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Sample records for allergic skin response

  1. Systemic PPARgamma ligation inhibits allergic immune response in the skin.

    PubMed

    Dahten, Anja; Koch, Christin; Ernst, Dennis; Schnöller, Corinna; Hartmann, Susanne; Worm, Margitta

    2008-09-01

    We have shown previously that specific ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit the systemic allergic immune response. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARgamma-ligand treatment on the local allergic immune response. We established a murine model exhibiting clinical and histological features of AD-like skin lesions with high reproducibility. In this model, the PPARgamma ligand was applied in an either preventive or therapeutic manner via systemic and local routes. The affected skin areas were assessed by standardized skin score, histological analyses, and immunohistochemical examinations. Our data show that systemic application of PPARgamma ligand by a preventive protocol led to significantly reduced onset of eczematous skin lesions. This was confirmed by histology, showing decreased skin thickness accompanied by significantly reduced infiltrations of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but also mast cells. Additionally, early allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 responses were reduced (day 21/35), whereas IgG2a levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PPARgamma-ligand treatment inhibits not only systemic allergic immune response, but also local allergen-mediated dermatitis. Our findings point to therapeutic strategies, including a PPARgamma-ligand-based treatment. PMID:18401424

  2. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Nikki B.; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M.; Kashon, Michael L.; Sharpnack, Douglas D.; Nayak, Ajay P.; Anderson, Katie L.; Meade, B. Jean; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%–3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%–0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86+GL-7+ B cells, CD80+CD86+ dendritic cells, GATA-3+OX-40+IL-4+IL-13+ Th2 cells and IL-17 A+ CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses. PMID:26048654

  3. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M; Kashon, Michael L; Sharpnack, Douglas D; Nayak, Ajay P; Anderson, Katie L; Jean Meade, B; Anderson, Stacey E

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%-3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%-0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86(+)GL-7(+) B cells, CD80(+)CD86(+) dendritic cells, GATA-3(+)OX-40(+)IL-4(+)IL-13(+) Th2 cells and IL-17 A(+) CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses.

  4. Severe systemic reaction to diphosphonate bone imaging agents: skin testing to predict allergic response and a safe alternative agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Gabatin, A.; Orzel, J.A.; Maloney, T.R.; Murnane, J.E.; Borchert, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    We describe a severe systemic reaction which occurred in a patient on two occasions after i.v. injection of chemically related diphosphonate bone imaging agents. Skin testing showed reactivity to multiple commercially available diphosphonate compounds but no significant response to pyrophosphates. A subsequent pyrophosphate bone scan resulted in no adverse reaction. Severe systemic reactions to diphosphonates can occur, skin testing may prove useful in evaluating allergic reactions, and pyrophosphates appear to be a safe alternative agent in patients proven or suspected allergic to diphosphonates.

  5. Acute allergic skin response as a new tool to evaluate the allergenicity of whey hydrolysates in a mouse model of orally induced cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Schouten, Bastiaan; Hofman, Gerard A; van Baalen, Ton; Nijkamp, Frans P; Knippels, Léon M J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Garssen, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Hypoallergenic milk formulae are used for cow's milk allergic infants and may be a good option for infants at risk. Clinical studies have shown that the protein source or the hydrolysis methodology used may influence the effectiveness in infants stressing the importance of adequate pre-clinical testing of hypoallergenic formulae in an in vivo model of orally induced cow's milk allergy. This study was undertaken to introduce a new read-out system to measure the residual allergenicity of whey hydrolysates on both the sensitization and challenge phase of orally induced cow's milk allergy in mice. Mice were sensitized orally to whey or a partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) to measure the residual sensitizing capacity. To predict the residual allergenicity of hydrolysates, whey allergic mice were challenged in the ear with pWH, extensive whey hydrolysate or an amino acid-based formula. An acute allergic skin response (ear swelling at 1 h), whey-specific serum antibodies, and local MCP-1 concentrations were measured. In contrast to whey, oral sensitization with pWH did not result in the induction of whey-specific antibodies, although a minor residual skin response to whey was observed after challenge. Skin exposure to whey hydrolysates showed a hydrolysation dependent reduction of the acute allergic skin response in whey allergic mice. In contrast to whey, skin exposure to pWH did not enhance tissue MCP-1 levels. The acute allergic skin response in mice orally sensitized to cow's milk proteins reveals a new pre-clinical tool which might provide information about the residual sensitizing capacity of hydrolysates supporting the discussion on the use of hypoallergenic formulae in high risk children. This mouse model might be a relevant model for the screening of new hypoallergenic formulae aimed to prevent or treat cow's milk allergy.

  6. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  7. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin.

  8. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin. PMID:26643682

  9. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  10. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  11. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  12. Current concept of allergic skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Polak, L

    1980-10-01

    Synopsis On the basis of literature and experimental work the present views on the mechanism of the development of allergic skin reactions of the contact type are reviewed. Precursors of effector cells originating from stem cells are stimulated by the antigenic complex formed by the application of the hapten to the skin. Autologous skin proteins and macrophages play an important role in this preparatory and antigen recognition phases. Activated T lymphocytes proliferate in the draining lymph node and differentiate into effector and memory cells. The former react to a repeated application of the hapten with release of mediators inducing a skin inflammatory reaction. The latter produce further effector cells thus enhancing the degree of contact sensitivity (booster effect). The hapten application also activates a specific control mechanism consisting of lymphocytes with the same specificity but adverse activity. These cells, called suppressors, restrict the development of further effector cells thus limiting the degree of contact sensitivity. Elimination of suppressor cells leads to an enhancement of the degree of contact sensitivity whereas an intended extreme activation of these cells induces a state of specific immunological unresponsiveness (tolerance).

  13. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by white petrolatum on damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Tam, Christine C; Elston, Dirk M

    2006-12-01

    Petrolatum rarely causes hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of a 51-year-old white man with allergic contact dermatitis due to white petrolatum on damaged skin. The patient, who presented with a history of hand dermatitis and intolerance to ointments for years, was patch-tested with white petrolatum on scratched skin. Patch tests with the European Standard series, preservatives, steroids, vehicles, and emulsifiers were also performed. The patch-test reaction to white petrolatum on scratched skin was positive at 48 and 96 hours. All other patch-test results were negative.

  15. Human skin safety test of green tea cell extracts in condition of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Sun Young; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of positive effects of green tea extracts had been studied for long time which included anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and cardiometabolic effects. Although topical steroid and non-steroidal calcineurin inhibitors may control clinical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis, some of patients also present allergic reaction to these topical agents. Therefore, we have tried green tea extracts for managing this skin disorder with expectation of anti-inflammatory effect without potential side effects including skin irritation and toxic responses. The toxicity test of green tea extract also did not show any sign of irritation in the skin throughout the test period. Moderate severity of allergic contact dermatitis presented satisfactory clinical outcome at second week follow-up which was final visit of outpatient. This result mean that green tea extract has a positive effect for managing allergic contact dermatitis but its potency and efficacy seem to be so not strong enough to control moderate severity allergy skin lesion. In this pilot study, we were able to conclude that green tea cell extracts might be applied for potential anti-inflammatory soaking without skin toxicity.

  16. IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haoli; Oyoshi, Michiko K.; Le, Yi; Bianchi, Teresa; Koduru, Suresh; Mathias, Clinton B.; Kumar, Lalit; Le Bras, Séverine; Young, Deborah; Collins, Mary; Grusby, Michael J.; Wenzel, Joerg; Bieber, Thomas; Boes, Marianne; Silberstein, Leslie E.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Geha, Raif S.

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of intense pruritus, scratching, and epicutaneous (e.c.) sensitization with allergens. To explore the roles of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in AD, we examined skin lesions from patients with AD and used a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation. IL-21 and IL-21R expression was upregulated in acute skin lesions of AD patients and in mouse skin subjected to tape stripping, a surrogate for scratching. The importance of this finding was highlighted by the fact that both Il21r–/– mice and WT mice treated with soluble IL-21R–IgG2aFc fusion protein failed to develop skin inflammation after e.c. sensitization of tape-stripped skin. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific WT CD4+ T cells accumulated poorly in draining LNs (DLNs) of e.c. sensitized Il21r–/– mice. This was likely caused by both DC-intrinsic and nonintrinsic effects, because trafficking of skin DCs to DLNs was defective in Il21r–/– mice and, to a lesser extent, in WT mice reconstituted with Il21r–/– BM. More insight into this defect was provided by the observation that skin DCs from tape-stripped WT mice, but not Il21r–/– mice, upregulated CCR7 and migrated toward CCR7 ligands. Treatment of epidermal and dermal cells with IL-21 activated MMP2, which has been implicated in trafficking of skin DCs. These results suggest an important role for IL-21R in the mobilization of skin DCs to DLNs and the subsequent allergic response to e.c. introduced antigen. PMID:19075398

  17. Epidermal RAF prevents allergic skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Josipa; Jeric, Ines; Niault, Theodora; Nowacka, Joanna Daniela; Kuzet, Sanya Eduarda; Rupp, Christian; Fischer, Irmgard; Biggi, Silvia; Borsello, Tiziana; Baccarini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The RAS pathway is central to epidermal homeostasis, and its activation in tumors or in Rasopathies correlates with hyperproliferation. Downstream of RAS, RAF kinases are actionable targets regulating keratinocyte turnover; however, chemical RAF inhibitors paradoxically activate the pathway, promoting epidermal proliferation. We generated mice with compound epidermis-restricted BRAF/RAF1 ablation. In these animals, transient barrier defects and production of chemokines and Th2-type cytokines by keratinocytes cause a disease akin to human atopic dermatitis, characterized by IgE responses and local and systemic inflammation. Mechanistically, BRAF and RAF1 operate independently to balance MAPK signaling: BRAF promotes ERK activation, while RAF1 dims stress kinase activation. In vivo, JNK inhibition prevents disease onset, while MEK/ERK inhibition in mice lacking epidermal RAF1 phenocopies it. These results support a primary role of keratinocytes in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, and the animals lacking BRAF and RAF1 in the epidermis represent a useful model for this disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14012.001 PMID:27431613

  18. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  19. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  20. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  1. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation.

  2. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA analysis is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding analysis, and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and additional therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA molecules. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with reduction in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.

  3. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  4. Skin: major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens M; Neis, Mark M; Obrigkeit, Daniela Höller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  5. Epidermal Neuromedin U Attenuates IgE-Mediated Allergic Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mizukawa, Yoshiko; Doi, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kudo, Akihiko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation. PMID:27463114

  6. Emerging Antigens Involved in Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    New allergic diseases can “emerge” because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease. PMID:24095162

  7. Oleanolic acid controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivitis, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases.

  8. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use.

  9. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-01

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea.

  10. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  11. Staphylococcus δ-toxin promotes mouse allergic skin disease by inducing mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuumi; Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B.; Chan, Susana M.; Muñoz-Planillo, Raul; Hasegawa, Mizuho; Villaruz, Amer E.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; McGavin, Martin J.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Otto, Michael; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15 to 30% of children and ~5% of adults in industrialized countries1. Although the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin E (IgE) immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction2. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to IgE-mediated allergic disorders including AD3. Upon activation, MCs release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of multiple molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of AD and host defense4. More than 90% of AD patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbor the pathogen5. Several Staphylococcal exotoxins (SEs) can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of AD6. However, the role of these SEs in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent MC degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified δ-toxin as the MC degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. MC degranulation induced by δ-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and calcium (Ca2+) influx, but unlike that mediated by IgE crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). In addition, IgE enhanced δ-toxin-induced MC degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from AD patients produced high levels of δ-toxin. Importantly, skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in δ-toxin, promoted IgE and IL-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of IgE production and dermatitis by δ-toxin was abrogated in KitW-sh/W-sh MC-deficient mice and restored by MC reconstitution. These studies identify δ-toxin as a potent inducer of MC degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease. PMID:24172897

  12. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  13. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  14. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  15. Allergic response to metabisulfite in lidocaine anesthetic solution.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. R.; Maestrello, C. L.; Campbell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    True allergies to local anesthetics are rare. It is common for practitioners to misdiagnose a serious adverse event to local anesthetics as an allergic reaction. The most likely causes for an allergic response are the preservative, antioxidant, or metabolites and not the anesthetic itself. This case report illustrates the need for practitioners to understand the many potential allergens in local anesthetics and to correctly diagnose patients that are truly allergic to the local anesthetic. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figures 4 and 5 PMID:11495401

  16. Systemic hydrocortisone/cortisol induces allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Reitamo, S; Maibach, H I

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether systemic hydrocortisone can elicit allergic skin reactions in patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, we studied four patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate and two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone. Open oral provocation with 100 or 250 mg hydrocortisone in patients with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity elicited cutaneous reactions at sites of previous allergic dermatitis caused by hydrocortisone in two patients and at sites of earlier allergic patch test reactions caused by hydrocortisone in the other two patients. Provocations in two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone remained negative. To determine whether the adrenal cortical hormone cortisol, which is identical to hydrocortisone, could induce similar skin reactions, one patient with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests; as a control, one hydrocortisone-sensitive patient underwent analogous provocations with placebo. After an 8-hour infusion with the adrenocorticotropic hormone analog tetracosactide, a similar skin reaction to that seen with oral hydrocortisone was observed, whereas provocations with placebo remained negative. We conclude that both oral hydrocortisone and intrinsic cortisol are able to induce allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

  17. The effects of pollutants on the allergic immune response.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, D M

    2000-11-01

    An increase in the prevalence of allergy and allergic diseases has taken place in the industrialised countries. Allergic diseases represent a major health problem, and appear linked to affluence and modern lifestyle. In the 20th century air pollution from industrial sources largely has been replaced by diesel exhaust and other traffic pollution. Further, the indoor environment in which we spend most of our time has changed dramatically. In order to understand the contribution of pollution and other environmental changes to the development of allergy, we need to understand the biologic processes that underlie allergic immune responses. In the present paper, immune regulatory pathways that control the allergic immune response are delineated. Castor bean dust causes widespread allergic sensitisation. The investigations that made clear the importance of CD8 T cells for the regulation of IgE production were triggered by studies of castor bean allergy. A special focus is in this review placed on the regulatory role of CD8 T cells in the development of the allergic immune response.

  18. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insect stings.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2004-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insect venom that were reported primarily in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology from 2002 through 2003. Among the topics highlighted are new insights into the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and potential strategies for more effective treatment of the atopic march. Patients should remain supine with raised legs during anaphylactic shock because upper body elevation could result in sudden death from loss of venous return to the heart. A major advance in food allergy was that humanized, monoclonal anti-IgE antibody showed protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis. In addition to studies elucidating mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity, a clinical study showed patients with a history of prior penicillin allergy with negative penicillin allergy test results are unlikely to experience reactions or resensitization on subsequent oral courses of penicillin. Lastly, there are new recommendations for patients with convincing insect sting reaction histories but negative skin test responses to venom.

  19. THE USE OF RAW FOODS AS SKIN TESTING MATERIAL IN ALLERGIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Giacomo R.; Schumacher, Irwin C.

    1950-01-01

    Frozen foods for skin testing were prepared, stored and used by a simple, practicable, and inexpensive method. The capacity of raw foods to produce immunologically positive skin reactions by the scratch test method was reaffirmed. Storage in the frozen state for several months and thawing immediately before using for one series of tests did not affect the allergenic properties of the material. Raw foods were found to be innocuous to the skin and non-urticariogenic in allergic as well as in non-allergic persons. Raw foods, by the scratch test method, induced true positive reactions of a larger size and in greater numbers than the corresponding commercial extracts in the same series of subjects tested. PMID:14792335

  20. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  1. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Elizabeth S; Pinto-Mariz, Fernanda; Bastos-Pinto, Sandra; Pontes, Adailton T; Prado, Evandro A; deAzevedo, Leonardo C

    2009-11-30

    Asperger's syndrome is a subgroup of autism characterized by social deficits without language delay, and high cognitive performance. The biological nature of autism is still unknown but there are controversial evidence associating an immune imbalance and autism. Clinical findings, including atopic family history, serum IgE levels as well as cutaneous tests showed that incidence of atopy was higher in the Asperger group compared to the healthy controls. These findings suggest that atopy is frequent in this subgroup of autism implying that allergic inflammation might be an important feature in Asperger syndrome.

  2. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. PMID:27389548

  3. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  4. Allergen-encoded signals that control allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Landers, Cameron; Li, Evan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose is to review the important recent advances made in how innate immune cells, microbes, and the environment contribute to the expression of allergic disease, emphasizing the allergen-related signals that drive allergic responses. Recent findings The last few years have seen crucial advances in how innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells group 2 and airway epithelial cells and related molecular pathways through organismal proteinases and innate immune cytokines, such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33 contribute to allergy and asthma. Simultaneously with these advances, important progress has been made in our understanding of how the environment, and especially pathogenic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, helminths, and especially fungi derived from the natural and built environments, either promote or inhibit allergic inflammation and disease. Of specific interest are how lipopolysaccharide mediates its antiallergic effect through the ubiquitin modifying factor A20 and the antiallergic activity of both helminths and protozoa. Summary Innate immune cells and molecular pathways, often activated by allergen-derived proteinases acting on airway epithelium and macrophages as well as additional unknown factors, are essential to the expression of allergic inflammation and disease. These findings suggest numerous future research opportunities and new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in allergic disease. PMID:26658015

  5. Xanthii Fructus inhibits allergic response in the ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Nam-Gil; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Ka-Yeon; Jun-Kum, Chang; Kim, Ho-Seok; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model. Materials and Methods: Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting. Results: The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion: This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model. PMID:26664025

  6. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  7. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Skrovankova, Sona; Sochor, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is the great representative of polyphenols, flavonoids subgroup, flavonols. Its main natural sources in foods are vegetables such as onions, the most studied quercetin containing foods, and broccoli; fruits (apples, berry crops, and grapes); some herbs; tea; and wine. Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the Th1/Th2 balance, and restrain antigen-specific IgE antibody formation. It is also effective in the inhibition of enzymes such as lipoxygenase, eosinophil and peroxidase and the suppression of inflammatory mediators. All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be effectively utilized in treatment of late-phase, and late-late-phase bronchial asthma responses, allergic rhinitis and restricted peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions. Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate) and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase. PMID:27187333

  8. Induction of allergic responses to peanut allergen in sheep.

    PubMed

    Van Gramberg, Jenna L; de Veer, Michael J; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Meeusen, Els N T; Bischof, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN) extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40-50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep) showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy.

  9. Skin prick test reactivity in allergic rhinitis patients to airborne pollens.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Cingi, Cemal; Ayranci, Unal; Gurbuz, Kezban Melek; Pehlivan, Sevil; Tokur, Suleyman

    2009-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pollen in determining allergic rhinitis. It was conducted with 130 patients with allergic rhinitis in three different sites in Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2000-2001, using a gravimetric method with a Durham sampler. Skin prick test results, the symptoms of patients and their findings all confirmed the presence of allergic reactions to pollen allergens in the patients observed. During the period, a total of 47,082 pollen grains/cm(2) belonging to 45 taxa were recorded. Of the total pollen grains, 81.0% were arboreal and 18% non-arboreal. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinaceae, Salix spp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae and Poaceae. Pollen concentrations reached the highest level in May (54.36%). The pollen allergens provoking severe sensitization were grasscereal mixtures (58.5%), followed by arboreals (33.8%). All patients (100.0%) were sensitive to grass. This study emphasizes the significance of determining the types and concentrations of pollen with a view to comparing changes in highly concentrated allergens. PMID:18461463

  10. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BAL/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  11. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BALB/MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  12. Microbial regulation of allergic responses to food

    PubMed Central

    Feehley, Taylor; Stefka, Andrew T.; Cao, Severine; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy in developed countries is rising at a rate that cannot be attributed to genetic variation alone. In this review we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to the increasing prevalence of potentially fatal anaphylactic responses to food. Decreased exposure to enteric infections due to advances in vaccination and sanitation, along with the adoption of high-fat (Western) diets, antibiotic use, Caesarian birth, and formula feeding of infants, have all been implicated in altering the enteric microbiome away from its ancestral state. This collection of resident commensal microbes performs many important physiological functions and plays a central role in the development of the immune system. We hypothesize that alterations in the microbiome interfere with immune system maturation, resulting in impairment of IgA production, reduced abundance of regulatory T cells, and Th2-skewing of baseline immune responses which drive aberrant responses to innocuous (food) antigens. PMID:22941410

  13. Modulation of immune responses by immunotherapy in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-08-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years and until now different immunoregulatory pathways have been shown to take place in its mechanisms of action. It is characterized by administration of the causative allergen and is shown to be clinically efficient even after discontinuation of therapy particularly in allergic respiratory diseases, bee venom allergy, and food allergy. Generation of antigen/allergen-specific peripheral tolerance is the key mechanism during immunotherapy. It is mediated by development of T and B regulatory cells, IgG4 isotype allergen-specific antibodies and the involvement of multiple suppressor factors, which lead to decreased tissue inflammation, early and late phase responses. Describing novel regulatory mechanisms in the process of immune tolerance induction will help to identify treatment modalities not only for allergic disorders, but also for autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation, chronic infections, and cancer.

  14. Frequency-selective quantification of skin perfusion behavior during allergic testing using photoplethysmography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Claudia; Pereira, Carina; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis of allergic immediate-type reactions is dependent on the visual assessment of the attending physician. With our novel non-obtrusive, camera-based photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) setup, perfusion in the allergic testing area can be quantified and results displayed with spatial resolution in functional mappings. Thereby, each PPGI camera pixel can be assumed to be a classical (skin-based) reflective mode PPG sensor. An algorithm for post-processing of collected PPGI video sequences was developed to transfer black-and-white PPGI images into virtual 3D perfusion maps. For the first time, frequency selected perfusion quantification was assessed. For the presented evaluation, PPGI data from our clinical study were used [1]. For this purpose, different concentrations of histamine dilutions were administered to 27 healthy volunteers. Our results show clear trends in an increase in heartbeat synchronous perfusion rhythms and, simultaneously, a decrease of lower frequency vasomotor rhythms in these areas. These results, published for the first time, allow new insight into the distribution of skin perfusion dynamics and demonstrate the intuitive clinical usability of the proposed system.

  15. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  16. Mechanisms underlying differential food-allergic response to heated egg

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Gustavo; Lopez-Exposito, Ivan; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Berin, Cecilia; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background Egg white proteins are usually subjected to heating, making them edible for the majority of egg-allergic children. Objective We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reduced allergenicity displayed by heat-treated egg white allergens. Methods C3H/HeJ mice were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) or ovomucoid (OM) and challenged with native or heated proteins to evaluate their allergenicity. Immunoreactivity was assessed by immunoblotting using sera from egg-allergic children. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of native and heated OVA and OM was studied by SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography. Intestinal uptake of intact native and heated OVA and OM by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells was investigated. Rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells passively sensitized with mouse serum and human basophils passively sensitized with egg-allergic children’s serum were used to assess the effector cell activation by heated, digested and transported OVA and OM. Results Heated OVA and OM did not induce symptoms of anaphylaxis in sensitized mice when administered orally. Heating did not completely destroy IgE-binding capacity of OVA or OM but enhanced in vitro digestibility of OVA. Digestion of both OVA and OM diminished mediator release in RBL assay and basophil activation. Heating of allergens prevented transport across human intestinal epithelial cells in a form capable of triggering basophil activation or T cell activation. Conclusions Heat treatment reduces allergenicity of OVA and OM. This is partially due to the enhanced gastrointestinal digestibility of heated OVA and the inability of heated OVA or OM to be absorbed in a form capable of triggering basophils. Clinical implications Reduced allergenicity of heated egg white proteins partially resulting from altered digestion and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract may explain the clinical tolerance of extensively heated egg in the majority of egg-allergic children

  17. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified.

  18. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2014. Studies on food allergy suggest worrisomely high rates of peanut allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations. Evidence is mounting to support the theory that environmental exposure to peanut, such as in house dust, especially with an impaired skin barrier attributed to atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene, is a risk factor for sensitization and allergy. Diagnostic tests are improving, with early studies suggesting the possibility of developing novel cellular tests with increased diagnostic utility. Treatment trials continue to show the promise and limitations of oral immunotherapy, and mechanistic studies are elucidating pathways that might define the degree of efficacy of this treatment. Studies have also provided insights into the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis and insect venom allergy, such as suggesting that baseline platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity levels are related to the severity of reactions. Advances in drug allergy include identification of HLA associations for penicillin allergy and a microRNA biomarker/mechanism for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Research identifying critical events leading to skin barrier dysfunction and the polarized immune pathways that drive AD have led to new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and management of AD.

  19. Variability of Offending Allergens of Allergic Rhinitis According to Age: Optimization of Skin Prick Test Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Chul; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Whun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed SPT results according to age to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to screen at least 93%-95% of AR patients. Allergic skin tests (common airborne indoor and outdoor allergens) were performed on 7,182 patients from January 2007 to June 2011. All patients were classified into 9 groups according to age; subsequently, we investigated offending allergens by age group. Results A total of 5,032 (70.1%) patients were found sensitized to at least one of the 55 aeroallergen extracts tested. The annual ranking of offending allergens was not significantly different from each other over the past 5 years. House dust mites (HDM) were the most prevalent allergens ranked from first to third for all 5 years. The allergens in the minimum test panel differed slightly among all age groups; in addition, the types of sensitized allergen sources were more diverse in the older versus younger age group. HDM covered a larger proportion of the sensitized allergens in the younger age group versus the older age group. Testing with 5 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, Tetranychus urticae, oak, mugwort and cockroach) adequately identified over 90% of the sensitized patients. Conclusions A SPT with around 5-7 allergens adequately detected most of the sensitization in the majority of the age groups in Korea. However, this study suggests that physicians perform the SPT with appropriately selected allergens in each age category for the screening of AR. PMID:24404393

  20. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis.

  1. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Older, Caitlin E.; Mansell, Joanne M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium—two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies. PMID:26542075

  2. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium--two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies.

  3. AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM INDUCES DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of P. chrysogenum (PCE) can dose-dependently induce responses typ...

  4. Evaluation of Clinical and Immunological Responses: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Children with Allergic Rhinitis due to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Moed, Heleen; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Hendriks, Rudi W.; van der Wouden, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Allergic rhinitis is a disease with polarization towards Th2 and a defect of regulatory T cells. Immunological changes have been reported after immunotherapy treatment. However, there is not much known about the natural course of allergic rhinitis with respect to clinical manifestation and the relation with immunological responses. Objective. To evaluate clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis, in relation to in vivo allergen-specific skin responses and in vitro allergen-specific effector and regulatory T cells determined at baseline and after two years. Methods. From a large trial, 59 children were randomly selected. The following variables were compared: clinical symptoms, allergen skin tests, specific IgE, T-cell proliferation, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-10, TGF-beta, CD4+CD25hi cells, and Foxp3 expression. Results. Allergic symptoms had decreased after two years. Whereas skin test reactions correlated between years 0 and 2, there was no change in the size of the reaction. Also, proinflammatory reactions did not change after two years, with a positive correlation between years 0 and 2. No relevant changes were observed with respect to regulatory cells. Conclusion. Whereas, comparable to immunotherapy, allergic complaints decrease, the immunological changes of specific T-cell activity (both effector cells and regulator cells) which are observed after immunotherapy, do not change. PMID:23737646

  5. Allergic manifestations and cutaneous histamine responses in patients with McCune Albright syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder characterized by precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, and fibrous dysplasia. Its cause is an activating mutation in the GNAS gene, encoding a subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gsalpha (Gsα). The action of any mediator that signals via Gsα and cyclic AMP can be up regulated in MAS. We had observed gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and anaphylaxis in McCune Albright patients. Objective As histamine is known to signal via histamine 1 (H1) and histamine 2 (H2) receptors, which couple with stimulatory G proteins, we attempted to mechanistically link histamine responsiveness to the activating GNAS mutation. We hypothesized that responsiveness to histamine skin testing would differ between MAS patients and healthy controls. Patients and methods After obtaining informed consent, we performed a systematic review of histamine responsiveness and allergic manifestations in 11 MAS patients and 11 sex-matched, Tanner-stage matched controls. We performed skin prick testing, quantifying the orthogonal diameters of wheals and erythema. We also quantitated G protein mRNA expression. Results The peak wheal and flare responses to histamine were significantly higher in MAS patients compared to controls. Conclusions This study suggests that MAS patients may be at risk for exaggerated histamine responsiveness compared to unaffected controls. PMID:23663565

  6. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2009-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects and in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2008. Key epidemiologic observations include a rise in anaphylaxis in a population-based study and lower rates of peanut allergy in Israel, where infants consume peanut early compared with the United Kingdom, where dietary introduction is generally delayed. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include IgE epitope mapping that discloses the likelihood and severity of allergy; studies correlating likelihood of clinical reactivity on the basis of food-specific IgE to sesame, peanut, milk, and tree nuts; and an observation that a low baseline angiotensin-converting enzyme level may be associated with having pharyngeal edema during a reaction. Molecular, immunologic, and genetic studies are discerning pathways that are key in development of food allergy, identifying new modalities to interrupt mast cell degranulation, and elucidating risks associated with penicillin allergy. Regarding treatment, clinical studies show a majority of children with milk and egg allergy tolerate these proteins in modest amounts when they are extensively heated in baked goods, and studies show promise for oral immunotherapy to treat milk allergy and sublingual immunotherapy for honey bee venom hypersensitivity. The importance of skin barrier dysfunction has continued to be highlighted in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). Research has also continued to identify immunologic defects that contribute to the propensity of patients with AD to develop viral and bacterial infection. New therapeutic approaches to AD, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported including use of probiotics, biologics, vitamin D, and skin barrier creams.

  7. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  8. Anti-hapten antibodies in response to skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Helen; Popple, Amy; Gellatly, Nichola; Maxwell, Gavin; Williams, Jason; Friedmann, Peter S; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-04-01

    Whereas T lymphocyte (T cell) activation is the key event in the acquisition of skin sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, the humoral component of immune responses to organic contact allergens has received little consideration. There is evidence that, in experimental animals, topical exposure to potent contact allergens is associated with B cell activation and proliferation, and hapten-specific antibody production. However, there is very limited evidence available for anti-hapten antibody responses being induced following topical exposure of humans to contact allergens. Nevertheless, it is important to appreciate that there are almost no negative studies in which evidence for antibody production as the result of skin sensitization has been sought and not found. That is, there is absence of evidence rather than evidence of absence. Furthermore, exposure to chemical respiratory allergens, in which the skin has been implicated as a potential route of sensitization, results in anti-hapten antibody responses. It is proposed that skin sensitization to contact allergens will normally be accompanied by antibody production. The phenomenon is worthy of investigation, as anti-hapten antibodies could potentially influence and/or regulate the induction of skin sensitization. Moreover, such antibodies may provide an informative correlate of the extent to which sensitization has been acquired.

  9. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  10. METALS, PARTICLES AND IMPACT UPON PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The increase in allergic asthma over the past few decades has prompted investigations into whether air pollution may affect either the incidence or severity of allergic lung disease. Population studies have demonstrated that as air pollution rises, symptoms, medication use a...

  11. Local Immune Responses in Children and Adults with Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hana; Jang, Man-Young; Kim, Kyung Rae; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease but little is known about the difference of local immune responses in children and adults with AR. Objective To compare local immune responses between children and adults with AR and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), and to investigate whether the association of local and systemic immune responses is different between the two age groups. Methods Fifty-one patients with chronic rhinitis were enrolled and grouped into children (N = 27, mean age 7.2 years) and adults (N = 24, mean age 29.9 years). Diagnosis of AR was based on symptoms, skin prick tests and serum specific IgEs. Nasal lavage (NAL) fluids were collected from all subjects and used to measure the levels of total IgE, specific IgEs to house dust mites (Dp and Df), and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A and IFN-γ). Flow cytometry was used to measure inflammatory cell types in NAL fluids. Results AR had significantly increased local levels of total IgE and specific IgEs to Dp and Df compared with NAR in both age groups (P < 0.05). Nasal eosinophils % (P = 0.01) was significantly increased only in children with AR. Local-systemic correlations of total IgE (r = 0.662, P = 0.000) and eosinophil % (r = 0.461, P = 0.015) between the peripheral blood and NAL fluids were found only in children. Moreover, children had correlations between total IgE and eosinophil % in the peripheral blood (r = 0.629, P = 0.001) and in NAL fluids (r = 0.373, P = 0.061). Conclusion Elevated local IgE is a common feature of AR in children and adults. Local measures in NAR showed naïve state of immune response which disagree with the hypothesis of local allergic rhinitis. Children showed intense local inflammation and close local-systemic interactions compared to adults supporting pediatric AR as a distinct feature. PMID:27281182

  12. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  13. Non-specific bronchial hyper-responsiveness in children with allergic rhinitis: relationship with the atopic status.

    PubMed

    Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Cibella, Fabio; La Grutta, Stefania; Hopps, Maria R; Bucchieri, Salvatore; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bonsignore, Giovanni

    2003-12-01

    An increased prevalence of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) has been demonstrated in children from a general population, and in non-asthmatic adults with allergic rhinitis. Thus, also children with allergic rhinitis are expected to be at higher risk of BHR. We evaluated the prevalence of BHR in a sample of non-asthmatic children with allergic rhinitis by means of the methacholine (Mch) bronchial challenge, and by monitorizing the airway patency using the daily peak expiratory flow variability (PEFv). Fifty-one children (ranged 6-15 years of age) with allergic rhinitis, ascertained by skin prick test to inhalant allergens, underwent a 14-day peak expiratory flow monitoring, and a Mch bronchial provocation challenge. Thirty healthy children matched for age, and sex served as control group. Thirty-one children in the rhinitis group (61%), and six (20%) in the control group were Mch+ (Mch provocative dose causing a 20% fall of forced expiratory volume in 1 s respect to baseline <2250 microg, equivalent to 11.50 micromol). In rhinitic children the PEFv did not significantly differ between Mch+ and Mch- subjects, but the total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) were higher among Mch+. The persistent form of rhinitis was significantly associated to Mch positivity. Non-asthmatic children with allergic rhinitis displayed a high prevalence of BHR. The BHR was significantly associated with persistent rhinitis and with higher total IgE levels. Nevertheless, the spontaneous changes in airway patency, as expressed by PEFv, were within normal limits both in Mch+ and Mch- children.

  14. No Adjuvant Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-Maize on Allergic Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize (MON810) on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:25084284

  15. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE SKIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...

  16. Modulation of an allergic immune response via the mucosal route in a murine model of inhalative type-I allergy.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, U; Jahn-Schmid, B; Repa, A; Kraft, D; Ebner, C

    1999-01-01

    A murine model of aerosol inhalation, leading to sensitization to birch pollen (BP) and its major allergen Bet v 1, was established in order to try to influence type-I allergic immune responses via the mucosal route. We previously demonstrated that simultaneous inhalation of BP and cholera toxin, a potent mucosal adjuvant, induced a Th1-like immune response to the allergen in naive mice and modulated allergic immune responses in sensitized mice. In contrast to cholera holotoxin, mucosal application of the cholera B subunit (CTB) conjugated to antigen has been shown to induce peripheral tolerance in certain models of Th1-based autoimmune diseases. In the present study we investigated the potential of such an antigen delivery system to suppress Th2-based, allergic immune responses. Mucosal administration of CTB/Bet v 1 conjugates prior to sensitization led to significantly increased allergen-specific IgE/IgG1 and IgG2a antibody levels and cytokine production (IL-5, IFN-gamma) in vitro. Thus, CTB coupled to Bet v 1 acted as an adjuvant rather than a tolerogen. On the other hand we noted that mucosal application of CTB coupled to ovalbumin led to marked suppression of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels and IL-5 production in vitro and thereby restricted allergic sensitization. These results indicated that the effects of CTB/antigen conjugates depended on the nature of the antigen. In contrast to Bet v 1 coupled to CTB, nasal as well as oral application of low doses of unconjugated, Bet v 1 prior to aerosol sensitization inhibited allergen-specific antibody responses of all isotypes, cutaneous type-I skin tests in vivo as well as allergen-specific lymphoproliferative responses and cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-gamma) in vitro, suggesting that both T- and B-cell tolerance to the allergen were induced. Taken together, mucosal tolerance induction as well as the use of certain transmucosal antigen delivery systems might be promising new strategies to

  17. Th2 responses without atopy: immunoregulation in chronic helminth infections and reduced allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, M; van den Biggelaar, A; Maizels, R M

    2001-07-01

    The immune response to helminth infections has long been known to share key features with the allergic response. In particular, both are typified by enhanced T helper 2 (Th2) responses with high levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, accompanied by eosinophilia and abundant IgE production. Paradoxically, the geographical distribution of helminth parasitism and allergic disease is complementary rather than coincident. Thus, the question arises does the Th2 response to parasites protect or pre-empt the host from developing Th2-linked allergic manifestations? It is suggested that downregulatory immune mechanisms, which dampen the anti-parasite response, might benefit the host by blocking progression to atopic reactions. This is of relevance in explaining how the "hygiene hypothesis" might operate immunologically and in the design of therapeutics. PMID:11429321

  18. Accumulation of sup 111 In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J. )

    1989-05-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules.

  19. Differential immunomodulating effects of inactivated probiotic bacteria on the allergic immune response.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Wolfram, Christin; Wahls, Michael; Worm, Margitta

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial stimulation plays an important role in modulating the allergic immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inactivated probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain Nissle on the phenotype and function of T- and B-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with grass-pollen allergy (n=10) and non-allergic patients (n=19) were co-stimulated with inactivated bacteria and grass-pollen allergen. Expression of CD23, CD80, CD86 and CD69 were analysed, and the intracellular production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma was measured by direct ex vivo flow cytometry after stimulation. Both bacteria induced a significant up-regulation of CD69 expression on T-lymphocytes (p=0.001). CD23 expression was significantly increased following stimulation with allergen (p=0.008), but reduced after stimulation with Lactobacillus and significantly reduced with E. coli plus allergen (p=0.029). CD80 expression was reduced after stimulation with Lactobacillus in the allergic group only (p=0.021). By contrast, CD86 expression was significantly increased after stimulation with Lactobacillus (p=0.049) and distinctly increased with E. coli in both groups (p=0.001). The cytokine patterns of CD69-positive T-lymphocytes from allergic patients showed a TH2-dominated response after allergen stimulation (interferon-gamma/interleukin-4-ratio 0.2), directed into a T-helper1-like response by stimulation with both types of bacteria (interferon-gamma/interleukin-4-ratios 1.5-2.0 in both groups). These data show that both types of bacteria modulate the allergic immune response by the alteration of CD23 and co-stimulatory molecule expression. Regarding cytokine production, the data suggest a differential response to both bacteria depending on the atopic state, but a clear promotion of T-helper1-dominated response in allergic donors. PMID:17598032

  20. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  1. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  2. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  3. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  4. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  5. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  6. SYNTHETIC COPPER-CONTAINING PARTICLES ENHANCE ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SYNTHETIC COPPER-CONTAINING PARTICLES ENHANCE ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN MICE. SH Gavett, MI Gilmour, and N Haykal-Coates. National Health and Environ Effects Research Lab, USEPA, Res Triangle Park, NC USA
    Respiratory morbidity and mortality associated with increases in ...

  7. EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

  8. EFFECTS OF PARTICLES FROM TWO GERMAN CITIES ON ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PARTICLES FROM TWO GERMAN CITIES ON ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN MICE. S. H. Gavett, L. R. Bishop, N. Haykal-Coates, J. Heinrich*, and M. I. Gilmour. Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, *GSF, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Chi...

  9. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  10. Periostin in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Inamitsu, Masako; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  11. NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

  12. SUPPRESSION OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE (HDM) IN RATS EXPOSED TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Exposure to various xenobiotics, including oxidant gases, diesel exhaust and certain pesticides, has been reported to exacerbate pulmonary allergic hypersensitivity responses. Increased lymphocyte proliferative responses to parasite antigens or increased antibody r...

