticosteroids have been described, the occurrence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and delayed contact dermatitis due to corticosteroids remains under-recognized. Hypersensitivity reactions can occur to a corticosteroid itself, or to the additives and vehicles in corticosteroid preparations. Skin testing and oral graded challenge can help confirm the suspected culprit agent in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and help identify an alternative tolerated corticosteroid. Patch testing can help identify the culprit agents in delayed hypersensitivity contact dermatitis. Cross-reactivity patterns have not been observed for immediate hypersensitivity reactions as they have been for delayed contact dermatitis. Sensitization in contact dermatitis exhibits cross-reactivity patterns based on corticosteroid structure. We review the current understanding regarding the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.

  14. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is interactions, which may occur between ... more serious. Drug allergies are another type of reaction. They can be mild or life-threatening. Skin ...

  15. Oral ulcerations after placement of orthodontic braces and skin pustules after laser hair removal: novel inducers of pathergy reactions in new-onset Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    van de Ree-Pellikaan, Claire; Kiewiet-Kemper, Rosalie M; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Westerweel, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, with fever, severe ulceration of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, and pustules on his skin. These pathergy-like lesions had emerged after placement of orthodontic braces and laser therapy for hair removal, respectively. The patient's clinical condition, together with his ethnic background, pointed to the diagnosis of Behçet's disease. Treatment with colchicine and prednisone resulted in rapid improvement of his symptoms. Pathergy reactions in response to placement of dental braces and laser hair removal are a rare first presentation of Behçet's disease. PMID:26951437

  16. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  17. An Investigation of Six to Eleven Year Old Children With Allergic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Donna J.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Results indicated that children who did not exhibit allergic reactions were otherwise healthier and were rated as superior on a number of academic, social, and emotional adjustment dimensions. (Author)

  18. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  19. Monitoring of peanut-allergic patients with peanut-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Borici-Mazi, Rozita; Mazza, Jorge A; Moote, David W; Payton, Keith B

    2008-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of the population. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are gold standard for diagnosis. Serum peanut-specific IgE (PN-IgE) is used in clinical practice as an additional diagnostic and monitoring tool. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features of a peanut-allergic patient's cohort and determine the optimum frequency of measuring PN-IgE to predict the outcome of future peanut challenges. Retrospective chart review was performed of peanut-allergic patients followed up and serially tested for PN-IgE with a qualitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay performed at the Immunology Laboratory, London Health Sciences Center, from 1997 to 2004. One hundred eighteen patients (median age at first reaction to peanut, 1.5 years; median baseline PN-IgE, 18.75) were reviewed. Younger age at first reaction and first PN-IgE measurement predicted slower decline of PN-IgE values (p < 0.001 and p = 0.044). At 2 and 5 years post-initial measurement, 12.9 and 66%, respectively, of all patients had a significant decrease of PN-IgE values. Twenty percent of the patients experienced elevation of PN-IgE levels during follow-up. For most patients with significant history of reaction to peanuts and positive skin-prick test, it is probably adequate to measure serum PN-IgE levels every 3-5 years to screen for development of tolerance and predict the outcome of future peanut challenges. More frequent measurements might be considered in older patients with lower initial PN-IgE levels.

  20. [Skin microbiota and atopic dermatitis: toward new therapeutic options?].

    PubMed

    Lacour, J-Ph

    2015-01-01

    The skin in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is constantly colonized by S. aureus, in part due to a deficit in epidermal antimicrobial peptides. S. aureus can cause secondary infections but is also involved in the occurrence and severity of the inflammatory flares of AD. Thus, the diversity of skin microbiota is abnormal in AD. Dynamic studies of the microbiota showed that the prevalence of staphylococcae sp. is further increased during flares of AD. This dysbiosis leads to an increase in inflammatory reactions in which staphylococcal toxins play an important role. Changes in the gut microbiota also play a role in the early maturation of the immune system and the occurrence of allergic reactions. Attempts in the modulation of skin microbiota have recently been made showing that a cream containing a lysate of a non pathogenic Gram negative bacteria, V. filiformis, is capable of improving the manifestations of AD. These effects may be driven by a regulation of skin innate immunity through Toll like receptors (TLR-2), the secretion of IL-10 and the induction of regulatory T cells.

  1. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is a common side effect that affects the majority of cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. RISR is often characterised by swelling, redness, pigmentation, fibrosis, and ulceration, pain, warmth, burning, and itching of the skin. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of interventions which aim to prevent or manage RISR in people with cancer. Methods We searched the following databases up to November 2012: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), CINAHL (from 1981) and LILACS (from 1982). Randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for preventing or managing RISR in cancer patients were included. The primary outcomes were development of RISR, and levels of RISR and symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were time taken to develop erythema or dry desquamation; quality of life; time taken to heal, a number of skin reaction and symptom severity measures; cost, participant satisfaction; ease of use and adverse effects. Where appropriate, we pooled results of randomized controlled trials using mean differences (MD) or odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Forty-seven studies were included in this review. These evaluated six types of interventions (oral systemic medications; skin care practices; steroidal topical therapies; non-steroidal topical therapies; dressings and other). Findings from two meta-analyses demonstrated significant benefits of oral Wobe-Mugos E for preventing RISR (OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.38)) and limiting the maximal level of RISR (MD -0.92 (95% CI -1.36 to -0.48)). Another meta-analysis reported that wearing deodorant does not influence the development of RISR (OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.37)). Conclusions Despite the high number of trials in this area, there is limited good, comparative research that provides definitive results suggesting the