  13. Impact of Adiponectin Overexpression on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Verbout, Norah G.; Williams, Alison S.; Kasahara, David I.; Wurmbrand, Allison P.; Halayko, Andrew J.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma. Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that transgenic overexpression of adiponectin would attenuate allergic airways inflammation and mucous hyperplasia in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing adiponectin (Adipo Tg). Adipo Tg mice had marked increases in both serum adiponectin and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid adiponectin. Both acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge protocols were used. In both protocols, OVA-induced increases in total BAL cells were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice. In the acute protocol, OVA-induced increases in several IL-13 dependent genes were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, even though IL-13 per se was not affected. With chronic exposure, though OVA-induced increases in goblet cells numbers per millimeter of basement membrane were greater in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, mRNA abundance of mucous genes in lungs was not different. Also, adiponectin overexpression did not induce M2 polarization in alveolar macrophages. Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia. PMID:23861690

  14. CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Ka Lun; Chen, Huanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Jianfang; Ho, Ho Pui; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kong, Siu Kai

    2012-07-01

    The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs.The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30435j

  15. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Morris, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Waern, Ida; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Page, Clive; Schmidt, Eric P; Wernersson, Sara; Li, Jin-Ping; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/-) mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT) control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil) recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  16. "Siglec"ting the allergic response for therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Bochner, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    As a physician-scientist, I have pursued research related to translational immunology with the goal of improving our ability to diagnose and treat allergic, immunologic and other diseases involving eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. We have tried to delineate novel mechanisms of human disease, working whenever possible with primary human cells and tissues, attempting to identify targets that might be amenable to the development of new therapies. As a general strategy, we have compared eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and neutrophils to look for pathways in inflammation that were unique to distinct subsets of these cells. In doing so, the concepts of glycobiology did not enter my mind until we began noticing some intriguing functional differences involving selectins and their ligands among these cell types. One simple observation, that neutrophils were coated with a glycan that allowed them to interact with an endothelial adhesion molecule while eosinophils lacked this structure, pried open the glyco-door for me. Fruitful collaborations with card-carrying glycobiologists soon followed that have forever positively influenced our science, and have enhanced our hypotheses, experimental design, research opportunities and discoveries. Within a few years, we helped to discover Siglec-8, an I-type lectin expressed only on human eosinophils, basophils, mast cells. This receptor, together with its closest mouse counterpart Siglec-F, has been the primary focus of our work now for over a decade. If not for those in the fields of glycobiology and glycoimmunology, my lab would not have made much progress toward the goal of leveraging Siglec-8 for therapeutic purposes.

  17. BLOCKADE OF TRKA OR P75 NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTORS ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway resistance. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates allergic airways responses. We tested t...

  18. Skin prick test predictive value on the outcome of a first known egg exposure in milk-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, M C; Cerecedo, I; Muriel, A; Zamora, J; Sánchez-Cano, M; De la Hoz, B

    2008-06-01

    Children with milk allergy have higher incidence of other food allergies, especially egg allergy. The objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the prick test in children with IgE-mediated milk allergy for diagnosing egg allergy. Children under the age of 1 yr who came consecutively to Allergy Department 2003-05, and were diagnosed with IgE-mediated milk allergy were selected for this study. Egg introduction was completely avoided until the age of 14 months when clinical history, skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE antibodies determination and egg challenge test were performed. One hundred and four milk-allergic children were included. At least one positive prick test to any egg allergen was found in 65 out of the 104 (62.5%). Thirty-eight (36.5%) were allergic to egg proteins as well. Prick tests with egg white and ovomucoid (OVM) had the best diagnostic performances showing the largest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal diagnosis cut-off point was 6 mm for egg white and 5 mm for OVM. The positive likelihood ratios for these cut-off points were: 2.95 (95% CI: 1.74-4.99) for egg white prick test, and 20 (95% CI: 2.9-143.7) for OVM prick test. Children with specific IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy must be closely followed as a risk group for egg allergy. Early diagnosis is necessary and the SPT has shown itself to be a very useful tool for diagnosing immediate IgE reactions to egg on first known exposure.

  19. In vitro evaluation of intestinal epithelial TLR activation in preventing food allergic responses.

    PubMed

    de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C; DeMeo, Mark T; Fox, Susan; Garssen, Johan; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L

    2014-10-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiota composition are associated with food allergy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to microbial stimuli. We studied the effects of the ligation of TLRs on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in preventing an allergic effector response. IEC monolayers (T84 cells) were co-cultured with CD3/28-activated PBMCs from healthy controls or atopic patients and simultaneously apically exposed to TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9 ligands. The barrier integrity of T84 cell monolayers was significantly reduced upon co-culture with PBMCs of food allergic subjects compared to healthy subjects. Apical exposure of IECs to a TLR9 ligand prevented PBMC-induced epithelial barrier disruption. Using PBMCs from food allergic subjects, apical TLR9 activation on IECs increased the IFN-γ/IL-13 and IL-10/IL-13 ratio, while suppressing pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in an IEC-dependent manner. Hence, the activation of apical TLR9 on IECs, potentially by microbiota-derived signals, may play an important role in the prevention of allergic inflammation. PMID:25058467

  20. Niacin skin test response in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Cyhlarova, E; Montgomery, P; Ross, M A; Richardson, A J

    2007-08-01

    The niacin skin test reflects a flush and oedema owing to the production of prostaglandin D2 from arachidonic acid. A diminished response may indicate abnormalities in the phospholipid metabolism, which has been shown in schizophrenia. There is evidence that dyslexia might also involve phospholipid abnormalities, therefore we examined the skin response in 51 dyslexics and 45 controls. Four concentrations of aqueous methyl nicotinate were applied topically to the forearm. Flushing was rated using a seven-point scale at 3 min intervals over 21 min. Repeated measures ANOVA for the four concentrations across all seven time-points showed no significant effect of subject group, but when analyses were confined to the first 9 min, flushing was reduced in dyslexics. Significant group differences were also found for the lowest niacin concentration (0.0001M) across six out of seven time-points. The results indicate a slightly reduced and delayed response to niacin in dyslexia.

  1. [Skin tests in the study of drug eruptions with suspected immuno-allergic mechanism].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, A; Béné, M C; Faure, G; Schmutz, J L

    2000-01-01

    Skin testing (patch tests, prick test and intradermal tests) with the suspected compound has been reported to be helpful in determining the cause of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but the value and specificity of these tests need to be determined. In a previously published study involving 72 patients, we observed positive results in 72% of the cases, in 43%, 24% and 67% in patch, prick and intradermal skin tests, respectively. The results of skin tests varied with the clinical type of cutaneous ADR, as a significantly higher number of positive patch tests was observed in maculopapular rashes (59%) than in urticarial reactions (13%) or in eythrodermic ADR (80%). The results of patch tests varied with the drug tested as frequent positive results were obtained with amoxicillin, pristinamycin, carbamazepine, pseudoephedrine, heparinoids... This study and the analysis of the literature support the value of careful sequential drug skin testing in establishing the cause of cutaneous ADR. Guidelines are proposed for performing these tests, and these include the use of appropriate negative control patients to avoid false-positive results, the determination of the relevance of positive patch tests, a contact sensitization to drug being able to elicite a positive result on patch tests with a preserved oral tolerance to the same drug. These tests have to be performed with a strict medical survey as they can induce a relapse of the cutaneous ADR.

  2. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid; Silva Mendes, Diego da; Melo, Christianne Bandeira; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Silva Dias, Celidarque da; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  3. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  4. Promotion of allergic immune responses by intranasally-administrated nanosilica particles in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Fujimura, Maho; Yamashita, Kohei; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Morishita, Yuki; Kayamuro, Hiroyuki; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Itoh, Norio; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2011-12-01

    With the increase in use of nanomaterials, there is growing concern regarding their potential health risks. However, few studies have assessed the role of the different physical characteristics of nanomaterials in allergic responses. Here, we examined whether intranasally administered silica particles of various sizes have the capacity to promote allergic immune responses in mice. We used nanosilica particles with diameters of 30 or 70 nm (nSP30 or nSP70, respectively), and conventional micro-sized silica particles with diameters of 300 or 1000 nm (nSP300 or mSP1000, respectively). Mice were intranasally exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) plus each silica particle, and the levels of OVA-specific antibodies (Abs) in the plasma were determined. Intranasal exposure to OVA plus smaller nanosilica particles tended to induce a higher level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG and IgG1 Abs than did exposure to OVA plus larger silica particles. Splenocytes from mice exposed to OVA plus nSP30 secreted higher levels of Th2-type cytokines than mice exposed to OVA alone. Taken together, these results indicate that nanosilica particles can induce allergen-specific Th2-type allergic immune responses in vivo. This study provides the foundations for the establishment of safe and effective forms of nanosilica particles.

  5. Invasive versus noninvasive measurement of allergic and cholinergic airway responsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Thomas; Ziegert, Michaela; Baelder, Ralf; Korolewitz, Regina; Braun, Armin; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Mitzner, Wayne; Krug, Norbert; Hoymann, Heinz G

    2005-01-01

    Background This study seeks to compare the ability of repeatable invasive and noninvasive lung function methods to assess allergen-specific and cholinergic airway responsiveness (AR) in intact, spontaneously breathing BALB/c mice. Methods Using noninvasive head-out body plethysmography and the decrease in tidal midexpiratory flow (EF50), we determined early AR (EAR) to inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens in conscious mice. These measurements were paralleled by invasive determination of pulmonary conductance (GL), dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and EF50 in another group of anesthetized, orotracheally intubated mice. Results With both methods, allergic mice, sensitized and boosted with A. fumigatus, elicited allergen-specific EAR to A. fumigatus (p < 0.05 versus controls). Dose-response studies to aerosolized methacholine (MCh) were performed in the same animals 48 h later, showing that allergic mice relative to controls were distinctly more responsive (p < 0.05) and revealed acute airway inflammation as evidenced from increased eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Conclusion We conclude that invasive and noninvasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting both allergen-specific and cholinergic AR in intact, allergic mice. The invasive determination of GL and Cdyn is superior in sensitivity, whereas the noninvasive EF50 method is particularly appropriate for quick and repeatable screening of respiratory function in large numbers of conscious mice. PMID:16309547

  6. Immune response associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Strickland, F M; Kripke, M L

    1997-10-01

    It is now clear that UV radiation causes nonmelanoma skin cancer in at least two ways: by causing permanent changes in the genetic code and by preventing immunologic recognition of mutant cells. These are interacting rather than separate mechanisms. Damage to DNA results in disregulation of cellular proliferation and initiates immune suppression by stimulating the production of suppressive cytokines. These cytokines contribute to the loss of immunosurveillance. Ultraviolet radiation has both local and systemic immunosuppressive effects. Locally, it depletes and alters antigen-presenting LC at the site of UV irradiation. Systemic suppression results when Ts cells are induced, by altered LC, by inflammatory macrophages that enter the skin following UV irradiation, or by the action of cytokines. Damage to DNA appears to be one of the triggering events in inducing systemic immunosuppression via the release of immunosuppressive cytokines and mediators. Immunologic approaches to treating skin cancers so far have concentrated on nonspecifically stimulating immune cells that infiltrate these tumors, but induction of specific immune responses against these tumors with antitumor vaccines has received little attention as yet. Preventive measures include sun avoidance and the use of sunscreens to prevent DNA damage by UV light. Future strategies may employ means to reverse UV-induced immunosuppression by using anti-inflammatory agents, biologicals that accelerate DNA repair or prevent the generation of immunosuppressive cytokines, and specific immunotherapy with tumor antigens. New approaches for studying the immunology of human skin cancers are needed to accelerate progress in this field.

  7. Local lymph node assay: differentiating allergic and irritant responses using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberick, G F; Cruse, L W; Ryan, C A

    1999-09-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for assessing the contact sensitization potential of chemicals. Based on events that occur during the induction phase of a contact sensitization response, the LLNA measures the in vivo proliferation of cells in the draining lymph nodes (DLNs) of mice following topical exposure to chemicals. In terms of predictive identification of important skin sensitizers, the LLNA has been shown to be at least as sensitive as, and much more reliable than, current guinea pig tests. However, proliferation has also been observed following treatment with some irritants. In an attempt to distinguish allergic from irritant-induced proliferation, flow cytometric techniques have been used to examine the phenotype of lymphocyte subsets in the DLNs as well as markers of T-lymphocyte activation and memory. Mice were treated on the ears for 3 consecutive days with allergens or irritants. The DLNs were harvested 72 h after the final treatment. Single-cell suspensions were prepared, counted, and stained for analysis of the percentages of T cells and B cells and T-cell expression of two adhesion molecules that have been associated with differentiating naïve and activated/memory T cells, CD62L (L-selectin) and CD44 (H-cam). Increases in lymph node cellularity were observed in both allergen- and irritant-treated mice relative to naïve and vehicle-treated animals. Mice treated with allergens showed a preferential increase in the percentage of B220(+) B cells compared with irritant-treated mice. Treatment with allergens, but not irritants, resulted in a selective increase in the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells expressing the T-cell activation/memory phenotype CD62L(lo)CD44(hi). Taken together, flow cytometric analysis of cell phenotype and expression of T-cell activation/memory markers may provide important information for differentiating allergen- and irritant-induced proliferative responses in the DLNs of chemically treated mice.

  8. Skin prick testing predicts peanut challenge outcome in previously allergic or sensitized children with low serum peanut-specific IgE antibody concentration.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Richard C; Richmond, Peter; Prescott, Susan L; Mallon, Dominic F; Gong, Grace; Franzmann, Annkathrin M; Naidoo, Rama; Loh, Richard K S

    2007-05-01

    Peanut allergy is transient in some children but it is not clear whether quantitating peanut-specific IgE by Skin Prick Test (SPT) adds additional information to fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) in discriminating between allergic and tolerant children. To investigate whether SPT with a commercial extract or fresh foods adds additional predictive information for peanut challenge in children with a low FEIA (<10 k UA/L) who were previously sensitized, or allergic to peanuts. Children from a hospital-based allergy service who were previously sensitized or allergic to peanuts were invited to undergo a peanut challenge unless they had a serum peanut-specific IgE>10 k UA/L, a previous severe reaction, or a recent reaction to peanuts (within two years). SPT with a commercial extract, raw and roasted saline soaked peanuts was performed immediately prior to open challenge in hospital with increasing quantity of peanuts until total of 26.7 g of peanut was consumed. A positive challenge consisted of an objective IgE mediated reaction occurring during the observation period. 54 children (median age of 6.3 years) were admitted for a challenge. Nineteen challenges were positive, 27 negative, five were indeterminate and three did not proceed after SPT. Commercial and fresh food extracts provided similar diagnostic information. A wheal diameter of >or=7 mm of the commercial extract predicted an allergic outcome with specificity 97%, positive predictive value 93% and sensitivity 83%. There was a tendency for an increase in SPT wheal since initial diagnosis in children who remained allergic to peanuts while it decreased in those with a negative challenge. The outcome of a peanut challenge in peanut sensitized or previously allergic children with a low FEIA can be predicted by SPT. In this cohort, not challenging children with a SPT wheal of >or=7 mm would have avoided 15 of 18 positive challenges and denied a challenge to one out of 27 tolerant children.

  9. Transfer of allergic airway responses with antigen-primed CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, A; Mishima, H; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Hamid, Q; Martin, J G

    1995-01-01

    Activated CD4+ helper T cells have been demonstrated in asthmatic airways and postulated to play a central role in eliciting allergic inflammation; direct evidence of their involvement seems to be lacking. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells have the potential to induce allergic responses to antigen challenge, and tested this hypothesis in a model of allergic bronchoconstriction, the Brown Norway rat, using the approach of adoptive transfer. Animals were actively sensitized to either ovalbumin (OVA) or BSA and were used as donors of T cells. W3/25(CD4)+ or OX8(CD8)+ T cells were isolated from the cervical lymph nodes of sensitized donors and transferred to naive BN rats. 2 d after adoptive transfer recipient rats were challenged by OVA inhalation, and changes in lung resistance (RL), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and serum levels of antigen-specific IgE were studied. After OVA challenge recipients of OVA-primed W3/25+ T cells exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the entire 8-h observation period and had significant bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia, which was detected by immunocytochemistry using an antimajor basic protein mAb. Recipients of BSA-primed W3/25+ T cells or OVA-primed OX8+ T cells failed to respond to inhaled OVA. OVA-specific immunoglobulin E was undetectable by ELISA or skin testing in any of the recipient rats after adoptive transfer. In conclusion, antigen-induced airway bronchoconstriction and eosinophilia were successfully transferred by antigen-specific W3/25+ T cells in Brown Norway rats. These responses were dependent on antigen-primed W3/25+ T cells and appeared to be independent of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. This study provides clear evidence for T cell mediated immune mechanisms in allergic airway responses in this experimental model. Images PMID:7657805

  10. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  11. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D; Bruze, M; Frosch, P J; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P; Rastogi, S; White, I; Menné, T

    2001-02-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double-blinded Repeated Open Application Test (ROAT) using two concentrations of isoeugenol, 0.2 and 0.05%. Seven controls without isoeugenol allergy were also included. The participants applied 3.72 +/- 1.57 (mean +/- SD) mg/cm(2) of coded isoeugenol solutions twice a day to a 3 x 3 cm(2) area on the volar aspect of the right and left arm, respectively. For each test site the applications continued until a reaction appeared or for a maximum of 28 days. The minimal criteria for a positive reaction regarded as allergic contact dermatitis was persistent erythema at the ROAT test site. All controls were negative and 16/24 (66.7%) of the included isoeugenol-sensitive subjects showed a positive ROAT to the 0.2% solution within the study period (Fisher's test, p = 0.0024). Ten of the positive patients also reacted to the 0.05% solution. The median number of days until a positive reaction to the 0.2% solution was 7 days and was 15 days for the 0.05% solution. There was a highly significant correlation between the patients' patch test threshold and the number of days until a positive ROAT. In conclusion, the time until an isoeugenol allergic individual reacts in a ROAT depends on the individual sensitivity as well as the exposure concentrations; for low concentrations of the allergen or low degree of sensitivity, the allergic contact dermatitis may develop after several weeks of exposure. Therefore, a negative ROAT after 7 days may be a false negative.

  12. Gedunin, a natural tetranortriterpenoid, modulates T lymphocyte responses and ameliorates allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Fausto K; Moret, Katelim Hottz; Figueiredo, Alexandre Bezerra Conde; Penido, Carmen; Henriques, Maria das Graças M O

    2012-09-01

    T lymphocytes are critical cells involved in allergy. Here, we report that the natural tetranortriterpenoid gedunin impaired allergic responses primarily by modulating T lymphocyte functions. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gedunin inhibited pleural leukocyte accumulation triggered by intra-pleural (i.pl.) challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) in previously sensitized C57BL/6 mice; this inhibition was primarily due to the impairment of eosinophil and T lymphocyte influx. Likewise, i.pl. pre-treatment with gedunin inhibited eosinophil and T lymphocyte migration into mouse lungs 24 h after OVA intra-nasal (i.n.) instillation. Pre-treatment with gedunin diminished the levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, Interleukin-5 and leukotriene B(4) at the allergic site. In vitro pre-treatment with gedunin failed to inhibit T lymphocyte adhesion and chemotaxis towards pleural washes recovered from OVA-challenged mice, suggesting that gedunin inhibits T lymphocyte migration in vivo via the inhibition of chemotactic mediators in situ. In vivo pre-treatment with gedunin reduced the numbers of CD69(+) and CD25(+) T lymphocytes in the pleura and CD25(+) cells in the thoracic lymph nodes 24 h after OVA i.pl. challenge. In accordance, in vitro treatment of T lymphocytes with gedunin inhibited α-CD3 mAb-induced expression of CD69 and CD25, proliferation, Interleukin-2 production and nuclear translocation of NFκB and NFAT. Notably, post-treatment of mice with gedunin reverted OVA-induced lung allergic inflammation by decreasing the T lymphocyte and eosinophil counts and the levels of eosinophilotactic mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Our results demonstrate a remarkable anti-allergic effect of gedunin due to its capability to modulate T cell activation and trafficking into the airways. PMID:22709475

  13. Effects of MK-801 and amphetamine treatments on allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz de Paula, Viviane; Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Palermo-Neto, João

    2013-08-01

    Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter within the Central Nervous System (CNS) and modifies immune cell activity. In lymphocytes, NMDA glutamate receptors regulate intracellular calcium, the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokine synthesis. MK-801, a NMDA receptor open-channel blocker, inhibits calcium entry into mast cells, thereby preventing mast cell degranulation. Several lines of evidence have shown the involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced effects. AMPH treatment has been reported to modify allergic lung inflammation. This study evaluated the effects of MK-801 (0.25mg/kg) and AMPH (2.0mg/kg), given alone or in combination, on allergic lung inflammation in mice and the possible involvement of NMDA receptors in this process. In OVA-sensitized and challenged mice, AMPH and MK-801 given alone decreased cellular migration into the lung, reduced IL-13 and IL10 levels in BAL supernatant, reduced ICAM-1 and L-selectin expression in granulocytes in the BAL and decreased mast cell degranulation. AMPH treatment also decreased IL-5 levels. When both drugs were administered, treatment with MK-801 reversed the decrease in the number of eosinophils and neutrophils induced by AMPH in the BAL of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice as well as the effects on the expression of L-selectin and ICAM-1 in granulocytes, the IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in BAL supernatants and increased mast cell degranulation. At the same time, treatment with MK-801, AMPH or with MK-801+AMPH increased corticosterone serum levels in allergic mice. These results are discussed in light of possible indirect effects of AMPH and MK-801 via endocrine outflow from the CNS (i.e., HPA-axis activity) to the periphery and/or as a consequence of the direct action of these drugs on immune cell activity, with emphasis given to mast cell participation in the allergic lung response of mice.

  14. Lentiviral shRNA against KCa3.1 inhibits allergic response in allergic rhinitis and suppresses mast cell activity via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hai; Zheng, Chunquan; Li, Jing; Yang, Chen; Hu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium ion channel-3.1 (KCa3.1) plays a pivotal role in the potassium-calcium exchange involved in atopy. This study aimed to explore the impact of lentiviral-mediated shRNA silencing KCa3.1 on allergic response in a murine allergic rhinitis (AR) model. The BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: untreated AR group, negative control AR group, lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA treated AR group and normal control group. Concentrations of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE, histamine and leukotrienes C4 (LTC4) in serum, and IL-4, IL-9 and IL-17 in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were analyzed. Goblet cells and mast cells were counted. KCa3.1 positive cells were counted after immunolabelling by immunofluorescence method. KCa3.1, Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), and tryptase mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, P815 cell line was used to explore the role and mechanism of lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA on mast cells. The results showed that LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated allergic responses in LV-KCa3.1-shRNA treated mice. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively suppressed KCa3.1 levels and phosphorylation of AKT in P815 cells, leading to the downregulation of tryptase, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated the allergic responses in AR and suppressed mast cell activity by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26272420

  15. Identification of Microcystis aeruginosa Peptides Responsible for Allergic Sensitization and Characterization of Functional Interactions between Cyanobacterial Toxins and Immunogenic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Geh, Esmond N.; Ghosh, Debajyoti; McKell, Melanie; de la Cruz, Armah A.; Stelma, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background The cyanobacterium species Microcystis aeruginosa produces microcystin and an array of diverse metabolites believed responsible for their toxicity and/or immunogenicity. Previously, chronic rhinitis patients were demonstrated to elicit a specific IgE response to nontoxic strains of M. aeruginosa by skin-prick testing, indicating that cyanobacteria allergenicity resides in a non-toxin–producing component of the organism. Objectives We sought to identify and characterize M. aeruginosa peptide(s) responsible for allergic sensitization in susceptible individuals, and we investigated the functional interactions between cyanobacterial toxins and their coexpressed immunogenic peptides. Methods Sera from patients and extracts from M. aeruginosa toxic [MC(+)] and nontoxic [MC(–)] strains were used to test IgE-specific reactivity by direct and indirect ELISAs; 2D gel electrophoresis, followed by immunoblots and mass spectrometry (MS), was performed to identify the relevant sensitizing peptides. Cytotoxicity and mediator release assays were performed using the MC(+) and MC(–) lysates. Results We found specific IgE to be increased more in response to the MC(–) strain than the MC(+) strain. This response was inhibited by preincubation of MC(–) lysate with increasing concentrations of microcystin. MS revealed that phycocyanin and the core-membrane linker peptide are the responsible allergens, and MC(–) extracts containing these proteins induced β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophil leukemia cells. Conclusions Phycobiliprotein complexes in M. aeruginosa have been identified as the relevant sensitizing proteins. Our finding that allergenicity is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by microcystin toxin suggests that further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay between immunogenicity and toxicity of cyanobacteria under diverse environmental conditions. Citation Geh EN, Ghosh D, McKell M, de la Cruz AA, Stelma G, Bernstein JA. 2015

  16. Red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the α-Gal glycan.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, D; Tran, T A T; Sánchez-Vidaurre, S; Cirkovic Velickovic, T; Starkhammar, M; Hamsten, C; van Hage, M

    2015-11-01

    Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) is a mammalian carbohydrate with significance in a novel type of food allergy. Patients with IgE against α-Gal report severe allergic symptoms 3-6 h after consumption of red meat. We investigated whether IgE from red meat allergic patients recognizes other mammalian glycans than α-Gal or glycans from the plant kingdom and insects of importance in allergy. We found that none of the 24 red meat allergic patients investigated had an IgE antibody response against the other abundant mammalian glycan N-glycolylneuraminic acid or against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants from plant or venom sources (nCup a 1, nArt v 1, and MUXF3). Deglycosylation of an α-Gal-containing protein, bovine thyroglobulin, significantly reduced the IgE response. In conclusion, we show that red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the α-Gal glycan found in red meat. Other common glycans reactive in allergic disease are not targets of red meat allergic patients' IgE.

  17. Respiratory responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and their relationship to nonspecific airway reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Horstman, D.H.; Abdul-Salaam, S.; Raggio, L.J.; Green, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Ozone exposure in man produces changes in respiratory function and symptoms. There is a large degree of unexplained intersubject variability in the magnitude of these responses. There is concern that individuals with chronic respiratory diseases may also be more responsive to ozone than normal individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe the responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and to compare these responses to those previously observed in normal individuals. A further purpose was to measure the association of baseline nonspecific airway reactivity with changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms following ozone exposure. A group of 26 nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis performed a bronchial inhalation challenge with histamine and subsequently underwent two hour exposures to both clean air and to 0.18 part per million ozone with alternating periods of rest and heavy exercise. The airway reactivity of this group of subjects was no greater than that of a comparable group of subjects without allergic rhinitis. The respiratory responses of these subjects to ozone exposure were similar to those previously reported for subjects without allergic rhinitis with the exception that the allergic rhinitis subjects appeared to have a modestly increased bronchoconstrictor response compared to normals. Furthermore, we observed no significant relationships between nonspecific airway reactivity and response to ozone as measured by changes in lung function or the induction of symptoms.

  18. [Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for In-stent Restenosis Probably Caused by Allergic Response;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Eda, Tadahito; Teshima, Yuto; Suga, Kazumasa; Hayashi, Kazutaka; Miyake, Yuji; Umeda, Hisashi; Ishiki, Ryoji

    2016-07-01

    A 58-year-old female presented to our hospital with recurrence of chest pain. She had undergone coronary intervention using biolimus-eluting-stent for total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery(LAD) 3 years before. Since then in-stent restenosis had repeated 4 times in 3 years. In the interim, another everolimus-eluting-stent had been placed on the same lesion. The contact metal allergic patch test revealed the existence of allergic response to nickel and cobalt which were the structural components of these stents. She underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, and these stents were removed. The invasions of macrophages and eosinophils around the stent-s were pathologically proven. One year after surgery she is doing well without angina or allergic symptom. These observations suggested the allergic reaction of the coronary artery against the stents. PMID:27365069

  19. Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S; Pimpinelli, N

    2001-11-01

    Disturbances of skin barrier function occur in several skin diseases, e.g., atopic dermatitis (AD), irritant/allergic contact dermatitis (ICD, ACD). Skin barrier damage triggers the production of cytokines that stimulate lipogenesis which may also cause inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical skin lipid mixture in the treatment of ICD, ACD and AD. 580 consecutive patients suffering from ICD, ACD or AD were treated with a skin lipid mixture containing ceramide-3 and patented nanoparticles. Patients received the lipid mixture alone or in combination with topical corticosteroids until clearance or for 8 weeks. Both treatment groups statistically improved all parameters considered at week 4 and 8 as compared to baseline. Between the 2 treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of combined therapy for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): erythema, pruritus and overall disease severity; erythema and pruritus; erythema, pruritus, fissuring and overall disease severity. No statistically significant difference was found for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): dryness, scaling and fissuring; scaling, fissuring and overall disease severity; dryness and scaling. Between the 2 ACD treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skin lipid mixture for dryness. In conclusion, the study shows that balanced lipid mixtures are effective in improving barrier properties and the clinical condition of the skin in contact dermatitis. PMID:11722487

  20. Tolerization of a type I allergic immune response through transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Linhart, Birgit; Pilat, Nina; Gattringer, Martina; Bagley, Jessamyn; Muehlbacher, Ferdinand; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2008-06-15

    Allergy represents a hypersensitivity disease that affects >25% of the population in industrialized countries. The underlying type I allergic immune reaction occurs in predisposed atopic individuals in response to otherwise harmless Ags (i.e., allergens) and is characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE, an allergen-specific T cell response, and the release of biologically active mediators such as histamine from mast cells and basophils. Regimens permanently tolerizing an allergic immune response still need to be developed. We therefore retrovirally transduced murine hematopoietic stem cells to express the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 on their cell membrane. Transplantation of these genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells led to durable multilineage molecular chimerism and permanent immunological tolerance toward the introduced allergen at the B cell, T cell, and effector cell levels. Notably, Phl p 5-specific serum IgE and IgG remained undetectable, and T cell nonresponsiveness persisted throughout follow-up (40 wk). Besides, mediator release was specifically absent in in vitro and in vivo assays. B cell, T cell, and effector cell responses to an unrelated control allergen (Bet v 1) were unperturbed, demonstrating specificity of this tolerance protocol. We thus describe a novel cell-based strategy for the prevention of allergy.

  1. Irritancy and Allergic Responses Induced by Exposure to the Indoor Air Chemical 4-Oxopentanal

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Jackson, Laurel G.; Wells, J. R.; Ham, Jason E.; Meade, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on human health. People working in an indoor environment often experience symptoms such as eye, nose, and throat irritation. Investigations into these complaints have ascribed the effects, in part, to compounds emitted from building materials, cleaning/consumer products, and indoor chemistry. One suspect indoor air contaminant that has been identified is the dicarbonyl 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA). 4-OPA is generated through the ozonolysis of squalene and several high-volume production compounds that are commonly found indoors. Following preliminary workplace sampling that identified the presence of 4-OPA, these studies examined the inflammatory and allergic responses to 4-OPA following both dermal and pulmonary exposure using a murine model. 4-OPA was tested in a combined local lymph node assay and identified to be an irritant and sensitizer. A Th1-mediated hypersensitivity response was supported by a positive response in the mouse ear swelling test. Pulmonary exposure to 4-OPA caused a significant elevation in nonspecific airway hyperreactivity, increased numbers of lung-associated lymphocytes and neutrophils, and increased interferon-γ production by lung-associated lymph nodes. These results suggest that both dermal and pulmonary exposure to 4-OPA may elicit irritant and allergic responses and may help to explain some of the adverse health effects associated with poor indoor air quality. PMID:22403157

  2. Assessment of skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wee, L K; Chong, T K; Quee, D K

    1997-01-01

    Ninety normal individuals were included in this study on skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation. Skin types were recorded using Fitzpatrick's classification, skin colours were measured using the Minolta Chromameter CR-300, and cutaneous responses to UV radiation were measured in terms of minimal erythema dose (MED) to UVA, UVB and the immediate pigment darkening dose to UVA (IPDDA). Skin colour measurements were taken from the right cheek to represent facultative skin colours, and from the buttock to represent constitutive skin colours. The colours measured were expressed by the L x a x b colour space. Skin types and some colour parameters (L and b from covered parts of body) correlated fairly well with the minimal erythema doses (MED) to UVA and UVB. Skin colour measurements are more objective than skin type assessment and could be better markers of photosensitivity. However, there is still considerable overlap in MEDs for persons with different skin colours, and further studies of these parameters are warranted. Our MEDs are higher than other reports on similar skin types and skin colours. This could be due to differences in methodology, genetic make-up or acclimatization from chronic sun exposure. This illustrates the importance of local controls for each institution dealing with photosensitive disorders.

  3. [Allergic risk in anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mertes, Paul Michel; De Blay, Frédéric; Dong, Siwei

    2013-03-01

    Anaphylactic reactions may be either of immune(allergy, usually IgE-mediated, sometimes IgG-mediated) or non-immune origin. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia varies between countries ranging from 1/1250 to 1/13,000 per procedure. In France, the estimated incidence of allergic reactions is 100.6 [76.2-125.3]/million procedures with a high female predominance (male: 55.4 [42.0-69.0], female: 154.9 [117.2-193.1]). This predominance is not observed in children. In adults, the most frequently incriminated substances are neuromuscular blocking agents, followed by latex and antibiotics. The estimated incidence of allergic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents is 184.0 [139.3-229.7]/million procedure. In most cases there is a close reaction between clinical symptoms and drug administration. When the reaction is delayed, occurring during the surgical procedure, a reaction involving latex, a vital dye, an antiseptic or a volume expanding fluid should be suspected. Reaction severity may vary. The most frequently reported initial symptoms are pulselessness, erythema, increased airway pressure, desaturation or decreased end-tidal CO2. Clinical symptoms may occur as an isolated condition, making proper diagnosis difficult. In some cases a cardiovascular arrest can be observed. Reaction mechanism identification relies on mediators (tryptase, histamine) measurement at the time of the reaction. In case of allergic reaction, the responsible drug can be identified by the detection of specific IgE using immunoassays or by skin tests performed 6 weeks after the reaction. Predictive allergy investigation to latex or anaesthetics in the absence of history of reaction should be restricted to at-risk patients. Premedication cannot prevent the onset of an allergic reaction. Providing a latex-free environment can be used for primary or secondary prevention. Treatment is based on allergen administration interruption, epinephrine administration in a titrated

  4. Allergic Sensitization Underlies Hyperreactive Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses in Coincident Filarial Infection.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Bonne-Année, Sandra; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santiago, Helton C; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-10-01

    Among the various hypotheses put forward to explain the modulatory influence of helminth infection on allergic effector responses in humans, the IL-10-induced suppression of Th2-associated responses has been the leading candidate. To explore this helminth/allergy interaction more fully, parasite- and allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in 12 subjects with filarial infections, and coincident allergic sensitization (filarial [Fil](+)allergy [A](+)) were compared with the responses to three appropriate control groups (Fil(-)A(-) [n = 13], Fil(-)A(+) [n = 12], Fil(+)A(-) [n = 11]). The most important findings revealed that Fil(+)A(+) had marked (p < 0.0001 for all cytokines) increases in parasite Ag-driven Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), Th9 (IL-9), and the regulatory (IL-10) cytokines when compared with Fil(+)A(-) Moreover, using multiparameter flow cytometry, filarial parasite Ag induced a marked increase in not only the frequency of CD4(+) T cells producing IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, and TNF-α in Fil(+)A(+) when compared with Fil(+)A(-) patients, but also in the frequencies of polyfunctional Th2-like (CD4(+)IL-4(+)IL-5(+) and CD4(+)IL-2(+)IL-4(+)IL-5(+)TNF-α(+)) cells. The Th2-associated responses seen in the Fil(+)A(+) group were correlated with serum IgE levels (p < 0.01, r = 0.5165 for IL-4; p < 0.001, r = 0.5544 for IL-5; and p < 0.001, r = 0.4901 for IL-13) and levels of circulating eosinophils (p < 0.0116, r = 0.5656) and their degranulation/activation products (major basic protein [p < 0.001, r = 0.7353] and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin [p < 0.01, r = 0.7059]). CD4(+) responses to allergen were not different (to a large extent) among the groups. Taken together, our data suggest that allergic sensitization coincident with filarial infection drives parasite Ag-specific T cell hyperresponsiveness, which is characterized largely by an augmented Th2-dominated immune response. PMID:27566825

  5. Modulation of the immune response by infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in children with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children. PMID:27150641

  6. Enhancing effects of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene on type I allergic responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ryo; Okamura, Tetsunori; Ikeda, Koji; Satoh, Masahiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene; PCE) are commonly identified as environmental contaminants of groundwater. Previously, we investigated the enhancing effects of TCE and PCE on antigen-induced histamine release and inflammatory mediator production in rat mast cells. In this study, to examine the potential effect of TCE and PCE on antigen-induced histamine release from mouse mast cells, mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) monoclonal IgE antibody and then stimulated with DNP-BSA containing with TCE or PCE. Both TCE and PCE significantly enhanced antigen-induced histamine release from BMMC. Next we investigated the effects of TCE and PCE on the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in vivo using ICR mice. TCE and PCE significantly enhanced the PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we examined the enhancing effects of ingesting small amount of TCE and PCE in drinking water on antigen-stimulated allergic responses. After the ICR mice had ingested TCE or PCE in their drinking water for 2 or 4 weeks, we performed the PCA reaction. Both TCE and PCE ingestion enhanced the PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner for 4 weeks. These results suggest that exposure to TCE and PCE leads to the augmentation of type I allergic responses in many species.

  7. Enhancement of allergic responses in vivo and in vitro by butylated hydroxytoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Kouya; Taneda, Shinji; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yoshino, Shin

    2007-09-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used widely as an antioxidant, on IgE-dependent allergic responses in vivo and in vitro was investigated. For in vivo study, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was elicited in rats by i.d. injection of anti-DNP IgE and 48 h later by i.v. injection of DNP-HSA. BHT was i.p. given immediately after anti-DNP IgE injection. For in vitro studies, the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE was challenged with the multivalent antigen DNP-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) in the presence or absence of BHT. {beta}-Hexosaminidase and histamine released from RBL2H3 cells, as indicators of degranulation of the cells, the concentration of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, the level of phosphorylated-Akt, and global tyrosine phosphorylation as indicators of mast cell activation, were measured. The results showed that BHT given to anti-DNP IgE-sensitized rats augmented DNP-specific PCA in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BHT, IgE-induced releases of {beta}-hexosaminidase and histamine from RBL2H3 cells were increased. BHT also further elevated IgE-mediated increased concentrations of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and the levels of phosphorylated-Akt, but did not affect global tyrosine phosphorylation, in RBL2H3 cells. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited IgE-dependent degranulation and its enhancement by BHT. These findings indicate that BHT may upregulate PCA by enhancing mast cell degranulation associated with enhancements of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration and PI3K activation, suggesting that BHT might affect allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  8. Enhancement of allergic responses in vivo and in vitro by butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Taneda, Shinji; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yoshino, Shin

    2007-09-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used widely as an antioxidant, on IgE-dependent allergic responses in vivo and in vitro was investigated. For in vivo study, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was elicited in rats by i.d. injection of anti-DNP IgE and 48 h later by i.v. injection of DNP-HSA. BHT was i.p. given immediately after anti-DNP IgE injection. For in vitro studies, the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE was challenged with the multivalent antigen DNP-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) in the presence or absence of BHT. beta-Hexosaminidase and histamine released from RBL2H3 cells, as indicators of degranulation of the cells, the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, the level of phosphorylated-Akt, and global tyrosine phosphorylation as indicators of mast cell activation, were measured. The results showed that BHT given to anti-DNP IgE-sensitized rats augmented DNP-specific PCA in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BHT, IgE-induced releases of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine from RBL2H3 cells were increased. BHT also further elevated IgE-mediated increased concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ and the levels of phosphorylated-Akt, but did not affect global tyrosine phosphorylation, in RBL2H3 cells. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited IgE-dependent degranulation and its enhancement by BHT. These findings indicate that BHT may upregulate PCA by enhancing mast cell degranulation associated with enhancements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and PI3K activation, suggesting that BHT might affect allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  9. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  10. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  11. Elevated and cross‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A.; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch

    2015-01-01

    The role of CD1a‐reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a‐reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a‐transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T‐cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN‐γ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 producing CD1a‐reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom‐derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells were cross‐responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a‐reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein‐specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. PMID:26518614

  12. Allergic Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  13. Enhanced allergic responsiveness after early childhood infection with respiratory viruses: Are long-lived alternatively activated macrophages the missing link?

    PubMed

    Keegan, Achsah D; Shirey, Kari Ann; Bagdure, Dayanand; Blanco, Jorge; Viscardi, Rose M; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood infection with respiratory viruses, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, is associated with an increased risk of allergic asthma and severe exacerbation of ongoing disease. Despite the long recognition of this relationship, the mechanism linking viral infection and later susceptibility to allergic lung inflammation is still poorly understood. We discuss the literature and provide new evidence demonstrating that these viruses induce the alternative activation of macrophages. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) induced by RSV or influenza infection persisted in the lungs of mice up to 90 days after initial viral infection. Several studies suggest that AAM contribute to allergic inflammatory responses, although their mechanism of action is unclear. In this commentary, we propose that virus-induced AAM provide a link between viral infection and enhanced responses to inhaled allergens. PMID:27178560

  14. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  15. A small amount of tetrachloroethylene ingestion from drinking water accelerates antigen-stimulated allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Seo, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Takeo; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ikeda, Koji; Satoh, Masahiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we observed that tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) increased histamine release and inflammatory mediator production from antigen-stimulated mast cells. In this study, we examined the enhancing effect of low concentrations of PCE in drinking water on antigen-stimulated allergic responses. After exposure of Wistar rats to PCE in drinking water for 2 or 4 weeks, we performed a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction. PCE exposure for 4 weeks enhanced PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In pathological studies, PCE exposure for 2 weeks exacerbated inflammation characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and accumulation of mast cells around the vessel. Non-purified mast cells (NPMCs) from rats treated with 1mg/L PCE in drinking water for 2 weeks increased antigen-stimulated histamine release. Furthermore, the leukocytes of rats treated with PCE in drinking water for 4 weeks showed increased interleukin (IL)-4 expression. The mechanism of enhancing the PCA reaction is assumed to be that PCE increases IL-4 production and PCE causes T helper (Th) 1/Th2-type helper T-cell imbalance and increases histamine release from excessively accumulated mast cells. The results suggest that the intake of PCE in drinking water, even at a low concentration, leads to the initiation and acceleration of allergic diseases.

  16. Allergic inflammation: where epithelial function interacts with immune response in atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Laura

    2009-05-01

    Current hot topics in allergy and asthma were presented this year at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) in Washington, D.C. Understanding the natural history of allergic diseases is an area of interest because it could help to identify relevant biomarkers to predict allergy early in infancy. An abnormal epithelial barrier allows easy access to allergens/ pathogens and such a dysfunction could also be involved in the initiation of the natural course of allergic diseases. In addition, newly identified cytokines produced by epithelial cells such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-33 (IL-33) and IL-25 are involved in the generation of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell response. Genetic studies are also providing relevant information on biomarkers and new targets for allergy and asthma. Different genetic studies to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms of relevant mediators of allergy in patients, application of gene array analysis to identify biomarkers during asthma exacerbation, and IL-13-induced inflammatory events, are some examples of the interesting information presented at the AAAAI this year.

  17. Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

    2014-07-01

    Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

  18. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  19. Orally-Induced Intestinal CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg Controlled Undesired Responses towards Oral Antigens and Effectively Dampened Food Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Orsini Delgado, María Lucía; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2015-01-01

    The induction of peripheral tolerance may constitute a disease-modifying treatment for allergic patients. We studied how oral immunotherapy (OIT) with milk proteins controlled allergy in sensitized mice (cholera toxin plus milk proteins) upon exposure to the allergen. Symptoms were alleviated, skin test was negativized, serum specific IgE and IgG1 were abrogated, a substantial reduction in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 by antigen-stimulated spleen cells was observed, while IL-13 gene expression in jejunum was down-regulated, and IL-10 and TGF-β were increased. In addition, we observed an induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells and IL-10- and TGF-β-producing regulatory T cells in the lamina propria. Finally, transfer experiments confirmed the central role of these cells in tolerance induction. We demonstrated that the oral administration of milk proteins pre- or post-sensitization controlled the Th2-immune response through the elicitation of mucosal IL-10- and TGF-β-producing Tregs that inhibited hypersensitivity symptoms and the allergic response. PMID:26517875

  20. Response to Nonallergenic Irritants in Children With Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Eunhae; Kim, Mi Ae; Lee, Seung Won; Kang, Yu Sun; Sheen, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Jung, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nonallergenic irritants can aggravate the symptoms of rhinitis. We investigated the clinical responses of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) to nonallergenic irritants, and identified factors associated with these responses. Methods Children with chronic rhinitis (n=208) were classified as having AR or NAR based on the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE. Healthy controls (n=24) were recruited for comparison. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines were used to classify patients, and their irritant score (0-21 points) and current symptom score (5-35 points) were measured. Subjects with irritant scores ≥3 and <3 were classified as having irritant and nonirritant rhinitis, respectively. Results The mean age of enrolled subjects was 6.8 years (range: 1.8-16.0 years). The AR and NAR groups had similar irritant scores (P=0.394) and proportions of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 (P=0.105). Irritant score correlated positively with symptom score (P=0.005), and the proportion of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 was greater in children with moderate-severe rhinitis than in those with mild rhinitis (P=0.046). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of atopic eczema increased the risk for sensitivity to a nonallergenic irritant (aOR=2.928, 95% CI 1.567-5.473, P=0.001). Conclusions Response to a nonallergenic irritant was useful for gauging the severity of rhinitis, but not for differentiating AR from NAR. AR and NAR patients with atopic eczema may increase nasal sensitivity to nonallergenic irritants. PMID:27126728

  1. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants. PMID:15025702

  2. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  3. The ectoenzyme E-NPP3 negatively regulates ATP-dependent chronic allergic responses by basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih Han; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kusu, Takashi; Kayama, Hisako; Okumura, Ryu; Ikeda, Kayo; Shimada, Yosuke; Takeda, Akira; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Kurashima, Yosuke; Sato, Shintaro; Umemoto, Eiji; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Karasuyama, Hajime; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2015-02-17

    Crosslinking of the immunoglobulin receptor FcεRI activates basophils and mast cells to induce immediate and chronic allergic inflammation. However, it remains unclear how the chronic allergic inflammation is regulated. Here, we showed that ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 3 (E-NPP3), also known as CD203c, rapidly induced by FcεRI crosslinking, negatively regulated chronic allergic inflammation. Basophil and mast cell numbers increased in Enpp3(-/-) mice with augmented serum ATP concentrations. Enpp3(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to chronic allergic pathologies, which was reduced by ATP blockade. FcεRI crosslinking induced ATP secretion from basophils and mast cells, and ATP activated both cells. ATP clearance was impaired in Enpp3(-/-) cells. Enpp3(-/-)P2rx7(-/-) mice showed decreased responses to FcεRI crosslinking. Thus, ATP released by FcεRI crosslinking stimulates basophils and mast cells for further activation causing allergic inflammation. E-NPP3 decreases ATP concentration and suppresses basophil and mast cell activity. PMID:25692702

  4. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  5. The framing effect and skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  6. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ALLERGIC-TYPE RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ALLERGIC-TYPE RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF Stachybotrys chartarum IN BALB/C MICE. ME Viana1, N Haykal-Coates2, S H Gavett2, MJ Selgrade2, and M D W Ward2. 1APR/CVM, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA. 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Rationale: assess the ab...

  7. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON PULMONARY RESPONSES DURING ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION TO AEROSOLIZED OVALBUMIN IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Pulmonary Responses During Allergic Sensitization to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels1, D. Andrews1, E. Boykin1, W. P. Linak2 and M.I. Gilmour1. 1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC. 2 USEPA, ORD, NRMRL, RTP, NC.

    Inhala...

  8. EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) ON THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGIC RESPONSES OF BALB/C MICE TO A FUNGAL ALLERGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) ON THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGIC RESPONSES OF BALB/C MICE TO A FUNGAL ALLERGEN. M D W Ward, D M Sailstad, D L Andrews, E H Boykin, and MJ K Selgrade. National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Developmen...

  9. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  10. Modulation of peanut-induced allergic immune responses by oral lactic acid bacteria-based vaccines in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chengcheng; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Wang, Gang; Ai, Chunqing; Hu, Mengsha; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Chen, Yongquan; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy (PNA) has becoming a non-negligible health concern worldwide. Thus far, allergen-specific immunotherapy aimed at inducing mucosal tolerance has widely been regarded as a major management strategy for PNA. The safety profiles and the intrinsic probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) render them attractive delivery vehicles for mucosal vaccines. In the present study, we exploited genetically modified Lactococcus lactis to produce peanut allergen Ara h 2 via different protein-targeting systems and their immunomodulatory potency for allergic immune responses in mice were investigated. By comparison with the strain expressing the cytoplasmic form of Ara h 2 (LL1), the strains expressing the secreted and anchored forms of Ara h 2 (LL2 and LL3) were more potent in redirecting a Th2-polarized to a non-allergic Th1 immune responses. Induction of SIgA and regulatory T cells were also observed at the local levels by orally administration of recombinant L. lactis. Our results indicate that allergen-producing L. lactis strains modulated allergic immune responses and may be developed as promising mucosal vaccines for managing allergic diseases.

  11. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats. PMID:17845619

  12. Associations of allergic sensitization and clinical phenotypes with innate immune response genes polymorphisms are modified by house dust mite allergen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Marcin; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wardzyńska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Polymorphisms within innate immunity genes are associated with allergic phenotypes but results are variable. These associations were not analyzed with respect to allergen exposure. We investigated associations of TLR and CD14 polymorphisms with allergy phenotypes in the context of house dust mite (HDM) exposure. Material and methods Children, aged 12-16 years (n=326), were recruited from downtown and rural locations and assessed by allergist. Skin prick tests, total and HDM-specific sIgE measurements were done. HDM allergen concentrations in dust were measured. Genetic polymorphisms were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results Allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopy were more prevalent in urban area. Although HDM allergen concentrations were higher in rural households, sIgE were present more frequently in urban children. In the whole population no association was found between HDM exposure and sensitization. In children with CD14/−159CC, CD14/−159TT and TLR9/2848GA genotypes increased exposure to HDM was associated with reduced incidence of allergic rhinitis. Significant associations of increased HDM exposure with reduced incidence of atopy were found for the whole population and subjects with CD14/−159CC, CD14/−1359GT, TLR4/896AA and TLR9/2848GA genotypes. Among children with CD14/−159CC and CD14/−1359GG significant positive correlation between HDM allergen concentrations in household and sensitization to HDM was observed. In contrast, protective effect of high HDM allergen exposure against specific sensitization was seen in subjects with TLR4/896 AG. Conclusions Development of specific sensitization and allergy may be associated with innate immune response genes polymorphisms and is modified by allergen exposure. PMID:22328887

  13. CROSS REACTIVITY IN ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES BETWEEN MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases including allergic asthma. Some mold allergens have been implicated as the causal agent for allergic asthma. Western blot analysis demonstrated IgE-binding cross-reactivity among m...

  14. [T-cells regulate the immune-response in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Böttcher, I

    2008-10-01

    Allergic diseases show a broad variety of symptoms, depending on the type of allergen and the location where it interacts with the human body. Contact of allergens with the upper respiratory tract result in conjunctivitis or allergic rhinitis. Apart from antigenpresenting cells, T-cells do play an important role in this hypersensibility reaction. Due to the production and secretion of cytokines, T-lymphocytes induce and maintain the corresponding Th-immuneresponse. In addition to regulatory functions, T-cells have potential influence on the chronic progression of allergic inflammatory reactions of the nasal mucosa and are therefore interesting target cells for specific immunotherapy as well as corticosteroid treatment. This article shows the specific function of T-cells during allergic rhinitis and reveals the basics for understanding the mechanism of immunotherapy and chronification of inflammatory allergic diseases of the nasal mucosa. PMID:18839392

  15. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P < 0.0001) on each assessment day. Pruritus scores decreased from 7.58 to 2.59 cm following oclacitinib treatment. The day 7 mean oclacitinib Veterinarian Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P < 0.0001) than placebo scores. Diarrhoea and vomiting were reported with similar frequency in both groups. Conclusions and clinical importance In this study, oclacitinib provided rapid, effective and safe control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  16. Superficial Immunity: Antimicrobial Responses Are More Than Skin Deep.

    PubMed

    Mack, Madison R; Kim, Brian S

    2016-07-19

    The skin barrier is essential for host defense, but how the skin provides protection when the barrier is breached is not well understood. In this issue of Immunity, Gallo and colleagues report that keratinocytes integrate signals from antimicrobial peptides via MAVS signaling to amplify their antiviral immune response. PMID:27438760

  17. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Kunbootsri, Narupon; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chainansamit, Seksun; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks. There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u.), PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u.) at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group. Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergic rhinitis patients.

  18. Improvement of clinical response in allergic rhinitis patients treated with an oral immunostimulating bacterial lysate: in vivo immunological effects.

    PubMed

    Banche, G; Allizond, V; Mandras, N; Garzaro, M; Cavallo, G P; Baldi, C; Scutera, S; Musso, T; Roana, J; Tullio, V; Carlone, N A; Cuffini, A M

    2007-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is known to be one of the most common chronic diseases in the industrialized world. According to the concept that allergic rhinitis patients generally suffer from an immune deficit, in order to stimulate specifically or aspecifically their immune system, immunomodulating agents from various sources, such as synthetic compounds, tissue extracts or a mixture of bacterial extracts, have been used. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with an immunostimulating vaccine consisting of a polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysate (PMBL) in the prophylaxis of allergic rhinitis and subsequently to analyze its in vivo effects on immune responses. 41 allergic rhinitis patients were enrolled: 26 patients were randomly assigned to the group for PMBL sublingual treatment and 15 others to the group for placebo treatment. For all 26 patients blood samples were drawn just before (T0) and after 3 months of PMBL treatment (T3) to evaluate plasma IgE levels (total and allergen-specific) and the cytokine production involved in the allergic response (IL-4, IFN-gamma). The results of our study indicate that PMBL is effective in vivo in the reduction or in the elimination of the symptoms in rhinitis subjects during the treatment period in comparison to a non-immunostimulating treatment. A significant and clinically relevant improvement was found in 61.5%, a stationary clinical response was registered in 38.4% and no negative side effects associated with the medication or worsening were recorded. At the end of a 3-month follow up period the clinical picture remained the same as that observed at T3. PMBL treatment did not affect the serum IgE levels (either total or allergen-specific) and did not induce significant changes in IFN-gamma concentration. In contrast, PMBL therapy may be accompanied, in some patients, by a potential immunomodulating activity by decreasing IL-4 cytokine expression. PMID:17346436

  19. Exposure to triclosan augments the allergic response to ovalbumin in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L; Anderson, Katie L; Hubbs, Ann F; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-03-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375-1.5mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 µg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 µg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens.

  20. Severe systemic allergic reaction induced by accidental skin contact with cow milk in a 16-year-old boy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; De Falco, F; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of food allergy are rarely induced by skin contact. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Allergology Centre after an episode of systemic symptoms triggered by accidental skin contact with a drop of cow milk (CM) dripped from a sandwich containing fresh cheese. The patient had been allergic to CM from the age of 24 months and had experienced several episodes of urticaria-angioedema after the ingestion of tiny or "hidden" amounts of CM proteins. In vivo and in vitro diagnostic procedures showed intense sensitisation to all CM proteins (1/100 dilutions of allergenic extracts produced large wheals, and class 4 specific IgE antibodies. Total IgE antibodies were elevate (770.0 UI/). A moderate degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was found (PC20 metacholine: 3.90 milligrams). This case report suggests that patients with a high degree of sensitisation to CM proteins should be alert to the danger of skin contact and should beware of "hidden" CM allergens.

  1. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous regulatory T cell deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Mathias, Clinton B; Diaz, Natalia; MacArthur, Daniel H; Laouar, Amale; Manjunath, Narasimhaswamy; Hofer, Matthias D; Wurbel, Marc-Andre; Campbell, James J; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C

    2010-07-15

    Individuals with atopic dermatitis immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially fatal disseminated infection. Dysfunction of Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Treg) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. To test whether Treg deficiency predisposes to EV, we percutaneously VV infected FoxP3-deficient (FoxP3(KO)) mice, which completely lack FoxP3(+) Treg. These animals generated both fewer VV-specific CD8(+) effector T cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells than controls, had higher viral loads, and exhibited abnormal Th2-polarized responses to the virus. To focus on the consequences of Treg deficiency confined to the skin, we generated mixed CCR4(KO) FoxP3(KO) bone marrow (CCR4/FoxP3) chimeras in which skin, but not other tissues or central lymphoid organs, lack Treg. Like FoxP3(KO) mice, the chimeras had impaired VV-specific effector T cell responses and higher viral loads. Skin cytokine expression was significantly altered in infected chimeras compared with controls. Levels of the antiviral cytokines, type I and II IFNs and IL-12, were reduced, whereas expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta, and IL-23, was increased. Importantly, infection of CCR4/FoxP3 chimeras by a noncutaneous route (i.p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV.

  2. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Madhuri A.; De, Anuradha S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM) medical college and hospital on 24th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country. PMID:21321645

  3. Relationship between skin response to ultraviolet exposure and skin color type.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, S; Sok, J; Bessac, E; Bernerd, F

    2006-12-01

    Sun exposure is responsible for detrimental damage ranging from sunburn to photoaging and skin cancer. This damage is likely to be influenced by constitutive pigmentation. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity and skin color type was analyzed on 42 ex vivo skin samples objectively classified from light to dark skin, based on their values of individual typology angle (ITA) determined by colorimetric parameters. The biologically efficient dose (BED) was determined for each sample by quantifying sunburn cells after exposure to increasing doses of UV solar-simulated radiation. Typical UV-induced biologic markers, other than erythema, such as DNA damage, apoptosis and p53 accumulation, were analyzed. A statistically significant correlation was found between ITA and BED and, ITA and DNA damage. Interestingly, DNA lesions were distributed throughout the whole epidermal layers and the uppermost dermal cells in light, intermediate and tanned skin while they were restricted to suprabasal epidermal layers in brown or dark skin. Our data support, at the cellular level, the relationship between UV sensitivity and skin color type. They emphasize the impact of DNA damage accumulation in basal layer in relation to the prevalence of skin cancer.

  4. Th2 Allergic Immune Response to Inhaled Fungal Antigens is Modulated By TLR-4-Independent Bacterial Products

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Jenna B.; Rinaldi, Lisa; Wargo, Matt; Allen, Gilman; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Poynter, Matthew E.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Rincon, Mercedes; Whittaker, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Allergic airway disease is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and increased airway resistance. Fungal antigens are ubiquitous within the environment and are well know triggers of allergic disease. Bacterial products are also frequently encountered within the environment and may alter the immune response to certain antigens. The consequence of simultaneous exposure to bacterial and fungal products on the lung adaptive immune response has not been explored. Here we show that oropharyngeal aspiration of fungal lysates (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus) promotes airway eosinophilia, secretion of Th2 cytokines and mucus cell metaplasia. In contrast, oropharyngeal exposure to bacterial lysates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) promotes airway inflammation characterized by neutrophils, Th1 cytokine secretion and no mucus production. More importantly, administration of bacterial lysates together with fungal lysates deviates the adaptive immune response to a Th1 type associated with neutrophilia and diminished mucus production. The immunomodulatory effect that bacterial lysates have on the response to fungi is TLR4-independent but MyD88 dependent. Thus, different types of microbial products within the airway can alter the host's adaptive immune response, and potentially impact the development of allergic airway disease to environmental fungal antigens. PMID:19224641

  5. Effect of raw milk on allergic responses in a murine model of gastrointestinal allergy.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Alison J; McDonald, Natalie A; Hine, Brad

    2014-08-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the consumption of raw farm milk and reduced incidence of allergy. In the present study, we fed untreated raw milk, gamma-sterilised milk, heat-treated milk or water to mice and compared their responses to allergen exposure and challenge treatment in a mouse model of gastrointestinal allergy. From weaning (3 weeks old), groups of BALB/c female mice (n 8) received raw milk, gamma-sterilised milk, heated milk or water via drink bottles, with the control group receiving water. All mice were fed a standard (dairy protein-free) rodent diet. At 6 and 8 weeks, groups were given intra-peritoneal injections with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum to sensitise them to the antigen. Controls were sham immunised. At week 10, mice were fasted and challenged four times on alternate days by intra-gastric administration with 50 mg OVA or saline. Levels of bacteria and milk proteins were assessed in milk samples. Mouse serum levels of specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1) were determined. Cytokine responses to 48 h activation with OVA were measured in cultured splenocytes from mice. Sterilised and heated milks contained no viable bacteria and reduced detectable levels of many milk proteins, in contrast to raw milk. Mice drinking raw milk had highest serum MMCP-1 and specific-OVA IgE responses. Cultured splenocytes from OVA-primed mice produced similar levels of IL-4 in response to the antigen; however, IL-10 levels were highest from mice drinking raw milk. Overall, the present study adds to the evidence that consuming different types of milk can affect allergic responses to a non-related dietary antigen.

  6. Ozone exposure activates oxidative stress responses in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; van der Vliet, Albert; Schock, Bettina C; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Obermuller-Jevic, Ute; Cross, Carroll E; Packer, Lester

    2002-09-30

    Ozone (O(3)) is among the most reactive environmental oxidant to which skin is exposed. O(3) exposure has previously been shown to induce antioxidant depletion as well as lipid and protein oxidation in the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum (SC), but little is known regarding the potential effects of O(3) on the skin epidermis and dermis. To evaluate such skin responses to O(3), SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed for 2 h to 8.0 ppm O(3) or to ambient air. O(3) exposure caused a significant increase in skin carbonyls (28%) compared to the skin of air exposed control animals. An evident increase in 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts was detected after O(3) exposure. O(3) exposure caused a rapid up-regulation of HSP27 (20-fold), and more delayed induction of HSP70 (2.8-fold) and heme oxygenase-1 (5-fold). O(3) exposure also led to the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) 6-12 h following O(3) exposure. We conclude that skin exposure to high levels of O(3) not only affects antioxidant levels and oxidation markers in the SC, but also induces stress responses in the active layers of the skin, most likely by indirect mechanisms, since it is unlikely that O(3) itself penetrates the protective SC layers.

  7. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  8. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  9. Tespa1 negatively regulates FcεRI-mediated signaling and the mast cell–mediated allergic response

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mingzhu; Qiu, Yuanjun; Guo, Chuansheng; Ji, Jian; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Xue; Liang, Jingjing; Lou, Jun; Huang, Wei; Dong, Bowen; Wu, Songquan; Wang, Jianli; Ke, Yuehai; Cao, Xuetao; Zhou, Yi Ting

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE on mast cells triggers a signaling cascade that results in their degranulation and proinflammatory cytokine production, which are key effectors in allergic reactions. We show that the activation of mast cells is negatively regulated by the newly identified adaptor protein Tespa1. Loss of Tespa1 in mouse mast cells led to hyper-responsiveness to stimulation via FcεRI. Mice lacking Tespa1 also displayed increased sensitivity to IgE-mediated allergic responses. The dysregulated signaling in KO mast cells was associated with increased activation of Grb2-PLC-γ1-SLP-76 signaling within the LAT1 (linker for activation of T cells family, member 1) signalosome versus the LAT2 signalosome. Collectively, these findings show that Tespa1 orchestrates mast cell activation by tuning the balance of LAT1 and LAT2 signalosome assembly. PMID:25422497

  10. The relationship of the possible allergic response to jellyfish envenomation and serum antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Russo, A J; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1983-01-01

    The sera of patients envenomated by the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) or the Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) were investigated for immune specific and cross-reacting antibodies. Crude or partially purified (SP-Sephadex column chromatography) nematocyst venom was used as antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect IgG and IgE antibodies. The sera of 66 patients who exhibited strictly cutaneous, extracutaneous or anaphylactoid reactions to envenomation were studied. Most of the subjects developed an IgG antibody and many developed an IgE antibody to the venom of the offending animal. The titer of both immunoglobulins correlated directly with the severity of symptoms. Cross-reacting antibodies to these two jellyfish were apparent in a significant number of patients, but detectable cross-reacting IgE antibodies were rare in patients severely stung by the sea nettle. The titer of specific IgG antibody was higher against the partially purified lethal sea nettle venom than fractions lacking lethal activity. These results may support the hypothesis that some of the visible response to jellyfish envenomation may be allergic in nature and that cross-reactivity to these venoms may be clinically important. PMID:6137884

  11. Exposure to triclosan augments the allergic response to ovalbumin in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L; Anderson, Katie L; Hubbs, Ann F; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-03-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375-1.5mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 µg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 µg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens. PMID:23192912

  12. Exposure to Triclosan Augments the Allergic Response to Ovalbumin in a Mouse Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L.; Anderson, Katie L.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375–1.5 mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 μg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5 mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 μg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens. PMID:23192912

  13. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  14. Alveolar macrophages from allergic lungs are not committed to a pro-allergic response and can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness following ex vivo culture

    PubMed Central

    Pouliot, P.; Spahr, A.; Careau, É.; Turmel, V.; Bissonnette, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background We already demonstrated that adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages (AMs) from non-allergic rats into AM-depleted allergic rats prevents airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We also showed that AMs from non-sensitized, but not from sensitized, allergy-prone rats can prevent AHR following allergen challenge in sensitized allergic animals, establishing the importance of rat immunological status on the modulation of AM functions and suggesting that an allergic lung environment alters AM functions. Objective We investigated how the activation of allergic AMs can be modulated to reinstitute them with their capacity to reduce AHR. Methods AMs from sensitized Brown Norway rats were cultured ex vivo for up to 18 h in culture media to deprogram them from the influence of the allergic lung before being reintroduced into the lung of AM-depleted sensitized recipient. AHR and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were measured following allergen challenge. AMs stimulated ex vivo with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) were used as positive controls as BCG induces a T-helper type 1 activation in AMs. Results AMs ex vivo cultured for 4–18 h reduced AHR to normal level. Interestingly, pro-allergic functions of AMs were dampened by 18 h culture and they reduced AHR even after spending 48 h in an allergic lung microenvironment. Furthermore, transfer of cultured AMs caused an increase in the levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in BAL when compared with their ovalbumin control. After 18 h of ex vivo culture, AMs expressed reduced levels of TNF, IL-1α, IL-6, and Arginase-2 mRNAs compared with freshly isolated AMs, suggesting that ex vivo culture exempted AMs from lung stimuli that affected their functions. Conclusions There is a significant crosstalk between lung microenvironment and AMs, affecting their functions. It is also the first report showing that sensitized AMs can be modulated ex vivo to reduce lung pro-allergic environment, opening the way to therapies targetting

  15. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  16. Aberrant immune responses in arsenical skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Liao, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen. It also impairs immune functions and activation in many aspects. However, only a small portion of arsenic-exposed population develops skin abnormalities, including Bowen's disease and skin cancers. Differential immune activation among the individuals might account for the different susceptibilities. In patients with arsenic-induced Bowen's disease, there is a selective CD4 T-cell apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor-alpha pathway, decrease in macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis, reduced Langerhans cell numbers and dendrites, altered regulatory T-cell distribution, and other immune alterations. Several lines of evidence from mouse and fish studies also confirmed the potent and multifaceted effects of arsenic in the immune system. The molecular bases of immunosuppression by arsenic in lymphocytes may include chromosomal and DNA abnormalities, decreased T-cell receptor activation, and the cellular status of oxidation and methylation. This article also reviews the causative and differential role of selective CD4 cell apoptosis and the carcinogenesis of arsenic-induced Bowen's disease.

  17. Genetic Variation along the Histamine Pathway in Children with Allergic versus Nonallergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Sara; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Dai, Hongying; Jones, Bridgette L

    2015-12-01

    Histamine is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma. Variation in genes along the histamine production, response, and degradation pathway may be important in predicting response to antihistamines. We hypothesize that differences exist among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the histamine pathway between children with allergic versus nonallergic asthma. Children (7-18 yr of age; n = 202) with asthma were classified as allergic or nonallergic based on allergy skin testing. Genotyping was performed to detect known SNPs (n = 10) among genes (HDC, HNMT, ABP1, HRH1, and HRH4) within the histamine pathway. Chi square tests and Cochran-Armitage Trend were used to identify associations between genetic variants and allergic or nonallergic asthma. Significance was determined by P < 0.05 and false-positive report probability. After correction for race differences in genotype were observed, HRH1-17 TT (6% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04), HNMT-464 TT (41% allergic versus 29% nonallergic; P = 0.04), and HNMT-1639 TT (30% allergic versus 20% nonallergic; P = 0.04) were overrepresented among children with allergic asthma. Genotype differences specifically among the African-American children were also observed: HRH1-17 TT (13% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04) and HNMT-1639 TT (23% allergic versus 3% nonallergic; P = 0.03) genotypes were overrepresented among African-American children with allergic asthma. Our study suggests that genetic variation within the histamine pathway may be associated with an allergic versus nonallergic asthma phenotype. Further studies are needed to determine the functional significance of identified SNPs and their impact on antihistamine response in patients with asthma and allergic disease.

  18. In Vitro Model for Studying Esophageal Epithelial Differentiation and Allergic Inflammatory Responses Identifies Keratin Involvement in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    KC, Kiran; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Sherrill, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial differentiation is an essential physiological process that imparts mechanical strength and barrier function to squamous epithelia. Perturbation of this process can give rise to numerous human diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, in which antigenic stimuli can penetrate the weakened epithelial barrier to initiate the allergic inflammatory cascade. We recently described a simplified air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system that facilitates the study of differentiated squamous epithelia in vitro. Herein, we use RNA sequencing to define the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur within the ALI system during epithelial differentiation and in response to allergic inflammation. We identified 2,191 and 781 genes that were significantly altered upon epithelial differentiation or dysregulated in the presence of interleukin 13 (IL-13), respectively. Notably, 286 genes that were modified by IL-13 in the ALI system overlapped with the gene signature present within the inflamed esophageal tissue from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an allergic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by elevated IL-13 levels, altered epithelial differentiation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Pathway analysis of these overlapping genes indicated enrichment in keratin genes; for example, the gene encoding keratin 78, an uncharacterized type II keratin, was upregulated during epithelial differentiation (45-fold) yet downregulated in response to IL-13 and in inflamed esophageal tissue from patients. Thus, our findings delineate an in vitro experimental system that models epithelial differentiation that is dynamically regulated by IL-13. Using this system and analyses of patient tissues, we identify an altered expression profile of novel keratin differentiation markers in response to IL-13 and disease activity, substantiating the potential of this combined approach to identify relevant molecular processes that contribute to human allergic

  19. Comparative responses to nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitic subjects with or without asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) is useful to study the pathophysiology of rhinitis, and multiple challenges may more adequately approximate natural exposure. Objective To determine the effect of 4 consecutive daily NAC, on clinical and inflammatory parameters in rhinitics with or without asthma. Methods Rhinitic subjects were recruited: 19 with mild asthma and 13 without asthma. Subjects underwent a control challenge (normal saline) followed by 4 consecutive daily NAC. Allergen challenge consisted of spraying the chosen allergen extract into each nostril until a positive nasal response occurred. Symptoms were recorded on a Likert scale, and oral peak expiratory and nasal peak inspiratory flows allowed assessment of a nasal blockage index (NBI), for a period of 7 hours. Induced sputum and nasal lavage were performed on control day and after 1 and 4 days of NAC. Results Compared with the control day, there was a significant increase in symptom scores and NBI 10 minutes after each last daily NAC in both groups (p < 0.05). Symptom scores and NBI were similar for the 2 groups, except for nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, which were more marked in subjects with asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Nasal lavage eosinophils were increased after 4 days of challenges in both groups, but there was no change in sputum eosinophils. No cumulative effect or any late response were observed in any of the groups over the challenge period. Conclusion Multiple NAC may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis or its relationships with asthma. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01286129 PMID:21507261

  20. Alterations of the Lung Methylome in Allergic Airway Hyper-Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Robert YS; Shang, Yan; Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Dao, Tyna; Das, Sandhya; Rabold, Richard; Sham, James SK; Mitzner, Wayne; Tang, Wan-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, affecting 300 million people around the world (available at: www.who.int). To date, genetic factors associated with asthma susceptibility have been unable to explain the full etiology of asthma. Recent studies have demonstrated that the epigenetic disruption of gene expression plays an equally important role in the development of asthma through interaction with our environment. We sensitized 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice with house-dust-mite (HDM) extracts intraperitoneally followed by 5 weeks of exposure to HDM challenges (three times a week) intratracheally. HDM-exposed mice showed an increase in airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and inflammation together with structural remodeling of the airways. We applied methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-next generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) for profiling of DNA methylation changes in the lungs in response to HDM. We observed about 20 million reads by a single-run of massive parallel sequencing. We performed bioinformatics and pathway analysis on the raw sequencing data to identify differentially methylated candidate genes in HDM-exposed mice. Specifically, we have revealed that the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway is epigenetically modulated by chronic exposure to HDM. Here, we demonstrated that a specific allergen may play a role in AHR through an epigenetic mechanism by disrupting the expression of genes in lungs that might be involved in airway inflammation and remodeling. Our findings provide new insights into the potential mechanisms by which environmental allergens induce allergic asthma and such insights may assist in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic options for this debilitative disease. PMID:24446183

  1. Specific Immune Response in Human Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, R. C.; Nind, A. P. P.; Guli, E. P. G.; Muller, H. K.; Rolland, J. M.; Minty, C. C. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight out of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of skin have shown immunological reactivity against their own tumour cells by one or more tests with their sera or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The tests included membrane and cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, and, with cultured tumour, complement-dependent serum cytotoxicity and lymphocyte attack. One case examined in depth had an unusually conspicuous lymphocyte and plasma cell reaction on histological examination, and was positive by all four tests; a time-lapse cinephoto-micrographic record over seven days was obtained of the attack on the carcinoma cells in culture by the patient's lymphocytes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4943032

  2. In vivo Regulation of the Allergic Response by the Interleukin 4 Receptor Alpha Chain Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motif

    PubMed Central

    Tachdjian, Raffi; Khatib, Shadi Al; Schwinglshackl, Andreas; Kim, Hong Sook; Chen, Andrew; Blasioli, Julie; Mathias, Clinton; Kim, Hye-Young; Umetsu, Dale T.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Chatila, Talal A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Signaling by IL-4 and IL-13 via the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα) plays a critical role in the pathology of allergic diseases. The IL-4Rα is endowed with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), centered on tyrosine 709 (Y709) in the cytoplasmic domain, that binds a number of regulatory phosphatases. The function of the ITIM in the in vivo regulation of IL-4R signaling remains unknown. Objective To determine the in vivo function of the IL-4Rα ITIM using mice in which the ITIM was inactivated by mutagenesis of the tyrosine Y709 residue into phenylalanine (F709). Methods F709 ITIM mutant mice were derived by knockin mutagenesis. Activation of intracellular signaling cascades by IL-4 and IL-13 was assessed by intracellular staining of phosphorylated signaling intermediates and by gene expression analysis. In vivo responses to allergic sensitization were assessed using models of allergic airway inflammation. Results The F709 mutation increased STAT6 phosphorylation by IL-4 and, disproportionately, by IL-13. This was associated with exaggerated Th2 polarization, enhanced alternative macrophage activation by IL-13, augmented basal and antigen-induced IgE responses and intensified allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. Conclusions These results point to a physiologic negative regulatory role for the Y709 ITIM in signaling via IL-4Rα, especially by IL-13. PMID:20392476

  3. Inhibition of pan neurotrophin receptor p75 attenuates diesel particulate-induced enhancement of allergic airway responses in C57/B16J mice.

    PubMed

    Farraj, Aimen K; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ledbetter, Allen D; Evansky, Paul A; Gavett, Stephen H

    2006-06-01

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle (DEP) exposure has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many cities with vehicular traffic congestion. We tested the hypothesis that DEP-induced enhancement of the hallmark features of allergic airway disease in a murine model is dependent on the function of the pan neurotrophin receptor p75. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized C57B1/6J mice were intranasally instilled with an antibody against the p75 receptor or saline alone 1 h before OVA challenge. The mice were then exposed nose-only to the PM2.5 fraction of SRM2975 DEP or air alone for 5 h beginning 1 h after OVA challenge. Two days later, air-exposed OVA-allergic mice developed a small but insignificant increase in methacholine-induced airflow obstruction relative to air-exposed, vehicle-sensitized mice. DEP-exposed OVA-allergic mice had a significantly greater degree of airway obstruction than all other groups. Instillation of anti-p75 significantly attenuated the DEP-induced increase in airway obstruction in OVA-allergic mice to levels similar to non-sensitized mice. The DEP-induced exacerbation of allergic airway responses may, in part, be mediated by neurotrophins.

  4. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-11-01

    results suggest that allergic lung inflammatory response exacerbation in CSP mice is a consequence of the psychological stress induced by forced cohabitation with the sick partner. Strong involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through adrenaline and noradrenaline release and a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 response were considered to be the mechanisms underlying the cell recruitment to the animal's airways.

  5. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  6. A study of IgE sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian-Pacific American adults.

    PubMed

    Lee-Wong, Mary; Chou, Vivian; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2012-01-01

    Allergic disorders and skin response to histamine have been noted to vary in different ethnicities. We investigated IgE-mediated allergic sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian Pacific Americans (APAs), black and Hispanic Americans, and white adults. A retrospective questionnaire-based study was performed of 2222 adults presenting at a New York City allergy referral center from 1994 to 2003. Questionnaire data included sex, age, and ethnicity and personal and family history of atopic disorders. Skin-prick test (SPT) data included saline and histamine controls and response to a standardized panel of 10 aeroallergens. APA patients had a lower odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.89; p = 0.005) and/or animal allergies (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.82; p = 0.0003). Histamine response was not significantly different in APA (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73-1.12; p = 0.36) or Hispanic Americans (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24; p = 0.76), but was higher in black Americans (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.67-3.21; p < 0.0001). APA had higher odds of a positive SPT to trees (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.91; p = 0.002), grasses (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; p = 0.02), feathers (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.31-2.09; p < 0.0001), and cockroaches (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62; p = 0.005). Moreover, APA had a higher total number of positive SPTs when compared with white patients (5.5 ± 3.2 versus 4.9 ± 3.3; aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62 p = 0.004). APA adults in our patient population had more IgE sensitizations but not an increased skin response to histamine. In contrast, black Americans had increased skin response to histamine.