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of the consumer open skin allergy test as a method of prediction of contact dermatitis to hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Cottin, Martin; Cristaudo, Antonio; Lainé, Gérard; Nohynek, Gerhard; Orton, David; Toutain, Hervé; Severino, Vincenzo; Wilkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    To prevent contact dermatitis to oxidative hair colouring products, a consumer test (skin allergy test, SAT) consisting of the open application of the colourant base prior to mixing with the developer is recommended 48 hours before hair colouring. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the SAT to detect and prevent contact allergy to oxidative hair colouring products that contained a range of concentrations of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and corresponded to different shades (light, medium and dark). Test colouring products containing increasing concentrations of PPD (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%) were applied to 34 PPD-positive hair dye-allergic individuals and to 49 non-allergic control subjects. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects whereas none occurred in control PPD-negative subjects. For each subject the eliciting concentration of PPD in the SAT was compared with the PPD concentration range of the group of commercial shades reported as causing reactions by the consumer. In all PPD-positive subjects the eliciting concentrations of PPD in the SAT was within or lower than the range of PPD concentrations in the reported eliciting colourant base of commercial products. In conclusion, our results confirm the excellent predictive value of the SAT over the entire range of PPD concentrations used in oxidative hair colouring products and suggest that the test is a suitable tool for the secondary prevention of contact allergic reactions to hair colouring products. PMID:15701588

  3. Lipodystrophy in Insulin-Treated Subjects and Other Injection-Site Skin Reactions: Are We Sure Everything is Clear?

    PubMed

    Gentile, Sandro; Strollo, Felice; Ceriello, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Physicians and patients have long been aware of skin lesions at the sites of insulin injections, referred to as lipodystrophy that can present as lipoatrophy (LA) or lipohypertrophy (LH). However, the reported prevalence of these different skin lesions varies widely, emphasizing the need for a correct identification method. In this short review we discuss LA and LH and also take into account other skin lesions, such as bruising, as well as different needle injuries, including those associated with the subcutaneous injection of pegvisomant (a drug aimed at counteracting the high levels of growth hormone associated with acromegaly), long-acting exenatide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist), and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha biologic agents (used against Crohn's disease). In these latter cases specific studies are warranted to understand the pathophysiological background and possible prevention. However, the most common lesion is still insulin injection site-related LD, so a strong effort has to be made to avoid the confusion generated by previously misleading classifications which were barely able to reliably distinguish between LA and LH.

  4. Lipodystrophy in Insulin-Treated Subjects and Other Injection-Site Skin Reactions: Are We Sure Everything is Clear?

    PubMed

    Gentile, Sandro; Strollo, Felice; Ceriello, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Physicians and patients have long been aware of skin lesions at the sites of insulin injections, referred to as lipodystrophy that can present as lipoatrophy (LA) or lipohypertrophy (LH). However, the reported prevalence of these different skin lesions varies widely, emphasizing the need for a correct identification method. In this short review we discuss LA and LH and also take into account other skin lesions, such as bruising, as well as different needle injuries, including those associated with the subcutaneous injection of pegvisomant (a drug aimed at counteracting the high levels of growth hormone associated with acromegaly), long-acting exenatide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist), and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha biologic agents (used against Crohn's disease). In these latter cases specific studies are warranted to understand the pathophysiological background and possible prevention. However, the most common lesion is still insulin injection site-related LD, so a strong effort has to be made to avoid the confusion generated by previously misleading classifications which were barely able to reliably distinguish between LA and LH. PMID:27456528

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  6. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens. PMID:25840636

  7. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  8. [Allergic contact eczema from epoxy resin].

    PubMed

    Calzado, Leticia; Ortiz-de Frutos, Francisco J; del Prado Sánchez-Caminero, María; Galera, Carmen María; Valverde, Ricardo; Vanaclocha, Francisco

    2005-11-01

    Epoxy resins are plastics that are widely used as electrical insulation, in coatings, and as adhesives and paints. They have strong sensitizing power and are one of the main causes of allergic contact eczema, both in the workplace and elsewhere. We present the case of a worker at a plastics/chemical plant, who handled aeronautical components in the process of manufacturing fuselage parts. He consulted his physician because of eczematous lesions on his fingers, hands and forearms which had developed over a two-year period and were clearly related to his work. The standard battery of skin tests was performed, along with the plastics and adhesives series and tests using the products from his workplace. Positivity was shown to epoxy resins (standard battery) and to the products from his workplace, which included different fiberglass and carbon fiber sheets impregnated with epoxy resins and epoxy adhesives.

  9. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  10. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  11. Adverse reactions to sunscreen agents: epidemiology, responsible irritants and allergens, clinical characteristics, and management.

    PubMed

    Heurung, Ashley R; Raju, Srihari I; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Sunscreen is a key component in the preventive measures recommended by dermatologists and public health campaigns aimed at reducing sunburn, early skin aging, and skin cancer. To maximize compliance, adverse reactions to sunscreens should be minimized. Although inactive ingredients cause many of these reactions, it is important for dermatologists to be aware of reactions to active ultraviolet filters. There are approximately 120 chemicals that can function as ultraviolet (UV) filters. This review focuses on the 36 most common filters in commercial and historical use. Of these, 16 are approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration. The benzophenones and dibenzoylmethanes are the most commonly implicated UV filters causing allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) reactions; benzophenone-3 is the leading allergen and photoallergen within this class. When clinically indicated, patch and photopatch testing should be performed to common UV filters.

  12. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Flores M, Rico Marlon de Moraes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laborat rios Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot A) and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot B). We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  13. The GARD assay for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Lindstedt, Malin

    2013-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin disease caused by an immunologic reaction to low molecular weight compounds, so called haptens. These substances are commonly present in products used by humans in daily life, such as in cosmetics and fragrances, as well as within chemical industry and in pharmaceuticals. The frequent usage of these compounds in different applications has led to increasing incidences of allergic contact dermatitis, which has become a substantial economic burden for society. As a consequence, chemicals are routinely tested for their ability to induce skin sensitization, using animal models such as the murine Local Lymph Node Assay. However, recent legislations regulate the use of animal models within chemical testing. Thus, there is an urgent need for in vitro alternatives to replace these assays for safety assessment of chemicals. Recently, we identified a signature of predictive genes, which are differentially regulated in the human myeloid cell-line MUTZ-3 when stimulated with sensitizing compounds compared to non-sensitizing compounds. Based on these findings, we have formulated a test strategy for assessment of sensitizing compounds, called Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection, GARD. In this paper, we present a detailed method description of how the assay should be performed. PMID:23032079

  14. Health effects of probiotics on the skin.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, M Rahmati; Karimi, R; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, and allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection, and as a cosmetic product. The current paper comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

  15. Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P; Dessureault, J; Napke, E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of 4 unpublished cases and 26 published cases of acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). DATA SOURCES: The unpublished cases were found in the database of the Drug Adverse Reaction Program, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and the database of the Programme conjoint de pharmacovigilance, in Quebec. The published cases were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Reported cases were selected if they were sufficiently documented. All published cases were selected because a differential diagnosis had been made in each one. DATA SYNTHESIS: The onset was acute and dramatic; the average time to onset of symptoms was 44 minutes. Sex was a predominant risk factor, since 27 (90%) of the 30 patients were women. The average age was 56 years; thus, most of the women were postmenopausal. Over two-thirds of the patients had one to three positive prechallenges or rechallenges, 3 of the 52 documented adverse events occurred after a voluntary rechallenge, some were life-threatening and necessitated mechanical ventilation, and 1 was fatal. Treatment was supportive; avoidance of HCT was the only prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis due to HCT is extremely rare and potentially fatal. Such a reaction can be diagnosed only if the clinician suspects it when presented with a case of unexplained acute pulmonary edema. PMID:2049694

  16. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use.

  17. Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This case report presents for the first time an acute systemic allergic reaction to corticosteroids in a patient with ocular toxoplasmosis after treatment with intravenous cortisone, and discusses alternative treatments. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman with an anaphylactic reaction after intravenous injection of prednisolone-21-hydrogensuccinate (Solu-Decortin® H) given for the treatment of toxoplasmosis-associated chorioretinitis. Immediately after the injection, she developed an acute erythema of the legs and abdomen, angioedema, hypotension (blood pressure 80/40mmHg), tachycardia (heart rate 140/minute), hyperthermia (38.8°C), and respiratory distress. Allergological examinations showed a positive skin-prick test to prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In addition, an oral exposure test with dexamethasone (Fortecortin®) and betamethasone (Celestamine®) was conducted to find alternative corticosteroids for future treatments. After oral application, no local or systemic reactions were observed for these two substances. Conclusions This case report demonstrates that systemic allergic reactions are possible in patients with uveitis or other inflammatory ophthalmological conditions treated with intravenous corticosteroids. Intravenous administration of cortisone, for example, in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis, should always be conducted with caution because of a possible allergic reaction. For patients who react to a particular steroid, it is necessary to undergo allergological testing to confirm that the compound in question is indeed allergenic, and to identify other corticosteroids that are safe for future anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:24694257

  18. Vision and the skin camouflage reactions of Ambystoma larvae: the effects of eye transplants and brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, P; Schneider, C W

    1985-08-01

    Salamander larvae typically adapt their dermal melanophores to achieve camouflage, and it has been known for some time that removal of the eyes abolishes the response. Here we survey the contribution of the optic system to the bright and dark camouflage reactions and report that: the stimulus depends on an interaction between the direct and reflected light; an eye mounted atop the head and oriented vertically tended not to support camouflage, even though the animal responded to visual cues and learned a vision-dependent task; deviating the transplanted eye off the vertical axis enhanced the recovery of camouflage reactions; amputating or reorienting the telencephalon, epithalamus, pretectum or tectum did not abolish either camouflage reaction whereas lesions of the ventral optic pathway blocked brightening; transection near the midbrain-hindbrain junction--well posterior to known optic terminals--retarded the dark reaction; when the latter lesion was combined with disconnection of the telencephalon and epithalamus, contrary to predictions from the lesions executed separately, the animals lost the bright reaction; the hypophysis is necessary for darkening, but the organ supported this reaction even though detached, displaced or reoriented; and the pineal body was not essential for the grosser aspects of camouflage in Ambystoma larvae but may play an adjunctive role in fine tuning. PMID:4027646

  19. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  20. Spectrographic evaluation of patch test reactions by NIR FT Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrebova, Natalja

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the availability of NIR FT Raman spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of positive allergic and irritant or doubtful patch test reactions. Instrumental measurements at 42 positive patch test sites in 16 patients were compared visually and evaluated at 48 h and 72 h in order to examine the sensitivity of this method to detect the biochemical changes occurring at the sites of the patches. Raman spectra of normal control skin and skin reacting to patches on the back were obtained with an FRA 106 Raman module on a Bruker IFS 66 optics system (Bruker, Karlsruhe, Germany). The most significant changes in the spectra were detected in the region specific for water content and protein structure in both types of reactions at 48 h and 72 h, compared to normal skin.