  7. The skin: its structure and response to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, J W

    1990-04-01

    The response of the skin to ionizing radiation has important implications both for the treatment of malignant disease by radiation and for radiological protection. The structural organization of human skin is described and compared with that of the pig, with which it shows many similarities, in order that the response of the skin to ionizing radiation may be more fully understood. Acute radiation damage to the skin is primarily a consequence of changes in the epidermis; the timing of the peak of the reaction is related to the kinetic organization of this layer. The rate of development of damage is independent of the radiation dose, since this is related to the natural rate of loss of cells from the basal layer of the epidermis. Recovery of the epidermis occurs as a result of the proliferation of surviving clonogenic basal cells from within the irradiated area. The presence of clonogenic cells in the canal of the hair follicle is important, particularly after non-uniform irradiation from intermediate energy beta-emitters. The migration of viable cells from the edges of the irradiated site is also significant when small areas of skin are irradiated. Late damage to the skin is primarily a function of radiation effects on the vasculature; this produces a wave of dermal atrophy after 16-26 weeks. Dermal necrosis develops at this time after high doses. A second phase of dermal thinning is seen to develop after greater than 52 weeks, and this later phase of damage is associated with the appearance of telangiectasia. Highly localized irradiation of the skin, either to a specific layer (as may result from exposure to very low energy beta-emitters) or after exposure to small highly radioactive particles, 'hot particles', produces gross effects that become visibly manifest within 2 weeks of exposure. These changes result from the direct killing of the cells of the skin in interphase after doses greater than 100 Gy. Dose-effect curves have been established for the majority of

  8. Schistosoma mansoni Venom Allergen Like Proteins Present Differential Allergic Responses in a Murine Model of Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Leonardo Paiva; Rodrigues, Dunia; Cunna, Vinicius; Rofatto, Henrique Krambeck; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L.; Leite, Luciana C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Schistosoma mansoni Venom-Allergen-Like proteins (SmVALs) are members of the SCP/TAPS (Sperm-coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7) protein superfamily, which may be important in the host-pathogen interaction. Some of these molecules were suggested by us and others as potential immunomodulators and vaccine candidates, due to their functional classification, expression profile and predicted localization. From a vaccine perspective, one of the concerns is the potential allergic effect of these molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we characterized the putative secreted proteins SmVAL4 and SmVAL26 and explored the mouse model of airway inflammation to investigate their potential allergenic properties. The respective recombinant proteins were obtained in the Pichia pastoris system and the purified proteins used to produce specific antibodies. SmVAL4 protein was revealed to be present only in the cercarial stage, increasing from 0–6 h in the secretions of newly transformed schistosomulum. SmVAL26 was identified only in the egg stage, mainly in the hatched eggs' fluid and also in the secretions of cultured eggs. Concerning the investigation of the allergic properties of these proteins in the mouse model of airway inflammation, SmVAL4 induced a significant increase in total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, mostly due to an increase in eosinophils and macrophages, which correlated with increases in IgG1, IgE and IL-5, characterizing a typical allergic airway inflammation response. High titers of anaphylactic IgG1 were revealed by the Passive Cutaneous Anaphylactic (PCA) hypersensitivity assay. Additionally, in a more conventional protocol of immunization for vaccine trials, rSmVAL4 still induced high levels of IgG1 and IgE. Conclusions Our results suggest that members of the SmVAL family do present allergic properties; however, this varies significantly and therefore should be considered in the design of a schistosomiasis vaccine

  9. Cyclic nitroxide radicals attenuate inflammation and Hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Miri; Goldstein, Sara; Samuni, Amram; Berkman, Neville

    2015-10-01

    The effects of stable cyclic nitroxide radicals have been extensively investigated both in vivo and in vitro demonstrating anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, anti-mutagenic, age-retardant, hypotensive, anti-cancer and anti-teratogenic activities. Yet, these stable radicals have not been evaluated in asthma and other airway inflammatory disorders. The present study investigated the effect of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (TPL) and 3-carbamoyl-proxyl (3-CP) in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Both 3-CP and TPL were non-toxic when administered either orally (1% w/w nitroxide-containing chow) or via intraperitoneal (IP) injection (∼300 mg/kg). Feeding the mice orally demonstrated that 3-CP was more effective than TPL in reducing inflammatory cell recruitment into the airway and in suppressing airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in OVA-challenged mice. To characterize the optimal time-window of intervention and mode of drug administration, 3-CP was given orally during allergen sensitization, during allergen challenge or during both sensitization and challenge stages, and via IP injection or intranasal instillation for 3 days during the challenge period. 3-CP given via all modes of delivery markedly inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation, expression of cytokines, AHR and protein nitration of the lung tissue. Oral administration during the entire experiment was the most efficient delivery of 3-CP and was more effective than dexamethasone a potent corticosteroid used for asthma treatment. Under a similar administration regimen (IP injection before the OVA challenge), the effect of 3-CP was similar to that of dexamethasone and even greater on AHR and protein nitration. The protective effect of the nitroxides, which preferentially react with free radicals, in suppressing the increase of main asthmatic inflammatory markers substantiate the key role played by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the molecular mechanism of

  10. Divergent effects of urban particulate air pollution on allergic airway responses in experimental asthma: a comparison of field exposure studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increases in ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PM2.5 derived from two distinct urban U.S. communities would induce variable responses to aggravate airway symptoms during experimental asthma. Methods We used a mobile laboratory to conduct community-based inhalation exposures to laboratory rats with ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease. In Grand Rapids exposures were conducted within 60 m of a major roadway, whereas the Detroit was located in an industrial area more than 400 m from roadways. Immediately after nasal allergen challenge, Brown Norway rats were exposed by whole body inhalation to either concentrated air particles (CAPs) or filtered air for 8 h (7:00 AM - 3:00 PM). Both ambient and concentrated PM2.5 was assessed for mass, size fractionation, and major component analyses, and trace element content. Sixteen hours after exposures, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung lobes were collected and evaluated for airway inflammatory and mucus responses. Results Similar CAPs mass concentrations were generated in Detroit (542 μg/m3) and Grand Rapids (519 μg/m3). Exposure to CAPs at either site had no effects in lungs of non-allergic rats. In contrast, asthmatic rats had 200% increases in airway mucus and had more BALF neutrophils (250% increase), eosinophils (90%), and total protein (300%) compared to controls. Exposure to Detroit CAPs enhanced all allergic inflammatory endpoints by 30-100%, whereas inhalation of Grand Rapids CAPs suppressed all allergic responses by 50%. Detroit CAPs were characterized by high sulfate, smaller sized particles and were derived from local combustion sources. Conversely Grand Rapids CAPs were derived primarily from motor vehicle sources. Conclusions Despite inhalation exposure to the same mass concentration of urban PM2.5, disparate health

  11. Sympathetic skin response: basic mechanisms and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, Robert; Liguori, Rocco; Cortelli, Pietro; Montagna, Pasquale

    2003-08-01

    Sympathetic skin response (SSR), defined as the momentary change of the electrical potential of the skin, may be spontaneous or reflexively evoked by a variety of internal or by externally applied arousal stimuli. Although the suprasegmental structures influencing the SSR in humans are not well known, SSR has been proposed as a non-invasive approach to investigate the function of the sympathetic system. SSR is easy to apply but current procedures are not sufficiently reliable for diagnostic purposes, and show imperfect correlations both with clinical features and other measurements of autonomic, in particular, sudomotor dysfunction. PMID:12955550

  12. Acute and chronic exposure to Tyrophagus putrescentiae induces allergic pulmonary response in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Nailê Karine; dos Santos Dutra, Moisés; Barbosa, Gustavo Leivas; Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; de Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; Vargas, Mauro Henrique Moraes; Antunes, Géssica Luana; Silveira, Josiane Silva; da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-01-01

    Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) is a source of aeroallergen that causes allergic diseases. Objective To describe an acute and chronic murine model of allergic asthma with Tp extract with no systemic sensitization and no use of adjuvant. Methods Mites from dust sample were cultured and a raw extract was produced. Female BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks) were challenged intranasally with Tp extract or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline, for 10 consecutive days (acute protocol) or for 6 weeks (chronic protocol). Twenty-four hours after the last intranasal challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed for total and differential cells count, cytokine analysis, and eosinophil peroxidase activity. Lung tissue was also removed for histopathologic analysis. Results Tp extract has shown a significant increase in total cells count from BALF as well as an increase in absolute eosinophils count, eosinophil peroxidase activity, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 levels, in both acute and chronic protocols. Peribronchovascular infiltrate, goblet cells hyperplasia and collagen deposition were shown in the airways of acute and chronic Tp-exposed mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that the intranasal exposure to Tp extract, with no systemic sensitization and no use of adjuvants, induces a robust allergic inflammation in the lungs of mice, in both acute and chronic models. Our Tp extract seems to be a potent allergen extract which may be used in asthma model studies. PMID:26844220

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Loranthus parasiticus on IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses in RBL-2H3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Kim, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    The mistletoe Loranthus parasiticus has been used as a compound for traditional medicine in Northeast Asia for a long time and is known to possess neuroprotective action. Nonetheless, the effect of Loranthus parasiticus on allergic responses remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated whether the water extract of Loranthus parasiticus (LPE) could inhibit IgE-mediated allergic responses in RBL-2H3 cells. LPE inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 184.5 μg/mL) and the formation of tumor necrosis factor-α (IC50, 84.27 μg/mL), interleukin-4 (IC50, 93.43 μg/mL), prostaglandin E2 (IC50, 84.10 μg/mL), prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene C4 (IC50, 43.27 μg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPE inhibited phosphorylation of Syk, PLCγ1/2, PKCδ, ERK, JNK, p38, and Akt. In the late phase, LPE decreased 5-lipoxygenase phosphorylation and COX-2 expression but not cPLA2 phosphorylation. Additionally, LPE included total phenolic compounds (10.72 mg/g dry weight) and total flavonoids (56.20 mg/g dry weight). These results suggest that the phenolic compounds or flavonoids contained in LPE may be associated with antiallergic activity. The phenolic compounds and flavonoids in LPE are antiallergic phytochemicals capable of inhibiting the activation of the FcεRI signaling cascade in mast cells. Such effects may provide further information for the development of a phytomedicine for allergic diseases. PMID:27761061

  14. RELATIVE POTENCY OF MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Mold has been associated with the exacerbation of allergic asthma. However, its role in induction of allergic asthma is not clear. Using a previously developed mouse model for allergic asthma, we compared potencies of two fungal extracts (Metarhizium anisop...

  15. Inspiration-induced vascular responses in finger dorsum skin.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Groseclose, Edye E

    2002-03-01

    A rapid and deep inspiration triggers a sympathetically mediated transient vasoconstriction of skin arterioles (inspiratory gasp vascular response, IGVR). Because the IGVR has been most often measured and studied in skin that is rich in arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs), such as the palmar aspect of the distal phalanx or plantar aspect of the toes, there is little information on its features in skin areas not dominated by thermoregulatory AVAs. Thus, the dependence of the magnitude of the IGVR on AVAs is unclear. We reasoned that if responses in a region of low AVA density, such as the finger dorsum distal phalanx, were comparable to those in AVA-rich skin, this would clarify the issue. Further, it might then be possible to use such areas to provide a useful complementary target for future study of sympathetically induced vasoconstriction. To test this, we determined the features of the finger dorsum IGVR in 28 healthy volunteers (age 19-57 years, 14 males) in whom distal phalanx skin blood perfusion (SBF) was monitored by laser-Doppler during 21 sequential IGVRs, each separated by 2 min. IGVR was quantified as the minimum SBF during each IGVR, expressed as a percentage of each immediately preceding 2-min SBF average. Results (mean +/- SD) revealed an overall IGVR of 72.2 +/- 16.7%, which is very near that reported from studies on the AVA-rich palmar finger pad. We therefore conclude that the IGVR does not depend on the presence of AVAs and that the dorsal distal phalanx is a viable alternative for the study of sympathetically related neurovascular responses. PMID:11866546

  16. A randomized controlled study of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT): clinical desensitization and modulation of the allergic response

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kemper, Alex; Steele, Pamela; Hiegel, Anne; Kamilaris, Janet; Carlisle, Suzanne; Yue, Xiaohong; Kulis, Mike; Pons, Laurent; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Background Open-label oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols have been used to treat small numbers of patients with peanut allergy. Peanut OIT has not been evaluated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of OIT for peanut allergy in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods In this multicenter study, peanut-allergic children ages 1-16 years received OIT with peanut flour or placebo. Initial escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases were followed by an oral food challenge at approximately one year. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT) and laboratory studies were performed at regular intervals. Results Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. Three peanut OIT subjects withdrew early in the study due to allergic side effects. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, all remaining peanut OIT subjects (N=16) ingested the maximum cumulative dose of 5000 mg (approximately 20 peanuts), while placebo subjects (N=9) ingested a median cumulative dose of 280 mg (range, 0-1900 mg) [p<0.001]. In contrast to the placebo group, the peanut OIT group showed reductions in SPT size (p<0.001), IL-5 (p=0.01), and IL-13 (p=0.02) and increases in peanut-specific IgG4 (p<0.001). Peanut OIT subjects had initial increases in peanut-specific IgE (p<0.01) but did not show significant change from baseline by the time of OFC. The ratio of FoxP3 hi: FoxP3 intermediate CD4+CD25+ T cells increased at the time of OFC (p=0.04) in peanut OIT subjects. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate that peanut OIT induces desensitization and concurrent immune modulation. The present study continues and is evaluating the hypothesis that peanut OIT causes long-term immune tolerance. PMID:21377034

  17. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  18. Intact electrodermal skin conductance responses after bilateral amygdala damage.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the amygdala is a crucial component of the anatomical network that mediates the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR). In this study, the electrodermal activity of a patient whose entire amygdaloid complex had been destroyed bilaterally, and of 7 age- and gender-matched controls, was recorded under the same experimental conditions. The results indicate unequivocally that the subject could generate normal skin conductance and SCORs, in response to stimuli of different sensory modalities and configurations. This suggests that the amygdala is not a necessary component of the neural network underlying SCORs and that there are alternate neural units and pathways that link sensory cortices to autonomic effectors.

  19. Key Role of CRF in the Skin Stress Response System

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J.; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Rivier, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:23939821

  20. Key role of CRF in the skin stress response system.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Rivier, Jean

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  1. Pulmonary Allergic Responses Augment IL-13 Secretion by Circulating Basophils yet Suppress IFN-alpha from Plasmacytoid DCs

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, John T.; Bieneman, Anja P.; Chichester, Kristin L.; Breslin, Linda; Xiao, HuiQing; Liu, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic inflammatory processes may have the capacity to propagate systemically through the actions of circulating leukocytes. Consequently, basophils from allergic individuals are often “primed”, as evidenced by their hyper-responsiveness in vitro. IFN-α, secreted predominately by plasmacytoid DCs, suppresses basophil priming for IL-13 production in vitro. Objective This study sought in vivo correlates, arising during experimental allergen challenge, that support an “axis-interplay” between basophils and pDCs. Methods Using segmental allergen challenge in the lung, the immune responses of both cell types from blood were investigated in volunteers (n=10) before and 24h after allergen exposure. These responses were then correlated with inflammatory parameters measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Results In blood, segmental allergen challenge significantly augmented IL-13 secretion by basophils induced by IL-3 (p=0.009) yet reduced IFN-α secreted by plasmacytoid dendritic cells stimulated with CpG (p=0.018). Both parameters were negatively correlated (p=0.0015), at least among those subjects secreting the latter. Circulating basophil IL-13 responses further correlated with post-segmental allergen challenge bronchoalveolar lavage parameters including IL-13 protein (p=0.04), basophil (p=0.051), eosinophil (p=0.0018) and total cell counts (p<0.003). Basophil and IL-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage likewise correlated (p=0.0002). Conclusions These results support a mechanism of immune regulation whereby allergen reduces innate immune responses and IFN-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, resulting in enhanced inflammation and basophil cytokine production at sites of allergen exposure. PMID:20184608

  2. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  3. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.05), and eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration and edema were significantly reduced or absent in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues (P < 0.05) in the combined 0.1% anti-IL-1β- and TNF-α IgY-treated guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  4. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  6. Fungi responsible for skin mycoses in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Filipello Marchisio, V; Preve, L; Tullio, V

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency of skin mycoses, coupled with changes in the epidemiology and distribution of the species responsible. Periodic epidemiological analyses of these disease are thus required to ensure their efficacious control. Hair fragments, skin scrapings, specimens from vesicles and blisters and nail parings were seeded on Petri dishes loaded with Sabouraud or Mycosel agar, supplemented with chloramphenicol and with chloramphenicol plus cycloheximide respectively. Parts of each specimen were also mounted in 10% potassium hydroxide for examination under the microscope. Yeasts prevailed over dermatophytes. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte, followed by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Tinea corporis was the most common mycosis, followed by tinea unguis, tinea capitis and tinea pedis. Men were chiefly bearers of tinea cruris and tinea pedis, women of tinea corporis, and children and teenagers of tinea capitis. Some examples of the transmission of infection through interhuman contact, via animals and from the soil are also presented.

  7. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  8. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-08-28

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 % soyabean oil diet before and during oral sensitisation with whey or whey hyperimmune serum transfer. Another group of mice received partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) while being fed the diets before oral sensitisation. The acute allergic skin response, serum Ig level, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) concentration and/or splenic T-cell percentages were determined upon whey challenge. When the diets were provided before and during oral sensitisation, the acute allergic skin response was increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Whey IgE and IgG1 levels remained unaltered, whereas mMCP-1 levels increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet. Furthermore, allergic symptoms were increased in naive mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet and sensitised with whey hyperimmune serum. In addition to enhancing the mast cell response, the 10 % soyabean oil diet increased the percentage of activated Th1 and Th2 cells as well as increased the ratios of Th2:regulatory T cells and Th2:Th1 when compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Oral tolerance induction by pWH was abrogated in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with those fed the 7 % soyabean oil diet during pretreatment with pWH. In conclusion, increased intake of soyabean oil rich in n-6 PUFA suppresses tolerance induction by pWH and enhances the severity of the allergic effector response in whey-allergic mice. Dietary vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA may enhance the susceptibility to develop or sustain food allergy.

  9. Skin vasodilator response to local heating in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Asahina, Masato; Mathias, Christopher J; Akaogi, Yuichi; Koyama, Yu; Hattori, Takamichi

    2007-12-01

    Local heating of nonglabrous skin increases skin blood flow (SkBF) in two phases. The initial peak (P1) is mediated by a sensory-axon reflex and the plateau phase (P2) by local production of substances such as nitric oxide. We evaluated the SkBF response to local heating in 15 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients with autonomic failure and 12 age-matched healthy controls. The mean ratio of SkBF at P1 to that at baseline (SkBF(P1)/SkBF(base) ratio) in MSA was significantly lower than that in controls (P < 0.01). The mean ratio of SkBF at P2 seemed to be slightly reduced in the MSA patients, compared with controls, although there was no significant difference. The P1 phase is thought to be mediated by a sensory-axon reflex modulated by sympathetic nerve activity. These findings are indicative of the skin sympathetic vasomotor dysfunction in MSA.

  10. Sympathetic Skin Response and Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Alireza; Roshanzamir, Sharareh; Bemana, Ghahraman; Mohammadi, Azam; Jahani, Navid; Naseri, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. A pivotal role of the sympathetic nervous system in bone remodeling has been considered. On the other hand, elevated central sympathetic activation in postmenopausal women is involved in the creation of vasomotor symptoms. Also, sympathetic skin response (SSR) has been performed for evaluation of the peripheral and central autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Therefore, to determine the association of the autonomic nervous system and osteoporosis, we evaluated the correlation between the bone mineral density (BMD) with the frequency of vasomotor symptoms and also sympathetic skin responses. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in which thirty-three postmenopausal osteoporosis women, as the case group, and 31 age-matched postmenopausal women with normal BMD, as the control group, were included in our study. To evaluate the autonomic function, we assessed the frequency of vasomotor symptoms with a questionnaire and performed SSR test for the two groups. According to the parametrical or the nonparametrical distribution of the data, Independent Samples t-test or Mann Whitney test, respectively, were used to compare group differences. Results The onset latencies of SSR recorded from both hands and feet were significantly prolonged in the case group compared with the control group (P<0.001). Amplitudes of SSR in the case group were significantly less than those of the control group (P<0.001). The postmenopausal osteoporotic women reported a significantly higher frequency of hot flashes and night sweats when compared with non-osteoporotic women (P<0.001). Conclusion The higher frequency of vasomotor symptoms and impaired sympathetic skin responses in postmenopausal osteoporotic women suggests a role of autonomic dysfunction in osteoporosis. PMID:26171411

  11. Some relationships between punishment, stuttering, and galvanic skin responses.

    PubMed

    Reed, C G; Lingwall, J B

    1976-06-01

    The simultaneous effects of response-contingent punishment on stuttering behaviors and the frequency of galvanic skin response (GSR) deflections for 10 subjects were investigated. GSR's and stuttering responses were recorded during base rate, treatment, and extinction conditions. The subjects demonstrated a 50% or greater decrease in stuttering frequency during the treatment condition. Combined data for all subjects indicated that the mean frequency of GSR deflections remained stable or declined across conditions of the study. Analysis of individual data revealed that GSR deflections during treatment as compared with base rate increased for four subjects, remained essentially the same in two subjects, and decreased for four subjects. These results suggest that experimental procedures which result in functional punishment effects on stuttering frequency may not be associated with any predictable pattern on concomitant autonomic arousal. PMID:979195

  12. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  13. Comparison of skin stripping, in vitro release, and skin blanching response methods to measure dose response and similarity of triamcinolone acetonide cream strengths from two manufactured sources.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Bakhtian, Shahrzad; Poncelet, Craig E; Corlett, Judy L; Shah, Vinod P

    2002-05-01

    The collective studies compare in vitro drug release, in vivo skin stripping, and skin blanching response methods for dose responsiveness and bioequivalence assessment of triamcinolone acetonide cream products, as a function of application duration, drug concentration, and manufacturer source. Commercially available triamcinolone acetonide creams (0.025%, 0.1%, and 0.5%) from two manufacturers were evaluated in vitro for rate and extent of drug release across synthetic membranes and in vivo for rate, extent, and variability of drug uptake into human stratum corneum and skin blanching response in human forearm skin. Data demonstrate that increasing triamcinolone acetonide cream concentration applied increased the rate and extent of drug released in vitro as well as the extent of drug uptake and skin blanching response in human skin in vivo. No difference (p < 0.05) between the two sources of 0.1% or 0.5% creams was measured by the skin stripping or skin blanching response methods. Dermatopharmacokinetic analysis of triamcinonide acetonide in vivo is therefore dose responsive to drug concentration applied and application duration and agrees with in vivo skin blanching results. Data support the use of dermatopharmacokinetic methods for bioequivalence and bioavailability assessment of topical drug products.

  14. Tropomyosin sensitization in house dust mite allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Gröger, Moritz; Canis, Martin; Pfrogner, Elisabeth; Kramer, Matthias F

    2012-04-01

    The growing popularity and frequency of consumption of seafood is accompanied by an increasing number of adverse reactions reported in literature. Allergic reactions to seafood can generate a variety of symptoms ranging from a mild oral allergy syndrome to keen anaphylactic reactions. Tropomyosin, the major shellfish allergen is regarded to be responsible for clinical cross-reactivity to inhaled house dust mites. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria and to compare the results with allergic symptoms. Sera of house dust mite allergic patients (positive skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE and intranasal provocation) were screened for IgE antibodies to tropomyosin (Der p 10). Patients were contacted by phone to evaluate allergic symptoms when consuming seafood. IgE antibodies to house dust mite tropomyosin (Der p 10) could be found in 4 out of 93 sera (4.3%). Two of these four patients (50%) showed itching and swelling of oral mucosa accompanied by bronchial obstruction after consumption of shrimp. Two patients had no problems when eating seafood. None of the seronegative patients complained about any health problems during or after consumption of seafood. In conclusion, cross-reactivity to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria, Germany is rarer than suspected. Beside the direct allergic reactions, a further part of reactions to seafood must therefore be ascribed to other mechanisms such as intoxication or intolerance to, e.g. additives in the food product.

  15. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; Vargiolu, R.; Zahouani, H.; El Mansori, M.

    2011-08-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  16. The Herbal Medicine KIOM-MA128 Inhibits the Antigen/IgE-Mediated Allergic Response in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Gun; Yoo, Jae Myung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    KIOM-MA128, a novel herbal medicine, has been reported to exert some beneficial effects on various biological events, such as atopic dermatitis, inflammation and cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate how KIOM-MA128 regulates the allergic response. We measured the activity of β-hexosaminidase and the levels of allergic mediators in the conditioned media of antigen/IgE (Ag/IgE)-activated RBL-2H3 mast cells. We examined the levels of proteins associated with both the FcεRI and arachidonate cascades. Finally, we established the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model in mice to confirm the anti-allergic effects of KIOM-MA128 in vivo. KIOM-MA128 dose-dependently inhibited degranulation and the production of the allergic mediators described above, with no significant cytotoxicity. In the arachidonate cascade, KIOM-MA128 significantly reduced both cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Moreover, in the FcεRI cascade, KIOM-MA128 not only inhibited activation of LYN, FYN and SYK, known as the rate-limiting proteins of the FcεRI cascade, but also suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK, which is related to cytokine expression. Finally, 50 to 100 mg/kg KIOM-MA128 significantly attenuated the Ag/IgE-induced PCA reaction in mice. These findings provide novel information and improve our understanding of the anti-allergic effects of KIOM-MA128 on allergic diseases. PMID:27527133

  17. RELATIVE POTENCY OF FUNGAL EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. However, relative potency of molds in the induction of allergic asthma is not clear. In this study, we tested the relative potency of fungal extracts (Metarizium anisophilae [MACA], Stachybotrys ...

  18. Assessment of Bet v 1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in allergic and nonallergic individuals using MHC class II peptide tetramers.

    PubMed

    Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Wambre, Erik; Maillère, Bernard; von Hofe, Eric; Louise, Anne; Balazuc, Anne Marie; Bohle, Barbara; Ebo, Didier; Leboulaire, Christophe; Garcia, Gilles; Moingeon, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we used HLA-DRB1*0101, DRB1*0401, and DRB1*1501 peptide tetramers combined with cytokine surface capture assays to characterize CD4(+) T cell responses against the immunodominant T cell epitope (peptide 141-155) from the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, in both healthy and allergic individuals. We could detect Bet v 1-specific T cells in the PBMC of 20 birch pollen allergic patients, but also in 9 of 9 healthy individuals tested. Analysis at a single-cell level revealed that allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells from healthy individuals secrete IFN-gamma and IL-10 in response to the allergen, whereas cells from allergic patients are bona fide Th2 cells (producing mostly IL-5, some IL-10, but no IFN-gamma), as corroborated by patterns of cytokines produced by T cell clones. A fraction of Bet v 1-specific cells isolated from healthy, but not allergic, individuals also expresses CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor, and Foxp 3, indicating that they represent regulatory T cells. In this model of seasonal exposure to allergen, we also demonstrate the tremendous dynamics of T cell responses in both allergic and nonallergic individuals during the peak pollen season, with an expansion of Bet v 1-specific precursors from 10(-6) to 10(-3) among circulating CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Allergy vaccines should be designed to recapitulate such naturally protective Th1/regulatory T cell responses observed in healthy individuals.

  19. VARIATIONS IN PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW MEASUREMENTS ASSOCIATED TO AIR POLLUTION AND ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN CHILDREN IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de M Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie; Claudio, Luz; Imazawa, Alice Takimoto; Eluf-Neto, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of allergic respiratory diseases worldwide and exposure to air pollution has been discussed as one of the factors associated with this increase. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air pollution on peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 in children with and without allergic sensitization. Methods Ninety-six children were followed from April to July, 2004 with spirometry measurements. They were tested for allergic sensitization (IgE, skin prick test, eosinophilia) and asked about allergic symptoms. Air pollution, temperature and relative humidity data were available. Results Decrements in PEF were observed with previous 24-h average exposure to air pollution, as well as with 3 to 10 day average exposure and were associated mainly with PM10, NO2 and O3. in all three categories of allergic sensitization. Even though allergic sensitized children tended to present larger decrements in the PEF measurements they were not statistically different from the non-allergic sensitized. Decrements in FEV1 were observed mainly with previous 24-h average exposure and 3-day moving average. Conclusions Decrements in PEF associated with air pollution were observed in children independent from their allergic sensitization status. Their daily exposure to air pollution can be responsible for a chronic inflammatory process that might impair their lung growth and later their lung function in adulthood. PMID:22544523

  20. [Anthocyanidin inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in mast cells].

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Ri; Hong, Hai; Jin, Guang-Yu; Li, Ying-Zhe; Li, Guang-Zhao; Yan, Guang-Hai

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate the anti-allergic effect of anthocyanidin and to explore its possible mechanism. The experiments of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction (PCA) and colorimetry were used to determine the effect of anthocyanidin on degranulation of mast cells in vivo. For in vitro study, various concentrations of anthocyanidin (100, 50 and 25 micromol x L(-1)) were added to the culture medium of mast cells cultured with 100 microg x L(-1) of dinitrophenyl (DNP) specific IgE overnight. The azelastine (100 micromol x L(-1)) was selected as the positive control. The antigen (DNP-human serum albumin, DNP-HAS)-induced release of degranulation was measured by enzymatic assay, histamine was determined by EIA, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured by Western blotting, separately. In addition, the effects of anthocyanidin on phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, p38MAPK and Akt were observed by Western blotting. The results showed that treatments with anthocyanidin (100 and 50 mg x kg(-1)) were followed by a decrease in PCA of rats. Anthocyanidin (100 and 50 micromol x L(-1)) obviously suppressed the degranulation from mast cells, whereas results from anthocyanidin (100 and 50 micromol x L(-1)) group indicated significant inhibitory effect on histamine, the calcium uptake, TNF-alpha, IL-6, phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, p38MAPK and Akt of mast cells induced by antigen. Anthocyanidin may suppress the anaphylactic reaction by inhibiting the action of mast cells. NF-kappaB, p38MAPK and Akt at least in part contribute to this event. PMID:22493802

  1. Novel phenotype in beagle dogs characterized by skin response to compound 48/80 focusing on skin mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Fumi; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Yoko; Kurosawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Beagle dogs have long been employed in toxicology studies and as skin disease models. Compared with other experimental animal species, they are known to be susceptible to skin responses, such as rashes, from exposure to various chemical compounds. Here, a unique dog phenotype was identified that showed no skin response to compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent. Although the skin responses to intradermal injection of polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative (HCO-60, a nonionic detergent), histamine dihydrochloride, concanavalin A (IgE receptor-mediated stimuli), or calcium ionophore A23187 were comparable in wild-type (WT) dogs and these nonresponder (NR) dogs, only the response to compound 48/80 was entirely absent from NR dogs. The skin mast cell density and histamine content per mast cell were histologically comparable between WT and NR dogs. By checking for skin responses to compound 48/80, NR dogs were found to exist at the proportion of 17-20% among four animal breeders. From retrospective analysis of in-house breeding histories, the NR phenotype appears to conform to the Mendelian pattern of recessive inheritance. The standard skin response in WT dogs developed at 2-4 months of age. In conclusion, this unique phenotype, typified by insensitivity in the compound 48/80-induced degranulation pathway in mast cells, has been widely retained by recessive inheritance in beagle dogs among general experimental animal breeders. The knowledge concerning this phenotype could lead to better utilization of dogs in studies and aid in model development. PMID:26062768

  2. Improved electrode paste provides reliable measurement of galvanic skin response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    High-conductivity electrode paste is used in obtaining accurate skin resistance or skin potential measurements. The paste is isotonic to perspiration, is nonirritating and nonsensitizing, and has an extended shelf life.

  3. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  4. Palmar skin blood flow and temperature responses throughout endoscopic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Meyer, Dan M; Davis, Scott L; Dellaria, Suzanne M

    2005-01-01

    Thoracic surgical sympathectomy is often performed to treat primary palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. An increase in palmar skin temperature is frequently used to identify the success of the procedure. Because changes in palmar skin temperature occur secondary to changes in skin blood flow, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that monitoring palmar skin blood flow would provide greater temporal resolution relative to monitoring palmar skin temperature. In 11 patients with palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis, we measured palmar skin temperature and blood flow (via laser Doppler flowmetry) throughout the sympathectomy procedure. Five minutes after the initial cautery, skin blood flow increased from 48 +/- 7 perfusion units to 121 +/- 17 perfusion units (P <0.001), whereas no significant change in temperature was observed (31.0 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C to 31.3 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C; P >0.05). The time required to reach peak skin blood flow (22 +/- 3 min) was significantly less than the time required to reach peak skin temperature (34 +/- 0.3 min; P <0.001). Finally at 5, 10, and 15 min after the initial cautery, skin blood flow increased to a larger percentage of the total increase in skin blood flow relative skin temperature (all P <0.006). These data suggest that monitoring skin blood flow provides greater temporal resolution when compared with monitoring skin temperature during thoracic sympathectomy. However, the initial cautery of the parietal pleura over the ganglion may result in increases in skin blood flow before physical disruption of the ganglion. This occurrence may limit the utility of skin blood-flow measurements in identifying the success of the procedure. PMID:15616091

  5. An evaluation of short-term corticosteroid response in perennial allergic rhinitis using histamine and adenosine monophosphate nasal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew M; Sims, Erika J; Orr, Linda C; Robb, Fiona; Lipworth, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of AMP nasal challenge as a measure of short-term treatment response in patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge has been shown to be a good inflammatory surrogate in the lower airways, but it has not been properly evaluated as a nasal challenge test. Methods Fourteen patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) were randomized to receive 2 weeks treatment with placebo (PL) or 200 µg intranasal mometasone furoate (MF) once daily in a randomized single-blind crossover study. AMP (25–800 mg ml−1) and histamine (0.25–8 mg ml−1) nasal challenge testing were performed after each treatment period with 30% decrease in minimal cross-sectional area (MCA). Domiciliary symptom data were collected. Results There was a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in PC30 MCA and nasal volume with AMP but not with histamine comparing MF vs PL. This amounted to a 2.8 (95% CI 1.5, 4.0) and 0.7 (95% CI −0.5, 1.9) doubling-dose change for AMP and histamine challenges, respectively. There were significant (P < 0.05) improvements in nasal symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions AMP nasal challenge using acoustic rhinometry may be a useful test to assess short-term treatment response in patient with PAR. PMID:12680883

  6. Carbon Nanofibers Have IgE Adjuvant Capacity but Are Less Potent Than Nanotubes in Promoting Allergic Airway Responses

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Mari; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Løvik, Martinus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the possible health impact of nanoparticles. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allergy-promoting capacity of four different carbon nanofiber (CNF) samples in an injection and an airway mouse model of allergy. Secondly, the potency of the CNF was compared to the previously reported allergy-promoting capacity of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the airway model. Ultrafine carbon black particles (ufCBP) were used as a positive control. Particles were given together with the allergen ovalbumin (OVA) either by subcutaneous injection into the footpad or intranasally to BALB/cA mice. After allergen booster, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were measured. In the airway model, inflammation was determined as influx of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages) and by mediators (MCP-1 and TNF-α present in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF)). CNF and CNT both increased OVA-specific IgE levels in the two models, but in the airway model, the CNT gave a significantly stronger IgE response than the CNF. Furthermore, the CNT and not the CNF promoted eosinophil lung inflammation. Our data therefore suggest that nanotube-associated properties are particularly potent in promoting allergic responses. PMID:24024193

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on Allergic Response and Its Relationship with In Vitro Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Chunqing; Ma, Na; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Pei; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Some studies reported that probiotic could relieve allergy-induced damage to the host, but how to get a useful probiotic is still a challenge. In this study, the protective effects of three lactic acid bacteria (La, Lp and Lc) were evaluated in a mouse model, and its relationship with the in vitro properties was analyzed. The in vitro results indicated that La with the capacity to inhibit IL-4 production could have a better anti-allergy effect in vivo than two others. However, the animal trials showed that all LAB strains could alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation. Among them, LAB strain Lp had a better effect in inhibiting allergic response through a modulation of Th1/Th2 balance and an increase of regulatory T cells. This difference could be explained by that different LAB strains have a strain-specific effect on gut microbiota closely associated with host immune responses. Finally, this study did not only obtain an effective anti-allergy probiotic strain via animal study, but also indicate that probiotic-induced effect on intestinal microbiota should be considered as an important screening index, apart from its inherent characteristics. PMID:27764153

  8. Sympathetic skin response in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Arunodaya, G R; Taly, A B; Swamy, H S

    1995-05-01

    Sympathetic skin response (SSR) is a recently described objective method of studying sudomotor sympathetic nerve function and has been studied in a variety of peripheral neuropathies. We report SSR changes in nine patients with acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). All had severe sensory and mild motor nerve conduction abnormalities; five had dysautonomia. SSR, elicited by electric shock and cough stimuli, was absent in three patients. Latency was normal in all when SSR was present. Two patients had SSR amplitude of 0.2 mV or less. Absence of SSR did not correlate with dysautonomia, absence of sensory nerve action potential or motor nerve conduction abnormalities. Follow up SSR studies revealed return of absent SSR in one patient over a period of 3 months, despite persistence of ataxia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SSR changes in ASAN.

  9. Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites Induces a Mixed-Type Allergic Response following Salivary Antigens Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Michele S.; Gomes, Eliane; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Mirotti, Luciana; Florsheim, Esther; Bizzarro, Bruna; Lino, Ciro N. R.; Maciel, Ceres; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Capurro, Margareth L.; Russo, Momtchilo

    2016-01-01

    Classical studies have shown that Aedes aegypti salivary secretion is responsible for the sensitization to mosquito bites and many of the components present in saliva are immunogenic and capable of inducing an intense immune response. Therefore, we have characterized a murine model of adjuvant-free systemic allergy induced by natural exposure to mosquito bites. BALB/c mice were sensitized by exposure to A. aegypti mosquito bites and intranasally challenged with phosphate-buffered saline only or the mosquito’s salivary gland extract (SGE). Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung were collected and evaluated for cellularity, histopathological analyses, cytokines and antibody determination. Respiratory pattern was analyzed by Penh measurements and tracheal segments were obtained to study in vitro reactivity to methacholine. BAL recovered from sensitized mice following challenge with SGE showed an increased number of eosinophils and Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Peribronchoalveolar eosinophil infiltration, mucus and collagen were also observed in lung parenchyma of sensitized mice, suggesting the development of a typical Th2 response. However, the antibody profile in serum of these mice evidenced a mixed-type response with presence of both, IgG1/IgE (Th2-related) and IgG2a (Th1-related) isotypes. In addition, changes in breathing pattern and tracheal reactivity to methacholine were not found. Taken together, our results show that A. aegypti bites trigger an atypical allergic reaction, with some classical cellular and soluble Th2 components in the lung, but also systemic Th1 and Th2 antibody isotypes and no change in either the respiratory pattern or the trachea responsiveness to agonist. PMID:27203689

  10. Skin sensitization in chemical risk assessment: report of a WHO/IPCS international workshop focusing on dose-response assessment.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, Henk; Cockshott, Amanda; Gebel, Tom; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; de Jong, Wim H; Matheson, Joanna; McGarry, Helen; Musset, Laurence; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Vickers, Carolyn

    2008-03-01

    An international workshop was held in 2006 to evaluate experimental techniques for hazard identification and hazard characterization of sensitizing agents in terms of their ability to produce data, including dose-response information, to inform risk assessment. Human testing to identify skin sensitizers is discouraged for ethical reasons. Animal-free alternatives, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships and in vitro testing approaches, have not been sufficiently developed for such application. Guinea pig tests do not generally include dose-response assessment and are therefore not designed for the assessment of potency, defined as the relative ability of a chemical to induce sensitization in a previously naive individual. In contrast, the mouse local lymph node assay does include dose-response assessment and is appropriate for this purpose. Epidemiological evidence can be used only under certain circumstances for the evaluation of the sensitizing potency of chemicals, as it reflects degree of exposure as well as intrinsic potency. Nevertheless, human diagnostic patch test data and quantitative elicitation data have provided very important information in reducing allergic contact dermatitis risk and sensitization in the general population. It is therefore recommended that clinical data, particularly dose-response data derived from sensitized patients, be included in risk assessment.

  11. Hyperhidrosis and sympathetic skin response in chronic alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, V; Eleopra, R; De Grandis, D

    1999-02-01

    Palmoplantar hyperhidrosis is frequently observed in patients with a clinical history of chronic abnormal alcoholic intake. It can be related to peripheral or central mechanisms such as abnormal spontaneous activity in peripheral damaged fibres; receptor hypersensitivity; compensatory incremented activity in segmentary anhidrosis; or impairment of central sweat control. With the aim of quantifying this phenomenon and of identifying its possible origin, sympathetic skin response (SSR) analysis was performed in 20 chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diffuse acral hyperhidrosis, compared with 30 normal subjects and 2 patients affected by primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (PPH). SSRs were recorded by disc electrodes place on the hands and feet, simultaneously. At the hand level two recording sites were selected: palm-dorsum proximally and ventral-dorsal tip of the third finger distally. Attention was paid to the number of SSR after a single endogenous or exogenous stimulus. The alcoholic patients were divided into two groups, with and without mild polyneuropathy. Both patient groups showed synchronous SSR at recording sites, with the same pattern and the normal delay between upper and lower arms. In the control group one response was generally related to a single stimulus; if more responses were elicited an evident adaptation was shown; in the two groups of patients an increase of the waves was observed in all the recording sites without any adaptation. The SSR profile described in alcoholic patients was observed also in PPH. The pattern of SSR waves in alcoholic patients seems to suggest a possible central origin of this type of hyperhidrosis. PMID:10212744

  12. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  13. The Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 Induces Different Responses in Dendritic Cells of Birch Pollen Allergic and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  14. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  15. [The role of oxidative stress in skin aging].

    PubMed

    Kozina, L S; Borzova, I V; Arutiunov, V A; Ryzhak, G A

    2012-01-01

    The review covers the literature proving that ROS formation in aging overbalances the antioxidant defense system potential of the skin structure (horny layer, epidermis and dermis). It has been shown that ROS are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory processes and allergic responses in the skin. The role of ROS and antioxidant systems in the cell-mediated responses associated with the MAP kinase activity in the skin is discussed. Special attention is paid to the ultraviolet irradiation exposure, which accounts for its genotoxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic effects on the skin.

  16. A quantitative structure activity/dose response relationship for contact allergic potential of alkyl group transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D W; Basketter, D A

    1990-11-01

    As part of the investigation of structure activity relationships in contact allergy, it has been shown that methyl transfer agents are capable of acting as skin sensitizers. This work has now been extended to a more general examination of alkyl transfer reactions. The modified single injection adjuvant test has been used to investigate the sensitization potential of C12, C16 and unsaturated C18 alkyl transfer agents. Dose responses to challenge and the patterns of cross-reactivity between these materials and methyl transfer agents have been studied. All alkyl transfer agents examined were potent sensitizers in the guinea pig. There was evidence of mutual cross-reactivity between all alkyl transfer agents examined (including methyl transfer agents). Analysis of the data in terms of a modified relative alkylation index showed evidence of an overload effect. The sensitization data has been accurately modelled using a mathematical equation. These results emphasize the possibilities for relating physicochemical parameters and skin sensitization potential. Further studies with alkyl transfer agents are in progress of amplify the observations and conclusions presented in this report. No in vitro model is available for the prediction of skin sensitization potential. Therefore an approach based on a model using physicochemical criteria is the most likely route to a reduced requirement for animal testing. PMID:1965716

  17. The skin: target organ in immunotoxicology of small-molecular-weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Baron, J

    2001-01-01

    Immunotoxicology studies two different effects of xenobiotics: immunosuppression and dysregulation of immune responses leading to hypersensitivity or autoimmunity. The skin is a major target organ of immunotoxicity which is provoked by small-molecular-weight compounds. Methods may be helpful for immunotoxicological investigations and screenings for adverse effects of xenobiotics which are used for diagnosis or studies on the pathophysiology of skin disorders such as allergic contact dermatitis, cutaneous drug-allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases of the skin. Examples include well-designed patch tests, assays involving antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, but also T lymphocytes, basophiles or keratinocytes.

  18. Impaired sympathetic skin response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bir, Levent Sinan; Ozkurt, Sibel; Daloğlu, Güner; Kurt, Tülay

    2005-12-01

    The sympathetic skin response (SSR) is considered as one of the indexes of autonomic nervous system functions, especially related with the sudomotor function of unmyelinated sympathetic fibers. SSRs are recorded as the potentials with biphasic or multiphasic waveforms by conventional electromyography. SSRs are evaluated by measuring latency (time from the stimulus to the onset), amplitude, and area (the space under the curve of the waveform). Although dysautonomia is a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as demonstrated by acetylcholine sweat-spot test, there are no data concerning SSR in COPD patients. In this study, we electrophysiologically investigated the sudomotor function of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with COPD. SSRs were recorded in 30 patients with COPD and 21 healthy volunteers. Normal responses were obtained from all subjects in the control group. No response was observed in three patients with COPD. The mean latency, amplitude and area values of the potentials recorded of the remaining 27 patients were compared to the control. The mean latency was longer (p<0.01) and the mean amplitude and area values were lower (p=0.012, p=0.021, respectively) in the patients compared to the control. We also demonstrated significant correlations between the latency, amplitude, or area values of the SSR and two parameters of pulmonary function tests forced expiratory volume one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and FEV1/FVC %. In conclusion, SSR is impaired in patients with COPD, which indicates the dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, the degree of impairment in SSR may reflect the severity of airway obstruction in patients with COPD. PMID:16272793

  19. PHENOTYPIC COMPARISON OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE IN THREE RAT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Brown Norway (BN) rats develop a robust response to antigens in the lung characterized by a large increase in allergen-specific immune function and pulmonary eosinophilia. The objective of this study was to investigate alternative models by determining if other rat s...

  20. Skin thermal response to sapphire contact and cryogen spray cooling: a comparative study based on measurements in a skin phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Jorge H.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Tanenbaum, B. S.; Anvari, Bahman

    2000-05-01

    Non-specific thermal injury to the epidermis may occur as a result of laser treatment of cutaneous hypervascular malformations (e.g. port wine stains) and other dermatoses. Methods to protect the epidermis from thermal injury include sapphire contact cooling (SCC) and cryogen spray cooling (CSC). Evaluation of the skin thermal response to either cooling method and better understanding of the heat transfer process at the skin surface are essential for further optimization of cooling technique during laser therapy. We present internal temperature measurements in an epoxy resin phantom in response to both SCC and CSC, and use the results in conjunction with a mathematical model to predict the temperature distributions within human skin. Based on our results, a conductive heat transfer process at the skin interface appears to be the primary mechanism for both SCC and CSC. In the case of CSC, 'film cooling' rather than 'evaporative cooling' seems to be the dominant mode during the spurt duration. Currently, due to the lower temperature of the cryogen film and its shorter time of application, CSC produces larger temperature reductions at the skin surface and smaller temperature reductions at depths greater than 200 micrometer (i.e., higher spatial selectivity) when compared to SCC. However, SCC can potentially induce temperature reductions comparable to those produced by CSC if a sapphire temperature similar to that for a cryogen could be achieved in practice.

  1. Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response.

    PubMed

    Armel, K Carrie; Ramachandran, V S

    2003-07-22

    Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, as indicated by subjective reports and SCR, if the real hand was simultaneously visible during stroking, or if the real hand was hidden but touched asynchronously. The fact that the illusion could be significantly diminished when the real hand was simultaneously visible suggests that the illusion and associated SCRs were due to perceptual assimilation of the table (or rubber hand) into one's body image rather than associative conditioning. These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain's remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input.

  2. Mast Cells and Influenza A Virus: Association with Allergic Responses and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amy C.; Temple, Rachel M.; Obar, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a widespread infectious agent commonly found in mammalian and avian species. In humans, IAV is a respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal infections associated with significant morbidity in young and elderly populations, and has a large economic impact. Moreover, IAV has the potential to cause both zoonotic spillover infection and global pandemics, which have significantly greater morbidity and mortality across all ages. The pathology associated with these pandemic and spillover infections appear to be the result of an excessive inflammatory response leading to severe lung damage, which likely predisposes the lungs for secondary bacterial infections. The lung is protected from pathogens by alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, tissue resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. The importance of mast cells during bacterial and parasitic infections has been extensively studied; yet, the role of these hematopoietic cells during viral infections is only beginning to emerge. Recently, it has been shown that mast cells can be directly activated in response to IAV, releasing mediators such histamine, proteases, leukotrienes, inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral chemokines, which participate in the excessive inflammatory and pathological response observed during IAV infections. In this review, we will examine the relationship between mast cells and IAV, and discuss the role of mast cells as a potential drug target during highly pathological IAV infections. Finally, we proposed an emerging role for mast cells in other viral infections associated with significant host pathology. PMID:26042121

  3. Periostin in skin tissue and skin-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yukie

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is not only involved in the maintenance of normal physiological tissue but also in interactions with other ECM components, tissue remodeling, and modulating immune responses. The skin provides a distinctive environment characterized by rich fibroblasts producing various ECM proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and immune responses induced by external stimuli. Recently, periostin-a matricellular protein-has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD), attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on allergic reactions and airway responsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Wu, Zhong-Xin; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M; Dey, Richard D; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in rats reduced OVA-induced airway inflammation. In the present study, Brown Norway rats were first sensitized to OVA (42.3 +/- 5.7 mg/m3) for 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15, then exposed to filtered air or DEP (22.7 +/- 2.5 mg/m3) for 4 h/day on days 24-28, and challenged with OVA on day 29. Airway responsiveness was examined on day 30, and animals were sacrificed on day 31. Ovalbumin sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils into the lung, elevated presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung draining lymph nodes, and increased production of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG. Diesel exhaust particles pre-exposure augmented OVA-induced production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG and pulmonary inflammation characterized by marked increases in T lymphocytes and infiltration of eosinophils after OVA challenge, whereas DEP alone did not have these effects. Although OVA-sensitized rats showed modest response to methacholine challenge, it was the combined DEP and OVA exposure that produced significant airway hyperresponsiveness in this animal model. The effect of DEP pre-exposure on OVA-induced immune responses correlated with an interactive effect of DEP with OVA on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells, NO levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the induction of inducible NO synthase expression in AM and ATII cells, and a depletion of total intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes. These results show that DEP pre-exposure exacerbates the allergic responses to the subsequent challenge with OVA in OVA-sensitized rats. This DEP effect may be, at least partially, attributed to the elevated generation of ROS in AM and ATII cells, a depletion of GSH in AM and

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from cardamom.

    PubMed

    Mobacken, H; Fregert, S

    1975-06-01

    A case is presented of a confectioner with a chronic hand dermatitis and positive patch test reactions to cardamom and certain terpenoid compounds present in the dried ripe seeds of cardamom. Cardamom is a popular traditional flavouring agent for baked goods and confectionery. Dermatitis from skin exposure to cardamom has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We report one case of allergic contact dermatitis to cardamom elicited by terpenes present in the seeds.

  6. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Costin, Gertrude-E; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-04-01

    All organisms, from simple invertebrates to complex human beings, exist in different colors and patterns, which arise from the unique distribution of pigments throughout the body. Pigmentation is highly heritable, being regulated by genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors that modulate the amount, type, and distribution of melanins in the skin, hair, and eyes. In addition to its roles in camouflage, heat regulation, and cosmetic variation, melanin protects against UV radiation and thus is an important defense system in human skin against harmful factors. Being the largest organ of the body that is always under the influence of internal and external factors, the skin often reacts to those agents by modifying the constitutive pigmentation pattern. The focus of this review is to provide an updated overview of important physiological and biological factors that increase pigmentation and the mechanisms by which they do so. We consider endocrine factors that induce temporary (e.g., during pregnancy) or permanent (e.g., during aging) changes in skin color, environmental factors (e.g., UV), certain drugs, and chemical compounds, etc. Understanding the mechanisms by which different factors and compounds induce melanogenesis is of great interest pharmaceutically (as therapy for pigmentary diseases) and cosmeceutically (e.g., to design tanning products with potential to reduce skin cancer risk). PMID:17242160

  7. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  8. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  9. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  10. Peanut proteins in periodate specific anion sensing: An ensuing reduction in allergic response.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Sen, Souvik; Majumdar, Dipanwita; Singha, Achintya; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-04-15

    Peanut proteins conarachin II, conarachin I and arachin were found to behave as highly selective fluorescence sensors for periodate amongst a set of different anions. The interactions of the proteins with periodate were also confirmed by other spectral methods and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicate a selective interaction of peanut proteins with periodate amongst chloride, sulphate, iodide, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, bromide, fluoride, persulphate, acetate, thiosulphate, arsenite, arsenate, sulphite, and iodide. Periodate sensing using different synthesized organic molecules are already reported in the literature. In this article we report the efficiency of peanut proteins as anion sensor which are bioactive and inexpensive too. The protein periodate interactions have also resulted in a simultaneous reduction in allergenicity of the peanut proteins. A change in the secondary structure of the protein was found responsible for this change which was further established with the help of circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3(+) T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  12. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  13. Allergen challenge induces Ifng dependent GTPases in the lungs as part of a Th1 transcriptome response in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Dharajiya, Nilesh; Vaidya, Swapnil; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2009-01-01

    According to the current paradigm, allergic airway inflammation is mediated by Th2 cytokines and pro-inflammatory chemokines. Since allergic inflammation is self-limited, we hypothesized that allergen challenge simultaneously induces anti-inflammatory genes to counter-balance the effects of Th2 cytokines and chemokines. To identify these putative anti-inflammatory genes, we compared the gene expression profile in the lungs of ragweed-sensitized mice four hours after challenge with either PBS or ragweed extract (RWE) using a micro-array platform. Consistent with our hypothesis, RWE challenge concurrently upregulated Th1-associated early target genes of the Il12/Stat4 pathway, such as p47 and p65 GTPases (Iigp, Tgtp and Gbp1), Socs1, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Gadd45g with the Th2 genes Il4, Il5, Ccl2 and Ccl7. These Th1-associated genes remain upregulated longer than the Th2 genes. Augmentation of the local Th1 milieu by administration of Il12 or CpG prior to RWE challenge further upregulated these Th1 genes. Abolition of the Th1 response by disrupting the Ifng gene increased allergic airway inflammation and abrogated RWE challenge-induced upregulation of GTPases, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Socs1, but not Gadd45g. Our data demonstrate that allergen challenge induces two sets of Th1-associated genes in the lungs: 1) Ifng-dependent genes such as p47 and p65 GTPases, Socs1, Cxcl9 and Cxcl10 and 2) Ifng-independent Th1-inducing genes like Gadd45g. We propose that allergen-induced airway inflammation is regulated by simultaneous upregulation of Th1 and Th2 genes, and that persistent unopposed upregulation of Th1 genes resolves allergic inflammation. PMID:20027288

  14. Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

  15. Inhibitory effects of mulberry fruit extract in combination with naringinase on the allergic response in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Kim, Na Yeon; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Hyung Don; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic action of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) or MFE in combination with naringinase (MFEN) in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-allergic effects of MFEN. β-hexosaminidase release assay was used to measure the amount of β-hexosaminidase released from the cells, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We found that MFE significantly reduced the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 10.59 mg/ml) and TNF-α (IC(50), 4.87 mg/ml). Moreover, MFEN enhanced the inhibitory effects on the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 123.10 µg/ml) and TNF-α (IC(50), 65.01 µg/ml). Furthermore, MFEN had no cytotoxicity at the concentration range used to exert the anti-allergic effects. In addition, we evaluated the effects of MFEN on the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MFEN markedly reduced the formation of PGD(2) (IC(50), 6.47 µg/ml) and LTC(4) (IC(50), 0.31 µg/ml), but not LTB(4) (IC(50), 25.75 µg/ml). In mechanistic analyses, we measured the phosphorylation of Syk, Lyn and Fyn by immunoblot analysis. MFEN significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not that of Lyn or Fyn. MFEN also suppressed the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2, protein kinase C (PKC)δ, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, JNK, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, these results suggest that MFEN exerts potent inhibitory effects on allergic response through the suppression of the activation of the FcεRI signaling cascade. Our data demonstrating the anti-allergic effects of MFEN may provide further

  16. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  17. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection associated with nodular skin lesions and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sa-Hee; Kang, Min-Hee; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old Pekingese dog with atopic dermatitis was referred due to pyrexia, multiple skin nodules, anorexia, and depression. The dog was diagnosed as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by bacterial dermatitis. This case presents diagnosis and treatment of SIRS with staphylococcal skin infection in a dog that was immunosuppressed due to long-term use of corticosteroid. PMID:24790236

  18. In vivo ozone exposure induces antioxidant/stress-related responses in murine lung and skin.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Pagnin, Elisa; Corbacho, Ana M; Olano, Estibaliz; Davis, Paul A; Packer, Lester; Cross, Carroll E

    2004-03-01

    Lung and skin are the organs directly exposed to environmental pollution. Ozone (O(3)) is a toxic, oxidant air pollutant, and exposure has been shown to induce antioxidant depletion as well as oxidation of lipids and proteins within the outermost skin layer (stratum corneum) and the lung respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs). To further define skin and lung responses to O(3) exposure, SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to either 0.8 ppm of O(3) (a level occasionally reached in very polluted areas) or ambient air 6 h/day for 6 consecutive days. O(3) exposure resulted in the depletion of alpha-tocopherol in lung and plasma and induction in both skin and lung of heme oxygenase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. O(3)-exposed animals showed a similar extent of upregulation of COX-2 and PCNA in lung and skin, whereas HO-1 was more responsive in skin than in lung (7-fold induction vs. 2-fold induction). In addition to these measures of response to oxidative stress, O(3) exposure led to the activation of nuclear factor kappaB measured as IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in both tissues. We conclude that in this model, O(3) at high pollutant levels is able to affect both lung and skin biology, inducing depletion of alpha-tocopherol and inducing stress-related responses in both skin epidermis and respiratory tract epithelium.

  19. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  20. Effect of skin wettedness on sweat gland response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of skin wettedness upon sweating rate. Several techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the quantitative nature of this effect. The results include the finding that the evaporative power of the environment has a profound effect on the relationship between body temperature and sweating rate.

  1. Comparative analysis of the acute response of zebrafish Danio rerio skin to two different bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Lü, Aijun; Hu, Xiucai; Wang, Yi; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aihua; Shen, Lulu; Ming, Qinglei; Feng, Zhaojun

    2013-12-01

    Skin is an important innate immune organ in fish; however, little is known about the skin's immune response to infectious pathogens. We conducted a comparative analysis of the acute immune response of Zebrafish Danio rerio skin against gram-positive (Staphylococcus chromogenes) and gram-negative (Citrobacter freundii) bacterial infections. Gene expression profiles induced from the two different infections were identified by microarray hybridization, with many genes demonstrating an acute immune response in the skin. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in response to stress and stimulus, complement activation, acute-phase response, and defense and immune response. Compared with transcription patterns of skin from the two infections, a similar innate immunity (e.g., transferrin, coagulation factor, complements, and lectins) was observed but with different acute-phase genes (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-microglobulin, vitellogenin, and heat shock protein). These results suggest that the skin of fish plays an important role in the innate immune responses to bacterial infection. PMID:24341765

  2. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  3. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  4. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  5. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  6. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  7. The inflammatory nature of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Durham, S R

    1998-12-01

    The allergic inflammatory response in allergic rhinitis has been studied extensively owing to the high frequency of the condition, the significant morbidity it causes and the accessibility of the nasal tissue. The allergic inflammatory response is characterized by IgE synthesis, IgE-dependent mast cell activation and infiltration of the nasal mucosa by T lymphocytes and eosinophils. The immediate-phase response is mediated by a range of inflammatory mediators (such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins), resulting in vasodilatation, oedema, mucus secretion, itching and sneezing. Individuals who experience a late-phase response have further nasal symptoms 4-24 h after the initial challenge with allergen. Results of nasal biopsy studies indicate that the late-phase allergic response involves T-lymphocyte activation, production of TH2-type cytokines and tissue eosinophilia. Corticosteroids potently inhibit T-lymphocyte responses, and clinical studies in subjects with allergic rhinitis have demonstrated that they are extremely effective in blocking both early- and late-phase allergic reactions. Topical aqueous triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray represents a novel formulation of a topical corticosteroid for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Data from controlled clinical studies indicate that it is effective in treating seasonal and perennial disease, is well tolerated, does not suppress adrenocortical function, is odourless, and can be administered as a once-daily dose. PMID:9988430

  8. The use of infrared thermography to detect the skin temperature response to physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity has a noticeable effect on skin blood flow and temperature. The thermal regulatory and hemodynamic processes during physical activity are controlled by two conflicting mechanisms: the skin vasoconstriction induced by the blood flow demand to active muscles and the skin vasodilation required by thermoregulation to increase warm blood flow and heat conduction to the skin. The time-evolution of skin temperature during exercise can give useful information about the adaptation of the subject as a function of specific type, intensity and duration of exercise. In this paper, infrared thermography is used to investigate the thermal response of skin temperature during running exercise on treadmill for a group of seven healthy and trained runners. Two different treadmill exercises are considered: a graded load exercise and a constant load exercise; for both exercises the duration was 30 minutes. Within the limits due to the relatively small size of the sample group, results typically indicate a fall in skin temperature during the initial stage of running exercise. As the exercise progresses, the dynamics of the skin temperature response depends on the type of exercise (graded versus constant load) and probably on the level of training of the subject.

  9. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  10. Differences in thermal optical response between intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-Jen; Hanna, Charles F.; Kantor, Stan; Hohs, Ronald; Khalil, Omar S.

    2003-07-01

    We observed a difference in the thermal response of localized reflectance signal of human skin between type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic volunteers. We investigated the use of this thermo-optical behavior as a basis for a non-invasive method for the determination of the diabetic status of a subject. We used a two-site temperature differential method, which is predicated upon the measurement of localized reflectance from two areas on the surface of the skin, each of these areas is subjected to a different thermal perturbation. The response of skin localized reflectance to temperature was measured and used in a classification algorithm. We used a discriminant function to classify subjects as diabetics or non-diabetics. In a prediction set of 24 non-invasive tests collected from 6 diabetics and 6 non-diabetics, the sensitivity ranged between 73% and 100%, and the specificity ranged between 75% and 100%, depending on the thermal conditions and probe-skin contact time. The difference in thermo-optical response of the skin of the two groups may be explained in terms of difference in response of cutaneous microcirculation to temperature, which is manifested as a difference in the near infrared light absorption and scattering. Another factor is the difference in the temperature response of the scattering coefficient between the two groups, which may be caused by cutaneous structural differences induced by non-enzymatic glycation of skin protein fibers, and/or by the difference in blood cell aggregation.

  11. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  12. CCR4 in human allergen-induced late responses in the skin and lung.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Wilson, Duncan; Francis, James N; Jopling, Louise A; Jacobson, Mikila R; Hodge, Martin R; Andrew, David P; Till, Stephen J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Williams, Timothy J; Pease, James E; Lloyd, Clare M; Sabroe, Ian; Durham, Stephen R

    2002-07-01

    We studied the regulation of CCR4 expression in peripheral blood and in human models of cutaneous and pulmonary allergen challenge. CCR4 expression was detectable on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes and in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines derived from blood of atopic donors. Numbers of CCR4+ cells were up-regulated in T cell lines expanded in the presence of IL-4. CCR4 mRNA was absent at baseline in normal subjects in lung and skin, but present at baseline in the lung of some atopics. Baseline expression of CCR4 mRNA and protein was higher in lung vs. skin, but allergen-induced increases in CCR4 mRNA+ cells were observed in both organs. CCR4 protein+ cells were present at higher levels after allergen challenge in atopics compared to normal subjects. CCR4 may be important in the recruitment of T lymphocytes at sites of allergic inflammation, in a non-organ-specific manner.

  13. Environmental Changes, Microbiota, and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified. PMID:25228995

  14. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  15. The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for monitoring response to therapy of skin malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Martina; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Summary Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new non-invasive imaging technique that enables visualizing cells and structures in living skin in real-time with resolution close to that of histological analysis. RCM has been successfully implemented in the assessment of benign and malignant lesions. Most importantly, it also enables monitoring dynamic changes in the skin over time and in response to different therapies, e.g., imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, and others. Given the often traumatic nature of skin cancer that affects both the physiology and the psychology of the patients, it is crucial to have methods that enable monitoring the response to treatment but that minimize the distress and discomfort associated with such process. This article provides a very brief overview of the fundamentals of RCM and then focuses on its recent employment as a monitoring tool in skin cancer and other pathologies that may require frequent follow-up. PMID:23785598

  16. Skin microbiome imbalance in patients with STAT1/STAT3 defects impairs innate host defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Riza, Anca; van de Veerdonk, Frank; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gevers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) are primary immunodeficiencies mainly caused by mutations in STAT1 and STAT3, respectively. CMC and HIES patients have an increased risk for skin and mucosal infections with fungal pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it is unknown whether the genetic defects in these patients also affect the skin and mucosal microbiome, which in turn may influence host defense mechanisms. Methods The skin and oral microbiome of CMC and HIES patients was compared to that of healthy controls at five body sites using 16S rRNA sequencing. The influence of skin colonizers on the immune response was investigated using in-vitro experiments. Results The microbiome of CMC and HIES patients contained more Gram-negative bacteria, especially Acinetobacter spp, and less of the normal Corynebacterium spp., compared to healthy controls. Exposure of human primary leukocytes to Acinetobacter suppressed the cytokine response to C. albicans and S. aureus, while the normal Corynebacteria did not suppress cytokine responses. Discussion These results demonstrate that central mediators of immune responses like STAT1 and STAT3 not only directly influence immune responses, but also result in changes of the skin microbiome that in turn can amplify the defective immune response against fungal and microbial pathogens. PMID:23796786

  17. Cassia tora Seed Extract and Its Active Compound Aurantio-obtusin Inhibit Allergic Responses in IgE-Mediated Mast Cells and Anaphylactic Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-10-21

    Cassia tora seed is widely used due to its various biological properties including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report of the effects of C. tora seed extract (CTE) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this research, we demonstrated the effects of CTE and its active compound aurantio-obtusin on IgE-sensitized allergic reactions in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed degranulation, histamine production, and reactive oxygen species generation and inhibited the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. CTE and aurantio-obtusin also suppressed the prostaglandin E2 production and expression of cyclooxygenase 2. Furthermore, CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed IgE-mediated FcεRI signaling such as phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase Cμ, phospholipase Cγ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. CTE and aurantio-obtusin blocked mast cell-dependent PCA in IgE-mediated mice. These results suggest that CTE and aurantio-obtusin are a beneficial treatment for allergy-related diseases. PMID:26434611

  18. The role of TRPV1 in the CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammatory response of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Samivel, Ramachandran; Kim, Dae Woo; Son, Hye Ran; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Hye; Bae, Jun-Sang; Chung, Young-Jun; Chung, Phil-Sang; Raz, Eyal; Mo, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which has been identified as a molecular target for the activation of sensory neurons by various painful stimuli, was reported to regulate the signaling and activation of CD4+ T cells. However, the role of TRPV1 in CD4+ T cell in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. In this study, TRPV1 expression was localized in CD4+ T cells. Both knockout and chemical inhibition of TRPV1 suppressed Th2/Th17 cytokine production in CD4 T cells and Jurkat T cells, respectively, and can suppress T cell receptor signaling pathways including NF-κB, MAP kinase, and NFAT. In TRPV1 knockout allergic rhinitis (AR) mice, eosinophil infiltration, Th2/Th17 cytokines in the nasal mucosa, and total and ova-specific IgE levels in serum decreased, compared with wild-type AR mice. The TRPV1 antagonists, BCTC or theobromine, showed similar inhibitory immunologic effects on AR mice models. In addition, the number of TRPV1+/CD4+ inflammatory cells increased in the nasal mucosa of patients with AR, compared with that of control subjects. Thus, TRPV1 activation on CD4+ T cells is involved in T cell receptor signaling, and it could be a novel therapeutic target in AR.

  19. The role of TRPV1 in the CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammatory response of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hye Ran; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Hye; Bae, Jun-Sang; Chung, Young-Jun; Chung, Phil-Sang; Raz, Eyal; Mo, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which has been identified as a molecular target for the activation of sensory neurons by various painful stimuli, was reported to regulate the signaling and activation of CD4+ T cells. However, the role of TRPV1 in CD4+ T cell in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. In this study, TRPV1 expression was localized in CD4+ T cells. Both knockout and chemical inhibition of TRPV1 suppressed Th2/Th17 cytokine production in CD4 T cells and Jurkat T cells, respectively, and can suppress T cell receptor signaling pathways including NF-κB, MAP kinase, and NFAT. In TRPV1 knockout allergic rhinitis (AR) mice, eosinophil infiltration, Th2/Th17 cytokines in the nasal mucosa, and total and ova-specific IgE levels in serum decreased, compared with wild-type AR mice. The TRPV1 antagonists, BCTC or theobromine, showed similar inhibitory immunologic effects on AR mice models. In addition, the number of TRPV1+/CD4+ inflammatory cells increased in the nasal mucosa of patients with AR, compared with that of control subjects. Thus, TRPV1 activation on CD4+ T cells is involved in T cell receptor signaling, and it could be a novel therapeutic target in AR. PMID:26700618

  20. Penaeus monodon tropomyosin induces CD4 T-cell proliferation in shrimp-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Delgado, Julio C; Ravkov, Eugene; Eckels, David D; Georgelas, Ann; Pavlov, Igor Y; Cusick, Matthew; Sebastian, Kate; Gleich, Gerald J; Wagner, Lori A

    2012-04-01

    Shellfish allergy affects approximately 2% of the population and can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, swelling, difficulty breathing, and, in some cases, anaphylaxis. Tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen and binds IgE in two-thirds of patients. A total of 38 shrimp-allergic patients and 20 negative control subjects were recruited and evaluated on the basis of history, skin prick testing, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to shrimp tropomyosin or shrimp tropomyosin-derived peptides. Of the classically allergic patients by history, 59% tested positive for serum shrimp IgE antibodies. Of patients with shrimp-specific IgE in sera, 70% also had significant IgE levels specific for shrimp tropomyosin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from classically shrimp-allergic patients proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in response to to tropomyosin. In addition, a T-cell line derived from a shrimp-allergic patient proliferated specifically in response to tropomyosin-derived peptides. These studies suggest a strategy for immunotherapy using a tropomyosin-derived T-cell epitope vaccination.

  1. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  2. Stuttered and Fluent Speakers' Heart Rate and Skin Conductance in Response to Fluent and Stuttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hudock, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found simultaneous increases in skin conductance response and decreases in heart rate when normally fluent speakers watched and listened to stuttered speech compared with fluent speech, suggesting that stuttering induces arousal and emotional unpleasantness in listeners. However, physiological responses of persons…

  3. Skin Conductance Responses to Another Person's Gaze in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of another person's gaze on physiological arousal were investigated by measuring skin conductance responses (SCR). Twelve able children with autism and 12 control children were shown face stimuli with straight gaze (eye contact) or averted gaze on a computer monitor. In children with autism, the responses to straight gaze were stronger…

  4. A suction blister model reliably assesses skin barrier restoration and immune response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-02-01

    Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24h after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4F) were 23 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (P<0.0001), 0.7 (P=0.008) and 0.9 (P<0.0001), respectively. When average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP (i.e., percent difference between sessions 1 and 2) were taken into consideration, correlations in

  5. A suction blister model reliably assesses skin barrier restoration and immune response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-02-01

    Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24h after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4F) were 23 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (P<0.0001), 0.7 (P=0.008) and 0.9 (P<0.0001), respectively. When average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP (i.e., percent difference between sessions 1 and 2) were taken into consideration, correlations in

  6. Nicotine increases initial blood flow responses to local heating of human non-glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Warner, David O; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2004-09-15

    Nicotine affects the regulation of skin blood flow (SkBF), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to nicotine inhibits both the initial neurally mediated component and the later sustained component of SkBF responses to local heating of non-glabrous skin in humans. SkBF (measured by laser-Doppler) responses to local heating of forearm skin from 32 to 42 degrees C were measured in 11 chronic smokers. Heating occurred at one site over 15 min (RAMP) and over 90 s (STEP) at another site, and was maintained for an additional 30 min. STEP heating was also applied to a site pretreated with bretylium via iontophoresis to inhibit noradrenergic neurotransmission. Responses were measured before and after acute administration of nicotine via cigarettes or nasal spray in two experimental sessions. Nicotine decreased resting skin blood flow (P < 0.05); this response was inhibited by bretylium. During RAMP, nicotine increased the initial SkBF at 42 degrees C (by approximately 12%, P < 0.05). For STEP, nicotine increased the initial peak response (by approximately 25%, P < 0.05), and decreased the sustained plateau value (by approximately 10%, P < 0.05). In skin pretreated with bretylium, the increase caused by nicotine in the initial peak value persisted, but the plateau value was not different from pre-nicotine. These data suggest that in abstinent cigarette smokers, nicotine augments initial responses to both gradual and rapid non-painful heating of non-glabrous skin by sensitizing the sensory nerves that mediate the axon reflex associated with rapid vasodilatation. In contrast, nicotine decreases SkBF responses to prolonged heating by activating noradrenergic nerves.

  7. Molecular genetic response to varied wavelengths of light in Xiphophorus maculatus skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.

  8. Synchronization of sacral skin blood flow oscillations in response to local heating.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yih-Kuen; Liao, Fuyuan

    2011-01-01

    Local heating causes an increase in skin blood flow by activating sensory axon reflex and metabolic nitric oxide controls. It has been observed that the remote skin area without temperature changes also shows a slightly increase in blood flow. The responsible mechanism of this indirect vasodilation remains unclear. We hypothesized that the remote skin area will have enhanced synchronization of blood flow oscillations (BFO), thus inducing a vasodilatory response. We studied BFO in two sites separated 10 cm of the sacral skin in 12 healthy people. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was used to decompose blood flow signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and an IMF was selected to quantify each of myogenic, neurogenic, and metabolic modes of BFO. Then the instantaneous phase of the mode was calculated using the Hilbert transform. From the time series of phase difference between a pair of characteristic modes, we detected the epochs of phase synchronization and estimated the level of statistical significance using surrogate time series. The results showed that phase synchronization between neurogenic BFO was significantly higher in the period of the maximal vasodilation. We also observed a weak synchronization between myogenic BFO of the two skin sites. Our results suggested that synchronization of BFO may be associated with the changes in skin blood flow at the non-heated site.

  9. Characterization of NLRP12 during the Development of Allergic Airway Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Irving C.; Lich, John D.; Arthur, Janelle C.; Jania, Corey M.; Roberts, Reid A.; Callaway, Justin B.; Tilley, Stephen L.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 22 members of the nucleotide binding-domain, leucine rich repeat-containing (NLR) family, less than half have been functionally characterized. Of those that have been well studied, most form caspase-1 activating inflammasomes. NLRP12 is a unique NLR that has been shown to attenuate inflammatory pathways in biochemical assays and mediate the lymph node homing of activated skin dendritic cells in contact hypersensitivity responses. Since the mechanism between these two important observations remains elusive, we further evaluated the contribution of NLRP12 to organ specific adaptive immune responses by focusing on the lung, which, like skin, is exposed to both exogenous and endogenous inflammatory agents. In models of allergic airway inflammation induced by either acute ovalbumin (OVA) exposure or chronic house dust mite (HDM) antigen exposure, Nlrp12−/− mice displayed subtle differences in eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the airways. However, the overall development of allergic airway disease and airway function was not significantly altered by NLRP12 deficiency. Together, the combined data suggest that NLRP12 does not play a vital role in regulating Th2 driven airway inflammation using common model systems that are physiologically relevant to human disease. Thus, the allergic airway inflammation models described here should be appropriate for subsequent studies that seek to decipher the contribution of NLRP12 in mediating the host response to agents associated with asthma exacerbation. PMID:22291998

  10. Time and dose-response effects of honokiol on UVB-induced skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Ruth F; Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zeman, David; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-06-01

    Honokiol has shown chemopreventive effects in chemically-induced and UVB-induced skin cancer in mice. In this investigation, we assessed the time-effects of a topical low dose of honokiol (30 μg), and then the effects of different honokiol doses (30, 45, and 60 μg) on a UVB-induced skin cancer model to find an optimal dose and time for desirable chemopreventive effects. UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2), 5 days/week for 25 or 27 weeks) was used to induce skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. For the time-response experiment 30 μg honokiol in acetone was applied topically to the animals before the UVB exposure (30 min, 1 h, and 2 h) and after the UVB exposure (immediately, 30 min, and 1 h). Control groups were treated with acetone. For the dose-response study, animals were treated topically with acetone or honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) one hour before the UVB exposure. In the time-response experiment, honokiol inhibited skin tumor multiplicity by 49-58% while reducing tumor volumes by 70-89%. In the dose-response study, honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) significantly decreased skin tumor multiplicity by 36-78% in a dose-dependent manner, while tumor area was reduced by 76-94%. Honokiol (60 μg) significantly reduced tumor incidence by 40% as compared to control group. Honokiol applied in very low doses (30 μg) either before or after UVB radiation shows chemopreventive effects. Honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) prevents UVB-induced skin cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Honokiol can be an effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.

  11. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  12. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin.

    PubMed

    Burton, Alexander R; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological - reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  13. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Alexander R.; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological – reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  14. Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Arja; Ruoppi, Pirkko; Remes, Sami; Koistinen, Tiina; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili

    2007-08-01

    Enzymes are high-molecular-weight proteins and highly sensitizing occupational allergens used widely in industrial processes. Lactase has been described to cause work-related respiratory and conjunctival immunoglobulin (Ig)-E-mediated sensitizations in workers in the pharmaceutical industry. In these previous reports, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma was confirmed with prick tests but not by challenge tests. Lactase previously has not been described as a cause of immediate or delayed contact skin reaction. Furthermore, there are no previous reports of lactase-specific IgE. We report a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a pharmaceutical worker. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific IgE antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions and their specificities were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. Our results have confirmed the previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE-mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but they show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.

  15. Skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in man: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S J; Shore, A C

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanisms involved in the human skin blood flow responses to iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACH; delivered using an anodal charge) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; administered with a cathodal charge) are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate possible contributions of prostaglandin production to the increase in skin blood flow induced following the iontophoresis of ACh and to investigate possible contributions from local sensory nerves to the perfusion responses induced by ACh, SNP and their vehicles. 2. The contribution of prostaglandins to the ACh response was determined in a randomized double-blind study of eight healthy subjects, who were studied on two occasions. Basal responses to ACh were measured before the oral administration of 600 mg soluble aspirin in diluted orange juice (1 occasion or orange juice (1 occasion) and again 30 min after the drink. The contribution of local sensory nerve activation to the responses to ACh and ACh vehicle (8 subjects) and to SNP and SNP vehicle (7 subjects) was assessed. EMLA (5%) (a eutectic mixture of lignocaine and prilocaine) and placebo cream were applied to two separate areas on the forearm in a double-blind randomized manner 2 h before drug responses were measured. In all studies the skin microcirculation responses to iontophoretically applied drug vehicle (1 site) and drug (2 sites) were recorded by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. 3. The increase in forearm skin perfusion (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh minus the response to ACh vehicle was not significantly different following placebo or aspirin administration. The increase in forearm skin red blood cell flux (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh minus the response to ACh vehicle was not significantly different at the placebo-compared with the EMLA-treated site. THe small increase in perfusion (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh vehicle was significantly inhibited at the EMLA

  16. T cell treatment with small interfering RNA for suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 modulates allergic airway responses in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Atsushi; Inoue, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takako; Matsunaga, Yuko; Matsuno, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kan-O, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Tsuda-Eguchi, Miyuki; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Yoshie, Osamu; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kubo, Masato; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2011-04-01

    CD4(+) T cells, particularly T helper (Th) 2 cells, play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins control the balance of CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Mice that lack SOCS3 in T cells by crossing SOCS3-floxed mice with Lck-Cre-transgenic mice have reduced allergen-induced eosinophilia in the airways. Here, we studied the effects of SOCS3 silencing with small interfering (si) RNA in primary CD4(+) T cells on Th2 cell differentiation and on asthmatic responses in mice. Th2 cells were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor-transgenic mice in vitro and transferred into recipient mice. Transfection of SOCS3-specific siRNA attenuated Th2 response in vitro. Adoptive transfer of SOCS3-siRNA T cells exhibited markedly suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia after OVA challenge, with a concomitant decrease in OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell accumulation in the airways. To investigate the mechanism of this impaired CD4(+) T cell accumulation, we inactivated SOCS3 of T cells by crossing SOCS3-floxed (SOCS3(flox/flox)) mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice. CD4-Cre × SOCS3(flox/flox) mice exhibited fewer IL-4-producing cells and more reduced eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids than control mice in a model of OVA-induced asthma. Expression of CCR3 and CCR4 in CD4(+) T cells was decreased in CD4-Cre × SOCS3(flox/flox) mice. CCR4 expression was also decreased in CD4(+) T cells after transfer of SOCS3 siRNA-treated T cells. These findings suggest that the therapeutic modulation of SOCS3 expression in CD4(+) T cells might be effective in preventing the development of allergic asthma.

  17. Short-term cadmium exposure induces stress responses in frog (Pelophylax bergeri) skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Simoncelli, Francesca; Belia, Silvia; Di Rosa, Ines; Paracucchi, Romina; Rossi, Roberta; La Porta, Gianandrea; Lucentini, Livia; Fagotti, Anna

    2015-12-01

    There have been a few studies on the negative effects of pollutants on amphibian skin, the first structural barrier that interacts with the environment and its potential contaminants. In this study an ex vivo skin organ culture from the amphibian Pelophylax bergeri was used to evaluate cell stress responses induced by short-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal known to be an environmental hazard to both humans and wildlife. Histopathological studies were carried out on skin explants using light microscopy and changes in the expression of stress proteins, such as Metallothionein (MT) and Heat shock proteins (HSPs), were investigated by Real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that amphibian skin reacts to Cd-induced stress by activating biological responses such as morphological alterations and dose- and time-dependent induction of Mt and Hsp70 mRNA expression, suggesting their potential role as biomarkers of exposure to Cd. This work provides a basis for a better understanding of the tissue-specific responses of amphibian skin as a target organ to Cd exposure and its in vitro use for testing potentially harmful substances present in the environment.