  1. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients. PMID:27275199

  2. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  3. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  5. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  6. Management of hypersensitivity reactions to anti-D immunoglobulin preparations.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, K; Nasser, S M

    2014-11-01

    RhD immunoglobulin G (anti-D) administered to pregnant Rh(-) women prevents Rh isoimmunization. Its use has significantly reduced the incidence of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn previously responsible for one death in every 2200 births. In pregnancy, acute drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis can have serious deleterious effects on the mother and foetus/neonate. Women can be erroneously labelled as drug allergic as the investigation of hypersensitivity reactions in pregnancy is complex and drug challenges are usually contraindicated. We present three cases of suspected anti-D hypersensitivity clinically presenting as anaphylaxis and delayed transfusion-related reaction. We also propose a new algorithm for the investigations of such reaction. It relies on detailed history, cautious interpretation of skin tests, foetal Rh genotyping from maternal blood and, in some cases, anti-D challenges. This is not to deprive women of anti-D which might put their future pregnancies at risk. PMID:25066207

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  8. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  9. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  10. Allergic fungal otomastoiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiung-Ming; Chiang, Ching-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Allergic mucin is described as thick, peanut butter-like mucus impacted in the paranasal sinuses of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The presence of allergic mucin in the middle ear has never been reported. We encountered a 65-year-old female with allergic mucin found impacted in her left middle ear and mastoid cavity during revised tympanoplasty surgery at our institute. Bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery performed 3 months later showed no evidence of fungal infection or allergic mucin in her paranasal sinuses. We report the case herein and propose the term allergic fungal otomastoiditis for this disease entity. PMID:22825725

  11. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy. PMID:8669268

  12. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy.

  13. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported.

  14. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported. PMID:27090934

  15. Recent advances in understanding the roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Kyoko; Orihara, Kanami; Emi-Sugie, Maiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disorders commonly involve both chronic tissue inflammation and remodeling caused by immunological reactions to various antigens on tissue surfaces. Due to their anatomical location, vascular endothelial cells are the final responders to interact with various exogenous factors that come into contact with the epithelial surface, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and antigens. Recent studies have shed light on the important roles of endothelial cells in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. For instance, endothelial cells have the greatest potential to produce several key molecules that are deeply involved in allergic inflammation, such as periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17). Additionally, endothelial cells were recently shown to be important functional targets for IL-33--an essential regulator of allergic inflammation. Notably, almost all endothelial cell responses and functions involved in allergic inflammation are not suppressed by corticosteroids. These corticosteroid-refractory endothelial cell responses and functions include TNF-α-associated angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion, IL-33-mediated responses and periostin and TARC production. Therefore, these unique responses and functions of endothelial cells may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various allergic disorders, especially their refractory processes. Here, we review recent studies, including ours, which have elucidated previously unknown pathophysiological roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation and discuss the possibility of endothelium-targeted therapy for allergic disorders.

  16. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-07-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  17. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  18. Orange-induced skin lesions in patients with atopic eczema: evidence for a non-IgE-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Hautmann, Christian; Fötisch, Kay; Rakoski, Jürgen; Borelli, Siegfried; Vieths, Stefan; Ring, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Oranges are suspected of inducing adverse skin reactions in patients with atopic eczema. We studied 21 adult patients with atopic eczema and a history of adverse reactions to oranges and 10 patients without. A dietary history, skin tests, serum IgE and oral provocation tests with oranges were obtained. Severity of eczema was monitored by SCORAD, and serum tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein and urinary methylhistamine were measured. No allergic reactions were found to orange in skin prick or patch tests. However, 23 patients (74%) had specific serum IgE to orange. Oral provocation testing resulted in pruritic eczematous or maculopapular skin lesions predominantly at the predilection sites in 16 patients (52%). The SCORAD increased significantly in patients positive to the oral provocation test (p <0.05). Specific IgE to orange did not correlate with the clinical outcome of the oral provocation test. No significant changes were found in serum mast cell tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein or in urinary methylhistamine excretion. The negative results in the skin tests and a lack of correlation between specific IgE and oral provocation tests indicate that non-IgE-mediated mechanisms are involved in cutaneous adverse reactions to oranges in patients with atopic eczema. PMID:12636022

  19. Promethazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery ... red, watery eyes caused by allergies), allergic skin reactions, and allergic reactions to blood or plasma products. ...

  20. [An efficacy study of lodoxamide treatment in allergic eye lesions].

    PubMed

    Giuri, S; Munteanu, G H

    2000-01-01

    Lodoxamid is an antiallergic drug, which stabilizes the mast cells' membrane blocking the release of the type I hypersensitivity reaction chemical mediators. A number of 25 patients with ocular allergic diseases (allergic conjunctivitis, vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis), were included in this study. Lodoxamid, solution 0.1% (Alomide), was given 4 times daily for 6 weeks. The study's aim was to assess the lodoxamid's efficiency, on the ocular signs and symptoms. The study's results showed a significant improvement, or the disappearance of the ocular allergic disease. It is debated upon the lodoxamid's way and place of action, in blocking the type I hypersensitivity reaction. The lodoxamid's efficiency is due to its pharmacological features, by means of which it is effective on many links of the pathogenic chain: mast cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, antigen presenting cells. Due to its action lodoxamid stabilizes the mast cell's membrane, and inhibits the release of histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, triptase, interleukines -4, -8 and TNF-. During therapy with lodoxamid recruitment and activation of eosinophils is decreased, causing a significant reduction of the basic major protein, cationic eosinophilic protein, eosinophilic derived neurotoxin, eosinophilic peroxidase. Lodoxamid reduces the expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of the antigen presenting cells, and decreases the number of the TH2 cells, from the tears of the allergic patients.

  1. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-08-28

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 % soyabean oil diet before and during oral sensitisation with whey or whey hyperimmune serum transfer. Another group of mice received partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) while being fed the diets before oral sensitisation. The acute allergic skin response, serum Ig level, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) concentration and/or splenic T-cell percentages were determined upon whey challenge. When the diets were provided before and during oral sensitisation, the acute allergic skin response was increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Whey IgE and IgG1 levels remained unaltered, whereas mMCP-1 levels increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet. Furthermore, allergic symptoms were increased in naive mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet and sensitised with whey hyperimmune serum. In addition to enhancing the mast cell response, the 10 % soyabean oil diet increased the percentage of activated Th1 and Th2 cells as well as increased the ratios of Th2:regulatory T cells and Th2:Th1 when compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Oral tolerance induction by pWH was abrogated in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with those fed the 7 % soyabean oil diet during pretreatment with pWH. In conclusion, increased intake of soyabean oil rich in n-6 PUFA suppresses tolerance induction by pWH and enhances the severity of the allergic effector response in whey-allergic mice. Dietary vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA may enhance the susceptibility to develop or sustain food allergy.

  2. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules.

  3. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules. PMID:24504526

  4. Genetics of Host Response to Leishmania tropica in Mice – Different Control of Skin Pathology, Chemokine Reaction, and Invasion into Spleen and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Grekov, Igor; Volkova, Valeriya; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Slapničková, Martina; Kurey, Iryna; Sohrabi, Yahya; Svobodová, Milena; Demant, Peter; Lipoldová, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania. The frequent involvement of Leishmania tropica in human leishmaniasis has been recognized only recently. Similarly as L. major, L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans, but can also visceralize and cause systemic illness. The relationship between the host genotype and disease manifestations is poorly understood because there were no suitable animal models. Methods We studied susceptibility to L. tropica, using BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem) recombinant congenic (RC) strains, which differ greatly in susceptibility to L. major. Mice were infected with L. tropica and skin lesions, cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, and parasite numbers in organs were measured. Principal Findings Females of BALB/c and several RC strains developed skin lesions. In some strains parasites visceralized and were detected in spleen and liver. Importantly, the strain distribution pattern of symptoms caused by L. tropica was different from that observed after L. major infection. Moreover, sex differently influenced infection with L. tropica and L. major. L. major-infected males exhibited either higher or similar skin pathology as females, whereas L. tropica-infected females were more susceptible than males. The majority of L. tropica-infected strains exhibited increased levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. CcS-16 females, which developed the largest lesions, exhibited a unique systemic chemokine reaction, characterized by additional transient early peaks of CCL3 and CCL5, which were not present in CcS-16 males nor in any other strain. Conclusion Comparison of L. tropica and L. major infections indicates that the strain patterns of response are species-specific, with different sex effects and largely different host susceptibility genes. PMID:22679519

  5. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Proton Pump Inhibitors: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    PPIs are among the most commonly administered medications in the USA and are generally well tolerated. Immediate and delayed immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are rare but increasingly recognized adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can occur due to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to PPIs and can be evaluated by immediate hypersensitivity skin testing and oral provocation challenge testing. A desensitization protocol can be used when PPI use cannot be avoided in an allergic patient. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs have also been reported. Occupational exposures causing cutaneous reactions to PPIs are the most commonly reported delayed hypersensitivity reaction, followed by drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. This review presents a summary of the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs.

  6. Epidermal dysplasia and Malassezia infection in two West Highland White Terrier siblings: an inherited skin disorder or reaction to severe Malassezia infection?

    PubMed

    Nett, C S; Reichler, I; Grest, P; Hauser, B; Reusch, C E

    2001-10-01

    Two 9-month-old West Highland White Terrier siblings were referred to our clinic with pruritus, alopecia and lichenification. Cytological examination of Scotch tape strippings revealed Malassezia organisms and cocci. Skin biopsy specimens showed epidermal dysplasia. Treatment included bathing with a 2% miconazole/chlorhexidine-containing shampoo, orally administered ketoconazole (5 mg kg-1, every 12 h) and cloxacillin (25 mg kg-1 every 8 h). Six weeks later, the dermal infection had resolved and there was hair regrowth. However, the dogs were still moderately pruritic. Intradermal allergy testing was positive for house dust mites, storage mites and Malassezia. Immunotherapy was initiated, and treatment with ketoconazole and cloxacillin was stopped. Skin biopsies, which were performed in both dogs 4 months after the first presentation, revealed mild superficial perivascular dermatitis. The remaining mild facial pruritus was easily controlled with topical treatment. These two cases indicate that epidermal dysplasia might be an inflammatory or hypersensitivity reaction to the Malassezia infection or a result of excessive self-trauma, rather than a congenital keratinization disorder. PMID:11906654

  7. Epidermal dysplasia and Malassezia infection in two West Highland White Terrier siblings: an inherited skin disorder or reaction to severe Malassezia infection?