  18. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M; Truckner, Robert T; Weber, Richard W; Peden, David B

    2008-09-01

    Climate change is potentially the largest global threat to human health ever encountered. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are largely responsible. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, the next generations will face more injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, and wide-spread malnutrition, as well as more allergic and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. The pattern of change will vary regionally depending on latitude, altitude, rainfall and storms, land-use patterns, urbanization, transportation, and energy production. The magnitude of climate change and related increases in allergic disease will be affected by how aggressively greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are pursued, but at best an average warming of 1 to 2 degrees C is certain this century. Thus, anticipation of a higher allergic disease burden will affect clinical practice as well as public health planning. A number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies are suggested at the end of the review to assist in meeting this unprecedented public health challenge.

  19. The interrelationship between air temperature and humidity as applied locally to the skin: The resultant response on skin temperature and blood flow with age differences

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Berk, Lee; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Kodawala, Yusufi; Patel, Dennis; Nevgi, Bhakti; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei Ti; Alshaharani, Mastour; Pathak, Kunal; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Shenoy, Samruddha; Cho, Sungwan; Dave, Bargav; Desai, Rajavi; Malthane, Swapnil; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Most studies of the skin and how it responds to local heat have been conducted with either water, thermodes, or dry heat packs. Very little has been accomplished to look at the interaction between air humidity and temperature on skin temperature and blood flow. With variable air temperatures and humidity’s around the world, this, in many ways, is a more realistic assessment of environmental impact than previous water bath studies. Material/Methods Eight young and 8 older subjects were examined in an extensive series of experiments where on different days, air temperature was 38, 40, or 42°C. and at each temperature, humidity was either 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% humidity. Over a 20 minute period of exposure, the response of the skin in terms of its temperature and blood flow was assessed. Results For both younger and older subjects, for air temperatures of 38 and 40°C., the humidity of the air had no effect on the blood flow response of the skin, while skin temperature at the highest humidity was elevated slightly. However, for air temperatures of 42°C., at 100% humidity, there was a significant elevation in skin blood flow and skin temperature above the other four air humidity’s (p<0.05). In older subjects, the blood flow response was less and the skin temperature was much higher than younger individuals for air at 42°C. and 100% humidity (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus, in older subjects, warm humid air caused a greater rise in skin temperature with less protective effect of blood flow to protect the skin from overheating than is found in younger subjects. PMID:22460091

  20. Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the "dual" functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in patients with chronic allergic diseases by promoting Treg cell stability and function. PMID:27596705

  1. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22053313

  2. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    PubMed

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  4. A theoretical investigation of human skin thermal response to near-infrared laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tianhong; Pikkula, Brian M.; Wang, Lihong V.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-07-01

    Near-infrared wavelengths are absorbed less by epidermal melanin mainly located at the basal layer of epidermis (dermo-epidermal junction), and penetrate deeper into human skin dermis and blood than visible wavelengths. Therefore, laser irradiation using near-infrared wavelength may improve the therapeutic outcome of cutaneous hyper-vascular malformations in moderately to heavily pigmented skin patients and those with large-sized blood vessels or blood vessels extending deeply into the skin. A mathematical model composed of a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate the distribution of absorbed light followed by numerical solution of a bio-heat diffusion equation was utilized to investigate the thermal response of human skin to near-infrared laser irradiation, and compared it with that to visible laser irradiation. Additionally, the effect of skin surface cooling on epidermal protection was theoretically investigated. Simulation results indicated that 940 nm wavelength is superior to 810 and 1064 nm in terms of the ratio of light absorption by targeted blood vessel to the absorption by the basal layer of epidermis, and is more efficient than 595 nm wavelength for the treatment of patients with large-sized blood vessels and moderately to heavily pigmented skin. Dermal blood content has a considerable effect on the laser-induced peak temperature at the basal layer of epidermis, while the effect of blood vessel size is minimum.

  5. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  6. Stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Bao-Liang; Feng, Wen-Rong; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Fish skin and its mucus provide the first line of defense against chemical, physical and biological stressors, but little is known about the role of skin and its mucus in immune response to crowding stress. In the present study, we investigated the stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities. Turbot (average weight 185.4 g) were reared for 120 days under three densities: low density (LD), medium density (MD), and high density (HD). After 120 days, fish were weighed and sampled to obtain blood, mucus and skin tissues which were used for analyses of biochemical parameters and genes expression. The results showed HD treatment significantly suppressed growth and enhanced plasma cortisol and glucose levels (P < 0.05). In mucus, the activities of lysozyme (LZM), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and esterase in HD treatment were lower than LD and MD treatments (P < 0.05) In skin, HD treatment resulted in up-regulation in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) mRNA level, and down-regulation in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the transcriptions of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), insulin-like growth factor- (IGF-) and LZM (P < 0.05). Overall, the data suggested that overly high stocking density was a stressor which caused an immunosuppression in skin of turbot. Moreover, this information would help to understand the skin immunity and their relation with stress and disease in fish. PMID:27235366

  7. Thermal Response of In Vivo Human Skin to Fractional Radiofrequency Microneedle Device

    PubMed Central

    Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Inthasotti, Siriluk; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Chu-ongsakol, Sorawuth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fractional radiofrequency microneedle system (FRMS) is a novel fractional skin resurfacing system. Data on thermal response to this fractional resurfacing technique is limited. Objectives. To investigate histologic response of in vivo human skin to varying energy settings and pulse stacking of a FRMS in dark-skinned subjects. Methods. Two female volunteers who were scheduled for abdominoplasty received treatment with a FRMS with varying energy settings at 6 time periods including 3 months, 1 month, 1 week, 3 days, 1 day, and the time immediately before abdominoplasty. Biopsy specimens were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), colloidal iron, and Fontana-Masson stain. Immunohistochemical study was performed by using Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) antibody and collagen III monoclonal antibody. Results. The average depth of radiofrequency thermal zone (RFTZ) ranged from 100 to 300 μm, correlating with energy levels. Columns of cell necrosis and collagen denaturation followed by inflammatory response were initially demonstrated, with subsequent increasing of mucin at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Immunohistochemical study showed positive stain with HSP70. Conclusion. A single treatment with a FRMS using appropriate energy setting induces neocollagenesis. This wound healing response may serve as a mean to improve the appearance of photodamaged skin and atrophic scars. PMID:27247943

  8. Media Research with a Galvanic Skin Response Biosensor: Some Kids Work Up a Sweat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    This study considers the galvanic skin response (GSR) of sixth-grade students (n=20) using print, video, and microcomputer segments. Subjects received all three media treatments, in randomized order. Data for analysis consisted of standardized test scores and GSR measures; a moderate positive relationship was shown between cumulative GSR and…

  9. Thermal Response of In Vivo Human Skin to Fractional Radiofrequency Microneedle Device.

    PubMed

    Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Inthasotti, Siriluk; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Chu-Ongsakol, Sorawuth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fractional radiofrequency microneedle system (FRMS) is a novel fractional skin resurfacing system. Data on thermal response to this fractional resurfacing technique is limited. Objectives. To investigate histologic response of in vivo human skin to varying energy settings and pulse stacking of a FRMS in dark-skinned subjects. Methods. Two female volunteers who were scheduled for abdominoplasty received treatment with a FRMS with varying energy settings at 6 time periods including 3 months, 1 month, 1 week, 3 days, 1 day, and the time immediately before abdominoplasty. Biopsy specimens were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), colloidal iron, and Fontana-Masson stain. Immunohistochemical study was performed by using Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) antibody and collagen III monoclonal antibody. Results. The average depth of radiofrequency thermal zone (RFTZ) ranged from 100 to 300 μm, correlating with energy levels. Columns of cell necrosis and collagen denaturation followed by inflammatory response were initially demonstrated, with subsequent increasing of mucin at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Immunohistochemical study showed positive stain with HSP70. Conclusion. A single treatment with a FRMS using appropriate energy setting induces neocollagenesis. This wound healing response may serve as a mean to improve the appearance of photodamaged skin and atrophic scars. PMID:27247943

  10. [Monoclonal antibody therapy for allergic asthma].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masanori; Matsuse, Takeshi

    2002-03-01

    Allergic responses at the level of the respiratory system are mostly mediated by IgE-dependent mechanisms. The first selective anti-IgE therapy, a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody(rhuMAb-E25), binds with high affinity to the Fc epsilon RI receptor binding site on IgE, thereby reducing the amount of free IgE available to bind to Fc epsilon RI receptors on mast cells and basophils. In addition, administration of rhuMAb-E25 indirectly reduces Fc epsilon RI receptor density on cells involved in allergic responses. rhuMAb-E25 has been shown to reduce allergic responses in atopic individuals and to improve symptoms and reduce rescue medication and corticosteroid use in patient with allergic asthma. The clinical effectiveness of rhuMAb-E25 supports the central role of IgE in allergic reaction and the viability of anti-IgE therapy as an effective immunological intervention for allergic asthma.

  11. Age-related regional variations of human skin blood flow response to histamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Ethel; Brenner, Sarah

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess age-related regional variations in skin function, by measuring the cutaneous microvascular response to histamine. Histamine was topically applied to the back and forearm of young and aged volunteers, and the response was quantified utilizing laser Doppler flowmetry. Each group comprised of 14 volunteers. The cutaneous vascular response to histamine was significantly greater on the back than on the forearm of young healthy volunteers, whereas in aged ones the response over these two sites did not significantly differ. These observations indicate anatomical or functional differences between old and young skin as relates to regional variations. They may underlie some of the differences in the manifestations of disease processes in various age groups.

  12. Activation of Molecular Signatures for Antimicrobial and Innate Defense Responses in Skin with Transglutaminase 1 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Haneda, Takashi; Imai, Yasutomo; Uchiyama, Ryosuke; Jitsukawa, Orie; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) are a major cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCIs) that are associated with defects in skin barrier structure and function. However, the molecular processes induced by the transglutaminase 1 deficiency are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to uncover those processes by analysis of cutaneous molecular signatures. Gene expression profiles of wild-type and Tgm1-/-epidermis were assessed using microarrays. Gene ontology analysis of the data showed that genes for innate defense responses were up-regulated in Tgm1-/-epidermis. Based on that result, the induction of Il1b and antimicrobial peptide genes, S100a8, S100a9, Defb14, Camp, Slpi, Lcn2, Ccl20 and Wfdc12, was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. A protein array revealed that levels of IL-1β, G-CSF, GM-CSF, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CCL2 were increased in Tgm1-/-skin. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand genes, Hbegf, Areg and Ereg, were activated in Tgm1-/-epidermis. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of an epidermal extract from Tgm1-/-mice was significantly increased against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the epidermis of ichthyosiform skins from patients with TGM1 mutations, S100A8/9 was strongly positive. The expression of those antimicrobial and defense response genes was also increased in the lesional skin of an ARCI patient with TGM1 mutations. These results suggest that the up-regulation of molecular signatures for antimicrobial and innate defense responses is characteristic of skin with a transglutaminase 1 deficiency, and this autonomous process might be induced to reinforce the defective barrier function of the skin. PMID:27442430

  13. Activation of Molecular Signatures for Antimicrobial and Innate Defense Responses in Skin with Transglutaminase 1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Ryosuke; Jitsukawa, Orie; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) are a major cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCIs) that are associated with defects in skin barrier structure and function. However, the molecular processes induced by the transglutaminase 1 deficiency are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to uncover those processes by analysis of cutaneous molecular signatures. Gene expression profiles of wild-type and Tgm1–/–epidermis were assessed using microarrays. Gene ontology analysis of the data showed that genes for innate defense responses were up-regulated in Tgm1–/–epidermis. Based on that result, the induction of Il1b and antimicrobial peptide genes, S100a8, S100a9, Defb14, Camp, Slpi, Lcn2, Ccl20 and Wfdc12, was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. A protein array revealed that levels of IL-1β, G-CSF, GM-CSF, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CCL2 were increased in Tgm1–/–skin. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand genes, Hbegf, Areg and Ereg, were activated in Tgm1–/–epidermis. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of an epidermal extract from Tgm1–/–mice was significantly increased against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the epidermis of ichthyosiform skins from patients with TGM1 mutations, S100A8/9 was strongly positive. The expression of those antimicrobial and defense response genes was also increased in the lesional skin of an ARCI patient with TGM1 mutations. These results suggest that the up-regulation of molecular signatures for antimicrobial and innate defense responses is characteristic of skin with a transglutaminase 1 deficiency, and this autonomous process might be induced to reinforce the defective barrier function of the skin. PMID:27442430

  14. Parallel intraindividual evaluation of the vasoconstrictory action and the anti-allergic activity of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Di Nardo, A; Mantovani, L; Giannetti, A

    1997-04-01

    The human skin blanching assay is a well established method for ranking the efficacy of corticosteroids after epicutaneous application. Vasoconstriction is a pharmacological activity, which correlates well with the clinical efficacy, the intensity of skin blanching after a single application under occlusion corresponding, generally, to the clinical efficacy after repeated application without occlusion. However, in studies dealing with the comparison between the vasoconstriction assay and the evaluation of the clinical effects on inflammatory skin diseases, some exceptions to this correlation have been reported. Therefore, in a pre-clinical phase, it would be useful to combine the blanching assay with at least one anti-inflammatory assay. In the present study the blanching assay and the allergic contact dermatitis inhibition test were performed in parallel, in order to compare the two testing procedures in the same group of subjects, utilizing standardized study designs supported by objective means of evaluation. Three commercial preparations of corticosteroids containing clobetasol propionate (CP), clobetasone butyrate (CB) and hydrocortisone acetate (HA), respectively, were employed both to treat nickel-induced positive patch test responses on the volar forearms, and to perform a vasoconstrictor assay on normal forearm skin in 16 nickel-sensitized healthy volunteers. For evaluating skin blanching, we employed colorimetric measurements, whereas for the quantitative determination of the inhibition of the intensity of allergic patch test reactions, 20 MHz B-scanning supported by image analysis was used. Both colorimetric and echogenicity values enabled us to distinguish between the three corticosteroids (at the 17 h evaluation and the 64 h assessment, respectively). A fair correlation was noted between colorimetric and echogenicity values. Both testing procedures ranked the three corticosteroids in the expected order. Corticosteroid preparations should be compared

  15. Active skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response in the hand following nerve injury and repair in human upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Aidong; Liu, Dan; Gu, Chen; Gu, Xiaosong; Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous vasoconstriction/vasodilatation occurs in response to whole body and local cooling/heating, and the vasomotor activities play a pivotal role in thermal control of the human body. The mechanisms underlying regulation of skin blood flow involve both neurogenic and humeral/local chemical influence, contributing to the initial response to thermal stimuli and the prolonged phase of response, respectively. Previous studies have suggested the impairment of cutaneous thermal regulation after nerve injury. However, the evidence regarding how the skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response evolve after nerve injury and repair remains limited. Here we observed, by utilizing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging, baseline skin perfusion and perfusion change in response to thermal stimuli after median and ulnar nerve injury, and the results showed that baseline perfusion in autonomous skin area profoundly decreased and active rewarming after clod stress dramatically diminished before sensory recovery of the skin became detectable. In addition, baseline cutaneous perfusion was recovered as the skin regained touch sensation, and exhibited positive correlation to touch sensibility of the skin. These data indicate that both active perfusion and thermoregulatory response of the skin are markedly compromised during skin denervation and can be recovered by re-innervation. This suggests the importance of timely repair of injured nerve, especially in the practice of replantation. PMID:26529641

  16. Active skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response in the hand following nerve injury and repair in human upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Aidong; Liu, Dan; Gu, Chen; Gu, Xiaosong; Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous vasoconstriction/vasodilatation occurs in response to whole body and local cooling/heating, and the vasomotor activities play a pivotal role in thermal control of the human body. The mechanisms underlying regulation of skin blood flow involve both neurogenic and humeral/local chemical influence, contributing to the initial response to thermal stimuli and the prolonged phase of response, respectively. Previous studies have suggested the impairment of cutaneous thermal regulation after nerve injury. However, the evidence regarding how the skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response evolve after nerve injury and repair remains limited. Here we observed, by utilizing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging, baseline skin perfusion and perfusion change in response to thermal stimuli after median and ulnar nerve injury, and the results showed that baseline perfusion in autonomous skin area profoundly decreased and active rewarming after clod stress dramatically diminished before sensory recovery of the skin became detectable. In addition, baseline cutaneous perfusion was recovered as the skin regained touch sensation, and exhibited positive correlation to touch sensibility of the skin. These data indicate that both active perfusion and thermoregulatory response of the skin are markedly compromised during skin denervation and can be recovered by re-innervation. This suggests the importance of timely repair of injured nerve, especially in the practice of replantation.

  17. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  18. Study of Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is common among children and quite often represents a stage of the atopic march. Although sensitization to food and airborne allergens may appear in infancy and early childhood, symptoms of the disease are usually present after age 3. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent food and indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens involved in allergic rhinitis in children in the region of Piraeus. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic of otolaryngologic allergy of a general hospital. Fifty children (ranged 6–14 ) with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for IgE antibodies or skin prick tests were included in the study. Thirty six (72%) of the subjects of the study had intermittent allergic rhinitis. The most common aeroallergens determined were grass pollens and Parietaria, whereas egg and milk were the food allergens identified. The detection of indoor and outdoor allergens in the region of Piraeus, based on skin prick tests and RAST tests, showed high incidence of grasses and food allergens, which is similar to other Mediterranean countries. PMID:21760801

  19. An indoxyl compound 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, suppresses activation of Fyn kinase in mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Do-Kyun; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Her, Erk; Park, Yeong Min; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2015-06-15

    Mast cells, constituents of virtually all organs and tissues, are critical cells in IgE-mediated allergic responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of an indoxyl chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, on IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mice. CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation in murine mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.8 μM) and human mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.0 μM). CAC-0982 also inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α in mast cells. Furthermore, CAC-0982 suppressed the mast cell-mediated allergic responses in mice in a dose-dependent manner (ED{sub 50} 27.9 mg/kg). As for the mechanism, CAC-0982 largely suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk and its downstream signaling molecules, including LAT, Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK. Notably, the tyrosine kinase assay of antigen-stimulated mast cells showed that CAC-0982 inhibited Fyn kinase, one of the upstream tyrosine kinases for Syk activation in mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CAC-0982 may be used as a new treatment for regulating IgE-mediated allergic diseases through the inhibition of the Fyn/Syk pathway in mast cells. - Highlights: • The anti-allergic effect of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, was measured. • CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen. • CAC-0982 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. • CAC-0982 suppresses mast cells through inhibition of Fyn activation in mast cells.

  20. Mechanical response of porcine skin under compression from low to high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Chiara; Butler, Ben; Williams, Alun; Brown, Katherine; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Uniaxial compression experiments were performed on fresh porcine skin samples at different strain rates to study the stress-strain response. Low strain rate experiments were performed with an Instron 5566, while high strain rates were achieved using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. Magnesium bars and semiconductor strain gauges were used respectively to maximize the signal transmission from porcine skin to the output bar and to allow the signal measurement. Skin samples were harvested from different area of the animal to investigate the heterogeneity of such material. The experimental results showed that the mechanical response of skin in compression is strongly dependent on the strain rate of loading and on the location from which the samples were collected. Specimens collected from the rump showed a stiffer response compared to samples harvested from the thigh. Finally, a histological analysis of the samples post compression was carried out to examine the extent of tissue damage as a function of strain rate. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK and The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London, UK.

  1. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  2. Repeated allergen challenge as a new research model for studying allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    de Bruin-Weller, M S; Weller, F R; De Monchy, J G

    1999-02-01

    Repeated allergen challenge might be a more relevant model for studying symptomatic disease, because it gives more information on the patient's handling of chronic allergen exposure. Thus, this experimental model has more resemblance to the situation of natural allergen exposure, and the allergen load can be standardized. However, the response to repeated allergen challenge in individual patients can show a large variation, that is from a strongly enhanced response to complete diminution of the response. Successful allergen immunotherapy can change the response pattern of repeated allergen challenge in the skin into down-regulation of the late reaction. Chronic or repeated allergen exposure may result in an enhanced allergen-specific allergic response, involving allergen-specific T-cell activation. Different subsets of T cells can exert either activating or suppressive effects on inflammatory cells involved in subsequent allergic reactions. CD8+ T cells might exert suppressive effects, because they seem to be associated with a subsequent down-regulation of the late skin reaction after repeated allergen challenge (Fig. 4). Further studies are needed to compare the responses to repeated allergen challenge with the response to natural seasonal allergen exposure in the same patients and to explore possible underlying mechanisms using, for example, nasal biopsies.

  3. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  5. Immediate allergic cross-reactivity to levobupivacaine and ropivacaine.

    PubMed

    Calderon, A L; Diot, N; Benatir, F; Christin, F; Hautin, E; Truc, C; Allaouchiche, B; Boselli, E

    2013-02-01

    Allergic reactions to amide local anaesthetic agents are rare. We report the case of a 74-year-old man who suffered anaphylaxis, presenting with cardiovascular collapse, immediately after receiving regional anaesthesia on two separate occasions, the first involving the use of levobupivacaine and the second using ropivacaine. Skin testing revealed positive reactions to both levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, and negative reactions to articaine and lidocaine. Severe allergic reactions can be caused by the amide local anaesthetic drugs, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine.

  6. Alterations of mitogenic responses of mononuclear cells by arsenic in arsenical skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Chang, K L; Wang, C M; Yu, C L

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the endemic occurrence of chronic arsenism in a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan. The effects of arsenic on the mitogenic responses of mononuclear cells (MNC) derived from patients with arsenical skin cancers in that area were evaluated. The subjects enrolled in this study included patients with 1) Bowen's disease, 2) arsenical skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma), 3) non-arsenical skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma), 4) nasopharyngeal cancer and 5) healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic areas. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in MNC in all groups except the arsenical skin cancer group. However, when a low concentration of As2O3 (2.5 x 10(-7) M) was added to PHA-stimulated MNC, a tremendous amplification of the uptake of [3H]thymidine was noticed in patients with arsenical skin cancer. In this study, this phenomenon did not occur in cancers not related to arsenic. This result shows that arsenical carcinomas are hyperreactive to its specific etiology--arsenic. Arsenic seems to play a role as a co-stimulant of PHA similar to interleukin-1.

  7. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject.

  8. High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jaehun; Jo, Sung Jin; Jung, Seonghoon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Gun-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has emerged for biomedical applications such as scanning, molecular spectroscopy, and medical imaging. Although a thorough assessment to predict potential concerns has to precede before practical utilization of THz source, the biological effect of THz radiation is not yet fully understood with scant related investigations. Here, we applied a femtosecond-terahertz (fs-THz) pulse to mouse skin to evaluate non-thermal effects of THz radiation. Analysis of the genome-wide expression profile in fs-THz-irradiated skin indicated that wound responses were predominantly mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. We validated NFκB1- and Smad3/4-mediated transcriptional activation in fs-THz-irradiated skin by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Repeated fs-THz radiation delayed the closure of mouse skin punch wounds due to up-regulation of TGF-β. These findings suggest that fs-THz radiation initiate a wound-like signal in skin with increased expression of TGF-β and activation of its downstream target genes, which perturbs the wound healing process in vivo. PMID:23907528

  9. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J.

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject.

  10. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject. PMID:19430110

  11. High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jaehun; Jo, Sung Jin; Jung, Seonghoon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Gun-Sik

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has emerged for biomedical applications such as scanning, molecular spectroscopy, and medical imaging. Although a thorough assessment to predict potential concerns has to precede before practical utilization of THz source, the biological effect of THz radiation is not yet fully understood with scant related investigations. Here, we applied a femtosecond-terahertz (fs-THz) pulse to mouse skin to evaluate non-thermal effects of THz radiation. Analysis of the genome-wide expression profile in fs-THz-irradiated skin indicated that wound responses were predominantly mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. We validated NFκB1- and Smad3/4-mediated transcriptional activation in fs-THz-irradiated skin by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Repeated fs-THz radiation delayed the closure of mouse skin punch wounds due to up-regulation of TGF-β. These findings suggest that fs-THz radiation initiate a wound-like signal in skin with increased expression of TGF-β and activation of its downstream target genes, which perturbs the wound healing process in vivo.

  12. A study of chromium induced allergic contact dermatitis with 54 volunteers: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J; Paustenbach, D; Adams, R; Fowler, J; Marks, J; Morton, C; Taylor, J; Horowitz, S; Finley, B

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, dose-response patch test studies by various methods have been conducted in an attempt to identify the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) that produces an allergic response in Cr(VI) sensitive subjects. These data are not adequate, however, to provide an accurate estimate of the MET because of the variability in the patch testing techniques and the variability in diagnostic criteria used. Furthermore, the data were not reported in terms of mass of allergen per surface area of skin (mg Cr/cm2-skin), which is necessary for conducting occupational or environmental health risk assessments. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine the MET (mg allergen/cm2) for Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by patch testing techniques. A patch test method that delivers a controlled amount of allergen per surface area of skin was used. A group of 54 Cr(VI) sensitised volunteers were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) to determine the cumulative response rate at several concentrations. The results indicate that the 10% MET for Cr(VI) based on the cumulative response was 0.089 micrograms Cr(VI)/cm2-skin. Only one of the 54 volunteers may have responded to 33 micrograms Cr(III)/cm2-skin, otherwise Cr(III) was unable to produce allergic contact dermatitis in these highly sensitive volunteers. Two supplemental studies were also conducted to assess whether the surface area of the patch and the concentration of Cr(VI) in the patch (related to patch thickness) were likely to influence the results. The data from these studies were used to assess the risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis due to contact with Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in soil. The findings indicated that soil concentrations at least as high as 450 ppm Cr(VI) and 165,000 ppm Cr(III) should not pose an allergic contact dermatitis hazard for at least 99.99% of the people in the community who might be exposed. PMID:8044228

  13. Allergic manifestation by black gram (Vigna mungo) proteins in allergic patients, BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Roy, Ruchi; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of black gram (Vigna mungo) induced allergic reactions are reported from several parts of the world including Asia and Australia. But, a thorough exploration of the allergic reactions induced by black gram proteins is still lacking. Therefore, efforts have been made to explore black gram allergy using in vivo and in vitro approaches. In this study, Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) assay and IgE immunoblotting were carried out to identify clinically relevant allergens of black gram. BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells were used for elucidation of allergenic reactions of black gram proteins. Further, this study was extended to screen black gram sensitive patients among nasobronchial allergic patients on the basis of clinical history, skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE levels and IgE immunoblotting. Enhanced levels of specific IgE, IgG1/IgG2a (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), clinical symptoms, pathological indications in the lungs, intestine and spleen were evident in black gram sensitized BALB/c mice. Moreover, the expression of Th2 cytokine transcripts and GATA-3/T-bet ratio was found enhanced in the treated group. In vitro studies on RBL-2H3 cells,showed increased release of β-hexosaminidase (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), cysteinyl leukotriene (p<0.05) and prostaglandin D2 (p < 0.05). Further, 8.5% of screened patients were found allergic to black gram and concomitant sensitization with other allergens has shown the possibility of further enhancement in allergenic problem. Conclusively, the present study suggested that black gram consumption may be responsible for inducing immediate type of allergic sensitization in susceptible subjects.

  14. Functional role of unmyelinated tactile afferents in human hairy skin: sympathetic response and perceptual localization.

    PubMed

    Olausson, Håkan; Cole, Jonathan; Rylander, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Lamarre, Yves; Wallin, B Gunnar; Krämer, Heidrun; Wessberg, Johan; Elam, Mikael; Bushnell, M Catherine; Vallbo, Ake

    2008-01-01

    In addition to A-beta fibres the human hairy skin has unmyelinated (C) fibres responsive to light touch. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in a subject with a neuronopathy who specifically lacks A-beta afferents indicated that tactile C afferents (CT) activate insular cortex, whereas no response was seen in somatosensory areas 1 and 2. Psychophysical tests suggested that CT afferents give rise to an inconsistent perception of weak and pleasant touch. By examining two neuronopathy subjects as well as control subjects we have now demonstrated that CT stimulation can elicit a sympathetic skin response. Further, the neuronopathy subjects' ability to localize stimuli which activate CT afferents was very poor but above chance level. The findings support the interpretation that the CT system is well suited to underpin affective rather than discriminative functions of tactile sensations.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  16. The effect of change in skin temperature due to evaporative cooling on sweating response during exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Nakadome, Manabu; Zhang, Keren; Shiojiri, Tomoyuki; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hirata, Kozo; Iwata, Atsushi

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are any effects of skin temperature changes on sweating response in the first few minutes of mild exercise. Six healthy males performed a bicycle exercise at 100 W (50 rpm) for 30 min under an ambient temperature of 23° C (40% RH). Esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature (T-sk), local skin temperature at the lower left scapula (Tsl), local sweating rate (M.sw), and cutaneous blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were measured continuously. Although Tsl decreased markedly just after the onset of sweating, T-sk did not change. M.sw did not increase constantly in the early stages of exercise, and there was a temporary interruption in the increase of M.sw. This interruption in sweating was affected by the rate of change in Tsl rather than by the absolute value of Tsl, since there was a positive and significant correlation between the time of the interruption in the increase of M.sw and the rate of decrease in Tsl (y=6.47x+0.04; r=0.86, P<0.05). The results suggest that sweating response in the early stages of exercise may be influenced by changes in local skin temperature due to evaporative cooling.

  17. Three-dimensional model on thermal response of skin subject to laser heating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wensheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Fuqian

    2005-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multilayer model based on the skin physical structure is developed to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature distribution of the skin is modeled by the bioheat transfer equation, and the influence of laser heating is expressed as a source term where the strength of the source is a product of a Gaussian shaped incident irradiance, an exponentially shaped axial attenuation, and a time function. The water evaporation and diffusion is included in the model by adding two terms regarding the heat loss due to the evaporation and diffusion, where the rate of water evaporation is determined based on the theory of laminar boundary layer. Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) in laser therapy is studied, as well as its effect on the skin thermal response. The time-dependent equation is discretized using the finite difference method with the Crank-Nicholson scheme and the stability of the numerical method is analyzed. The large sparse linear system resulted from discretizing the governing partial differential equation is solved by a GMRES solver and the expected simulation results are obtained.

  18. Functional Specialization of Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets in Regulating T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Björn E.; Stoitzner, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogeneous family of professional antigen-presenting cells classically recognized as most potent inducers of adaptive immune responses. In this respect, Langerhans cells have long been considered to be prototypic immunogenic DC in the skin. More recently this view has considerably changed. The generation of in vivo cell ablation and lineage tracing models revealed the complexity of the skin DC network and, in particular, established the existence of a number of phenotypically distinct Langerin+ and negative DC populations in the dermis. Moreover, by now we appreciate that DC also exert important regulatory functions and are required for the maintenance of tolerance toward harmless foreign and self-antigens. This review summarizes our current understanding of the skin-resident DC system in the mouse and discusses emerging concepts on the functional specialization of the different skin DC subsets in regulating T cell responses. Special consideration is given to antigen cross-presentation as well as immune reactions toward contact sensitizers, cutaneous pathogens, and tumors. These studies form the basis for the manipulation of the human counterparts of the murine DC subsets to promote immunity or tolerance for the treatment of human disease. PMID:26557117

  19. Inhibition of human neutrophil activation by the allergic mediator release inhibitor, CI-922: differential inhibition of responses to a variety of stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wright, C D; Hoffman, M D; Thueson, D O; Conroy, M C

    1987-07-01

    The allergic mediator release inhibitor 3,7-dimethoxy-4-phenyl-N-1H-tetrazol-5-yl-4H-furo[3,2-b]indole-2- carboxamide, L-arginate (CI-922) is a potent inhibitor of human neutrophil functions in vitro. Over a concentration range from 1 to 100 mumol CI-922 inhibits the chemotactic response of neutrophils to the synthetic chemotaxin N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). CI-922 also inhibits respiratory and secretory responses of neutrophils in response to agents that stimulate phospholipase C-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis to generate the second messengers inositol 1,4,5, trisphosphate and 1,2 diacylglycerol, including: the plasma membrane receptor-specific ligands FMLP and C5a; serum-opsonized zymosan; concanavalin A; and the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein-specific stimulus guanosine-5'-0-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S). CI-922 also inhibits neutrophil functions stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. In contrast, CI-922 does not inhibit neutrophil responses to protein kinase C-specific stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or L-alpha-1,2 dioctanoylglycerol (DiC8). CI-922 also fails to inhibit the synergistic activation of the respiratory burst by suboptimal concentrations of PMA and calcium ionophore A23187. The observation that CI-922 inhibits neutrophil responses to a variety of soluble and particulate stimuli, excluding protein kinase C-specific stimuli, allows us to postulate the site of action of the compound. We propose that CI-922 inhibits neutrophil activation at a site distal to signal transduction through the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein required for second messenger generation but proximal to phosphorylation reactions mediated by protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.

  20. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  1. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  2. Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF.

  3. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:25445491

  4. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  5. Allergic Disease and Autoimmune Effectors Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, Menachem; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Allergy and autoimmunity result from dysregulation of the immune system. Until recently, it was generally accepted that the mechanisms that govern these disease processes are quite disparate; however, new discoveries suggest possible common pathogenetic effector pathways. This review illustrates the concomitant presentation of these conditions and the potential relationship or common mechanism in some cases, by looking at the key elements that regulate the immune response in both allergic and autoimmunite conditions: mast cells, antibodies, T cells, cytokines, and genetic determinants. The parallel appearance of allergic and autoimmune conditions in the some patients may reveal that such aberrations of the immune system have a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Mast cells, which play a key role in allergic reactions, and the wealth of inflammatory mediators they express, make it likely that they have profound effects on many autoimmune processes. Activation of protein kinases by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses may contribute to both allergic and autoimmune diseases. The presence of autoantibodies in some allergic conditions suggests an autoimmune basis for these conditions. Because of the central role T cells play in immune reactivity, the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci have long been considered important candidates for common disease susceptibility within the immune system such as asthma, atopy, and autoimmunity. Immunomodulation is the key to a successful treatment of allergic and autoimmune conditions. PMID:12885156

  6. Drug metabolism in the skin.

    PubMed

    Baron, J M; Merk, H F

    2001-08-01

    The skin performs a wide range of active metabolic functions including xenobiotic metabolism involving metabolizing enzymes specific to the skin. In this review we focus on the role of drug metabolism: (i) in allergic reactions to substances of low molecular weight; (ii) in cutaneous vitamin A and D3 metabolism and its modulation; (iii) in the interaction of transport and metabolic enzymes in skin cells; and (iv) on novel tools for the measurement of drug metabolism in various compartments of the human skin.

  7. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  8. Highly wearable galvanic skin response sensor using flexible and conductive polymer foam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehoon; Kwon, Sungjun; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2014-01-01

    Owing to advancements in daily physiological monitoring technology, diverse healthcare applications have emerged recently. The monitoring of skin conductance responses has extensive feasibility to support healthcare applications such as detecting emotion changes. In this study, we proposed a highly wearable and reliable galvanic skin response (GSR) sensor that measures the signals from the back of the user. To enhance its wearability and usability, we employed flexible conductive foam as the sensing material and designed it to be easily attachable to (and detachable from) a wide variety of clothes. We evaluated the sensing reliability of the proposed sensor by comparing its signal with a reference GSR. The average correlation between the two signals was 0.768; this is sufficiently high to validate the feasibility of the proposed sensor for reliable GSR sensing on the back.

  9. Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Responses Predict Perceived Pleasantness of Skin Stroking

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Monika; Jönsson, Emma H.; Olausson, Håkan; Björnsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responses predicted healthy participant’s perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment. PMID:27679564

  10. The effect of selenium supplementation on DTH skin responses in healthy North American men.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Hwang, Amie; Alkan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is essential for immune system development and function in animals. However, the exact functions of Se in the human immune system and the achievable health benefits from Se supplementation remain unclear. To test whether an increased intake of dietary Se affects immune function, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of Se supplementation in healthy free-living men. Forty-two men were administered 300microg of Se a day as high-Se Baker's yeast, or low-Se yeast for 48 weeks. Serum immunoglobulins, differential complete blood counts and lymphocyte sub-populations were measured every 6 weeks. Tests of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses to mumps, candida, trychophyton, tuberculin-purified protein, and tetanus were performed at baseline and at the end of 48 weeks of treatment. Supplementation increased blood Se concentration by 50%. Surprisingly, consumption of the low-Se yeast induced anergy in DTH skin responses and increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes expressing both subunits of the high affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL2R). DTH skin responses and IL2R+ cells did not change in the high-Se group, suggesting Se supplementation blocked induction of DTH anergy. There were no differences between groups in quality of life indicators, number of days sick, other leukocyte phenotypes, serum immunoglobulins, or complement factors. These results suggest that Se plays a role in immunotolerization, a cell-mediated process involved in many aspects of immune function.

  11. Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Responses Predict Perceived Pleasantness of Skin Stroking.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, Monika; Jönsson, Emma H; Olausson, Håkan; Björnsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment. PMID:27679564

  12. Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Responses Predict Perceived Pleasantness of Skin Stroking

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Monika; Jönsson, Emma H.; Olausson, Håkan; Björnsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responses predicted healthy participant’s perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  13. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization. PMID:9789357

  14. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  15. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  16. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response.

    PubMed

    Zákostelská, Zuzana; Málková, Jana; Klimešová, Klára; Rossmann, Pavel; Hornová, Michaela; Novosádová, Iva; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Kostovčík, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štepánková, Renata; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Hercogová, Jana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Kverka, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which Th17 cells play a crucial role. Since indigenous gut microbiota influences the development and reactivity of immune cells, we analyzed the link among microbiota, T cells and the formation of psoriatic lesions in the imiquimod-induced murine model of psoriasis. To explore the role of microbiota, we induced skin inflammation in germ-free (GF), broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB)-treated or conventional (CV) BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We found that both mice reared in GF conditions for several generations and CV mice treated with ATB were more resistant to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation than CV mice. The ATB treatment dramatically changed the diversity of gut bacteria, which remained stable after subsequent imiquimod application; ATB treatment resulted in a substantial increase in the order Lactobacillales and a significant decrease in Coriobacteriales and Clostridiales. Moreover, as compared to CV mice, imiquimod induced a lower degree of local and systemic Th17 activation in both GF and ATB-treated mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota control imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by altering the T cell response. PMID:27434104

  17. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response

    PubMed Central

    Zákostelská, Zuzana; Málková, Jana; Klimešová, Klára; Rossmann, Pavel; Hornová, Michaela; Novosádová, Iva; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Kostovčík, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štepánková, Renata; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Hercogová, Jana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which Th17 cells play a crucial role. Since indigenous gut microbiota influences the development and reactivity of immune cells, we analyzed the link among microbiota, T cells and the formation of psoriatic lesions in the imiquimod-induced murine model of psoriasis. To explore the role of microbiota, we induced skin inflammation in germ-free (GF), broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB)-treated or conventional (CV) BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We found that both mice reared in GF conditions for several generations and CV mice treated with ATB were more resistant to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation than CV mice. The ATB treatment dramatically changed the diversity of gut bacteria, which remained stable after subsequent imiquimod application; ATB treatment resulted in a substantial increase in the order Lactobacillales and a significant decrease in Coriobacteriales and Clostridiales. Moreover, as compared to CV mice, imiquimod induced a lower degree of local and systemic Th17 activation in both GF and ATB-treated mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota control imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by altering the T cell response. PMID:27434104

  18. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics.