    PubMed

    Nett, C S; Reichler, I; Grest, P; Hauser, B; Reusch, C E

    2001-10-01

    Two 9-month-old West Highland White Terrier siblings were referred to our clinic with pruritus, alopecia and lichenification. Cytological examination of Scotch tape strippings revealed Malassezia organisms and cocci. Skin biopsy specimens showed epidermal dysplasia. Treatment included bathing with a 2% miconazole/chlorhexidine-containing shampoo, orally administered ketoconazole (5 mg kg-1, every 12 h) and cloxacillin (25 mg kg-1 every 8 h). Six weeks later, the dermal infection had resolved and there was hair regrowth. However, the dogs were still moderately pruritic. Intradermal allergy testing was positive for house dust mites, storage mites and Malassezia. Immunotherapy was initiated, and treatment with ketoconazole and cloxacillin was stopped. Skin biopsies, which were performed in both dogs 4 months after the first presentation, revealed mild superficial perivascular dermatitis. The remaining mild facial pruritus was easily controlled with topical treatment. These two cases indicate that epidermal dysplasia might be an inflammatory or hypersensitivity reaction to the Malassezia infection or a result of excessive self-trauma, rather than a congenital keratinization disorder.

  8. [RBE of neutrons from the BR-10 reactor based on their antitumor effect and on acute radiation reactions of the skin].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, M N; Ul'ianenko, S E

    1989-05-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of investigation of antitumor effectiveness (rats, sarcoma M-1) of neutron radiation of a BR-10 reactor with the mean energy of 0.85 MeV, correlated with the effect of 60Co gamma radiation (Luch-1). RBE in single local tumor radiation with neutrons was 4.5, being higher than RBE based on acute skin radiation reactions over a tumor (4.0). For this case FTA is over I (1.13) but slightly lower than after dose fractionated irradiation (1.18). Experimental data indicate the necessity of extending the clinical use of reactor neutrons and a profound study of the effects after neutron irradiation, particularly in dose-fractionated regimens.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  10. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  11. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  12. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  13. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  14. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  15. Toxocara canis and the allergic process.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira de; Castro, Cynthia Aparecida de; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl Filho, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-09-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  16. Allergic Rhinitis in Adults with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Shadman; Jafari Shakib, Reza; Shakiba, Maryam; Araghi, Nematollah; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is considered one of the most common causes of acquired hearing impairment in developing countries. CSOM is a multifactorial persistent inflammatory disease of the middle ear. A distinct pathophysiologic mechanism linking allergic rhinitis (AR) and CSOM remains to evolve. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between AR and CSOM in adults.This was a case-control study. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 62 adults (23 male, 39 female) with established CSOM and 61 healthy controls. CSOM was diagnosed when there was a history of chronic (persisting for at least 3 months) otorrhea, accumulation of mucopurulent exudates in the external auditory canal or middle ear and/or perforated tympanic membrane on otoscopy. All participants were evaluated for the presence of AR by clinical evaluation of allergic symptoms, and underwent a skin-prick test for 23 common regional allergens. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of clinical rhinitis (allergic and non-allergic) was significantly higher among the cases compared with controls (62.5% vs. 37.5%, P=0.02). The prevalence of AR (proven by positive skin-prick test) was also significantly higher among affected adults than controls (24.6% and 13.8%, respectively). Adjusting for age, a logistic regression model showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups. Patients with AR and non-AR were at 3.27- (95% CI=1.15–9.29; P=0.036) and 2.57-(95% CI=1.01–6.57; P=0.048) fold increased risk of developing CSOM, respectively, compared with healthy individuals. Conclusion: The study showed a higher prevalence of AR in CSOM patients than in controls. It may be valuable to evaluate and control this factor in these patients. PMID:26788473

  17. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  18. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  19. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. PMID:21955446

  20. [Food hypersensibility: inhalation reactions are different from ingestion reactions].

    PubMed

    Baranes, T; Bidat, E

    2008-06-01

    Eight children, aged from 3 to 9 years, presented to inhaled peanut an immediate allergic reaction. All were sensitized to peanut but none had already ingested it overtly. A strict avoidance diet was prescribed concerning this food allergen. An oral provocation challenge was realized to determine the eliciting dose (ED) to ingestion. The ED was high enough to allow all the children a less restrictive diet. Inhaled allergic reaction to peanut does not always justify a strict avoidance diet.

  1. [Food hypersensibility: inhalation reactions are different from ingestion reactions].

    PubMed

    Baranes, T; Bidat, E

    2008-06-01

    Eight children, aged from 3 to 9 years, presented to inhaled peanut an immediate allergic reaction. All were sensitized to peanut but none had already ingested it overtly. A strict avoidance diet was prescribed concerning this food allergen. An oral provocation challenge was realized to determine the eliciting dose (ED) to ingestion. The ED was high enough to allow all the children a less restrictive diet. Inhaled allergic reaction to peanut does not always justify a strict avoidance diet. PMID:18456474

  2. Immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506: a novel class of topical agents for treatment of skin diseases?

    PubMed

    Meingassner, J G; Stütz, A

    1992-06-01

    The immunosuppressive macrolide antibiotics FK 506 and rapamycin were tested for topical activity in experimental allergic contact dermatitis of farm pigs. This species was used because pig skin, in comparison to rodent skin, resembles human skin more closely. For comparison, cyclosporine A (CyA), which is orally but not topically active in patients with skin disease, dexamethasone, and clobetasol propionate were used. Treatment was performed twice, 30 min and 6 h after elicitation of challenge reaction. Topical application of 0.4 to 0.04% FK 506 caused a pronounced inhibition of inflammatory skin reactions of hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. The treatment response was similar to the activity of 0.13% clobetasole. Dexamethasone (1.2%) was less active than clobetasol. In contrast, rapamycin and CyA were inactive at concentrations of 1.2 and 10%, respectively. Because the pig data on corticosteroids and cyclosporine A are in agreement with clinical findings, these studies indicate that immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506 may be useful drugs for the topical treatment of human skin diseases that respond to local corticosteroids and oral treatment with cyclosporine A.

  3. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    PubMed

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments.

  4. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    PubMed

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments. PMID:26708389

  5. VARIATIONS IN PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW MEASUREMENTS ASSOCIATED TO AIR POLLUTION AND ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN CHILDREN IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de M Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie; Claudio, Luz; Imazawa, Alice Takimoto; Eluf-Neto, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of allergic respiratory diseases worldwide and exposure to air pollution has been discussed as one of the factors associated with this increase. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air pollution on peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 in children with and without allergic sensitization. Methods Ninety-six children were followed from April to July, 2004 with spirometry measurements. They were tested for allergic sensitization (IgE, skin prick test, eosinophilia) and asked about allergic symptoms. Air pollution, temperature and relative humidity data were available. Results Decrements in PEF were observed with previous 24-h average exposure to air pollution, as well as with 3 to 10 day average exposure and were associated mainly with PM10, NO2 and O3. in all three categories of allergic sensitization. Even though allergic sensitized children tended to present larger decrements in the PEF measurements they were not statistically different from the non-allergic sensitized. Decrements in FEV1 were observed mainly with previous 24-h average exposure and 3-day moving average. Conclusions Decrements in PEF associated with air pollution were observed in children independent from their allergic sensitization status. Their daily exposure to air pollution can be responsible for a chronic inflammatory process that might impair their lung growth and later their lung function in adulthood. PMID:22544523

  6. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M; Truckner, Robert T; Weber, Richard W; Peden, David B

    2008-09-01

    Climate change is potentially the largest global threat to human health ever encountered. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are largely responsible. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, the next generations will face more injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, and wide-spread malnutrition, as well as more allergic and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. The pattern of change will vary regionally depending on latitude, altitude, rainfall and storms, land-use patterns, urbanization, transportation, and energy production. The magnitude of climate change and related increases in allergic disease will be affected by how aggressively greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are pursued, but at best an average warming of 1 to 2 degrees C is certain this century. Thus, anticipation of a higher allergic disease burden will affect clinical practice as well as public health planning. A number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies are suggested at the end of the review to assist in meeting this unprecedented public health challenge.

  7. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  8. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  9. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  10. Therapeutic targets in allergic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, L

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the present state of treatment of ocular allergy. Immuno-ophthalmology arose in the portion of this past century when investigators uncovered the uniqueness of the lens proteins and that it could induce an immunological response otherwise know as phacoanaphylaxis. Further studies have shown many similarities between the eye and other organ systems, but one of the most profound problems was the spring "catarrh" that involved the eyes and nose, i.e., rhinoconjunctivitis. Treatment over the past 10 years has expanded with the better understanding of the allergic response at the conjunctival surface. Allergen immunotherapy remains a cornerstone of treatment. In fact, the very first report of the use of immunotherapy in 1911 "measured the patient's resistance during experiments ... of pollen extracts to excite a conjunctival reaction" (Noon L, and Cantar BO, Lancet 1572-1573, 1911).

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine

    2002-03-01

    We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.

  12. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Skrovankova, Sona; Sochor, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is the great representative of polyphenols, flavonoids subgroup, flavonols. Its main natural sources in foods are vegetables such as onions, the most studied quercetin containing foods, and broccoli; fruits (apples, berry crops, and grapes); some herbs; tea; and wine. Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the Th1/Th2 balance, and restrain antigen-specific IgE antibody formation. It is also effective in the inhibition of enzymes such as lipoxygenase, eosinophil and peroxidase and the suppression of inflammatory mediators. All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be effectively utilized in treatment of late-phase, and late-late-phase bronchial asthma responses, allergic rhinitis and restricted peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions. Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate) and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase. PMID:27187333

  13. [The role of immunotherapy in the prevention of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Duvancić, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy through repeated administration of allergens and augmentation of doses (hyposensibilization) with the purpose of decreasing the severity of type I allergic reactions or even its complete elimination is known already for a longer period of time. This type of therapy is especially beneficial in allergies to Hymenoptera venom, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic asthma and is implemented in patients with previously proven allergy to appropriate allergens (insects, pollen, house dust mite, pet dander and other). The most common form of therapy is subcutaneous immunotherapy which includes a series of injections containing specific allergens (allergy vaccines) with increasingly larger doses administered subcutaneously during a period of 3-5 years. There are also other forms of immunotherapy (for instance sublingual immunotherapy) although these are less effective. Repetition of the hyposensibilization procedure leads to further reduction in severity of allergy disease in the majority of patients. The efficacy of immunotherapy is also proven by a lower risk of allergic rhinitis patients developing asthma as well as by prevention of new sensibilizations.