  19. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  1. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  2. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  3. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  4. Thermographic assessment of skin prick tests in comparison with the routine evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Rokita, Eugeniusz; Tatoń, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz; Śliwa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The skin prick test is still the first and basic procedure in the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The possibility of using a sensitive thermographic method supported by the mathematical model for the assessment of skin test results will be highlighted in the studies. Aim To compare the proposed approach with routine planimetric and thermographic methods. Material and methods A mathematical model of allergic reaction was developed. Simplifying assumptions of the IgE-mediated skin reaction is the essence of the model. Investigations were performed in a group of 40 patients. Results Using the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature distributions, the ratios of the histamine released from mast cells to the control histamine were determined. The obtained values very well correlate with the standard evaluation of skin prick tests (correlation coefficient = 0.98). Conclusions The proposed method of skin test evaluation presents several advantages. The continuous acquisition of data provides the monitoring of time course of the allergic response. The transport of mediator and its concentration were distinctly discriminated, which may be diagnostically useful, especially for abnormal cases. The high sensitivity of the method enables studying patients regardless of age and skin sensitivity. PMID:27512354

  5. [Clinical assessment of a monitor "MedStorm" (Norway) of galvanic skin response correlates with preoperative stress].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials were performed by Russian anesthesiologists of pain monitor based on measuring galvanic skin response (skin conductance). 5 pations were studied the monitor showed lower sensitivity to assess the level of analgesia during combined anesthesia which allows to not recommend it for use in clinical practice. PMID:22379919

  6. Skin conductance orienting response in unmedicated RDC schizophrenic, schizoaffective, depressed, and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D F

    1991-10-01

    In an evaluation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) as a marker for schizophrenia, skin conductance (SC) activity was studied in 36 Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) schizophrenic (SCZ), 17 schizoaffective--mainly schizophrenic (SA), 24 depressed (DEP), and 25 psychiatrically well control (CONT) subjects. All subjects were unmedicated. Data are presented from four paradigms: a series of 1 s 70 dB tones in a no-task habituation paradigm; a similar series of 103 dB tones; a series of tones with a button-press (reaction time) task; and a loud white noise stimulus (without task). The proportion of SCOR nonresponse to the first 70 dB tone was 39% for SCZ, 82% for SA, 46% for DEP, and 36% for CONT subjects; the response rate for SA subjects was significantly lower than for all other groups. The CONT group was less responsive than in most previous studies. SCZ subjects did not show increased responsivity to more intense and to task-relevant stimuli, although SA subjects did show such increases. DEP subjects showed some evidence of autonomic hyperarousal (higher tonic SC level, trend toward more spontaneous SC responses). The overall pattern of results does not support SCOR to neutral, moderate-intensity tones as a specific marker for schizophrenia, although there was some evidence for a generalized decrease in autonomic responsivity to stimuli.

  7. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  8. Second-hand Smoke Increases Nitric Oxide and Alters the IgE Response in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Brian W. P.; Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on nitric oxide (NO) and immunoglobulin (Ig) production in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Adult BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke from day 0 through day 43 to simulate “second-hand smoke”. During exposure, mice were sensitized to soluble Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) antigen intranasally between day 14 and 24. All Af sensitized mice in ambient air (Af + AIR) made elevated levels of IgE, IgG1, IgM, IgG2a and IgA. Af sensitized mice housed in ETS (Af + ETS) made similar levels of immunoglobulins except for IgE that was significantly reduced in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). However, immunohistochemical evaluation of the lung revealed a marked accumulation of IgE positive cells in the lung parenchyma of these Af + ETS mice. LPS stimulation of BAL cells revealed elevated levels of NO in the Af + AIR group, which was further enhanced in the Af+ETS group. In vitro restimulation of the BAL cells on day 45 showed a TH0 response with elevated levels of IL3, 4, 5, 10 and IFN-γ. However, by day 28 the response shifted such that TH2 cytokines increased while IFN-γ decreased. The Af + ETS group showed markedly reduced levels in all cytokines tested, including the inflammatory cytokine IL6, when compared to the Af+AIR group. These results demonstrate that ETS affects ABPA by further enhancing the NO production and reduces the TH2 and the inflammatory cytokines while altering the pattern of IgE responses. PMID:16050142

  9. An aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand acts on dendritic cells and T cells to suppress the Th17 response in allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Hu, Guo-Hua; Kang, Hou-Yong; Yao, Hong-Bing; Kou, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Cheng; Hong, Su-Ling

    2014-05-01

    A predominant Th17 population is a marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exhibits strong immunomodulation potential via regulation of the differentiation of T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) after activation by its ligand, such as 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of AhR on Th17 differentiation by investigating the action of ITE on DCs and CD4(+) T cells from patients with AR. In all, 26 AR patients and 12 healthy controls were included in this study. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 in the culture supernatant and the presence of Th17 cells in CD4(+) T cells and DC-CD4(+) T-cell co-culture system were measured before and after treatment with ITE. We show that ITE significantly induced cell secretion of IL-10 and inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 production in DCs, and promoted IL-10 production and suppressed IL-17 expression in CD4(+) T cells in vitro. It also suppressed the expansion of Th17 cells in vitro. Our work demonstrates that ITE acts on DCs and CD4(+) T cells to inhibit the Th17 response that suppresses AR; the AhR-DC-Th17 axis may be an important pathway in the treatment of AR. ITE, a nontoxic AhR ligand, attenuated the Th17 response; thus, it appears to be a promising therapeutic candidate for suppressing the inflammatory responses associated with AR.

  10. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  11. Sympathetic skin response following painful electrical stimulation is increased in major depression.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Greiner, Wolf; Rachow, Tobias; Brühl, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder have repeatedly been described to exhibit increased thresholds upon experimentally applied pain stimuli to the skin as compared to respective controls. Since the sensory-discriminative component of stimulus perception, e.g. for warmth, cold and vibration, appears to be unaltered in depression, higher central nervous centres have been assumed to cause this phenomenon. To date, hardly any attention has been paid to the efferent components of the noxious reflex loop. Here, we aimed to assess the autonomic reaction upon a painful stimulus and to examine whether this is likewise reduced in major depression. For this purpose, sympathetic skin response was obtained from 22 patients with major depression and 20 matched controls. To induce sympathetic skin responses, we applied either noxious electrical stimuli (12 and 18 mA) or innocuous acoustic stimuli (85 dB SPL). Pain intensity was rated using a numeric analogue scale. In contrast to our a priori hypothesis patients showed shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of skin potentials upon noxious stimulation, i.e. a stronger sympathetic response. Intriguingly, the noxious stimuli were still perceived less painful in the patient group. Pain perception weakly correlated with disease severity. From these data, we conclude that despite the diminished pain perception, the autonomic reflex loop following noxious stimulation is not affected in patients with major depressive disorder, and that the increase in sympathetic outflow is not directly related to the perceived pain as in controls, but might rather be attributed to the autonomic dysfunction known for the disease.

  12. Meat-specific IgG and IgA antibodies coexist with IgE antibodies in sera from allergic patients: clinical association and modulation by exclusion diet.

    PubMed

    Calderon, T E; Ferrero, M; Marino, G M; Cordoba, A; Beltramo, D; Muino, J C; Rabinovich, G A; Romero, M D

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated responses play a pivotal role in allergic patients with food intolerance. However, the association of food-specific IgG and IgA antibodies with the clinical outcome of allergic patients is still a matter of controversy. In this study we investigate whether beef-specific IgG and IgA antibodies may coexist with beef-specific IgE antibodies in food-allergic patients and examined their clinical relevance in different allergic settings. Beef-specific IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies were determined by solid-phase enzymoimmunoassay (ELISA) in a population of allergic patients (N=125) classified into patients with asthma, skin disease or gastrointestinal disorders, as well as in control subjects (N=80). IgE antibodies specific for citric fruits, tomato, cows milk, chickens egg and wheat were also determined. Beef was the predominant allergenic food in the whole population, not only for IgE (57.6 percent; P less than 0.001), but also for IgG and IgA isotypes (53.6 percent and 34.0 percent, respectively, P less than 0.001). Beef-specific IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies increased significantly in sera from patients with asthma, gastrointestinal disorders and skin allergy compared to sera from control subjects (P less than 0.001). Remarkably, IgG and IgA isotypes were significantly detected, even in the absence of IgE, in the three allergic conditions. All allergic patients, including those showing only IgG and IgA antibodies, significantly ameliorated their symptoms, and their levels of beef-specific antibodies were considerably reduced in response to a cow meat exclusion diet. While patients with gastrointestinal or skin allergic diseases were capable of tolerating beef following an established period of diet exclusion, asthmatic patients experienced a relapse of symptoms and showed a considerable increase in IgE, IgG and IgA-specific antibodies when re-challenged with a beef-enriched diet. Thus, beef-specific IgG and IgA antibodies coexist with IgE antibodies in sera

  13. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1α, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF α, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  14. Measuring the Photopic Negative Response: Viability of Skin Electrodes and Variability Across Disease Severities in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhichao; Hadoux, Xavier; Fan Gaskin, Jennifer C.; Sarossy, Marc G.; Crowston, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of measuring the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) using skin electrodes compared to conjunctival electrodes and its test–retest variability over a range of disease severities in open-angle glaucoma. Methods Recordings were performed twice (100 sweeps each) within the same session in 43 eyes of 23 participants with glaucoma to determine its intrinsic variability. The ratio between the PhNR and B-wave amplitude (PhNR/B ratio) was determined for each trace and computed across 5 to 100 sweeps of each recording. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to measure the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Results The PhNR/B ratio and its magnitude of variability were not significantly different between skin and conjunctival electrodes (P ≤ 0.197), and the degree of variability decreased substantially with increasing number of sweeps. For skin electrodes, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.89 and 0.91 for right and left eyes, respectively. The variability of the PhNR/B ratio decreased with lower RNFL thickness values and larger B-wave amplitudes (P ≤ 0.002). Conclusions Skin electrodes are a viable alternative to conjunctival electrodes when measuring the PhNR in open angle glaucoma, and increasing the number of sweeps substantially reduced its intrinsic variability; the extent of variability was also lower with worsening disease severity. Translational Relevance The feasibility of performing ERG recordings widely across a range of disease severities in glaucoma can be achieved through using skin electrodes and increasing the number of sweeps performed to improve measurement repeatability. PMID:26998406

  15. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  16. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V.; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E.; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F.

    2014-01-01

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m−1 lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m−1 in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:24647908

  17. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F

    2014-06-01

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m(-1) lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m(-1) in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases.

  18. Mechanisms of DNA damage response to targeted irradiation in organotypic 3D skin cultures.

    PubMed

    Acheva, Anna; Ghita, Mihaela; Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage (caused by direct cellular exposure and bystander signaling) and the complex pathways involved in its repair are critical events underpinning cellular and tissue response following radiation exposures. There are limited data addressing the dynamics of DNA damage induction and repair in the skin particularly in areas not directly exposed. Here we investigate the mechanisms regulating DNA damage, repair, intracellular signalling and their impact on premature differentiation and development of inflammatory-like response in the irradiated and surrounding areas of a 3D organotypic skin model. Following localized low-LET irradiation (225 kVp X-rays), low levels of 53BP1 foci were observed in the 3D model (3.8±0.28 foci/Gy/cell) with foci persisting and increasing in size up to 48 h post irradiation. In contrast, in cell monolayers 14.2±0.6 foci/Gy/cell and biphasic repair kinetics with repair completed before 24 h was observed. These differences are linked to differences in cellular status with variable level of p21 driving apoptotic signalling in 2D and accelerated differentiation in both the directly irradiated and bystander areas of the 3D model. The signalling pathways utilized by irradiated keratinocytes to induce DNA damage in non-exposed areas of the skin involved the NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2. PMID:24505255

  19. Non-cardiac autonomic tests in diabetes: use of the galvanic skin response.

    PubMed

    Macleod, A F; Smith, S A; Cowell, T; Richardson, P R; Sonksen, P H

    1991-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects both large myelinated and small unmyelinated nerve fibres. It has been proposed that the small unmyelinated fibres, responsible for pain and temperature sense, and autonomic function, are involved early, particularly in subjects with painful symptoms, and may be important in foot ulceration. The sympathetic skin response has been used to investigate the function of small unmyelinated sympathetic fibres in the limbs of diabetic subjects. Changes in skin resistance at the fingers and toes have been measured simultaneously after a sound stimulus. These procedures were controlled using a microcomputer. Data collected from 55 diabetic subjects, randomly selected from the diabetic clinic, have been compared with results from conventional tests of large motor and sensory fibres and autonomic function. The ratio of the change in skin resistance for toes to fingers correlated with sural and posterior tibial nerve conduction velocity (correlation coefficients 0.54 and 0.42, p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively), with the expired to inspired ratio (correlation coefficient 0.51, p less than 0.01), and inversely with vibration perception threshold in the feet (correlation coefficient 0.50, p less than 0.001). Correlation with the dark adapted pupil diameter, however, only just achieved statistical significance (correlation coefficient 0.27, p = 0.043). We propose that this simple test may elucidate the role of the peripheral autonomic system in diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Skin conductance and the stress response from heel stick in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Storm, H

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate whether spontaneous skin conductance activity is an objective method for measuring the stress response to painful stimuli in premature infants. The number and amplitude of the waves and the baseline increase with the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
METHODS—In 20 preterm infants of gestational age ⩾ 29 weeks, behavioural state and spontaneous skin conductance activity variables were measured for three minutes before, during, and for three minutes after heel stick.
RESULTS—The number of waves (p < 0.001), the amplitude of the waves (p = 0.001), and the level of the behavioural state (p < 0.001) increased during heel stick, and then decreased to levels found before the procedure. The baseline increased both during (p < 0.001) and after heel stick (p < 0.001), compared with levels before.
CONCLUSION—Spontaneous skin conductance activity reflects the stress response to heel stick in premature infants from at least 29 weeks of gestational age.
 PMID:10952711

  1. Responsiveness of the Spanish Version of the “Skin Cancer Index”

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, F.; Blázquez-Sánchez, N.; Fernández-Canedo, I.; Aguilar-Bernier, M.; Repiso-Jiménez, J. B.; Toribio-Montero, J. C.; Jones-Caballero, M.; Rhee, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin Cancer Index (SCI) is a specific questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with cervicofacial non-melanoma skin cancer (CFNMSC). The original scale has recently been adapted and validated into Spanish. Objectives. Evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of SCI. Methods. Patients with CFNMSC candidate for surgical treatment were administered the questionnaire at time of diagnostic (t0), 7 days after surgery (t1), and 5 months after surgery (t2). The scale and subscales scores (C1: social/appearance, C2: emotional) were then evaluated. Differences between t0-t1, t1-t2, and t0-t2 were determined and a gender-and-age segmented analysis was performed. Results. 88 patients, 54.8% male, mean age 62.5 years, completed the study. Differences between t0-t1 and t1-t2 scores were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lowest values were found at time of diagnosis and postsurgery. Women and patients under 65 years showed the lowest values at the three times. Limitations. Concrete geographic and cultural area. Clinical and histological variables are not analysed. Conclusions. Our results confirm responsiveness of the Spanish version of the SCI. Further development of the instrument in Spanish-speaking countries and populations will make it possible to extend worldwide research and knowledge horizons on skin cancer. PMID:27800183

  2. Non-Invasive Measurement of Skin Microvascular Response during Pharmacological and Physiological Provocations

    PubMed Central

    Iredahl, Fredrik; Löfberg, Andreas; Sjöberg, Folke; Farnebo, Simon; Tesselaar, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Microvascular changes in the skin due to pharmacological and physiological provocations can be used as a marker for vascular function. While laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used extensively for measurement of skin microvascular responses, Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) and Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) are novel imaging techniques. TiVi measures red blood cell concentration, while LDF and LSCI measure perfusion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare responses to provocations in the skin using these different techniques. Method Changes in skin microcirculation were measured in healthy subjects during (1) iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and noradrenaline (NA), (2) local heating and (3) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) using LDF, LSCI and TiVi. Results Iontophoresis of SNP increased perfusion (LSCI: baseline 40.9±6.2 PU; 10-min 100±25 PU; p<0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 119±18; 10-min 150±41 AU; p = 0.011). No change in perfusion (LSCI) was observed after iontophoresis of NA (baseline 38.0±4.4 PU; 10-min 38.9±5.0 PU; p = 0.64), while RBC concentration decreased (TiVi: baseline 59.6±11.8 AU; 10-min 54.4±13.3 AU; p = 0.021). Local heating increased perfusion (LDF: baseline 8.8±3.6 PU; max 112±55 PU; p<0.001, LSCI: baseline 50.8±8.0 PU; max 151±22 PU; p<0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 49.2±32.9 AU; max 99.3±28.3 AU; p<0.001). After 5 minutes of forearm occlusion with prior exsanguination, a decrease was seen in perfusion (LDF: p = 0.027; LSCI: p<0.001) and in RBC concentration (p = 0.045). Only LSCI showed a significant decrease in perfusion after 5 minutes of occlusion without prior exsanguination (p<0.001). Coefficients of variation were lower for LSCI and TiVi compared to LDF for most responses. Conclusion LSCI is more sensitive than TiVi for measuring microvascular changes during SNP-induced vasodilatation and forearm occlusion. TiVi is more sensitive to noradrenaline

  3. Skin-conductance orienting response in chronic schizophrenics: the role of neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Spohn, H E; Coyne, L; Wilson, J K; Hayes, K

    1989-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between neuroleptic treatment and skin-conductance orienting response (SCOR) nonresponding in chronic schizophrenics. In a design adapted to this purpose, we were unable to demonstrate a relationship between neuroleptics and nonresponding. Although inability to prove the null hypothesis precludes a claim that neuroleptic treatment and SCOR nonresponding are unrelated, internal evidence and prior studies strongly suggest that such a dissociation exists in most chronic schizophrenic nonresponders. We also found stable nonspecific and toxic skin conductance activity differences between SCOR "responders" and "nonresponders" on three occasions of testing. We interpret our results as bearing on state and trait issues in chronic schizophrenics.

  4. The response of skin to applied stress: investigation of bitemark distortion in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Bush, Mary A; Thorsrud, Kyle; Miller, Raymond G; Dorion, Robert B J; Bush, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of distortional properties of skin is important in bitemark analysis. Thus, the response of skin to stress from bites was investigated. Four sets of models were created from the dentition of one individual. Anterior teeth were systematically removed to vary contact surface area. A biting apparatus was constructed with an integrated load cell. Forty-six bites were created perpendicular to Langer lines on six cadavers. Rate of force application and bite pressure were controlled. Metric/angular measurement and hollow volume overlays were employed. Distortion produced by each dentition was calculated and assessed. Results showed that as teeth impressed loose tissue, mesial/distal distance increased, angles of rotation flattened, and inter-canine distance lengthened. An opposite effect was seen in tight tissue. When the surface area of the dentition was reduced, a mixture of these effects was observed. Conclusions indicated that stiffness of the tissue was the most important variable in bitemark distortion. PMID:20002269

  5. When Beauty Is Skin Deep: Regulation of the Wound Response by Caspase-8, RIPK3, and the Inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Vince, James E

    2015-08-01

    Caspase-8 downregulation is observed in the epidermis of wounded skin, whereas permanent epidermal caspase-8 deletion causes chronic skin inflammation, suggesting that caspase-8 is a critical regulator of skin homeostasis and, possibly, the wound response. In this issue, Lee et al. document how epidermal caspase-8 deletion, or cutaneous wounding, results in increased NF-κB activation to drive keratinocyte caspase-1 expression and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-1α. Consequently, loss of NF-κB activity, caspase-1, or the IL-1 receptor delays wound healing. Previous studies have documented how chronic skin inflammation in caspase-8-deficient mice is rescued by RIPK3 co-deletion. Therefore, targeting caspase-1, IL-1, or RIPK3 itself may benefit treatment of chronic inflammatory skin diseases, or where an inappropriate inflammatory response proves detrimental to wound healing, such as in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26174535

  6. The niacin skin flush abnormality in schizophrenia: a quantitative dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Messamore, Erik; Hoffman, William F; Janowsky, Aaron

    2003-08-01

    Niacin dilates cutaneous blood vessels, resulting in a pronounced skin flush in most people. The flush response to niacin is attenuated in schizophrenia, but the quantification and physiological mechanism of this abnormality have not been described in detail. It is not clear whether the mechanism involves changes in the pharmacological sensitivity to niacin, or whether there is a reduced ability of the vasculature to dilate adequately in subjects with schizophrenia. We address this question in the present study by characterizing the dose-response relationship between topically applied alpha-methylnicotinate (AMN) and cutaneous blood flow changes, which were quantified by laser Doppler flowmetry. The dose-response curve was shifted to the right in subjects with schizophrenia. The EC(50) value of AMN was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group (mean: 1.66 mM; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.65 mM) as compared to the control group (mean: 0.38 mM; 95% confidence interval: 0.263-0.547 mM). The blood flow responses to higher AMN doses were lower in the schizophrenics; however, there was no statistically significant difference in the extrapolated maximal blood flow response value (F(max)) between the two groups. The results suggest that the skin flush abnormality in schizophrenia primarily reflects reduced pharmacological sensitivity to niacin rather than an inadequate cutaneous vasodilatory response to the stimulus. Since vasodilatation in response to niacin requires the release of prostaglandins, the data from this study suggest that schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in enzymes, receptors, or signal transduction mechanisms that affect the synthesis, release, or response to vasodilatory prostaglandins.

  7. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  8. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  9. Classical skin conductance response conditioning: effects of intermittent reinforcement and information about schedule contingencies.

    PubMed

    Williams, W C

    1975-07-01

    Skin conductance responses were differentially conditioned using reinforcement schedules of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, manipulated between subjects. Half of the subjects were informed about schedule contingencies, and half were uninformed. The interstimulus interval was 6 sec. Discrimination of first-interval responses (1.0-3.5 sec after conditioned stimulus [CS] onset) by informed subjects did not vary with the ratio variable, but that by uninformed subjects improved with increasing reinforcement ratio because of diminished response levels to the nonreinforced CS (CS-). Discrimination of second-interval responses (3.6-7.0 sec after CS onset) improved as a function of increasing reinforcement ratio because of elevated response levels to the reinforced CS (CS+), but the effect was not persistent across trials in informed subjects. Performance in the first and second intervals did not reflect sequential increments and decrements as a function of reinforced and nonreinforced trials. Third-interval responses (7.1-9.9 sec after CS on nonreinforced trials) were not affected by schedule manipulations, but unconditioned responses diminished with increasing reinforcement ratio. Information about schedule contingencies led to superior discrimination of first-, second-, and third-interval responses and to suppression of unconditioned responses.

  10. Association of HLA-DR3 with human immune response to Lol p I and Lol p II allergens in allergic subjects.

    PubMed

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Ansari, A A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1988-04-01

    Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responses to two well-characterized, antigenetically non-crossreactive components of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen extract, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II) were studied in two groups of skin-test positive (ST+) Caucasoid adults. By both nonparametric and parametric statistical methods, significant associations were found between Ab responses to both Lol I and Lol II and the possession of HLA-DR3. In view of the well-known associations of both DR3 and B8 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) with many autoimmune diseases, differences in anti-Lol I and anti-Lol II mean log[Ab] levels between B8+, DR3- vs B8-, DR3- subjects and B8+, DR3+ vs B8-, DR3+ subjects were investigated. No differences were found. Our data, along with recent RFLP and DNA sequence studies, suggest that an Ia molecule involved in immune recognition of a similar major Ia recognition site of both the Lol molecules may consist of a DR3 alpha-beta I pair. Abbreviations used: Ab: Antibody. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen. Lol p I, Lol I: Group I allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye I). Lol p II, Lol II: Group II allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye II). Mr: Relative molecular mass. Rx: Immunotherapy with grass pollen extracts. ST: Skin test.

  11. Raman spectroscopy: in vivo quick response code of skin physiological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Le Guillou, Maud; Guichard, Nathalie; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists need to combine different clinically relevant characteristics for a better understanding of skin health. These characteristics are usually measured by different techniques, and some of them are highly time consuming. Therefore, a predicting model based on Raman spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) regression was developed as a rapid multiparametric method. The Raman spectra collected from the five uppermost micrometers of 11 healthy volunteers were fitted to different skin characteristics measured by independent appropriate methods (transepidermal water loss, hydration, pH, relative amount of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol). For each parameter, the obtained PLS model presented correlation coefficients higher than R2=0.9. This model enables us to obtain all the aforementioned parameters directly from the unique Raman signature. In addition to that, in-depth Raman analyses down to 20 μm showed different balances between partially bound water and unbound water with depth. In parallel, the increase of depth was followed by an unfolding process of the proteins. The combinations of all these information led to a multiparametric investigation, which better characterizes the skin status. Raman signal can thus be used as a quick response code (QR code). This could help dermatologic diagnosis of physiological variations and presents a possible extension to pathological characterization.

  12. Phenotypic responses to mechanical stress in fibroblasts from tendon, cornea and skin

    PubMed Central

    Mackley, Jennifer R.; Ando, Joji; Herzyk, Pawel; Winder, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Primary fibroblasts isolated from foetal mouse cornea, skin and tendon were subjected to linear shear stress and analysed for morphological parameters and by microarray, as compared with unstimulated controls. Approx. 350 genes were either up- or down-regulated by a significant amount, with 51 of these being common to all three cell types. Approx. 50% of altered genes in tendon and cornea fibroblasts were changed in common with one of the other cell types, with the remaining approx. 50% being specific to tendon or cornea. In skin fibroblasts, however, less than 25% of genes whose transcription was altered were specific only to skin. The functional spectrum of genes that were up- or down-regulated was diverse, with apparent house-keeping genes forming the major category of up-regulated genes. However, a significant number of genes associated with cell adhesion, extracellular matrix and matrix remodelling, as well as cytokines and other signalling factors, were also affected. Somewhat surprisingly, in these latter categories the trend was towards a reduction in mRNA levels. Verification of the mRNA quantity of a subset of these genes was performed by reverse transcriptase PCR and was found to be in agreement with the microarray analysis. These findings provide the first in-depth analysis of phenotypic differences between fibroblast cells from different tissue sources and reveal the responses of these cells to mechanical stress. PMID:16492137

  13. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (p<0.05) increases in immunoreactivity in the Gamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  14. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  15. MicroRNA regulation of allergic inflammation and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pua, Heather H; Ansel, K Mark

    2015-10-01

    Allergic diseases are prevalent and clinically heterogeneous, and are the pathologic consequence of inappropriate or exaggerated type 2 immune responses. In this review, we explore the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating allergic inflammation. We discuss how miRNAs, acting through target genes to modulate gene expression networks, impact multiple facets of immune cell function critical for type 2 immune responses including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. Human and mouse studies indicate that miRNAs are significant regulators of allergic immune responses. Finally, investigations of extracellular miRNAs offer promise for noninvasive biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for allergy and asthma.

  16. Interference of a short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide with allergic airways responses to allergenic challenges in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Barbara; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Robidel, Franck; Marliere, Maryse; Lecomte, Anthony; Vargaftig, B Boris

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) is a common indoor and outdoor air pollutant whose role in the induction of asthma is unclear. We investigated the effects of NO(2) on the development of asthma-like responses to allergenic challenge in BALB/c mice. Ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice were intranasally challenged with OVA or saline solution just before starting a 3 h exposure to 5 or 20 ppm NO(2) or air. Twenty parts per million of NO(2) induced a significant increase of bronchopulmonary hyperreactivity in OVA-challenged mice and of permeability according to the fibronectin content of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 24 h after exposure, as compared with air or 5 ppm NO(2). Eosinophilia (cell counts in the BALF and eosinophil peroxidase of lung tissue) was detected at 24 and 72 h with similar levels for air and 20 ppm NO(2), whereas a marked reduction was unexpectedly observed for 5 ppm NO(2). At 24 h, interleukin-5 in the BALF was markedly reduced at 5 ppm compared with 20 ppm NO(2) and was also more intense for 20 ppm NO(2) than for the air group. In contrast to specific IgG1 titers, anti-OVA IgE titers and interleukin-4 in the BALF were not affected by NO(2) exposure. Irrespective of the concentration of NO(2), OVA-challenged mice did not develop late mucosal metaplasia compared with those exposed to OVA-air. These results indicate that a short exposure to NO(2) can exacerbate or inhibit some features of the development of allergic disease in mice and may depend on the concentration of pollutant. PMID:12396477

  17. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p < 0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.

  18. Effects and dose--response relationships of skin cancer and blackfoot disease with arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tseng, W P

    1977-08-01

    In a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been used for more than 60 years, a high prevalence of chronic arsenicism has been observed in recent years. The total population of this "endemic" area is approximately 100,000. A general survey of 40,421 inhabitants and follow-up of 1,108 patients with blackfoot disease were made. Blackfoot disease, so-termed locally, is a peripheral vascular disorder resulting in gangrene of the extremities, especially the feet. The overall prevalence rates for skin cancer was 10.6 per 1000, and for blackfoot disease 8.9 per 1000. Generally speaking, the prevalence increased steadily with age in both diseases. The prevalence rates for skin cancer and blackfoot disease increased with the arsenic content of well water, i.e., the higher the arsenic content, the more patients with skin cancer and blackfoot disease. A dose-response relationship between blackfoot disease and the duration of water intake was also noted. Furthermore, the degree of permanent impairment of function in the patient was directly related to duration of intake of arsenical water and to duration of such intake at the time of onset. The most common cause of death in the patients with skin cancer and blackfoot disease was carcinoma of various sites. The 5-year survival rate after the onset of blackfoot disease was 76.3%; the 10-year survival rate was 63.3% and 15-year survival rate, 52.2%. The 50% survival point was 16 years after onset of the disease.

  19. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p < 0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue. PMID:24796731

  20. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment. PMID:24994888

  1. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment.

  2. Biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli by college students in biology and music.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and physiological responses to musical stimuli. Specifically, university music and biology students' plasma levels of norepinephrine, endorphin, and cortisol, and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections in an anechoic chamber and during controlled silence. The results indicated that biochemical variables changed significantly in both groups during listening to music but were not different during the controlled silence. These data suggest that music majors may listen more analytically to music. GSR responses were significantly higher for music majors than biology majors, and plasma cortisol increased in music students but decreased in biology students. Music which elicits specific emotions induces physiological changes which may be beneficial to relaxation and behavioral therapies. PMID:1501973

  3. Regulating inflammation using acid-responsive electrospun fibrous scaffolds for skin scarless healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Cui, Wenguo; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing. PMID:24795507

  4. Regulating inflammation using acid-responsive electrospun fibrous scaffolds for skin scarless healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Cui, Wenguo; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing.

  5. Regulating Inflammation Using Acid-Responsive Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds for Skin Scarless Healing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing. PMID:24795507

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances.

  7. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  8. FETAL RESPONSE TO ANTIGENIC STIMULUS. IV. REJECTION OF SKIN HOMOGRAFTS BY THE FETAL LAMB.

    PubMed

    SILVERSTEIN, A M; PRENDERGAST, R A; KRANER, K L

    1964-01-01

    The fetal lamb was found to reject orthotopic skin homografts applied at any time after the 77th day of gestation. Prior to this, grafts remained in place without stimulating any detectable immunologic response. Once the fetus achieves the ability to reject the graft, the process occurs with the same competence and rapidity as in the adult. Graft rejection in the fetal lamb is unaccompanied by formation of plasma cells or by the production of typical immunoglobulins, thus supporting the suggestion that circulating antibody does not play an obligatory role in the process.

  9. Histone H3 Phosphorylation in Human Skin Histoculture as a Tool to Evaluate Patient’s Response to Antiproliferative Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte, Fernando; Porth, Katherine; Sadekova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of patient’s response to chemotherapeutic drugs is often difficult and time consuming. Skin punch biopsies are easily accessible material that can be used for the evaluation of surrogate biomarkers of a patient’s response to a drug. In this study, we hypothesized that assessment of phosphorylated histone H3 in human skin punch biopsies could be used as a pharmacodynamics biomarker of patient’s response to the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor SCH2047069. To test this hypothesis, we used a human skin histoculture technique that allows culturing intact human skin in the presence of the drug. Human melanoma and skin histocultures were treated with SCH2047069, and the effect of the drug was assessed by increasing histone H3 phosphorylation using immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that SCH2047069 has a significant effect on cell proliferation in human melanoma and skin histoculture and justify using human skin punch biopsies for evaluation of the pharmacodynamic changes induced by SCH2047069. ACRONYMS Histone subunit H3 (H3), Kinesin spindle protein (KSP), 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EDU), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE). PMID:26917945

  10. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  11. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  12. Similar nociceptive afferents mediate psychophysical and electrophysiological responses to heat stimulation of glabrous and hairy skin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Iannetti, G D; Zambreanu, L; Tracey, I

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perceive and withdraw rapidly from noxious environmental stimuli is crucial for survival. When heat stimuli are applied to primate hairy skin, first pain sensation is mediated by type-II A-fibre nociceptors (II-AMHs). In contrast, the reported absence of first pain and II-AMH microneurographical responses when heat stimuli are applied to the hand palm has led to the notion that II-AMHs are lacking in this primate glabrous skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hairy and glabrous skin stimulation on neural transmission of nociceptive inputs elicited by different kinds of thermal heating. We recorded psychophysical and EEG brain responses to radiant (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs) and contact heat stimuli (contact heat-evoked potentials, CHEPs) delivered to the dorsum and the palm of the hand in normal volunteers. Brain responses were analysed at a single-trial level, using an automated approach based on multiple linear regression. Laser stimulation of hairy and glabrous skin at the same energy elicited remarkably similar psychophysical ratings and LEPs. This finding provides strong evidence that first pain to heat does exist in glabrous skin, and suggests that similar nociceptive afferents, with the physiological properties of II-AMHs, mediate first pain to heat stimulation of glabrous and hairy skin in humans. In contrast, when contact heat stimuli were employed, a significantly higher nominal temperature had to be applied to glabrous skin in order to achieve psychophysical ratings similar to those obtained following hairy skin stimulation, and CHEPs following glabrous skin stimulation had significantly longer latencies (N2 wave, +25%; P2 wave, +24%) and smaller amplitudes (N2 wave, −40%; P2 wave, −44%) than CHEPs following hairy skin stimulation. Irrespective of the stimulated territory, CHEPs always had significantly longer latencies (hairy skin N2 wave, +75%; P2 wave, +56%) and smaller amplitudes (hairy skin N2 wave, −42%; P

  13. Allergic reaction after rubber dam placement.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, E D; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C; de Oliveira, M M

    2000-03-01

    In the last few years allergic reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) have increased in dental practice affecting both the dental team and patients. Some case reports discuss the potential risks of hypersensitivity to NRL products. An adverse patient reaction after dental rubber dam placement is reported. About 1 min after the isolation of the tooth with a rubber dam the patient presented signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity. Oxygen and intravenous hydrocortisone were administered and the patient kept under observation. After 2 h she had stable vital signs and no more allergics symptoms. It is unclear whether components of the NRL dam or the cornstarch powder incorporated with the rubber dam was responsible for the allergic reaction. Dentists must be aware of the health problem and be prepared for an adequate management in dental practice.

  14. Modulation of the oscillatory mechanics of lung tissue and the oxidative stress response induced by arginase inhibition in a chronic allergic inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of the lung parenchyma in the pathophysiology of asthma has previously been demonstrated. Considering that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and arginases compete for the same substrate, it is worthwhile to elucidate the effects of complex NOS-arginase dysfunction in the pathophysiology of asthma, particularly, related to distal lung tissue. We evaluated the effects of arginase and iNOS inhibition on distal lung mechanics and oxidative stress pathway activation in a model of chronic pulmonary allergic inflammation in guinea pigs. Methods Guinea pigs were exposed to repeated ovalbumin inhalations (twice a week for 4 weeks). The animals received 1400 W (an iNOS-specific inhibitor) for 4 days beginning at the last inhalation. Afterwards, the animals were anesthetized and exsanguinated; then, a slice of the distal lung was evaluated by oscillatory mechanics, and an arginase inhibitor (nor-NOHA) or vehicle was infused in a Krebs solution bath. Tissue resistance (Rt) and elastance (Et) were assessed before and after ovalbumin challenge (0.1%), and lung strips were submitted to histopathological studies. Results Ovalbumin-exposed animals presented an increase in the maximal Rt and Et responses after antigen challenge (p<0.001), in the number of iNOS positive cells (p<0.001) and in the expression of arginase 2, 8-isoprostane and NF-kB (p<0.001) in distal lung tissue. The 1400 W administration reduced all these responses (p<0.001) in alveolar septa. Ovalbumin-exposed animals that received nor-NOHA had a reduction of Rt, Et after antigen challenge, iNOS positive cells and 8-isoprostane and NF-kB (p<0.001) in lung tissue. The activity of arginase 2 was reduced only in the groups treated with nor-NOHA (p <0.05). There was a reduction of 8-isoprostane expression in OVA-NOR-W compared to OVA-NOR (p<0.001). Conclusions In this experimental model, increased arginase content and iNOS-positive cells were associated with the constriction of distal lung parenchyma

  15. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    lipids vary greatly among allergenic species and contain many molecules that have stimulatory or regulatory effects on immune responses. PMID:23469025

  16. Protein oxidative damage and heme oxygenase in sunlight-exposed human skin: roles of MAPK responses to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Emiko; Takekoshi, Susumu; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Toriumi, Kentarou; Ikoma, Norihiro; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Tamiya, Shiho; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ozawa, Akira

    2010-12-20

    Oxidative stress derived from ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight induces different hazardous effects in the skin, including sunburn, photo-aging and DNA mutagenesis. In this study, the protein-bound lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) were investigated in chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skins using immunohistochemistry. The levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 and 2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase, were also examined. Oxidative stress is also implicated in the activation of signal transduction pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Therefore, the expression and distribution of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed. Skin specimens were obtained from the surgical margins. Chronically sunlight-exposed skin samples were taken from the ante-auricular (n = 10) and sunlight-protected skin samples were taken from the post-auricular (n = 10). HNE was increased in the chronically sunlight-exposed skin but not in the sunlight-protected skin. The expression of heme oxygenase-2 was markedly increased in the sunlight-exposed skin compared with the sun-protected skin. In contrast, the intensity of immunostaining of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase was not different between the two areas. Phosphorylated p38 MAPK and phosphorylated JNK accumulated in the ante-auricular dermis and epidermis, respectively. These data show that particular anti-oxidative enzymes function as protective factors in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin. Taken together, our results suggest (1) antioxidative effects of heme oxygenase-2 in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin, and that (2) activation of p38 MAPK may be responsible for oxidative stress.

  17. Asymmetric response properties of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptive fibers in the rat glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Devecıoğlu, Ismaıl; Güçlü, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Previous histological and neurophysiological studies have shown that the innervation density of rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptive fibers increases towards the fingertip. Since the psychophysical detection threshold depends on the contribution of several RA fibers, a high innervation density would imply lower thresholds. However, our previous human study showed that psychophysical detection thresholds for the Non-Pacinian I channel mediated by RA fibers do not improve towards the fingertip. By recording single-unit spike activity from rat RA fibers, here we tested the hypothesis that the responsiveness of RA fibers is asymmetric in the proximo-distal axis which may counterbalance the effects of innervation density. RA fibers (n = 32) innervating the digital glabrous skin of rat hind paw were stimulated with 40-Hz sinusoidal mechanical bursts at five different stimulus locations relative to the receptive field (RF) center (two distal, one RF center, two proximal). Different contactor sizes (area: 0.39, 1.63, 2.96 mm²) were used. Rate-intensity functions were constructed based on average firing rates, and the absolute spike threshold and the entrainment threshold were obtained for each RA fiber. Thresholds for proximal stimulus locations were found to be significantly higher than those for distal stimulus locations, which suggests that the mechanical stimulus is transmitted better towards the proximal direction. The effect of contactor size was not significant. Mechanical impedance of the rat digital glabrous skin was further measured and a lumped-parameter model was proposed to interpret the relationship between the asymmetric response properties of RA fibers and the mechanical properties of the skin.

  18. Unlipidated Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 (U-Omp16) from Brucella spp. as Nasal Adjuvant Induces a Th1 Immune Response and Modulates the Th2 Allergic Response to Cow’s Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez, Andrés E.; Smaldini, Paola; Coria, Lorena M.; Delpino, María V.; Pacífico, Lucila G. G.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Risso, Gabriela S.; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Docena, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of novel mucosal adjuvants will help to develop new formulations to control infectious and allergic diseases. In this work we demonstrate that U-Omp16 from Brucella spp. delivered by the nasal route (i.n.) induced an inflammatory immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissues. Nasal co-administration of U-Omp16 with the model antigen (Ag) ovalbumin (OVA) increased the amount of Ag in lung tissues and induced OVA-specific systemic IgG and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses. The usefulness of U-Omp16 was also assessed in a mouse model of food allergy. U-Omp16 i.n. administration during sensitization ameliorated the hypersensitivity responses of sensitized mice upon oral exposure to Cow’s Milk Protein (CMP), decreased clinical signs, reduced anti-CMP IgE serum antibodies and modulated the Th2 response in favor of Th1 immunity. Thus, U-Omp16 could be used as a broad Th1 mucosal adjuvant for different Ag formulations. PMID:23861971

  19. In Vivo Assessment of Acute UVB Responses in Normal and Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP-C) Skin-Humanized Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    García, Marta; Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Meana, Alvaro; Cuadrado, Natividad; Recasens, Mar; Puig, Susana; Nagore, Eduardo; Illera, Nuria; Jorcano, José Luis; Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In vivo studies of UVB effects on human skin are precluded by ethical and technical arguments on volunteers and inconceivable in cancer-prone patients such as those affected with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP). Establishing reliable models to address mechanistic and therapeutic matters thus remains a challenge. Here we have used the skin-humanized mouse system that circumvents most current model constraints. We assessed the UVB radiation effects including the sequential changes after acute exposure with respect to timing, dosage, and the relationship between dose and degree-sort of epidermal alteration. On Caucasian-derived regenerated skins, UVB irradiation (800 J/m2) induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and p53 expression in exposed keratinocytes. Epidermal disorganization was observed at higher doses. In contrast, in African descent–derived regenerated skins, physiological hyperpigmentation prevented tissue alterations and DNA photolesions. The acute UVB effects seen in Caucasian-derived engrafted skins were also blocked by a physical sunscreen, demonstrating the suitability of the system for photoprotection studies. We also report the establishment of a photosensitive model through the transplantation of XP-C patient cells as part of a bioengineered skin. The inability of XP-C engrafted skin to remove DNA damaged cells was confirmed in vivo. Both the normal and XP-C versions of the skin-humanized mice proved proficient models to assess UVB-mediated DNA repair responses and provide a strong platform to test novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20558577

  20. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  2. Syk/Src Pathway-Targeted Inhibition of Skin Inflammatory Responses by Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jueun; Yu, Tao; Choi, Soo Jeong; Yang, Yanyan; Baek, Heung Soo; An, Soon Ae; Kwon, Lee Kyoung; Kim, Jinsol; Rho, Ho Sik; Shin, Song Seok; Choi, Wahn Soo; Hong, Sungyoul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2012-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a diterpene compound exhibiting antioxidative, anticancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-metabolic disorder, and hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities. In this study, the effect of CA on various skin inflammatory responses and its inhibitory mechanism were examined. CA strongly suppressed the production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 from keratinocyte HaCaT cells stimulated with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and retinoic acid (RA). In addition, CA blocked the release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from RAW264.7 cells activated by the toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 ligands, Gram-positive bacterium-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) and pam3CSK, and the TLR4 ligand, Gram-negative bacterium-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CA arrested the growth of dermatitis-inducing Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms such Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. CA also blocked the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and its upstream signaling including Syk/Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) kinase (IKK), and IκBα for NF-κB activation. Kinase assays revealed that Syk could be direct enzymatic target of CA in its anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our data strongly suggest the potential of CA as an anti-inflammatory drug against skin inflammatory responses with Src/NF-κB inhibitory properties. PMID:22577255

  3. Heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes is capable of inducing inflammatory responses in skin.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Peter; Sur, Runa; Nigam, Anu; Southall, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    The etiology of acne is a complex process, and acne is one of the most common skin disorders affecting millions of people. The pathogenesis of acne is closely associated with the bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes which was previously known as Corynebacterium parvum. Both viable and non-viable P. acnes/C. parvum have been shown to induce an immunostimulatory effect in vivo, suggesting that even dead bacteria continue to activate an inflammatory response. Acne treatments with lasers or devices, induce a bactericidal effect through heat generation which may not address the immunogenic activity of P. acnes and the resulting acne inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether killed P. acnes is capable of inducing an inflammatory response and therefore could be a contributing factor in acne. Direct heat treatment of P. acnes cultures with temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to 80 degrees C reduced P. acnes viability. Both viable and heat-killed P. acnes activated the p38 MAP kinase and its downstream substrate Hsp27. Stimulating keratinocytes with normal and heat-inactivated P. acnes resulted in an induction of proinflammatory nitric oxide and IL-8 production. Thus killed P. acnes is capable of inducing inflammation in skin suggesting that therapies that have both bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects may result in a more effective treatment of patients with acne than treatments that are bactericidal alone. PMID:19624731

  4. Molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus maculatus-X. couchianus interspecies hybrid skin to UVB exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Bowswell, Mikki; Bowswell, William; Yang, Kuan; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    The phenotypic and genetic similarities between Xiphophorus and human melanoma render Xiphophorus a useful animal model for studying the genetic basis of melanoma etiology. In the Xiphophorus model, melanoma has been shown to be inducible by ultraviolet light (UVB) exposure among interspecies hybrids, but not in parental line fish similarly treated. This leads to questions of what genes are responsive to UVB exposure in the skin of the interspecies hybrids, as well as how parental alleles in hybrids may be differentially regulated and the potential roles they may play in induced melanomagenesis. To address these questions, we produced X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus (Sp-Couch) F1 hybrid fish, exposed both hybrid and parental fish to UVB, and performed gene expression profiling of the skin using RNA-Seq methodology. We characterized a group of unique UVB-responsive genes in Sp-Couch hybrid including dct, pmela, tyr, tyrp1a, slc2a11b, rab38a, rab27, tspan10, slc45a2, oca2, slc24a5, ptn and mitfa. These genes are associated with melanin production and melanocyte proliferation. They were also up-regulated in Sp-Couch hybrid, indicating that their UVB response is hybridization initiated. In the hybrid, several melanin production and pigmentation related genes, including slc45a2, tspan10, dct, slc2a11b and ptn showed either X. couchianus or X. maculatus allele specific expression. The finding that these genes exhibit allele specific expression regulatory mechanisms in Sp-Couch hybrids, but do not exhibit a corresponding UVB response in either one of the parental fishes, may suggest UVB targets and imply mechanisms regarding the susceptibility of Sp-Couch to induced melanomagenesis.

  5. The clinical features of migraine as a manifestation of allergic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. W.; Kirker, J. G.; Warnes, H.; O'Malley, M.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with a clinical history of migraine were evaluated psychiatrically, and by electroencephalography. They were challenged with food antigens by skin-prick test, and abdominal symptoms were evaluated following oral ingestion of food allergens. A significant correlation was found between challenge with specific food allergens and the development of migraine headaches, the appearance of abdominal symptoms and the occurrence of positive skin reactions. Psychiatric abnormalities and EEG alterations were associated with the occurrence of headaches and allergic clinical features. It is suggested that the clinical features of migraine can be explained as a result of release of chemical mediators following antigen-antibody reactions in the brain and other tissues where specific antibodies are localized. The continuous ingestion of the responsible food allergens would account for the raised tissue concentrations of noradrenaline, histamine and other mediators to which the clinical features of migraine are attributed. PMID:7465468

  6. The skin conductance orienting response in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics: replication of the scoring criteria effect.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D F; Edelberg, R; Maricq, H R

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested that the use of invalid scoring criteria might be responsible for the finding of excessive nonhabituation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in schizophrenia. Certain criteria may confuse SCOR and spontaneous SC activity in subjects with high rates of the latter (Levinson et al. 1984). To replicate this finding, data were reanalyzed from a study of 25 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and 23 normal male subjects. Analysis of response latency and amplitude during a habituation paradigm of 11 78.5-dB tones confirmed the predictions. Broad scoring criteria (SCOR onset 1-5 sec poststimulus, and a three-no-response-trials habituation criterion) produced significantly different habituation scores than more restrictive criteria (1.6-3.0 sec latency window and a two-trials habituation criterion). Nonhabituation was scored in five patients and six normals by the former criteria, but in no patient and one normal by the latter. Nonhabituators, defined by using the broad criteria, had higher rates of spontaneous activity. The narrow latency window contained significantly more responses than could be explained by the spontaneous activity rate, but this was not true for the added time permitted by the broad window. It is concluded that the use of more restrictive scoring criteria may help to clarify the validity of SCOR nonresponse or hyporesponse as a marker for a type of schizophrenic illness.

  7. Skin-colour changes i the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, in response to localized electrical stimulation and lesions in the diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Hemer, J H; Salas, M A; LaPointe, J L

    1981-05-01

    A study was made of changes in skin colour in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, in response to deep electrical stimulation at 0.2 mm intervals throughout the periventricular region of the diencephalon and the anterior brain stem. Double-barrelled glass microelectrodes with tip diameters of 3 microns were used. A 20 microA pulse-train consisting of a 500 Hz signal lasting for 1 s yielded localized responses. Skin darkening occurred only in response to stimulation delivered in the anterior and dorsal region of the diencephalon and skin lightening only in response to stimulation in a small area in the posterior and ventral region of the hypothalamus. Electrical lesions in the latter region resulted in permanent skin darkening. Surgical interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial neurosecretory tract did not block skin-colour change in response to dark or light backgrounds. It was concluded that MSH release is under tonic inhibitory control by hypothalamic neurones in Anolis. Both inhibitory and stimulatory neurones can be localized stereotaxically in the diencephalon and neither type corresponds with the neurosecretory neurones of the hypothalamo-hypophysial tract. The functional relationship between the stimulatory neurones and the inhibitory neurones and pars intermedia remains unclear.

  8. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on allergic dermatitis rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangchen; Liu, Yingqin; Zhu, Jinling; Iguchi, Miki; Yoshioka, Saburo; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro

    2010-01-01

    We examined the immunomodulatory effect of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract (ESE) on rat allergic dermatitis elicited by repeated dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) application on the ear. Oral administration of ESE significantly inhibited development of allergic dermatitis based on lower ear thickness and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the lesional skin were determined. Oral administration of ESE significantly decreased IL-4 while significantly increasing IL-10 in lesional skin, and the lower levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 were reversed by oral administration of ESE. The infiltration of eosinophils in the lesional skin was decreased by oral administration of ESE. These results suggested that ESE exerts anti-allergic actions by improving the balance of Th1/Th2 in allergic dermatitis.

  10. Dietary Enrichment with 20% Fish Oil Decreases Mucus Production and the Inflammatory Response in Mice with Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Hartman, Jaye; Skinner, Monica M.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Fischer, Kay A.; Vorachek, William R.; Bobe, Gerd; Valentine, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks. At 8 and 10 weeks, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (10 control-fed mice) or OVA (30 remaining mice). Once at 10 weeks and on 3 consecutive days during week 12, mice were challenged by nebulizing with saline or OVA. Mice were euthanized 24 hours after the last challenge and blood was collected for plasma FA analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to determine cell composition and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-13) concentrations. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) + mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue were quantified using morphometric analysis. Relative abundance of mRNA for mucin (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) genes were compared with ß-actin by qPCR. Supplementation with either corn oil or fish oil effectively altered plasma FA profiles towards more (n-6) FA or (n-3) FA, respectively (P < 0.0001). Sensitization and challenge with OVA increased the proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and decreased the proportion of macrophages and concentrations of IL-13 in BAL fluid; increased the percentage of PAS+ mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue; and increased gene expression of mucins (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in lung tissue of control-fed mice. Dietary PUFA reversed the increase in PAS+ mucus-producing cells (P = 0.003). In addition, dietary

  11. Differences in allergic inflammatory responses between urban PM2.5 and fine particle derived from desert-dust in murine lungs.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa; Sun, Guifan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-04-15

    The biological and chemical natures of materials adsorbed onto fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary by origin and passage routes. The exacerbating effects of the two samples-urban PM2.5 (U-PM2.5) collected during the hazy weather in a Chinese city and fine particles (ASD-PM2.5) collected during Asian sand dust (ASD) storm event days in Japan-on murine lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in PM2.5. The amounts of β-glucan and mineral components were higher in ASD-PM2.5 than in U-PM2.5. On the other hand, organic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were higher in U-PM2.5 than in ASD-PM2.5. When BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 (total 0.4 mg/mouse) with or without ovalbumin (OVA), various biological effects were observed, including enhancement of eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium, synergic increase of OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines and a chemokine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increase of serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. Data demonstrate that U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 induced allergic inflammatory changes and caused lung pathology. U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 increased F4/80(+) CD11b(+) cells, indicating that an influx of inflammatory and exudative macrophages in lung tissue had occurred. The ratio of CD206 positive F4/80(+) CD11b(+) cells (M2 macrophages) in lung tissue was higher in the OVA+ASD-PM2.5 treated mice than in the OVA+U-PM2.5 treated mice. These results suggest that the lung eosinophilia exacerbated by both PM2.5 is due to activation of a Th2-associated immune response along with induced M2 macrophages and the exacerbating effect is greater in microbial element (β-glucan)-rich ASD-PM2.5 than in organic chemical-rich U-PM2.5. PMID:26917405

  12. Demonstration of a 'septide-sensitive' inflammatory response in rat skin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, A.; Giuliani, S.; Maggi, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Measurement of plasma protein extravasation induced by the natural tachykinins following intradermal administration in rat skin indicated equipotency between substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB). The selective NK1 receptor agonist, [Sar9]SP sulphone was 10-100 times more potent than SP. The synthetic hexapeptide, septide, [pGlu6, Pro9]SP-(6-11), which has been proposed to act on a distinct NK1 receptor subtype/binding site was equipotent with [Sar9]SP sulphone. 2. The selective NK2 receptor agonist [beta Ala8]NKA(4-10) (0.1-1 nmol) and the selective NK3 receptor agonist, senktide (0.1-1 nmol) were both ineffective in producing oedema. The selective NK2 receptor antagonist, SR 48, 968 (0.3 mumol kg-1) had no significant inhibitory effects upon oedema induced by approximately equiactive doses of SP (0.2 nmol), septide (0.002 nmol), [Sar9]SP sulphone (0.002 nmol), or NKB (0.3 nmol). These results together suggest that neither NK2 nor NK3 receptors are involved in oedema formation in rat skin. 3. The non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, RP 67,580 (1-3 mumol kg-1), inhibited plasma protein extravasation induced by septide (0.002 nmol) to a greater extent than that to SP (0.2 nmol). RP 67,580 (1 mumol kg-1) produced a significant inhibition of approximately 66% of the response to septide (0.002 nmol) only. Increasing the dose of RP 67,580 3 fold resulted in inhibition of the response to SP (0.2 nmol) and [Sar9]SP sulphone (0.002 nmol) by approximately 66% and 64% respectively with the response to septide being inhibited by approximately 70%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564245

  13. Fibroblast radiosensitivity versus acute and late normal skin responses in patients treated for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, W.A.; Wike, J.; Tucker, S.L.

    1995-07-30

    To determine if the radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, measured in early passage cultures, is significantly correlated with the degree of acute or late normal skin damage in patients treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy. To test assay reproducibility, SF2 values derived from paired biopsies of the same patient (12 cases) were compared. A reasonably good correlation (p = 0.075) was obtained for SF2s determined by high dose-rate irradiations with immediated plating, but not for delayed plating or low dose-rate treatments. The median coefficient of variation in the replicate SF2s after high dose-rate treatment and immediate plating was 13%, suggesting that the poor correlation in paired SF2 values is due to the magnitude of the uncertainty in SF2 relative to the overall spread in SF2 values between patients (CV = 28%). Individual SF2 values and averaged values from patients with data from two biopsies were compared with the acute and late clinical reactions. A significant negative correlation was found between SF2 and relative clinical response, but only when averaged high dose-rate SF2 values and telangiectasia scores were compared. There was no significant correlation between average SF2 values and acute responses or between individual SF2 measurements and either the acute or late clinical response. The results of this study suggest that the degree of late telangiectasia is at least partially dependent upon the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of normal fibroblasts, but the relationship is not clear cut. Multiple replicate assays are necessary to obtain reliable estimates of fibroblast SF2 values using current techniques. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  15. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  16. Response of human skin to ultraviolet radiation: dissociation of erythema and metabolic changes following sunscreen protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pearse, A.D.; Marks, R.

    1983-03-01

    After UV irradiation of human skin there is an increase in epidermal and stratum corneum thickness and an increase in the thymidine autoradiographic labeling index. Previously we have demonstrated that persistent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) alters the distribution and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) within the epidermis; G-6-PDH activity is increased over the whole epidermis and SDH activity is diminished in the granular cell area but increased in the basal layer. When skin is protected by an efficient sunscreen and irradiated with UVB, there is almost complete inhibition of the erythema normally seen following UVR exposure. In this study we have investigated the cytochemical, cell kinetic, and histometric changes that take place in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, with and without two different types of sunscreen. Some of the histometric and metabolic changes associated with UVB exposure were still evident despite sunscreen protection and the successful blocking of the erythema response. The implications of these findings are discussed together with the use of sunscreens to prevent development of solar damage.

  17. Inhibitory effect of chitosan-containing lotion on scratching response of hairless mice with atopic dermatitis-like dry skin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi; Endo, Fumiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Nabe, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, using a special diet-induced mouse model of atopic dermatitis, we tested the effect of chitosan-containing lotion (CL) on itch-related scratching associated with barrier-disrupted dry skin. HR-1 hairless mice fed a special diet exhibited apparent dry skin symptoms characterized by decreased skin hydration and increased transepidermal water loss. In the special diet-fed mice, scratching behavior was markedly enhanced for 60 min after oral administration of ethanol. When CL was applied once immediately after ethanol administration, the enhanced scratching response was significantly suppressed, but this effect was abolished within 30-40 min; when applied twice immediately and at 30 min, CL almost completely blocked scratching throughout 60 min. Comparison of CL and the chitosan-free vehicle showed that CL inhibited scratching more strongly and persistently than the vehicle, which transiently suppressed scratching only for 10 min after application. Although the decreased skin hydration was improved even by the vehicle, the increased transepidermal water loss was resolved only by CL. Skin surface temperature was much more reduced in CL-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. Collectively, CL has an antipruritic effect, which could be partly explained by recovery of skin barrier function and cooling of the skin.

  18. A Survey of Clinical Features of Allergic Rhinitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Franco; Dell’Albani, Ilaria; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bonini, Sergio; Rossi, Oliviero; Senna, Gianenrico; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) has high prevalence and substantial socio-economic burden. Material/Methods The study included 35 Italian Centers recruiting an overall number of 3383 adult patients with rhinitis (48% males, 52% females, mean age 29.1, range 18–45 years). For each patient, the attending physician had to fill in a standardized questionnaire, covering, in particular, some issues such as the ARIA classification of allergic rhinitis (AR), the results of skin prick test (SPT), the kind of treatment, the response to treatment, and the satisfaction with treatment. Results Out of the 3383 patients with rhinitis, 2788 (82.4%) had AR: 311 (11.5%) had a mild intermittent, 229 (8.8%) a mild persistent, 636 (23.5%) a moderate-severe intermittent, and 1518 (56.1%) a moderate-severe persistent form. The most frequently used drugs were oral antihistamines (77.1%) and topical corticosteroids (60.8%). The response to treatment was judged as excellent in 12.2%, good in 41.3%, fair in 31.2%, poor in 14.5%, and very bad in 0.8% of subjects. The rate of treatment dissatisfaction was significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe AR than in patients with mild AR (p<0.0001). Indication to allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was significantly more frequent (p<0.01) in patients with severe AR than with mild AR. Conclusions These findings confirm the appropriateness of ARIA guidelines in classifying the AR patients and the association of severe symptoms with unsuccessful drug treatment. The optimal targeting of patients to be treated with AIT needs to be reassessed. PMID:25366169

  19. Are We Afraid of Different Categories of Stimuli in Identical Ways? Evidence from Skin Conductance Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiongjiong

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that emotional pictures attract more attention than neutral pictures, and pictures of living stimuli have similar advantage in driving attention (vs. nonliving). However, factors of emotion, category and picture context are usually mixed so that whether living and nonliving categories elicit different skin conductance (SC) responses, in both conscious and unconscious conditions, remains to be clarified. In this study, participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures denoting different living and nonliving concepts in conscious (Experiments 1 and 2) and unconscious conditions (40ms, Experiment 3) when their SC responses were measured. The picture context was manipulated in Experiments 2 and 3 as half including human-related information. In three experiments, the emotional levels of different categories were matched in different and identical cohorts of participants. The results showed that living pictures in a negative, high-arousing dimension elicited stronger SC responses than nonliving pictures. When nonhuman animals and inanimate objects were compared, the increased SC responses to animals was obtained only for negative pictures without human contexts in the conscious condition, but regardless of human context in the unconscious condition. These results suggested that contextual information and level of conscious awareness are important to modulate the animate advantage in emotional processing. PMID:24039879

  20. Are we afraid of different categories of stimuli in identical ways? Evidence from skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tengteng; Li, Han; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that emotional pictures attract more attention than neutral pictures, and pictures of living stimuli have similar advantage in driving attention (vs. nonliving). However, factors of emotion, category and picture context are usually mixed so that whether living and nonliving categories elicit different skin conductance (SC) responses, in both conscious and unconscious conditions, remains to be clarified. In this study, participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures denoting different living and nonliving concepts in conscious (Experiments 1 and 2) and unconscious conditions (40ms, Experiment 3) when their SC responses were measured. The picture context was manipulated in Experiments 2 and 3 as half including human-related information. In three experiments, the emotional levels of different categories were matched in different and identical cohorts of participants. The results showed that living pictures in a negative, high-arousing dimension elicited stronger SC responses than nonliving pictures. When nonhuman animals and inanimate objects were compared, the increased SC responses to animals was obtained only for negative pictures without human contexts in the conscious condition, but regardless of human context in the unconscious condition. These results suggested that contextual information and level of conscious awareness are important to modulate the animate advantage in emotional processing. PMID:24039879

  1. A rare subset of skin-tropic regulatory T cells expressing Il10/Gzmb inhibits the cutaneous immune response

    PubMed Central

    Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Vandenbon, Alexis; Honda, Tetsuya; Shand, Francis H. W.; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tomura, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing. Single-cell profiling revealed that CD43+ CCR5+ Tregs represented the main subset within the Il10/Gzmb-expressing cell population in the dLN. Moreover, CD43+ CCR5+ CXCR3− Tregs expressed skin-tropic chemokine receptors, were preferentially retained in inflamed skin and downregulated the cutaneous immune response. The identification of a rare Treg subset co-expressing multiple immunosuppressive molecules and having tissue-remaining capacity offers a novel strategy for the control of skin inflammatory responses. PMID:27756896

  2. Cortisol, biochemical, and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli of different preference values by college students in biology and music.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli. Specifically, 30 university biology and 30 music students' plasma levels of norepinephrine and cortisol and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections, one of which was preferred (liked) by the music students and not preferred (disliked) by the biology students. The music-listening sessions and the controlled silent sessions were done in an anechoic chamber. 30 biology majors and 30 music majors were in the experimental groups; 14 biology and 17 music majors comprised the control group. Analysis indicated that the cortisol levels and galvanic skin responses were significantly higher for the music majors than the biology majors. The data indicate that music majors listen more critically and analytically to music than biology majors, and cortisol levels are associated with this as increases in music majors and decreases in biology majors after the music. PMID:8367245

  3. Gua Sha, a press-stroke treatment of the skin, boosts the immune response to intradermal vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxuan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Huang, Zhen; Zang, Yuhui; Chen, Jiangning; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The skin is an important immunological barrier of the body as well as an optimal route for vaccine administration. Gua Sha, which involves press-stroke treatment of the skin, is an effective folk therapy, widely accepted in East Asia, for various symptoms; however, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects have not been clarified. We investigated the influence of Gua Sha on the immunological features of the skin. Methods Gua Sha was performed on BALB/c mice and the effects were evaluated using anatomical, histological, and cytometric methods as well as cytokine determination locally and systemically. The effect on intradermal vaccination was assessed with antigen-specific subtype antibody responses. Results Blood vessel expansion, erythrocyte extravasation, and increased ratios of immune active cells were observed in the skin tissue following the treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated, and immunosuppressive cytokines, down-regulated, in the treated and untreated skin and systemic circulation; no obvious variations were detected in case of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, intradermal delivery of a model vaccine following Gua Sha induced about three-fold higher IgG titers with a more Th1-biased antibody subtype profile. Conclusion Gua Sha treatment can up-regulate the innate and adaptive immune functions of the skin and boost the response against intradermal antigens. Thus, Gua Sha may serve as a safe, inexpensive, and independent physical adjuvant for intradermal vaccination. PMID:27672506

  4. Gua Sha, a press-stroke treatment of the skin, boosts the immune response to intradermal vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxuan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Huang, Zhen; Zang, Yuhui; Chen, Jiangning; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The skin is an important immunological barrier of the body as well as an optimal route for vaccine administration. Gua Sha, which involves press-stroke treatment of the skin, is an effective folk therapy, widely accepted in East Asia, for various symptoms; however, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects have not been clarified. We investigated the influence of Gua Sha on the immunological features of the skin. Methods Gua Sha was performed on BALB/c mice and the effects were evaluated using anatomical, histological, and cytometric methods as well as cytokine determination locally and systemically. The effect on intradermal vaccination was assessed with antigen-specific subtype antibody responses. Results Blood vessel expansion, erythrocyte extravasation, and increased ratios of immune active cells were observed in the skin tissue following the treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated, and immunosuppressive cytokines, down-regulated, in the treated and untreated skin and systemic circulation; no obvious variations were detected in case of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, intradermal delivery of a model vaccine following Gua Sha induced about three-fold higher IgG titers with a more Th1-biased antibody subtype profile. Conclusion Gua Sha treatment can up-regulate the innate and adaptive immune functions of the skin and boost the response against intradermal antigens. Thus, Gua Sha may serve as a safe, inexpensive, and independent physical adjuvant for intradermal vaccination.

  5. Histamine response and local cooling in the human skin: involvement of H1- and H2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, M; Jamieson, M J; Kirch, W

    1999-01-01

    Aims Histamine may contribute locally to cutaneous blood flow control under normal and pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to observe the influence of skin temperature on histamine vasodilation, and the roles of H1-and H2-receptors using novel noninvasive methods. Methods Eleven healthy subjects received, double-blind, single doses of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine (10 mg), cetirizine (10 mg) plus the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (400 mg), or placebo on separate occasions. Histamine was dosed cumulatively by iontophoresis to the forearm skin at 34° C and 14° C. Laser-Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the same sites using customised probeholder/iontophoretic chambers with Peltier cooling elements. Finger mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured and cutaneous vascular conductance calculated as LDF/MAP. Results Histamine vasodilation was reduced in cold skin. Cetirizine shifted the histamine dose-response at both temperatures: statistically significantly at 14° C only. Combined H1- and H2-receptor antagonism shifted the response significantly at both temperatures. Conclusions H1- and H2-receptors mediate histamine-induced skin vasodilation. The sensitivity of these receptors, particularly the H1- receptor, is attenuated at low skin temperature. Whether the reduced effect in cold skin represents specific receptor or postreceptor desensitization, or nonspecific attenuation of cutaneous vasodilation remains to be elucidated. PMID:10417499

  6. Airway Fibrinogenolysis and the Initiation of Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Mak, Garbo; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Knight, J. Morgan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    The past 15 years of allergic disease research have produced extraordinary improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway allergic diseases such as asthma. Whereas it was previously viewed as largely an immunoglobulin E-mediated process, the gradual recognition that T cells, especially Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and Th17 cells, play a major role in asthma and related afflictions has inspired clinical trials targeting cytokine-based inflammatory pathways that show great promise. What has yet to be clarified about the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders, however, are the fundamental initiating factors, both exogenous and endogenous, that drive and sustain B- and T-cell responses that underlie the expression of chronic disease. Here we review how proteinases derived from diverse sources drive allergic responses. A central discovery supporting the proteinase hypothesis of allergic disease pathophysiology is the role played by airway fibrinogen, which in part appears to serve as a sensor of unregulated proteinase activity and which, when cleaved, both participates in a novel allergic signaling pathway through Toll-like receptor 4 and forms fibrin clots that contribute to airway obstruction. Unresolved at present is the ultimate source of airway allergenic proteinases. From among many potential candidates, perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility such enzymes derive from airway fungi. Together, these new findings expand both our knowledge of allergic disease pathophysiology and options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25525732

  7. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  8. A Stress Sensor Based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Controlled by ZigBee

    PubMed Central

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes, one needs to control different emotional situations which can lead the person suffering them to dangerous situations, in both the medium and short term. There are studies which indicate that stress increases the risk of cardiac problems. In this study we have designed and built a stress sensor based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), and controlled by ZigBee. In order to check the device's performance, we have used 16 adults (eight women and eight men) who completed different tests requiring a certain degree of effort, such as mathematical operations or breathing deeply. On completion, we appreciated that GSR is able to detect the different states of each user with a success rate of 76.56%. In the future, we plan to create an algorithm which is able to differentiate between each state. PMID:22778631

  9. Characterisation of the sympathetic skin response evoked by own-face recognition in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Prestandrea, Caterina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to recognise one's own face is crucial for self-identity formation and it plays a key role in the development of social interactions. Our starting hypothesis was that own-face recognition may be a psychophysiological phenomenon capable of activating the vegetative system in a peculiar manner, via sympathetic pathways. To test this hypothesis we studied the sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) evoked in 18 healthy subjects by the image of their own faces and by six other different visual stimuli. The SSRs were enhanced when participants were shown their own faces. Both SSR area and SSR amplitude contributed to this phenomenon. This work may offer new insights into the psycho- physiological processes involved in own-face recognition; moreover, the SSR could be a useful tool for future studies of patients affected by neuropsychiatric disorders presenting impairment of own-face recognition or representation of self-identity.

  10. ALLERGIC DISEASES AND ASTHMA IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Khachapuridze, D; Katamadze, N; Chkuaseli, N

    2015-06-01

    The goal of our research was to find out, whether asthma phenotyping, based on presence of accompanying allergic diseases is significant for asthma classification or not. Research was conducted on the basis of questioning of random and representative cohorts of Tbilisi children's population, by cross-section method of epidemiological research. Special extended screening questionnaire was developed for epidemiological study of allergic diseases. Diagnostic criterion for allergy was analyzed and representative cohort was selected. Research was conducted in 2010-2014 period. Studied population included 1450 children from 2 to 17 years age representing Tbilisi general population (of them, 850 girls and 600 boys). As a result of research the following findings were made: asthma was confirmed where at least two of the listed was present: diagnosis of asthma made by doctor, asthma symptoms and consumption of drugs against asthma. Allergic rhinitis was confirmed, where more than one of the listed symptoms was present and children should not have caught cold, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction or snore, combined or IgE with some inhalation allergen. Atopic dermatitis was confirmed if the subject had atopic dermatitis at a time of interview or clinical study. Markers of asthma severity were based on number of asthma episodes and number of symptoms, or regular consumption of corticosteroids, number of missed days at school and answer of subjects to the question: for the past year what was the degree of discomfort attributable to asthma ("very high" - "absolutely not"). Allergic sensitization was assessed based on the skin prick-test and test of specific immunoglobulin E in serum and was deemed positive where the average diameter of blebs in skin prick tests was 3 mm larger than negative control and IgE-0,35kU/l. Lung function was assessed by means of respirometers, by evaluating maximal forced expiration data and flow-volume curves. Allergic rhinitis was regarded as the most

  11. Thin-skinned salt tectonics as a response to crustal movements in a recent convergent setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendeville, Bruno; Gaullier, Virginie; Deverchere, Jacques; Sage, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    Published data from the seismic survey "MARADJA 1" conducted in August and September 2003 offshore the Algerian coast have imaged the Messinian salt response to tectonic activity within the basement. This helps to understand how the vertical movements of basement blocks have been recorded by thin-skinned salt tectonics. The area is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (magnitude 6.8), which happened in 2003. The seismic data have revealed the presence of an elevated plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers and is absent west and east of that area. The promontory is likely related to the contractional reactivation of the margin, as was recorded by subsalt thrusts mapped by Domzig et al. (2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporite unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little or no activity during Messinian times. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using analogue models. Indeed, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, rather than N-S, which was prevented by the compressional regional tectonic stresses related to the convergence of the African and European plates.

  12. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis H; Kies, Christiaan L; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Meeusen, Els N T; Hokke, Cornelis H; van Diepen, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection

  13. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Cornelis H.; Kies, Christiaan L.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection

  14. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  15. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  16. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  17. Protective responses against skin-dwelling microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Folkard, S G; Taylor, M J; Butcher, G A; Bianco, A E

    1997-01-01

    Inoculation of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis results in a sustained infection of the skin, extending for months beyond the point at which the parasites are eliminated from immunocompetent BALB/c controls. Reconstitution of SCID mice with spleen cells, thymocytes, or CD4+-cell-enriched splenocytes from naive BALB/c donors confers the ability to mount a protective immune response, leading to the rapid elimination of microfilariae. High levels of interleukin-5 and low levels of gamma interferon in the sera of reconstituted SCID mice during the destruction of microfilariae suggest that this protective immune response is directed by Th2 lymphocytes, mirroring that observed in immunocompetent controls. Unexpectedly, abbreviation of primary infections of unreconstituted SCID mice with the drug ivermectin induces resistance to reinfection with microfilariae at a level equivalent to that induced in secondarily infected, immunocompetent controls. In contrast to protection mediated by adoptive reconstitution, resistance induced by ivermectin-abbreviated infection occurs in the absence of T cells and in association with negligible levels of serum interleukin-5 and gamma interferon. This points to the activation of some alternative host defense mechanism that operates after the clearance of therapeutic levels of drug. Such a response could have important implications for the treatment of human onchocerciasis and may go some way in explaining the long-term suppression of microfilariae observed in patients after treatment with ivermectin. PMID:9199458

  18. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites.

    PubMed

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human-machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human-machine interface applications.

  19. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    PubMed Central

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications. PMID:21849720

  20. Neurology of allergic inflammation and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J

    2002-05-01

    Afferent nerves, derived from the trigeminal ganglion, and postganglionic autonomic nerves, derived from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia expressing many different neurotransmitters, innervate the nose. Reflexes that serve to optimize the air-conditioning function of the nose by altering sinus blood flow, or serve to protect the nasal mucosal surface by mucus secretion, vasodilatation, and sneezing, can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, including allergen, cold air, and chemical irritation. Activation of nasal afferent nerves can also have profound effects on respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and airway caliber (the diving response). Dysregulation of the nerves in the nose plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Axon reflexes can precipitate inflammatory responses in the nose, resulting in plasma extravasation and inflammatory cell recruitment, while allergic inflammation can produce neuronal hyper-responsiveness. Targeting the neuronal dysregulation in the nose may be beneficial in treating upper airway disease. PMID:11918862

  1. Impact of TRPV3 on the development of allergic dermatitis as a dendritic cell modulator.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Kasai, Erika; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Shichijo, Michitaka; Sakata, Tsuneaki; Yoshioka, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), which functions as a thermosensor in keratinocytes, plays an important role in the development of allergic and itchy dermatitis in rodents. Although real-time PCR analysis using lesional and non-lesional skin samples from patients with atopic dermatitis showed that TRPV3 was expressed in lesional skin, the role that TRPV3 plays in patients with dermatitis is still relatively obscure. Here, we determined whether TRPV3 was a dendritic cell (DC) modulator using DS-Nh mice with a gain-of-function mutation in TRPV3 (TRPV3Gly573Ser), because increasing skin temperature is associated with the modulation of dermal dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, increased responses to haptens by skin and DCs were observed in DS-Nh mice compared with those from DS mice with wild-type TRPV3. Increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) responses were also observed in keratinocytes from DS-Nh mice compared with those from DS mice. Taken together, we propose that the DS-Nh mouse is a good model to use in order to better understand the role of this orphan channel and that TRPV3 may represent a new therapeutic target in certain types of dermatitis through the control of DCs.

  2. TSLP is differentially regulated by vitamin D3 and cytokines in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Landheer, Janneke; Giovannone, Barbara; Sadekova, Svetlana; Tjabringa, Sandra; Hofstra, Claudia; Dechering, Koen; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Chang, Charlie; Ying, Yu; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Hijnen, DirkJan; Knol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in allergic diseases and is highly expressed in keratinocytes in human lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin. In nonlesional AD skin TSLP expression can be induced by applying house dust mite allergen onto the skin in the atopy patch test. Several studies have demonstrated that the induction of TSLP expression in mouse skin does not only lead to AD-like inflammation of the skin, but also predisposes to severe inflammation of the airways. In mice, TSLP expression can be induced by application of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) analogue calcipotriol and results in the development of eczema-like lesions. The objective is to investigate the effect of VD3 (calcitriol) or calcipotriol on TSLP expression in normal human skin and skin from AD patients. Using multiple ex vivo experimental setups, the effects of calci(po)triol on TSLP expression by normal human skin, and skin from AD patients were investigated and compared to effects of calcipotriol on mouse and non-human primates (NHP) skin. No induction of TSLP expression (mRNA or protein) was observed in human keratinocytes, normal human skin, nonlesional AD skin, or NHP skin samples after stimulation with calcipotriol or topical application of calcitriol. The biological activity of calci(po)triol in human skin samples was demonstrated by the increased expression of the VD3-responsive Cyp24a1 gene. TSLP expression was induced by cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α) in skin samples from all three species. In contrast to the findings in human and NHP, a consistent increase in TSLP expression was confirmed in mouse skin biopsies after stimulation with calcipotriol. VD3 failed to induce expression of TSLP in human or monkey skin in contrast to mouse, implicating careful extrapolation of this often-used mouse model to AD patients. PMID:25866638

  3. Management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Solelhac, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke. PMID:25374672

  4. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  5. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials. PMID:22686617

  6. Topical anaesthesia does not affect cutaneous vasomotor or sudomotor responses in human skin.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Wilson, K; Wilson, T E

    2013-10-01

    (1) The effects of local sensory blockade (topical anaesthesia) on eccrine sweat glands and cutaneous circulation are not well understood. This study aimed to determine whether topical lidocaine/prilocaine alters eccrine sweat gland and cutaneous blood vessel responses. (2) Sweating (capacitance hygrometry) was induced via forearm intradermal microdialysis of five acetylcholine (ACh) doses (1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(0) m, 10-fold increments) in control and treated forearm sites in six healthy subjects. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory (sodium nitroprusside) and adrenergic vasoconstrictor (noradrenaline) agonists were iontophoresed in lidocaine/prilocaine-treated and control forearm skin in nine healthy subjects during blood flow assessment (laser Doppler flowmetry, expressed as% from baseline cutaneous vascular conductance; CVC; flux/mean arterial pressure). (3) Non-linear regression curve fitting identified no change in the ED50 of ACh-induced sweating after sensory blockade (-1.42 ± 0.23 logM) compared to control (-1.27 ± 0.23 logM; P > .05) or in Emax (0.43 ± 0.08 with, 0.53 ± 0.16 mg cm(-2) min(-1) without lidocaine/prilocaine; P > .05). Sensory blockade did not alter the vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside (1280 ± 548% change from baseline CVC with, 1204 ± 247% without lidocaine/prilocaine) or vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (-14 ± 4% change from baseline CVC with, -22 ± 14% without lidocaine/prilocaine; P > 0.05). (4) Cutaneous sensory blockade does not appear to alter nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation, adrenergic vasoconstriction, or cholinergic eccrine sweating dose-response sensitivity or responsiveness to maximal dose. Thus, lidocaine/prilocaine treatment should not affect sweat gland function or have blood flow implications for subsequent research protocols or clinical procedures.

  7. Airway Epithelial Regulation of Allergic Sensitization in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Poynter, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    While many of the contributing cell types and mediators of allergic asthma are known, less well understood are the factors that influence the development of allergic responses that lead to the development of allergic asthma. As the first airway cell type to respond to inhaled factors, the epithelium orchestrates downstream interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4+ T cells that quantitatively and qualitatively dictate the degree and type of the allergic asthma phenotype, making the epithelium of critical importance for the genesis of allergies that later manifest in allergic asthma. Amongst the molecular processes of critical importance in airway epithelium is the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). This review will focus primarily on the genesis of pulmonary allergies and the participation of airway epithelial NF-κB activation therein, using examples from our own work on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and genetic modulation of airway epithelial NF-κB activation. In addition, the mechanisms through which Serum Amyloid A (SAA), an NF-κB-regulated, epithelial-derived mediator, influences allergic sensitization and asthma severity will be presented. Knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes regulating allergic sensitization in the airways has the potential to provide powerful insight into the pathogenesis of allergy, as well as targets for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:22579987

  8. Suspected allergic contact dermatitis to iodopropynyl butylcarbamate in an alcohol hand rub commonly used in Australian health-care settings.

    PubMed

    Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of suspected allergic contact dermatitis to the preservative and uncommon allergen iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, found in Microshield Angel hand gel, a skin cleanser commonly used in Australian health-care settings. PMID:24433373

  9. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent

    2016-05-18

    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  10. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent

    2016-05-18

    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a