  14. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  15. [Proteolytic enzymes: potential allergens for the skin and respiratory tract?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1985-03-01

    Proteolytic enzymes of animal, bacterial, mould or plant origin are used in many industrial processes, e.g. in the detergent, food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in medicine. The allergenic potency of these enzymes should not be underestimated, for they cause, in particular, IgE-mediated respiratory allergies. The risk of sensitization to enzymes due to inhalation as a result of occupational exposure is very high (up to 50%), and therapeutic applications are also not without risk. Therefore, the utmost care should be taken in the production and handling of pulverized enzymes and their inhalation should be avoided. Papain and Bromelain are used as tenderizers of meat and to clarify beer. Therefore, these enzymes are also potential ingestive allergens and may represent an unrecognized cause of an allergic reaction following a meal. As contact allergens the enzymes play a minor role; biodetergents in particular present no increased risk of skin damage for the user. PMID:3888919

  16. [The effect of low molecular weight substances on the human skin. Molecular mechanisms and their consequences].

    PubMed

    Merk, H F; Baron, J M

    2004-12-01

    Interactions between low molecular weight compounds with cells of the skin result in reactions with different proteins which enable the uptake, metabolism and efflux of these compounds. It is unlikely, that small molecular weight compounds can achieve pharmacological concentrations within cells by diffusion alone. The pattern of influx proteins of keratinocytes is different from that of hepatocytes. If the balance between these systems is disturbed, the skin may become unable to function as a protective organ which can result in diseases including cancer or-more frequently-allergic contact dermatitis. Recent investigations of the sensitization to fragrances and p-phenylenediamine are discussed. An improved understanding of the metabolism of low molecular weight compounds can lead to new therapeutic strategies. One example is the introduction of photodynamic therapy with topical applied porphyrin precursors.

  17. Aesthetic skin branding: a novel form of body art with adverse clinical sequela.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy; Ukatu, Chidi; Lee, Edward; Hyman, Josh; Sundine, Michael; Kobayashi, Mark; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Branding is a form of body art wherein third-degree burns are inflicted on the skin to produce permanent scars. This method of scarification is a common practice among many indigenous cultures and has become exceedingly common in western societies. As with other forms of body art, branding is not a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder but, rather, a method of self-expression. The process can be performed through the use of electrocautery, laser, chemicals, freezing, and hot metal. Complications arising from the procedure include acute infection, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, allergic reactions, and sequelae arising from third-degree burns. In addition, skin branding has been shown to be associated with substance abuse and high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the following case report and review to familiarize clinicians with this dangerous method of body art.

  18. Aesthetic skin branding: a novel form of body art with adverse clinical sequela.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy; Ukatu, Chidi; Lee, Edward; Hyman, Josh; Sundine, Michael; Kobayashi, Mark; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Branding is a form of body art wherein third-degree burns are inflicted on the skin to produce permanent scars. This method of scarification is a common practice among many indigenous cultures and has become exceedingly common in western societies. As with other forms of body art, branding is not a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder but, rather, a method of self-expression. The process can be performed through the use of electrocautery, laser, chemicals, freezing, and hot metal. Complications arising from the procedure include acute infection, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, allergic reactions, and sequelae arising from third-degree burns. In addition, skin branding has been shown to be associated with substance abuse and high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the following case report and review to familiarize clinicians with this dangerous method of body art. PMID:16566546

  19. The effects of skin disease on the penetration kinetics of hydrocortisone through canine skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrom, Liisa A; Cross, Sheree E; Mills, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of allergic skin disease on the penetration kinetics of hydrocortisone through canine skin in vitro. Full-thickness lesional and nonlesional (normal) skin was removed from the dorsal lumbosacral and dorsocaudal thoracic regions, respectively, of five canine cadavers. The dogs were suspected of having flea allergy dermatitis based on their distribution and types of skin lesions. Nonlesional skin was confirmed to be histologically normal, and the histopathology of the lesional skin was consistent with allergic dermatitis. Excised skin was clipped, mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells, and the transdermal penetration of a saturated, radiolabelled hydrocortisone solution was measured over 30 h. When the penetration data for all five dogs were pooled, a restricted (or residual) maximal likelihood mixed model predicted that the permeability coefficient and pseudosteady-state flux of hydrocortisone was more than twice as great (95% confidence interval 1.55-2.71 times as great; P < 0.0001) through lesional compared with nonlesional skin. There was no significant difference in the lag time for hydrocortisone penetration through lesional compared with nonlesional skin of the dogs. This study has confirmed that the transdermal penetration of hydrocortisone may be altered, typically increased twofold, but could be as high as 10-fold, through lesional compared with nonlesional skin of dogs with suspected flea allergy dermatitis. This is likely to be affected by variables such as disease severity, concurrent infections and interindividual differences in skin characteristics.

  20. Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD.