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Sample records for allergy clin immunol

  1. Safe administration of a gelatin-containing vaccine in an adult with galactose-α-1,3-galactose allergy.

    PubMed

    Pinson, Michelle L; Waibel, Kirk H

    2015-03-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) are associated with delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian food products and gelatin-based foods (Commins et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:426; Caponetto et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2013;1:302). We describe a patient with α-Gal allergy who successfully tolerated the live zoster vaccine and we review anaphylactic reactions reported to this vaccine. Our patient, who tolerated a vaccine containing the highest gelatin content, is reassuring but continued safety assessment of gelatin-containing vaccines for this patient cohort is recommended as there are multiple factors for this patient cohort that influence the reaction risk.

  2. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental Protection Agency ... Resources for You Allergy Relief for Your Child Food Allergies: Reducing the Risks Allergy Meds Could Affect Your ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 038. Erratum in: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar;125(3):743. Kutuculer, Necil [corrected to Kutukculer, ... cytokinesis 8 deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):840-8. doi: 10.1016/j. ...

  4. Reprint of: B cell elimination in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin. Immunol. 146(2) 90-103.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João; Isenberg, David A

    2013-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a worldwide distribution, potentially life-threatening with considerable morbidity. The elimination of pathogenic B cells has emerged as a rational therapeutic option. Many open label studies have reported encouraging results in which clinical and serological remission have invariably been described, often enabling the reduction of steroid and immunosuppressive treatment. However, the results from randomized controlled studies have been disappointing and several questions remain to be answered. In this review we will focus on results of B cell direct depletion in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  5. Reprint of: B cell elimination in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin. Immunol. 146(2) 90-103.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João; Isenberg, David A

    2013-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a worldwide distribution, potentially life-threatening with considerable morbidity. The elimination of pathogenic B cells has emerged as a rational therapeutic option. Many open label studies have reported encouraging results in which clinical and serological remission have invariably been described, often enabling the reduction of steroid and immunosuppressive treatment. However, the results from randomized controlled studies have been disappointing and several questions remain to be answered. In this review we will focus on results of B cell direct depletion in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:23642318

  6. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause an anaphylactic reaction in some people. Airborne particles. Often called environmental allergens, these are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies are dust mites (tiny ...

  7. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... which are white blood cells containing the chemical histamine. As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast cells to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. A stuffy and ...

  8. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  9. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  10. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs ... or basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very ...

  11. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores ...

  12. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... regularly. Avoid leaving pet food out in a bowl. Clean the bowl regularly, like other dirty dishes. Fix leaky pipes ... Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food ...

  13. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  14. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  15. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  16. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  17. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  18. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  19. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  20. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing: The prick test involves placing ... Chiriac AM, Bousquet J, Demoly P. In vivo methods for the study and diagnosis of allergy. In: ...

  1. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... reaction. Examples of allergens include: Mold spores Dust mites Animal dander Pollen Insect venom A health care ... sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a dust mite allergy can make worse Allergy shots are effective ...

  2. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... system to a normally harmless substance called an allergen. A variety of environmental allergens, such as pollen and animal dander, can trigger ... allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April 22, 2015 CONNECT WITH NIAID ...

  3. Using ClinVar as a Resource to Support Variant Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven M; Riggs, Erin R; Maglott, Donna R; Lee, Jennifer M; Azzariti, Danielle R; Niehaus, Annie; Ramos, Erin M; Martin, Christa L; Landrum, Melissa J; Rehm, Heidi L

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar is a freely accessible, public archive of reports of the relationships among genomic variants and phenotypes. To facilitate evaluation of the clinical significance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions of the same variant, displays supporting data from each submission, and determines if the submitted clinical interpretations are conflicting or concordant. The unit describes how to (1) identify sequence and structural variants of interest in ClinVar by multiple searching approaches, including Variation Viewer and (2) understand the display of submissions to ClinVar and the evidence supporting each interpretation. By following this protocol, ClinVar users will be able to learn how to incorporate the wealth of resources and knowledge in ClinVar into variant curation and interpretation. PMID:27037489

  4. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Kanny, Gisile

    2007-06-30

    The prevalence of food allergies increases in industrialized countries: 3% in general population, up to 6% of children. Food allergy has a genetic basis. The recent increase is thought to be due to a change in environmental factors, including changes in diet and reduced exposure to early childhood infection. Food allergies present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, gastrointestinal disorders. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE, avoidance diet and challenge tests. The mainstay of diagnosis and management of food allergies is correct identification and avoidance of the offending antigen. Children often develop tolerance to cow's milk, egg, wheat by school age, whereas allergies to nuts, fish and seafood are generally not outgrown no matter at what age they develop.

  5. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  6. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  7. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  8. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  9. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  10. Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi

    2016-09-01

    An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730

  11. Allergy Testing.

    PubMed

    Tourlas, Konstantinos; Burman, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases are common in outpatient primary care. Allergy testing can guide management to determine allergy as a cause of symptoms and target therapeutic interventions. This article provides a review of common methods of allergy testing available so that physicians may counsel and refer patients appropriately. Immediate-type hypersensitivity skin tests can be used for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Radioallergosorbent testing can be used to evaluate immediate-type hypersensitivity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity or patch-type skin tests are used in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. PMID:27545728

  12. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Soy” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  13. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Wheat” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  14. Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Peanut” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  15. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  16. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  17. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two different types of shellfish allergy are: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) mollusks (like clams, ... of the top eight most common allergens, including crustacean shellfish. The label should list "shellfish" in the ...

  18. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fish allergy. Shellfish fall into two different groups: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) and mollusks (like ... shellfish on food labels, they are referring to crustacean shellfish. If you are allergic to mollusks, then ...

  19. Kiwifruit allergies.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima

    2013-01-01

    While kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. Isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. Eleven green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as Act d 1 through Act d 11. Bet v 1 homologue (Act d 8) and profilin (Act d 9) are important allergens in polysensitized subjects, whereas actinidin (Act d 1) is important in kiwifruit monosensitized subjects. Differences in allergenicity have been found among kiwifruit cultivars. Allergy sufferers might benefit from the selection and breeding of low-allergenic kiwifruit cultivars.

  20. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and is estimated to affect >2% and possibly up to 10% of the population. Food allergies are defined by an immune response triggered by food proteins. Emerging data suggest that carbohydrate moieties on food proteins, specifically mammalian meats, may also elicit allergic responses. Food is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community, which can be fatal. The underlying mechanisms of food allergy usually involve food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, but cell-mediated disorders account for a variety of chronic or subacute skin and gastrointestinal reactions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging food-related chronic disorder. The diagnosis of food allergy is complicated by the observation that detection of food-specific immunoglobulin E (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Diagnosis requires a careful medical history, laboratory studies, and, in many cases, oral food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Novel diagnostic methods, many of which rely upon evaluating immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes, may improve diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Current management relies upon allergen avoidance and preparation to promptly treat severe reactions with epinephrine. Studies suggest that some children with milk or egg allergy might tolerate extensively heated forms, for example milk or egg baked into muffins, without symptoms and possibly with some immunotherapeutic benefits. Novel therapeutic strategies are under study, including oral and sublingual immunotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, anti-immunoglobulin E antibodies, and modified vaccines.

  1. Latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Pollart, Susan M; Warniment, Christa; Mori, Takahiro

    2009-12-15

    The prevalence of latex allergy in the general population is low; however, the risk of developing latex allergy is higher in persons with increased latex exposure, such as health care workers or persons who work in the rubber industry. Children with spina bifida and others who undergo multiple surgeries or procedures, particularly within the first year of life, are also at greater risk of latex allergy. Reactions to latex allergy can range from type IV delayed hypersensitivity (e.g., contact dermatitis) to type I immediate hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis). Latex allergy can be diagnosed with clinical history, skin prick testing, latex-specific serum immunoglobulin E testing, and glove provocation testing. The main goals of latex allergy management are avoidance of exposure to latex allergens and appropriate treatment of allergic reactions. The use of nonlatex products from birth may prevent potentially serious allergic reactions. Widespread adoption of nonlatex or low-latex gloves has decreased the incidence of latex sensitization in health care workers. PMID:20000303

  2. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waserman, Susan; Watson, Wade

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children "outgrow" allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  3. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  4. Peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley

    2008-05-01

    Peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide, especially in developed countries. However, the reasons for this increasing prevalence over the past several decades are not well understood. Because of the potentially severe health consequences of peanut allergy, those suspected of having had an allergic reaction to peanuts deserve a thorough evaluation. All patients with peanut allergy should be given an emergency management plan, as well as epinephrine and antihistamines to have on hand at all times. Patients and families should be taught to recognise early allergic reactions to peanuts and how to implement appropriate peanut-avoidance strategies. It is imperative that severe, or potentially severe, reactions be treated promptly with intramuscular epinephrine and oral antihistamines. Patients who have had such a reaction should be kept under observation in a hospital emergency department or equivalent for up to 4 h because of the possible development of the late-phase allergic response. This Seminar looks at the changing epidemiology of this allergy--and theories as to the rise in prevalence, diagnosis, and management of the allergy, and potential new treatments and prevention strategies under development.

  5. Pollen Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen count, which is often reported by local weather broadcasts or allergy websites, is a measure of how much pollen is in the air. Pollen counts tend to be highest early in the morning on warm, dry, breezy days and lowest during chilly, wet periods. ...

  6. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  7. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Walker, E C

    1988-07-01

    Although common, food allergy is vastly overestimated by patients. The main food allergens include cow's milk, eggs, nuts, shellfish and whitefish. Other types of adverse food reactions are numerous; their cause represent a spectrum of toxins, infectious organisms and pharmacologic agents. A definitive diagnosis may be difficult. Recommended measures include prevention through breast feeding, avoidance of known offenders and symptomatic therapy when reactions occur.

  8. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...

  9. [Latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Bayrou, Olivier

    2006-02-15

    Immediate hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex has increased since the early 1980s. High prevalence of latex sensitization and allergy are observed among healthcare workers, atopic individuals and children who had undergone multiple surgical operations (spina bifida, congenital anomalies). Presenting symptoms are polymorphous: contact urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Corn-starch-latex particles released in the air after powdered gloves manipulation may be inhaled and lead to occupational asthma. The diagnosis may be made by a focused clinical history, prick-test, detection of specific IgE antibody and challenge test. Almost half of patients allergic to natural rubber latex show an associated fruit allergy: avocado, banana, kiwi, chestnut. Most of cutaneous delayed reactions (eczema) to rubber are caused by rubber additives (accelerators of vulcanization, anti-oxidants). PMID:16583955

  10. [Latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Susický, P

    2000-04-01

    The authors describe a case of an allergic affection in a patient with occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, revealed by the method CAP Phadiatop. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. The authors emphasize the high incidence of latex allergy, the manifestations of which may be encountered also in clinical ophthalmology. PMID:10874793

  11. Shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Lopata, A L; O'Hehir, R E; Lehrer, S B

    2010-06-01

    Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition and health. The growing international trade in seafood species and products has added to the popularity and frequency of consumption of a variety of seafood products across many countries. This increased production and consumption of seafood has been accompanied by more frequent reports of adverse health problems among consumers as well as processors of seafood. Adverse reactions to seafood are often generated by contaminants but can also be mediated by the immune system and cause allergies. These reactions can result from exposure to the seafood itself or various non-seafood components in the product. Non-immunological reactions to seafood can be triggered by contaminants such as parasites, bacteria, viruses, marine toxins and biogenic amines. Ingredients added during processing and canning of seafood can also cause adverse reactions. Importantly all these substances are able to trigger symptoms which are similar to true allergic reactions, which are mediated by antibodies produced by the immune system against specific allergens. Allergic reactions to 'shellfish', which comprises the groups of crustaceans and molluscs, can generate clinical symptoms ranging from mild urticaria and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. The prevalence of crustacean allergy seems to vary largely between geographical locations, most probably as a result of the availability of seafood. The major shellfish allergen is tropomyosin, although other allergens may play an important part in allergenicity such as arginine kinase and myosin light chain. Current observations regard tropomyosin to be the major allergen responsible for molecular and clinical cross-reactivity between crustaceans and molluscs, but also to other inhaled invertebrates such as house dust mites and insects. Future research on the molecular structure of tropomyosins with a focus on the immunological and particularly clinical cross

  12. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  13. [Cosmetic allergy].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2008-07-01

    Cosmetics are substances or mixtures for an external contact with a human body: their skin, hair, lips, nails, external sex organs, teeth and mucous membranes of an oral cavity. The only or main aim of cosmetics is to keep the body clean, take care of it, protect, perfume as well as groom it. Since the products are supposed to be safe and well-tolerated, they tend to cause side effects, for instance irritation or allergy. This is mainly due to scented substances as well as preservatives which are included in cosmetics.

  14. [Cosmetic allergy].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2008-07-01

    Cosmetics are substances or mixtures for an external contact with a human body: their skin, hair, lips, nails, external sex organs, teeth and mucous membranes of an oral cavity. The only or main aim of cosmetics is to keep the body clean, take care of it, protect, perfume as well as groom it. Since the products are supposed to be safe and well-tolerated, they tend to cause side effects, for instance irritation or allergy. This is mainly due to scented substances as well as preservatives which are included in cosmetics. PMID:18839623

  15. [Mosquito allergy].

    PubMed

    Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Reunala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all Finns are sensitized to mosquito bites already during childhood. Skin reactions caused by mosquito bites vary from rapidly appearing urticarial wheals to persistent itching papules. Allergic shock is fortunately extremely rare. The symptoms are strongest in early summer. Immediate symptoms result from proteins that get into the skin along with mosquito saliva and induce the production of IgE class antibodies by the body. The originating mechanism of delayed symptoms is unclear. Both immediate and delayed symptoms of mosquito allergy can be relieved with antihistamine drugs.

  16. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, most often ...

  17. Sweat Allergy.

    PubMed

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    For many years, sweat has been recognized as an exacerbation factor in all age groups of atopic dermatitis (AD) and a trigger of cholinergic urticaria (CholU). Recently, we reported the improvement of AD symptoms by spray with tannic acid, which suppresses basophil histamine release by semipurified sweat antigens in vitro, and showering that removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia globosa as a major histamine-releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is detected as a 17-kDa protein in sweat and exhibits almost the highest histamine-release ability from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE of patients with AD and CholU were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. PMID:27584969

  18. Vaccines for allergy.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  19. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  20. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    MedlinePlus

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  1. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad may have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: al -ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  2. Allergies and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... vasoactive or neuroactive amino acids such as tyramine , dopamine, phenylethylamine or monosodium glutamate that can trigger a ... Headache Fact Sheets Tags: allergy , allergy and headache , dopamine , headache , migraine , sinus headache , tyramine More Posts ← Tension- ...

  3. Common food allergies.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid; Theobald, Hannah

    The incidence of allergic disease, including food allergy, appears to be increasing in the UK (Gupta et al 2003). Although any food has the potential to cause an allergic reaction, certain foods are more common causes of allergy than others. If diagnosed, food allergy is manageable. Correct diagnosis is important to ensure optimal management and a nutritionally balanced diet.

  4. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  5. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  6. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  7. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  8. Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICSs) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... by pregnant asthmatic women does not reduce intrauterine growth. J Allergy Clin Immunol 113(3):427-432. Norjavaara E and Gerhardsson de Verdier MG. 2003. Normal pregnancy outcomes in a population-based study including 2968 pregnant women exposed to ...

  9. [Allergy in women].

    PubMed

    Mathelier-Fusade, P; Vermeulen, C; Leynadier, F

    2001-12-01

    Allergy affects without distinction both sexes. Nevertheless some allergens are responsible more frequently for contact dermatitis in females. The components of cosmetics and in first fragrance are indeed responsible for numerous contact dermatitis because of their increasing use. Nickel allergy is the most frequent contact allergy in women with a rate of 20-40% of female population and only 3-5% of male population. Specific female allergies such as allergy to seminal liquid or autoimmune progesterone dermatitis are on the other hand exceptional.

  10. Allergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance that you are allergic to (called the allergen). Common allergens include mold and pollen from grasses, ragweed and ... shot. Allergy shots help your body fight the allergen. When you get shots that contain the allergen, ...

  11. ClinData Express--a metadata driven clinical research data management system for secondary use of clinical data.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Wen, Jingran; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chunxiao; Li, Zuogao; Liu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Aim to ease the secondary use of clinical data in clinical research, we introduce a metadata driven web-based clinical data management system named ClinData Express. ClinData Express is made up of two parts: 1) m-designer, a standalone software for metadata definition; 2) a web based data warehouse system for data management. With ClinData Express, what the researchers need to do is to define the metadata and data model in the m-designer. The web interface for data collection and specific database for data storage will be automatically generated. The standards used in the system and the data export modular make sure of the data reuse. The system has been tested on seven disease-data collection in Chinese and one form from dbGap. The flexibility of system makes its great potential usage in clinical research. The system is available at http://code.google.com/p/clindataexpress. PMID:23304327

  12. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  13. Natural rubber latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy. PMID:18797048

  14. Latex Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  15. Molluscan shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the worldwide population. Immediate-type food allergies are mediated by the production of IgE antibodies to specific proteins that occur naturally in allergenic foods. Symptoms are individually variable ranging from mild rashes and hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Seafood allergies are among the most common types of food allergies on a worldwide basis. Allergies to fish and crustacean shellfish are very common. Molluscan shellfish allergies are well known but do not appear to occur as frequently. Molluscan shellfish allergies have been documented to all classes of mollusks including gastropods (e.g., limpet, abalone), bivalves (e.g., clams, oysters, mussels), and cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus). Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in molluscan shellfish. The allergens in oyster (Cra g 1), abalone (Hal m 1), and squid (Tod p 1) have been identified as tropomyosin. Cross-reactivity to tropomyosin from other molluscan shellfish species has been observed with sera from patients allergic to oysters, suggesting that individuals with allergies to molluscan shellfish should avoid eating all species of molluscan shellfish. Cross-reactions with the related tropomyosin allergens in crustacean shellfish may also occur but this is less clearly defined. Occupational allergies have also been described in workers exposed to molluscan shellfish products by the respiratory and/or cutaneous routes. With food allergies, one man's food may truly be another man's poison. Individuals with food allergies react adversely to the ingestion of foods and food ingredients that most consumers can safely ingest (Taylor and Hefle, 2001). The allergens that provoke adverse reactions in susceptible individuals are naturally occurring proteins in the specific foods (Bush and Hefle, 1996). Molluscan shellfish, like virtually all foods that contain protein, can provoke allergic reactions in some

  16. Peanut allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Clarke, Ann E; Kagan, Rhoda S

    2003-05-13

    Peanut allergy accounts for the majority of severe food-related allergic reactions. It tends to present early in life, and affected individuals generally do not outgrow it. In highly sensitized people, trace quantities can induce an allergic reaction. In this review, we will discuss the prevalence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, natural history and management of peanut allergy.

  17. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  18. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  19. Allergy to grass juice.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, A

    1977-06-01

    Crushed, fresh grass did not produce positive skin reactions in 149 patients with grass pollen allergy, six of whom suffered from rhinitis and conjunctival discharge while cutting grass. An additional patient without an allergy to grass pollens but with clear-cut symptoms from newly cut grass showed a negative result in the scratch-chamber test and in the scrubbing test.

  20. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  1. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  2. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  3. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  4. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  5. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  6. [Magnesium in skin allergy].

    PubMed

    Błach, Joanna; Nowacki, Wojciech; Mazur, Andrzej

    2007-10-08

    Magnesium is involved in many biological processes within the body. Magnesium deficiency causes many disorders, including impairment of immunity. This review summarizes present knowledge on the relationship between magnesium and skin allergy reactions. Special focus is on allergy types I and IV. At present the best knowledge is on allergy I. Magnesium deficiency in experimental animals, mainly rats, leads to characteristic hyperemia, an increase in IgE, neutrophilia and eosinophilia, an increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines, mastocyte degranulation, histaminemia, and splenomegaly. These symptoms observed in hypomagnesemic rats are similar to those in atopic patients. Data on the relationship between magnesium and other types of allergy are scarce. Clinical observations show the beneficial effect of topical and oral administration of magnesium salts in patients with skin allergy. All the presented data point to an important role of magnesium in allergy reactions. Other studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of magnesium's action. Well-controlled clinical protocols should also be conducted to assess the efficiency of magnesium supplementation in patients with skin allergy.

  7. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  8. Management of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Matthew I; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, approximately 8 and 2% of children and adults, respectively, suffer from food allergy. Cow's milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, fish, shellfish and tree nuts are responsible for the majority of allergic reactions to foods. Allergic reactions to food can occur by a variety of immune mechanisms including: IgE-mediated; non-IgE-mediated (T-cell-mediated); and combined IgE- and T-cell-mediated. Food allergies can affect any organ system, but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal system, the skin and the respiratory system. Knowledge of the spectrum of food allergies is important in order to identify patients at risk for severe or life-threatening allergic reactions. This article will review the mechanisms of specific food allergy disorders. It will also summarise the diagnosis of food allergy including the history of a food reaction, skin tests and laboratory tests. The management of food allergy will also be discussed with particular emphasis on the avoidance of food allergens and the pharmacotherapy of allergic reactions. Future therapy for food allergies will also be discussed.

  9. Difficulties Generated by Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Barbara M.; Baker, Claude D.

    1980-01-01

    Allergies have recently been related to the development of speech, language, and hearing problems in students. Diagnosis and treatment is compounded by multiple complaints or the absence of complaints. (Authors/CJ)

  10. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    ... The smell of food attracts these insects.  Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...

  11. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved in vitro and in vivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043

  12. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  13. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tree nut used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  14. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shots Help Allergy shots help the body build immunity to specific allergens, thus eventually preventing or lessening ... the immune system to safely adjust and build immunity to the allergens. This is called the buildup ...

  15. Asthma and Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  16. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  17. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  18. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... help treat mild allergy symptoms. Use antihistamines in addition to — not as a replacement for — the epinephrine shot in life-threatening reactions, and always use the epinephrine shot as the ...

  19. History of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  20. Photocontact allergy to benzocaine.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Allen, H

    1981-02-01

    A photodermatitis developed in two patients after the use of commercial sunscreens and a topical anesthetic lotion containing benzocaine. Photopatch testing indicated the presence of photocontact allergy to benzocaine. One patient had a positive photopatch test to a commercial glyceryl para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) preparation that was heavily contaminated with benzocaine, but not to a benzocaine-free sample of glyceryl PABA. Benzocaine failed to produce phototoxic reactions in normal volunteers. Efforts to induce photocontact allergy in guinea pigs were unsuccessful.

  1. ClinLabGeneticist: a tool for clinical management of genetic variants from whole exome sequencing in clinical genetic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlian; Liao, Jun; Zhang, Jinglan; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Hakenberg, Jörg; Ma, Meng; Webb, Bryn D; Ramasamudram-Chakravarthi, Rajasekar; Karger, Lisa; Mehta, Lakshmi; Kornreich, Ruth; Diaz, George A; Li, Shuyu; Edelmann, Lisa; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Routine clinical application of whole exome sequencing remains challenging due to difficulties in variant interpretation, large dataset management, and workflow integration. We describe a tool named ClinLabGeneticist to implement a workflow in clinical laboratories for management of variant assessment in genetic testing and disease diagnosis. We established an extensive variant annotation data source for the identification of pathogenic variants. A dashboard was deployed to aid a multi-step, hierarchical review process leading to final clinical decisions on genetic variant assessment. In addition, a central database was built to archive all of the genetic testing data, notes, and comments throughout the review process, variant validation data by Sanger sequencing as well as the final clinical reports for future reference. The entire workflow including data entry, distribution of work assignments, variant evaluation and review, selection of variants for validation, report generation, and communications between various personnel is integrated into a single data management platform. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the utility of ClinLabGeneticist. ClinLabGeneticist is freely available to academia at http://rongchenlab.org/software/clinlabgeneticist . PMID:26338694

  2. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy.

  3. [New food allergies].

    PubMed

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  4. Allergies in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Geller-Bernstein, C; Kenett, R

    2004-10-01

    We studied the influence of environmental factors on allergy disease in immigrants that came to Israel during the last 20 years from A) Ethiopia and B) former Soviet Union. Immigrants who came from Ethiopia had no allergies upon arrival; they suffered from severe parasitic infections and had extremely elevated IgE levels. They got thorough anti parasitic treatment and were gradually integrated in the old timer Israeli population. After 5-10 years from arrival, follow up assessments showed a significant drop in IgE levels while respiratory allergies with positive skin tests Respiratory allergies with positive skin tests) to aero allergens appeared at a prevalence of 11%. Israeli born newborns and children from Ethiopian descent had no stool parasites and their total IgE levels were similar to those of the indigenous population. Immigrants from former Soviet Union who had respiratory allergies upon arrival, showed skin tested hypersensitivity to pollen common in their Russian, homelands while they were not sensitive to the Mediterranean pollen common in Israel. At yearly follow up testing over the first 10 years in Israel, odds for sensitization to Russian pollen decreased while odds for sensitization to Israeli pollen increased significantly. The results of our studies plead the case for the very important role played by the environment in the dynamics of allergy diseases.

  5. Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

  6. Egg allergy: are all childhood food allergies the same?

    PubMed

    Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elizabeth; Kemp, Andrew Stewart

    2007-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood affecting about 1-2% of preschool children and differs in a number of ways from other common childhood food allergies such as cows milk and peanut. Common egg allergens are altered both by heat and gastric enzymes. Compared with peanuts/tree nuts and milk, egg allergy appears less likely to cause severe life-threatening reactions or fatal anaphylaxis. Children are much more likely to outgrow egg allergy by school age as compared with peanut allergy. While the MMR vaccine is no longer contraindicated in egg allergy, influenza vaccine is contraindicated in children with anaphylaxis to egg. An understanding of the similarities and differences in these common food allergies of childhood is helpful in the management of these common and increasing problems.

  7. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dusica; Ristić, Dragana; Vuletić, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow's, sheep's and goat's milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible.The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient's complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children "outgrow" their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies. PMID:27276868

  8. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dusica; Ristić, Dragana; Vuletić, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow's, sheep's and goat's milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible.The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient's complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children "outgrow" their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  9. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... hospital; Contact dermatitis - latex allergy; Allergy - latex; Allergic reaction - latex ... You can have a reaction to latex if your skin, mucous membranes (eyes, mouth, or other moist areas), or bloodstream (during surgery) come into contact ...

  10. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2004-05-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of food-based allergic disorders over the past 5 years. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that nearly 4% of Americans are afflicted with food allergies, a prevalence much higher than appreciated in the past. In addition, the prevalence of peanut allergy was found to have doubled in American children less than 5 years of age in the past 5 years. Many food allergens have been characterized at the molecular level, which has contributed to our increased understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many allergic disorders and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and immunotherapeutic approaches. The management of food allergies continues to consist of educating patients on how to avoid relevant allergens, to recognize early symptoms of an allergic reaction in case of an accidental ingestion, and to initiate the appropriate emergency therapy. However, the recent successful clinical trial of anti-IgE therapy in patients with peanut allergy and the number of immunomodulatory therapies in the pipeline provide real hope that we will soon be able to treat patients with food allergy.

  11. Living with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is among the most common of the allergic disorders, with a prevalence of 6-8 per cent in children up to the age of three. However, many people self-diagnose, putting their children at risk of malnutrition, possibly as a result of lack of awareness by health professionals of food allergy as a potential cause of conditions such as infantile eczema, chronic diarrhoea, faltering growth and gastrooesophageal reflux. NICE (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recently published guidelines, which they hope will help to improve the diagnosis of food allergies within the community. If food allergy or lactose intolerance is suspected, the mainstay of a diagnostic work up should comprise of a detailed allergy-focused clinical history, part of which will involve determining whether the adverse reaction is typically an immediate (IgE mediated) or more delayed-type (non-IgE mediated) allergic reaction, or whether it may be lactose intolerance; a form of non-allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:21980692

  12. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  13. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  14. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  15. Determinants of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Much has been learned by identifying the molecules that can be recognized by IgE from patients with allergies. Increasingly, by correlating patterns of sensitization with clinical features, it has become possible to distinguish molecules responsible for primary sensitization (complete allergens) from those that are more likely cross-reactive targets. In the case of animal allergens, evolutionary distance seems to be an important factor in determining allergenicity. However, until more is understood regarding the mechanistic details of primary sensitization, including the participation of molecules that stimulate innate immune responses and the repertoire of T-cell antigens, molecules that may or may not themselves be important B-cell antigens, we will not be able to explain fundamental questions, such as why peanut allergy is more severe than soy allergy or why tick exposure is associated with clinically relevant sensitization to a carbohydrate epitope. PMID:22244230

  16. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  17. Characterizing Participants in the ClinSeq Genome Sequencing Cohort as Early Adopters of a New Health Technology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Katie L; Han, Paul K J; Hooker, Gillian W; Klein, William M P; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing is a novel clinical tool that has the potential to identify genetic origins of disease. However, the complexities of this new technology are significant and little is known about its integration into clinical care, and its potential adoption by patients. Expectations of its promise for personalized medicine are high and it is important to properly match expectations to the realities of the test. The NIH ClinSeq cohort study pilots the integration of genome sequencing into clinical research and care to assess the technical, medical and socio-behavioral aspects of implementing this technology. Over 950 adults ages 45-65 have been enrolled and clinically phenotyped. As an initial study, we describe the personality traits of ClinSeq participants, and explore how these traits compare to those that characterize early adopters of other new technologies. Our analysis was conducted on responses from 630 members of the cohort who completed a baseline survey on health cognitions, affect, health-related behaviors and personality traits, prior to receipt of any genome sequencing results. The majority of participants were white (90.5%), had at least a college degree (86.5%), and had at least one biological child (74.6%). Members of this ClinSeq sample were found to be high in dispositional optimism and resilience. Their high SES paralleled that of other early adopters of new technology. These attributes may contribute to participants' expectations for favorable outcomes and willingness to take higher risks when compared to the general population. These characteristics may distinguish those who are most likely to pursue genome sequencing and be indicative of their psychological resources to manage returned results.

  18. Characterizing Participants in the ClinSeq Genome Sequencing Cohort as Early Adopters of a New Health Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Katie L.; Han, Paul K. J.; Hooker, Gillian W.; Klein, William M. P.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing is a novel clinical tool that has the potential to identify genetic origins of disease. However, the complexities of this new technology are significant and little is known about its integration into clinical care, and its potential adoption by patients. Expectations of its promise for personalized medicine are high and it is important to properly match expectations to the realities of the test. The NIH ClinSeq cohort study pilots the integration of genome sequencing into clinical research and care to assess the technical, medical and socio-behavioral aspects of implementing this technology. Over 950 adults ages 45-65 have been enrolled and clinically phenotyped. As an initial study, we describe the personality traits of ClinSeq participants, and explore how these traits compare to those that characterize early adopters of other new technologies. Our analysis was conducted on responses from 630 members of the cohort who completed a baseline survey on health cognitions, affect, health-related behaviors and personality traits, prior to receipt of any genome sequencing results. The majority of participants were white (90.5%), had at least a college degree (86.5%), and had at least one biological child (74.6%). Members of this ClinSeq sample were found to be high in dispositional optimism and resilience. Their high SES paralleled that of other early adopters of new technology. These attributes may contribute to participants’ expectations for favorable outcomes and willingness to take higher risks when compared to the general population. These characteristics may distinguish those who are most likely to pursue genome sequencing and be indicative of their psychological resources to manage returned results. PMID:26186621

  19. [Food allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Bidat, E

    2006-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse reaction to food protein by an immunological mechanism (IgE or non IgE-mediated). Signs can involve all organs, but atopic dermatitis remains the main manifestation. In children, only few allergens are involved. In France, it is cow milk, hen eggs, kiwi, peanut, fish, nuts, shrimp. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, skin tests, specific IgE and, sometimes, food challenge. Treatment is based on specific eviction. Regime can be total or sometimes limited to large among of the specific food, or only raw food. Food allergy disappears sometimes. Tolerance or food desensitization is in progress.

  20. [About animal allergy].

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari

    2016-01-01

    Although the opinions about animals and animal allergies may be extreme, animals can even be indispensable for the well-being of humans. The immune tolerance of many modern city dwellers is insufficiently developed, predisposing the skin and mucous membranes to allergic inflammation. There is no need in infancy to avoid animals, and animal contacts in early childhood rather protect from the development of allergies. Pet allergens are present in small amounts everywhere, not only in places where they live. General instructions on avoidance do not exist. New forms of desensitization therapy may in the future bring relief for those having strong symptoms. PMID:27522834

  1. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. PMID:27545734

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  3. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; DELEANU, DIANA

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  4. Food allergy to proteins.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food proteins. Class 1 food allergens are represented by peanut, egg white, and cow's milk; they are heat- and acid-stable glycoproteins that induce allergic sensitization via gastrointestinal tract and cause systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are homologous to proteins in birch tree pollen and class 2 food allergy develops as a consequence of respiratory sensitization to the cross-reactive pollen. Class 2 food allergens are very heat-labile and tend to induce reactions limited to oral allergy symptoms. In contrast, plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are resistant to heating and tend to induce systemic reactions. Analysis of IgE-binding epitopes with SPOT membranes revealed that cow's milk-, egg- and peanut-allergic subjects without IgE antibodies against certain sequential epitopes of the major allergens were more likely to achieve tolerance than subjects whose IgE antibodies were directed against those epitopes. Subsequently, peptide microarray showed a correlation between reaction severity and the intensity of IgE binding and the number of epitopes recognized of patients' immune responses against peanut allergens. Taken together, these data suggest that the epitope recognition pattern and intensity of IgE binding are important determinants of severity and duration of food allergy.

  5. Fire Ant Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... In extreme cases, a rapid fall in blood pressure may result in shock and loss of consciousness. Symptoms of anaphylaxis require emergency medical treatment. Given the severity of a potential reaction, an accurate diagnosis for fire ant allergy is key to being prepared for ...

  6. Grain and legume allergy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Among grains and legumes, wheat and soybean are the most frequent and well-characterized allergenic foods. Wheat proteins are divided into water/salt-soluble and water/salt-insoluble (gluten) fractions. The most dominant allergen in the former is α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, which acts as an inhaled allergen causing baker's asthma. Gluten allergens, including ω-5 gliadin and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenins, contribute to wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis in adults and immediate-type wheat allergies, including anaphylaxis, in children. Recently, wheat allergies exclusively caused by hydrolyzed wheat proteins or deamidated glutens have been reported, and the presence of unique IgE-binding epitopes has been suggested. Soybean allergens contributing to immediate-type allergic reactions in children are present in seed storage proteins, namely Gly m 5, Gly m 6 and Gly m 8. However, pollen-related soybean allergy in adults is caused by the Bet v 1 homolog of soybeans, Gly m 4. Taken together, the varying clinical manifestations of wheat and soybean allergies are predominantly caused by their different allergen components.

  7. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  8. Food Allergy: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... A version of the guidelines for the general public is also available on the NIAID Web site. 25 NIAID I FOOD ALLERGY Glossary allergen —a substance that causes an allergic reaction. allergenic —describes a substance that produces an allergic ...

  9. Chapter 23: Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Robison, Rachel G; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    The onset of IgE-mediated food allergy is usually within minutes to 2 hours of food ingestion. Risk factors for fatal food-induced anaphylaxis include presence of asthma (which is a risk factor for anaphylaxis in general), failure to use epinephrine autoinjectors promptly, history of prior severe reactions, known food allergy, denial of symptoms, and adolescent/young adult age. The most commonly implicated foods are cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, soy, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat. Allergies to peanut, tree nuts, and seafood are the most common food allergens in adults. The major food allergens are glycoproteins that are generally water soluble and stable to the effects of heat, proteases, and acids. Food proteins that escape proteolysis are taken up by intestinal epithelial cells and presented to primed T cells. This process leads to the generation of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells that produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Recent studies have found that tolerance can be acquired with >70% of children becoming tolerant to cow's milk and eggs by age 16 years. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are frequently lifelong. Food-allergic patients or their care givers should be taught when and how to administer injectable epinephrine. In terms of prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that there is no convincing evidence that delaying the introduction of solid foods, including common allergens, beyond 4-6 months of age has a protective effect on the development of atopic disease.

  10. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-02-01

    Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion.

  11. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  12. Prevalence of fragrance allergy.

    PubMed

    Scheinman, Pamela L

    2002-01-01

    With the exception of the UK, where fragrance allergy remained fairly constant from the early 1980s until the mid-late 1990s, other centers worldwide (Denmark, Singapore, Slovenia and the USA) reported an increase in fragrance allergy during this period. The ubiquitous nature of fragrance in modern society, coupled with new and growing markets of fragrance products for children and men, likely contribute to this increase. Strict adherence to voluntary guidelines on concentration limits of known fragrance sensitizers in consumer products is necessary. Also, special attention by manufacturers to safety assessments for fragranced products to be used on 'high-risk' areas such as traumatized/dermatitic skin, occluded sites and areas of high absorption is needed.

  13. [Birch pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Lavaud, F; Fore, M; Fontaine, J-F; Pérotin, J M; de Blay, F

    2014-02-01

    In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.

  14. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  15. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion.

  16. Probiotics and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

  17. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  18. [Stress and allergy].

    PubMed

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  19. Epidemiology of childhood peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Ashley A; Rivkina, Victoria; Perumal, Dhivya; Smeltzer, Brandon M; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-01-01

    Although peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies, no study has comprehensively described the epidemiology of the condition among the general pediatric population. Our objective was to better characterize peanut allergy prevalence, diagnosis trends, and reaction history among affected children identified from a representative sample of United States households with children. A randomized, cross sectional survey was administered to parents from June 2009 to February 2010. Data from 38,480 parents were collected and analyzed in regard to demographics, allergic symptoms associated with food ingestion, and methods of food allergy diagnosis. Adjusted models were estimated to examine association of these characteristics with odds of peanut allergy. Of the 3218 children identified with food allergy, 754 (24.8%) were reported to have a peanut allergy. Peanut allergy was reported most often among 6- to 10-year-old children (25.5%), white children (47.7%), and children from households with an annual income of $50,000-$99,999 (41.7%). Although peanut allergy was diagnosed by a physician in 76% of cases, significantly more peanut allergy reactions were severe as compared with reactions to other foods (53.7% versus 41.0%, p < 0.001). Parents were significantly less likely to report tolerance to peanut as compared with the odds of tolerance reported for other foods (odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9). Childhood peanut allergy, which represents nearly a quarter of all food allergy, presents more severe reactions and is least likely to be outgrown. Although it is diagnosed by a physician in nearly three-fourths of all cases, socioeconomic disparities in regard to diagnosis persist.

  20. Immunotherapy for mold allergy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to review the available studies regarding mold immunotherapy. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE to identify peer-reviewed articles related to mold immunotherapy using the following keywords: mold, allergy, asthma, and immunotherapy. In addition, references cited within these articles were also reviewed. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Allergic responses to inhaled mold antigens are a recognized factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are significant problems with respect to the production of relevant allergen material for the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergy with immunotherapy. Mold allergens contain proteases and should not be mixed with other allergens for immunotherapy. Most of the immunotherapy studies focus on two molds, Alternaria and Cladosporium. There is a lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials when evaluating the efficacy of mold immunotherapy with trials only focusing on immunotherapy to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Additional studies are needed regarding mold allergy and immunotherapy focusing on which molds are important for causing allergic disease.

  1. Immunotherapy for mold allergy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to review the available studies regarding mold immunotherapy. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE to identify peer-reviewed articles related to mold immunotherapy using the following keywords: mold, allergy, asthma, and immunotherapy. In addition, references cited within these articles were also reviewed. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Allergic responses to inhaled mold antigens are a recognized factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are significant problems with respect to the production of relevant allergen material for the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergy with immunotherapy. Mold allergens contain proteases and should not be mixed with other allergens for immunotherapy. Most of the immunotherapy studies focus on two molds, Alternaria and Cladosporium. There is a lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials when evaluating the efficacy of mold immunotherapy with trials only focusing on immunotherapy to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Additional studies are needed regarding mold allergy and immunotherapy focusing on which molds are important for causing allergic disease. PMID:24057512

  2. [Allergy to macadamia nut].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yasuko; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2007-07-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. In her fourth year of primary school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral discomfort and generalized uticaria. In her second year of junior high school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral and pharyngeal discomfort, followed by generalized uticaria and dyspnea. At the age of 20 years, she also developed oral discomfort after eating vegetables in a Chinese dish containing macadamia nuts and visited our department for close examination. A scratch test of extract oil (concentration, as is) was positive, and a diagnosis of immediate allergy due to macadamia nuts was made. Thereafter, she avoided macadamia nuts completely and had no further recurrence. This patient developed oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating macadamia nuts. However, she was negative for Bet v1 and Bet v2 as allergens in white birch pollinosis, in which OAS has been most frequently reported. She had Japanese cedar pollinosis, but its onset was when she was in her second year of high school. Therefore, it is unlikely that Japanese cedar pollen is a sensitization antigen for macadamia nut allergy.

  3. Globalisation and allergy.

    PubMed

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  4. [Laboratory animal; allergy; asthma].

    PubMed

    Corradi, M; Romano, C; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) may develop when susceptible persons are exposed to allergens produced by laboratory animals. LAA is associated with exposure to urine, fur, and salivae of rats, guinea pigs, dogs and rabbits. Approximately 30% of persons who are exposed to laboratory animals may develop LAA and some will also develop asthma. LAA is most likely to occur in persons with previously known allergies, especially to domestic pets. The majority of LAA sufferers experience symptoms within six months their first exposure to laboratory animals; almost all develop symptoms within three years. The most common symptoms are watery eyes and an itchy, runny nose, although skin symptoms and lower respiratory tract symptoms may also occur. Feeding and handling laboratory animals or cleaning their cages generates ten times the amount of allergens compared with undisturbed conditions. Prevention of animal allergy depends on control of allergenic material in the work environment and on organizational and individual protection measures. Pre-placement evaluation and periodic medical surveillance of workers are important pieces of the overall occupational health programme. The emphasis of these medical evaluations should be on counselling and early disease detection.

  5. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  6. [Allergy to macadamia nut].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yasuko; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2007-07-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. In her fourth year of primary school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral discomfort and generalized uticaria. In her second year of junior high school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral and pharyngeal discomfort, followed by generalized uticaria and dyspnea. At the age of 20 years, she also developed oral discomfort after eating vegetables in a Chinese dish containing macadamia nuts and visited our department for close examination. A scratch test of extract oil (concentration, as is) was positive, and a diagnosis of immediate allergy due to macadamia nuts was made. Thereafter, she avoided macadamia nuts completely and had no further recurrence. This patient developed oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating macadamia nuts. However, she was negative for Bet v1 and Bet v2 as allergens in white birch pollinosis, in which OAS has been most frequently reported. She had Japanese cedar pollinosis, but its onset was when she was in her second year of high school. Therefore, it is unlikely that Japanese cedar pollen is a sensitization antigen for macadamia nut allergy. PMID:17671413

  7. [Diagnosis of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Juda, Maciej; Dyczek, Łukasz; Czarnobilska, Maria; Leśniak, Magdalena; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is most often linked to the type I allergic reaction, while IgE-dependent mechanism causes symptoms in only about 50% of patients. If symptoms are coming from other types of allergic reactions we do not have enough standardized diagnostic methods. The purpose of our review is to discuss the possibilities of diagnosis of food allergies. Regardless of the causal mechanism the interview has the most important role in the diagnosis, and the gold standard is a double blind placebo controlled food challenge. Additional tests that can be performed in suspected IgE-mediated reactions include: skin prick tests, specific IgE measurement, component-resolved diagnostics and in doubtful cases basophil activation test (BAT). Due to the fact that the spectrum of the symptoms of the type I food hypersensitivity can include potentially life-threatening reactions, diagnosis is often limited to in vitro assays. In these cases BAT may play an important role--in a recent publication, for the first time BAT reactivity reflected the allergy severity and BAT sensitivity reflected the threshold of response to allergen in an oral food challenge. Atopy patch tests are valuable diagnostic tool in suspected type IV food hypersensitivity, but due to the lack of standardization they are not used routinely. The cytotoxic test has been developed on the basis of the observations that leucopenia developing in the type II hypersensitivity reaction mechanism may be one of the symptoms of food allergy. Unfortunately its use is not justified in any method fulfill the criteria of controlled clinical trial. Food allergy can also develop in the type III hypersensitivity reaction, but there is lack of research supporting the role of IgG measurement in the detection of allergens responsible for symptoms. Each result of additional diagnostic tests before the introduction of food elimination should be confirmed in double-blind, placebo-controlled or open food challenge, because non proper diet is

  8. Experimental determination of field factors (\\Omega _{{{Q}_{\\text{clin}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{clin}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} ) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1 cm  ×  1 cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%—with the exception of the IBA-PFD—for field sizes between 1.5 cm  ×  1.5 cm and 5 cm  ×  5 cm. For the 1 cm  ×  1 cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated k{{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}} is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1 cm  ×  1 cm for the dosimeters used in this work.

  9. Allergy to Uncommon Pets: New Allergies but the Same Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are three main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies. PMID:24416032

  10. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  11. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  12. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  13. Epidemiology of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Arshad, S Hasan

    2011-04-01

    Food allergy (FA) is perceived as a common problem, especially during childhood. Accurate assessment of incidence and prevalence of FA has been difficult to establish, however, due to lack of universally accepted diagnostic criteria. Although many foods are reported to cause IgE-mediated FA, most studies focus on 4 common food groups: cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut/tree nuts, and fish/shellfish. There may be variation in the prevalence of FA in regions of the world and a likely increase in prevalence has been observed in recent decades. This cannot be stated with confidence, however, without the use of consistent methodology and diagnostic criteria.

  14. Allergy to limpet.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, T; de Castro, F R; Cuevas, M; Caminero, J; Cabrera, P

    1991-10-01

    Allergy to mollusk has rarely been described. The limpet, belonging to Phylum mollusca, is one of the most frequent mollusks in the Canary Islands, as in all warm maritime regions. We report two cases of atopic patients who developed anaphylactic reactions after ingestion of this mollusk. Type I hypersensitivity to limpet antigens was demonstrated by means of immediate skin test reactivity, specific IgE determination by RAST, and histamine release test to cooked limpet extract. The controls did not react to any of these tests. Allergic activity was only found with a cooked limpet extract; this suggests that the offending antigen/s may have been released by cooking this food.

  15. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was.

  16. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  17. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  18. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  19. Hydrolyzed Proteins in Allergy.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Silvia; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides. One whey pHF has been shown to reduce atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants who are not exclusively breastfed. More studies are needed to determine the benefit of these formulas in the prevention of CM allergy (CMA) and in the general population. eHFs represent up to now the treatment of choice for most infants with CMA. However, new developments, such as an extensively hydrolyzed rice protein-based formula, could become alternative options if safety and nutritional and therapeutic efficacy are confirmed as this type of formula is less expensive. In some countries, an extensive soy hydrolysate is available. PMID:27336625

  20. Stress and allergy.

    PubMed

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  1. Food allergy overview in children.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sujatha

    2008-04-01

    Food allergies have increased significantly in the past decade. An accurate history is crucial in approaching the management. At the outset, food intolerance must be distinguished from food allergies and, furthermore, these allergies should be classified into either an IgE, Non-IgE, or a mixed response. The clinical features vary from life-threatening anaphylaxis to milder IgE-mediated responses, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The severity of the reaction and the potential risk for anaphylaxis on reexposure should be assessed. Milk, soy, egg, wheat, and peanut allergies are common in children, whereas peanut, tree nut, fish, shell fish allergies, and allergies to fruits and vegetables are common in adults. Structural proteins are important determinants of the severity of the reactions and may often predict the natural history and cross reactivity. Diagnostic work up must be guided by the clinical history. Skin testing and food-specific IgE done by standard methods are very useful, whereas oral challenges may be indicated in some situations. Majority of the patients outgrow their allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat, and some to peanut also, therefore, patients should be periodically reassessed. Novel diagnostic techniques which detect specific allergenic epitopes have been developed. Several newer therapies are promising.

  2. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT.

  3. Novel approaches to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-06-01

    Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future.

  4. Sunflower seed allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  5. Allergies in children

    PubMed Central

    Chad, Zave

    2001-01-01

    Allergic diseases in children have increased significantly in recent years and now affect up to 35% of children. They are a major cause of morbidity in children. Although there is a genetic predisposition, it is the exposure to environmental allergens, irritants and infections that will determine the sensitization to different dietary and inhalant allergens. As the genetic and environmental factors that act on an immature cellular immune system are better elucidated and their roles established, the implementation of more enduring preventive efforts will be developed. However, at present, the best approach to the child at high risk for the development of allergies is to institute dietary and environmental control measures early to decrease sensitization, and to recognize and appropriately treat the evolving signs and symptoms of allergic disease. PMID:20084126

  6. Immunology of metal allergies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metal allergens is a common health concern worldwide, greatly impacting affected individuals with regard to both quality of life and their ability to work. With an estimated 15-20 % of the Western population hypersensitive to at least one metal allergen, sensitization rates for metallic haptens by far outnumber those reported for other common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis such as fragrances and rubber. Unfortunately, the prevalence of metal-induced hypersensitivity remains high despite extensive legislative efforts to ban/reduce the content of allergy-causing metals in recreational and occupational products. Recently, much progress has been made regarding the perception mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses to this unique group of contact allergens. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of this enigmatic disease. Particular emphasis is put on the mechanisms of innate immune activation and T cell activation by common metal allergens such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, and chromate.

  7. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  8. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Laurianne G; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2005-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens in fish and shellfish. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are parvalbumins. The major shellfish allergen has been identified as tropomyosin. Many new and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. Extensive research is currently underway for the development of safer and more effective methods for the diagnosis and management of fish and shellfish hypersensitivity.

  9. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, E

    1997-07-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types. Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migrane of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly. It is better, finally, to keep the eczema, rather than die with it healed.

  10. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  11. Natural history of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Spergel, J M; Fiedler, J M

    2001-12-01

    Peanut allergy raises major concerns and requires diligence in families because of the possibility of severe reactions, the perceived inability to outgrow peanut allergy, and the widespread availability of peanuts in the Western diet. However, studies in the past year have shown that a subset of patients with peanut allergy can become tolerant to peanut. The patients with the milder reactions on presentation have a better chance to develop tolerance to peanuts than the patients whose first reaction is anaphylaxis. This review will focus on the mechanism of allergic sensitization to peanuts and the natural history of peanut allergy as it is currently evolving. The effects of cooking and altering peanut allergens are discussed as are potential treatment modalities.

  12. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  13. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... giving these products to children. back to top Immune System Reaction An allergy is the body’s reaction to a specific substance, or allergen. Our immune system responds to the invading allergen by releasing histamine ...

  14. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals added to latex during harvesting, processing, or manufacturing. These chemicals can cause a skin rash similar ... allergy. However, they may reduce reactions to chemical additives in the latex (allergic contact dermatitis). Use appropriate ...

  15. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people know pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny ... mites. For kids allergic to pollen, keep the windows closed when the pollen season is at its ...

  16. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk typically ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

  17. Molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan M H; Dumitru, Catalina; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-11-01

    Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers. PMID:23249205

  18. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    Contact Us Home > Healthy Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living ...

  19. Introduction to allergy treatment (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment varies with the severity and type of allergy symptom. The first course of action is to avoid the allergen if possible. Medications such as antihistamines are then usually prescribed to relieve the allergic symptoms. Immunotherapy, or " ...

  20. Contact allergy to oleamidopropyl dimethylamine.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A G; Liem, D H

    1984-11-01

    Contact allergy to the cationic emulsifier oleamidopropyl dimethylamine was demonstrated in 3 patients. In every case the emulsifier was present in a particular brand of body lotion. Patch test concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% in water are proposed; slightly higher concentrations may induce irritant responses. Although these are the first documented cases of contact allergy to oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, it is argued that hypersensitivity to this compound may not be rare.

  1. Clinical manifestations of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tamara T; Pesek, Robbie D

    2013-06-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are a diverse group of clinical syndromes resulting from immunologic and non-immunologic responses to food ingestion. Symptoms can range from mild, self-limiting reactions to severe, life-threatening reactions depending on the mechanism. This review primarily focuses on the clinical manifestations of immunologically derived adverse food reactions or food allergies.The true prevalence of food allergy is unknown. Up to 25% of the general population believes that they may be allergic to some food; however, the actual prevalence of food allergy diagnosed by a provider appears to be 1.5% to 2% of the adult population and approximately 6% to 8% of children. This discrepancy makes it imperative that clinicians are aware of the different food allergy syndromes. With a clear understanding of the clinical manifestations of food allergies, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be formulated. Failing to do so may result in unnecessary dietary restrictions that may adversely affect nutritional status, growth, and quality of life.Most food allergic reactions are secondary to a limited number of foods, and the most common foods causing allergic reactions in children include milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, and fish. In adolescents and adults, allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish are most prevalent. Food allergies can result from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IGE-mediated, or mixed IgE/non-IgE mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical manifestations of each of these types of food allergy.

  2. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  3. 4. Food allergy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Hill, David J; Heine, Ralf G

    2006-10-01

    Food allergies in children present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal symptoms (such as vomiting, diarrhoea and failure to thrive). Symptoms usually begin in the first 2 years of life, often after the first known exposure to the food. Immediate reactions (occurring between several minutes and 2 hours after ingestion) are likely to be IgE-mediated and can usually be detected by skin prick testing (SPT) or measuring food-specific serum IgE antibody levels. Over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cows milk, hens egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts (and seeds), wheat, fish and shellfish. Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of IgE-mediated food allergy that requires prescription of self-injectable adrenaline. Delayed-onset reactions (occurring within several hours to days after ingestion) are often difficult to diagnose. They are usually SPT negative, and elimination or challenge protocols are required to make a definitive diagnosis. These forms of food allergy are not usually associated with anaphylaxis. The mainstay of diagnosis and management of food allergies is correct identification and avoidance of the offending antigen. Children often develop tolerance to cows milk, egg, soy and wheat by school age, whereas allergies to nuts and shellfish are more likely to be lifelong.

  4. Seafood allergy: tropomyosins and beyond.

    PubMed

    Leung, P S; Chen, Y C; Chu, K H

    1999-09-01

    Hypersensitive reactions to seafood is one of the most common food allergies. Despite years of intensive studies, the reasons why some people are allergic to seafood is still unclear. The growing demand for seafood and the subsequent increasing risk of seafood allergy in the population at large make it important to elucidate the molecular basis of seafood allergy and identify the seafood allergens at the molecular level. Here, we discuss the clinical symptoms, physiological mechanisms, current findings of the immunological and molecular basis of shellfish allergy as well as future directions for the prevention of shellfish allergy. Interestingly, identified seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins, namely the parvalbumins in codfish and tropomyosin in crustaceans. In addition, there is strong immunological evidence that tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergen among crustaceans and mollusks. The molecular cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of seafood allergens will continue to provide valuable tools in the further understanding of the mechanisms of seafood allergy as well as the future development of immunomodulation regimen.

  5. The impact of allergies and allergy treatment on worker productivity.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J; Chen, C Y; Schultz, A B; Edington, D W

    2001-01-01

    Allergic disorders are a chronic and highly prevalent condition in the general population and the workforce. Their effect on workers and corporate costs go beyond the direct cost of treatment, as the condition can lower a worker's productivity. Previous research includes estimates of the decrease in productivity associated with allergic disorders. None of these studies, however, offered an objective measure of how worker productivity is affected by allergic disorders. In the present study, the productivity of telephone customer service representatives suffering from allergic disorders is examined before, during, and after the ragweed pollen season. In addition, these workers were surveyed as to the type of medication they used in response to their condition. A significant correlation was observed between an increase in pollen counts and a decrease in productivity for workers with allergies. Compared with workers without allergies, employees with allergies who reported using no medication showed a 10% decrease in productivity. No differences were observed among workers with allergies using different types of medications, although the medication groups had significantly higher productivity than the no-medication group. The expected lowered productivity of those workers with allergies who used sedating antihistamines may have been offset by their relatively lower level of symptom severity and by the nature of the job and the productivity measures used. PMID:11201771

  6. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  7. [Genetics of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    The genetics of contact allergy (CA) is still only partly understood, despite decades of research. This might be due to inadequately defined phenotypes used in the past. Therefore we suggested studying an extreme phenotype, namely, polysensitization (sensitization to 3 or more unrelated allergens). Another approach to unravel the genetics of CA has been the study of candidate genes. In this review, we summarize studies on the associations between genetic variation (e.g. SNPs) in certain candidate genes and CA. The following polymorphisms and mutations were studied: (1) filaggrin, (2) N-acetyltransferase (NAT1 and 2), (3) glutathione-S-transferase (GST M and T), (4) manganese superoxide dismutase, (5) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), (6) tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and (7) interleukin-16 (IL16). The polymorphisms of NAT1/2, GST M/T, ACE, TNF, and IL16 were shown to be associated with an increased risk of CA. In one of our studies, the increased risk conferred by the TNF and IL16 polymorphisms was confined to polysensitized individuals. Other relevant candidate genes may be identified by studying diseases related to CA in terms of clinical symptoms, a more general pathology (inflammation) and possibly an overlapping genetic background, such as irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:21904893

  8. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  9. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA. PMID:27582492

  10. Eosinophilic Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Merin; Khan, David A

    2016-04-01

    While peripheral or tissue eosinophilia may certainly characterize drug eruptions, this feature is hardly pathognomonic for a medication-induced etiology. While delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions with prominent eosinophilic recruitment have been typically classified as type IVb reactions, their pathophysiology is now known to be more complex. Eosinophilic drug reactions have a diversity of presentations and may be benign and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. The extent of clinical involvement is also heterogeneous, ranging from isolated peripheral eosinophilia or single organ involvement (most often the skin and lung) to systemic disease affecting multiple organs, classically exemplified by drug-reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The spectrum of implicated medications in the causation of DRESS is ever expanding, and multiple factors including drug metabolites, specific HLA alleles, herpes viruses, and immune system activation have been implicated in pathogenesis. Due to this complex interplay of various factors, diagnostic workup in terms of skin and laboratory testing has not been validated. Similarly, the lack of controlled trials limits treatment options. This review also describes other localized as well as systemic manifestations of eosinophilic disease induced by various medication classes, including their individual pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Given the multitude of clinical patterns associated with eosinophilic drug allergy, the diagnosis can be challenging. Considerable deficits in our knowledge of these presentations remain, but the potential for severe reactions should be borne in mind in order to facilitate diagnosis and institute appropriate management. PMID:26006718

  11. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  12. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    MedlinePlus

    ... an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ACAAI Members Members ... Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology © 2014 Contact US

  13. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergen therapy delivered under the tongue, called sublingual immunotherapy, is effective in treating seasonal allergies, and substantially ... three-year course of allergy shots, called subcutaneous immunotherapy. Another recent finding is that children who do ...

  14. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  15. Lanolin allergy: crisis or comedy.

    PubMed

    Kligman, A M

    1983-03-01

    Lanolin has been applied to human skin from at least Egyptian times. Its virtues as an emollient and vehicle for cosmetics and drugs have been extolled for centuries. 50 years ago, a fly was found in the ointment--the first case of lanolin allergy was reported (1). Since then lanolin has achieved considerable notoriety as a contact sensitizer. Dozens of articles in the dermatologic literature emphasize the high frequency of lanolin allergy. European dermatologists seem to have become especially sensitized to lanolin allergy. Medical students learn early on, that medicaments in lanolin bases are hazardous. Every novice knows that lanolin is a sensitizer! The nadir of lanolin's fall from grace has been reached in advertisements of topical drugs which emphasize the absence of lanolin in the vehicle. These denouncements by dermatologists have not slowed down the demand for lanolin. About 2 billion pounds of finished cosmetics contain lanolin or its derivatives. It is impossible to reconcile this expanding market with the apprehensions of skin doctors. It is my intention to review the history of lanolin allergy, to present experimental data on its contact sensitizing potential and to put the risk of lanolin allergy in perspective.

  16. Managing food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  17. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  18. Future therapies for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A

    2011-03-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, and shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow's milk and hen's egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen specific and nonspecific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, coadministered within heat-killed Escherichia coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for patients with food allergy. Nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which might increase the threshold dose for food allergen in patients with food allergy, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach.

  19. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  20. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  1. Nut allergy: symptom and severity reporting.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, H; Luyt, D

    1999-01-01

    Nut allergy, in particular peanut allergy, is becoming more common in children. Immune sensitisation to nuts appears to be occurring earlier in life. High incidence of other allergic diseases in children with nut allergy. Onset of anaphylactic symptoms is quick but symptoms last for a short time. Necessity for hospital admission due to severity of allergic reaction is low.

  2. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  3. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  4. [Wasp and bee venom allergy].

    PubMed

    Knulst, A C; de Maat-Bleeker, F; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A

    1998-04-18

    To diagnose insect venom allergy a good patient history is important. Allergological tests (skin test, specific IgE titre) confirm the diagnosis. Patients are advised on preventive measures (e.g. with respect to clothing and use of perfume). They are also instructed on medical treatment (antihistaminics, epinephrine) in case they are stung again. In patients having had a serious systemic reaction immunotherapy should be considered. Immunotherapy leads to complete protection in more than 98% of patients with wasp (yellow jacket) venom allergy and in 75-80% of patients with bee venom allergy. Serious adverse reactions to immunotherapy are rare. Immunotherapy lasts at least 3 to 5 years. After cessation of immunotherapy the frequency of systemic reactions to the sting of a wasp or bee is in the range of 5-15%. There are insufficient data on the long-term effect of immunotherapy.

  5. Allergy vaccines: dreams and reality.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2007-12-01

    Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.

  6. [House dust mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy. PMID:22477664

  7. [House dust mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  8. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut.

  9. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  10. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    Reche, M; Pascual, C; Fiandor, A; Polanco, I; Rivero-Urgell, M; Chifre, R; Johnston, S; Martín-Esteban, M

    2010-01-01

    Reche M, Pascual C, Fiandor A, Polanco I, Rivero-Urgell M, Chifre R, Johnston S, Martín-Esteban M. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 577–585. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow’s milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1–10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow’s milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with

  11. State of World Allergy Report 2008: Allergy and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information. The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems. In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases. PMID:23282447

  12. The urban jungle and allergy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James L; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2003-08-01

    The urban forest is the assemblage of trees, shrubs, and other plants that occupy the urban and suburban zone. In urban areas, the number of potentially allergenic plants has grown rapidly as the diversity of plants increases. The recommended street trees of many cities are allergenic species that are well known to allergy clinicians. Some of the most commonly planted trees in urban zones are known to be the greatest producers of pollen. These trees are situated in close proximity to humans, either at home, at work, or on their travel routes between locations. There are common misconceptions about the plants that do and do not cause allergy. It generally has been considered that insect-pollinated plants with showy flowers are allergy safe; however, when these species are planted in close proximity to people, as they are in urban landscaping, the pollen that leaks from the flowers is often enough to cause an allergic reaction. With increasing emphasis on green space in urban areas, it is advisable to evaluate what is being planted, how much is planted, and the plants' potential for triggering allergy.

  13. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish and tree nuts. In some food groups, especially tree nuts and seafood, an allergy to one member ... listed in common language (milk, egg, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts and soybeans). • Carry and know ...

  14. ANIMAL MODELS OF MOLD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of molds as causative agents for allergy/asthma is not new. In fact many fungal genera have been associated with allergic lung disease, but only a few fungi are well studied and even fewer fungal allergens well characterized. The complexity and variety of fungal pro...

  15. Gastrointestinal food allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Assa'ad, Amal H

    2006-10-01

    GI symptoms are a common manifestation of food allergy and intolerance. The primary physician is the first to evaluate these symptoms. A systematic evaluation using an accurate and detailed history, tests to identify the offending food(s), and procedures that may identify underlying pathologic disorders of the GI tract would lead to an accurate diagnosis and better targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:17048714

  16. Industrial dimensions of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Crevel, René

    2005-11-01

    Serious attempts to estimate the impact of allergic reactions to foods on public health did not begin until the 1980s. Until about 15 years ago food allergy was considered a minor aspect of food safety. Two developments probably prompted a radical re-appraisal of that situation. The first was the apparently inexorable rise in the prevalence of atopic diseases, of which food allergy forms a part, with its possible consequences highlighted by some well-publicised severe reactions. The second was the growth of genetic modification technology, manifested by the commercialisation of transgenic crops. Each of these developments impacted on the food industry in distinct ways. On the one hand, consumers with food allergies had to be enabled to avoid specific allergens in products formulated with existing ingredients. Food manufacturers therefore had to identify those specific allergens down to trace amounts in all the ingredients forming the product and label or remove them. On the other hand, the introduction of products using ingredients from novel sources required an assessment of the allergenicity of these ingredients as an integral part of safety assurance. The approaches used by the food industry to protect existing consumers who have food allergies and those at potential risk of sensitisation from novel proteins will be illustrated, emphasising how they need to be built into every stage of the life cycle of a product.

  17. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. PMID:26968958

  18. Early Introduction of Eggs, Peanuts May Cut Kids' Allergy Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Introduction of Eggs, Peanuts May Cut Kids' Allergy Risk: Study Allergy specialist suggests existing guidelines on introducing foods may ... on may help reduce their risk of food allergies, a new analysis finds. Researchers reviewed 146 previous ...

  19. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  20. Titanium Allergy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Goutam, Manish; Giriyapura, Chandu; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium. PMID:25484409

  1. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  2. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  3. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising investigational therapy for food allergy. Clinical trials in peanut, milk, egg, and wheat allergy provide evidence that OIT can effectively desensitize a majority of individuals to a food allergen. While a portion of subjects demonstrate sustained unresponsiveness, the majority regain sensitivity with allergen avoidance. The safety and tolerability of OIT continue to limit its use in some patients. Virtually all studies report adverse reactions that are more frequent during dose escalation but may also occur during maintenance therapy. Recent studies have identified adjunctive therapies (such as omalizumab) which may mitigate adverse effects. There is a paucity of data on the long-term safety and efficacy of OIT. Further study is required before OIT is ready for routine clinical practice. This review is intended to provide the reader with an up-to-date understanding of OIT, including its mechanisms, efficacy, safety profile, and potential utility in clinical practice. PMID:27355816

  4. Allergy to ingredients of vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hannuksela, M; Kousa, M; Pirilä, V

    1976-04-01

    Common ingredients of vehicles such as perfumes, antibacterial agents, emulsifiers and other surface active agents, propylene glycol, lanolin and wool alcohols were tested in eczema patients over a three-year period. Perfume allergy was detected in 3.6% of the cases, sensitivity to thiomersal in 2%, to sorbic acid in 0.8%, to parabens in only 0.3%, and to wool alcohols in 1.2%. Reactions to emulsifiers were seen over 1% of those tested.

  5. [Various aspects of cosmetic allergy in Strasbourg].

    PubMed

    Ngangu, Z; Samsoen, M; Foussereau, J

    1983-01-01

    Intending to determine the substances responsible in Strasbourg for allergies to cosmetics, we checked through all our cases from 1973 to 1980. Two main causes of the allergies were determined: Cosmetic cream and skin lotion (31.2% of cases) as well as nail enamel (20.8%). The importance of allergy to these enamels is notable compared with the extremely low figures found in the other countries (USA 1%, Sweden 6%).

  6. Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergies (Arabic) الحساسية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Allergies 过敏 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Common Allergies English 过敏症(花粉症) - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) ...

  7. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  8. Food allergies and food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

    2006-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

  9. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  10. Food allergies: detection and management.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Kurt; Boxer, Robert W

    2008-06-15

    Family physicians play a central role in the suspicion and diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies, but they are also critical in redirecting the evaluation for symptoms that patients are falsely attributing to allergies. Although any food is a potential allergen, more than 90 percent of acute systemic reactions to food in children are from eggs, milk, soy, wheat, or peanuts, and in adults are from crustaceans, tree nuts, peanuts, or fish. The oral allergy syndrome is more common than anaphylactic reactions to food, but symptoms are transient and limited to the mouth and throat. Skin-prick and radioallergosorbent tests for particular foods have about an 85 percent sensitivity and 30 to 60 percent specificity. Intradermal testing has a higher false-positive rate and greater risk of adverse reactions; therefore, it should not be used for initial evaluations. The double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge remains the most specific test for confirming diagnosis. Treatment is through recognition and avoidance of the responsible food. Patients with anaphylactic reactions need emergent epinephrine and instruction in self-administration in the event of inadvertent exposure. Antihistamines can be used for more minor reactions.

  11. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  12. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  13. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. PMID:24734868

  14. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  15. Update on food allergy in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rabia Quddus; Oppenheimer, John J

    2012-08-01

    Though much has been studied and written about food allergy, the majority of the available literature focuses on food allergies in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, it is likely that in regard to food allergies, adults are not just big children, and extrapolating findings from pediatric to adult patient populations might lead to erroneous assumptions. Thus, it is important to validate the correlation between pediatric and adult data, gather data regarding adult food allergy and understand the specific nuances of subsets of adults to better treat their food allergy. This review was conducted by identifying potentially relevant studies regarding food allergies in adults through electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The search terms included "allergy", "food" and "adults". Parameters of 19+ years of age were added to search terms and all journals were written in or translated to English. From these search results, focus was placed on studies from 2010 to 2012. This systematic update on food allergy in adults found that the evidence regarding prevalence, diagnosis and management of food allergies is very limited, with the majority of data derived from children and young adults.

  16. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  17. Allergy to pizza: an uncommon and multifaceted allergy.

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of the Italian "pizza" in the wide and variegate field of food allergy is certainly uncommon. This simple Italian dish consists of a breadlike crust covered by a spiced preparation of cheese and tomatoes and baked. Italian pizza found its origin in Napoli and only in recent years has become a very popular food in the rest of Italy and elsewhere. In the beginning, it was the food of the poor, but was made with natural foods, but nowadays has been enriched by a number of ingredients and flavourings, thus multiplying the risk of allergic reactions.

  18. A rebuttal to "A comment to 'Normalization of urinary pteridines by urine specific gravity for early cancer detection' [Clin. Chim. Acta 435 (2014) 42-47]".

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinfa; Burton, Casey; Shi, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    We really appreciate the comments from Drs. Reibnegger and Fuchs regarding our recent publication "Normalization of urinary pteridines by urine specific gravity for early cancer detection [Clin. Chim. Acta 435 (2014) 42-47]". In their letter, Drs. Reibnegger and Fuchs identify several potential concerns regarding our recent publication [1] that evaluated the normalization performance of urine specific gravity (USG) and urinary creatinine with respect to the diagnostic properties of selected pteridines in discerning aggressive and benign breast cancers. Their letter not only provides unique insights that are both relevant and helpful to many researchers engaging in similar studies, but also provides a wonderful opportunity for us to address these potential concerns that may also be shared by other readers. We addressed all of the comments by Drs. Reibnegger and Fuchs in this letter.

  19. Comparison of school food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's standard plan.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-10-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for comparison. Although two-thirds used food allergy plans, only 15% used the current FAAN plan. Plans were missing essential components, including emergency contact information, medication administration instructions, and health history information. School nurses must adhere to current clinical guidelines to provide an accurate resource for personnel in charge of a food allergy reaction in school. Professional associations and state school health agencies must create and market a resource that provides easy, one-stop access to current best-practice guidelines and tool kits. PMID:17894522

  20. Comparison of school food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's standard plan.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-10-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for comparison. Although two-thirds used food allergy plans, only 15% used the current FAAN plan. Plans were missing essential components, including emergency contact information, medication administration instructions, and health history information. School nurses must adhere to current clinical guidelines to provide an accurate resource for personnel in charge of a food allergy reaction in school. Professional associations and state school health agencies must create and market a resource that provides easy, one-stop access to current best-practice guidelines and tool kits.

  1. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Workshop on Drug Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A.K.; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Ostrov, David A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Pichler, Werner J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several NIH Institutes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053

  2. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  3. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-01-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy.

  4. ["Allergy testing" with "Dr. Voll electroacupuncture"].

    PubMed

    Bresser, H

    1993-06-01

    Electroacupuncture according to Dr. Voll (EAV) is one of the numerous unconventional methods propagated for allergy testing in Germany. From an experimental examination for "drug testing" of this method, it can be concluded that EAV is unsuitable for any form of allergy testing.

  5. Food Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Food Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Food Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  6. Skin Patch May Help with Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... results were published online Oct. 26 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology . The patch is based on the same concept as other anti-allergy treatments, aiming to engage the immune system to train the body to tolerate small amounts of the protein. Other researchers have tested ...

  7. [Interest of allergy tests in urticaria].

    PubMed

    Mathelier-Fusade, P

    2014-11-01

    Urticaria is a common skin disease that may affect 20 % of the general population. Most of the time, urticaria is an acute disorder that rarely can be chronic. The difficulty in urticaria is not the clinical diagnosis because the rash is characteristic, but the underlying causes and treatment that result. Urticaria is a benign disease when chronic and potentially dangerous when acute and associated with allergy. This allergy risk, needs an allergy exploration, based on skin tests and / or specific IgE assays. Because allergy is unusual in chronic urticaria, no allergy tests should be performed. By contrast, these tests must be undertaken in case of acute urticaria with a strong suspicion of IgE-mediated reaction because of the risk of severe anaphylaxis in case of allergenic re-exposure.

  8. Milk allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Odedra, Katy Mara

    2015-07-01

    Cow's milk allergy is common in children and rare in adults. The clinical features of cow's milk allergy are varied and they include anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of cow's milk allergy is difficult to ascertain, based on self-reported symptoms that are not subsequently confirmed by diagnostic testing. The gold-standard diagnostic test is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Avoidance of milk and milk products is the main therapy. Nutritional considerations are important in both children and adults, as is recognising the potential for resolution of cow's milk allergy. Providing evidence-based advice and support to individuals and their families and carers is central to managing cow's milk allergy. PMID:26136034

  9. Food allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Dan

    2008-03-01

    A rise in food allergy, accompanied by heightened public awareness, guarantees that clinicians will increasingly be consulted to accurately distinguish adverse reactions to foods from other disorders. The potential impact of inaccurately labeling a food as a cause of symptoms includes delaying appropriate treatment for another disorder or needlessly removing a food from the diet, with potential adverse nutritional and social consequences. When symptoms are triggered by food ingestion, determining the type of adverse reaction to the food responsible is important because of the implications regarding the mechanism involved, reproducibility, and the prognosis.

  10. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  11. Molecular design of allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2005-12-01

    Recombinant-allergen-based diagnostic tests enable the dissection and monitoring of the molecular reactivity profiles of allergic patients, resulting in more specific diagnosis, disease monitoring, prevention and therapy. In vitro experiments, animal studies and clinical trials in patients demonstrate that allergenic molecules can be engineered to induce different immune responses ranging from tolerance to vigorous immunity. The available data thus suggest that molecular engineering of the disease-related antigens is a technology that may be applicable not only for the design of allergy vaccines but also for the design of vaccines against infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer.

  12. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  13. Follow-up of the wheat allergy in children; consequences and outgrowing the allergy.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Mozafari, Habibeh; Abdollah Gorji, Fatemeh; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh

    2012-06-01

    Allergy to wheat is a common food allergy. In spite of this fact, there is not enough literature regarding the features and outgrowing of this allergy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manifestations of this allergy and to follow the patients to evaluate whether outgrowing allergy happens again and when it occurs.Eight wheat allergic patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2001 were re-evaluated together with 13 other new cases of wheat allergy referred to the Immunology and Allergy Pediatric Department from June 2004 to March 2006. For all cases, the demographic data along with a complete history regarding allergy to wheat and other types of allergy were collected in questionnaires. The specific IgE measurements (in vivo and in vitro) and oral food challenge (in the absence of a relevant history related to allergy to wheat) were performed. Severe anaphylaxis was seen after wheat ingestion in more than 90% of the patients. Oral tolerance to wheat developed in three patients (37.5%) out of 8 known previous cases who had been followed for eight years, the mean age of oral tolerance to wheat was 68 ± 6.36 (range; 36 months to 108 months).Clinical reactions in our wheat-allergic patients were more severe than those reported before. These patients were at risk for developing chronic allergic symptoms such as asthma. We also found that oral tolerance to wheat was happening in a minority of our patients.

  14. Triticale allergy in a farmer.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 29-year-old farmer with hay fever and atopic dermatitis since adolescence who had developed work-related asthma about 5 years earlier. He was sensitized to grass pollen, wheat and rye flour, dust from the floors of the animal facilities (cows and pigs) and grain barn, and a battery of animal feed from his farm. Work-relatedness of his asthma was demonstrated by serial measurements of spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide at work and during a holiday. Immunoblot analyses revealed dominant IgE-binding to grass pollen and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat). IgE inhibition experiments demonstrated that sensitization to triticale was not due to cross-reactivity to grass pollen. Testing of specific IgE-antibodies to recombinant wheat allergens showed sensitizations to profilin, peroxidase, and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins type I subfamily 9.1 and 9.7. We conclude that triticale allergy may occur as a distinct allergy in farmers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:501-505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26814013

  15. [Food allergy in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Wichmann, K; Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T

    2012-04-01

    Food allergy predominantly affects children rather than adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Early sensitization to foods has been found to be significantly associated with AD. Three different patterns of clinical reactions to food allergens in AD patients exist: i. immediate-type reaction, ii. isolated late-type reaction, iii. combined reaction (i. + ii.). While in children allergens from cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, fish, peanut or tree nuts are mostly responsible for allergic reactions, birch-pollen related food allergens seem to play a major role in adolescent and adults with AD in Central and Northern Europe. Defects of the epidermal barrier function seem to facilitate the development of sensitization to allergens following epicutaneous exposure. The relevance of defects of the gut barrier as well as genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk for food allergy remain to be further investigated. Numerous studies focus on prevention strategies which include breast-feeding or feeding with hydrolyzed milk substitute formula during the first 4 months of life.

  16. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans.

  17. Developing therapies for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated, persisting immune disorder that is of major concern worldwide. Currently, no routine immunotherapy is available to treat this often severe and sometimes fatal food allergy. Traditional subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with crude peanut extracts has proven not feasible due to the high risk of severe systemic side effects. The allergen-specific approaches under preclinical and clinical investigation comprise subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy with whole-peanut extracts as well as applications of hypoallergenic peanut allergens or T cell epitope peptides. Allergen-nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, TCM herbal formulations and Toll-like receptor 9-based immunotherapy. The potential of genetically engineered plants with reduced allergen levels is being explored as well as the beneficial influence of lactic acid bacteria and soybean isoflavones on peanut allergen-induced symptoms. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated, several of these strategies hold great promise. It can be estimated that individual strategies or a combination thereof will result in a successful immunotherapy regime for peanut-allergic individuals within the next decade. PMID:25531161

  18. Shellfish Allergy: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Shellfish allergy is of increasing concern, as its prevalence has risen in recent years. Many advances have been made in allergen characterization. B cell epitopes in the major allergen tropomyosin have been characterized. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and myosin light chain have recently been reported in shellfish. All are proteins that play a role in muscular contraction. Additional allergens such as hemocyanin have also been described. The effect of processing methods on these allergens has been studied, revealing thermal stability and resistance to peptic digestion in some cases. Modifications after Maillard reactions have also been addressed, although in some cases with conflicting results. In recent years, new hypoallergenic molecules have been developed, which constitute a new therapeutic approach to allergic disorders. A recombinant hypoallergenic tropomyosin has been developed, which opens a new avenue in the treatment of shellfish allergy. Cross-reactivity with species that are not closely related is common in shellfish-allergic patients, as many of shellfish allergens are widely distributed panallergens in invertebrates. Cross-reactivity with house dust mites is well known, but other species can also be involved in this phenomenon.

  19. Use of amiodarone in a patient with a shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Beall, Jennifer W; Mahan, Edward F; Blau, Andrea B

    2007-04-01

    A 65-year-old Caucasian male with a shellfish allergy developed atrial fibrillation and hypotension after coronary artery bypass and duodenal ulcer surgery. Following electrical cardioversion, oral amiodarone was continued chronically without an allergic reaction. There is a common misconception that a shellfish allergy correlates to an iodine allergy. There is little documentation of the association between an allergy to shellfish and an allergy to iodine. Food allergies can be subcategorized based on the involvement of IgE. Upon further investigation, it was discovered that shellfish allergies are not due to the iodine component, but rather, to a protein found in the shellfish. Amiodarone can be safely used in patients with shellfish allergies. A shellfish allergy does not necessarily imply an iodine allergy.

  20. Harmonia axyridis ladybug invasion and allergy.

    PubMed

    Goetz, David W

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in 1916 Harmonia axyridis, an orange/red lady beetle with variable black spotting, was imported into the United States from Asia. This agricultural pest-control predator established independent feral populations in North America by 1988. Subsequently, Harmonia axyridis has become a pest to homeowners and various horticultural enterprises. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms invade human homes/habitats primarily in the fall. With increased Harmonia axyridis exposures, human ladybug allergy was first reported in 1998. Ladybug-specific IgE hypersensitivity has been reported in all ages (1-78 years old) and both sexes. Clinical ladybug allergy manifests variously as rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, and angioedema. A majority, but not all, allergic individuals are primarily exposed at home. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug hemolymph is a primary source of allergen. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. Ladybug allergy prevalence in one endemic area was reported as 10%. Self-report of ladybug pests at home did not predict ladybug allergy, suggesting other exposures are important also. Some individuals have no history of atopy before manifestation of ladybug allergy. Ladybug, cat, cockroach, and house-dust mites are the most likely allergens to present as isolated single positive skin tests in an allergist's office. Ladybug should be a standard skin test allergen for all allergy patients tested in endemic areas. Avoidance of ladybug exposure is paramount to treatment. PMID:18430308

  1. Food allergy: opportunities and challenges in the clinical practice of allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    James, John M

    2004-10-01

    Food allergy offers numerous opportunities and challenges for the allergy and clinical immunology specialist. Physicians with board certification in allergy and clinical immunology should be the main source of reliable clinical information to educate patients with food-related disorders. There has been a wealth of reliable information published related to food allergy that can be utilized by health care providers in clinical practice. This includes information about the cross-reactivity of food allergens, the evaluation of potential new therapies, and the practical application of new diagnostic methods and management strategies. This article addresses some of the new developments in food allergy, with an emphasis on cross-reactvity of food allergens, recombinant food allergens, and potential future therapies for food allergy.

  2. Tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort: long-term incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) still presents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), including those on antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term incidence density rate (IDR) of TB and risk factors among PLWHA in relation to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-status. Methods Data of PLWHA enrolled from 2001 through 2011 in the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort were investigated using survival analysis and Cox regression. Results TB was diagnosed in 233/11,693 PLWHA either at enrollment (N = 62) or during follow-up (N = 171). The TB IDR during follow-up was 0.37 cases per 100 person-years (PY) overall [95% CI, 0.32-0.43], and was higher among patients who never started cART and among patients originating from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.23 and 1.20 per 100PY, respectively). In two multivariable analyses, both patients (I) who never started cART and (II) those on cART shared the same risk factors for TB, namely: originating from Sub-Saharan Africa compared to Germany (I, hazard ratio (HR); [95% CI]) 4.05; [1.87-8.78] and II, HR 5.15 [2.76-9.60], CD4+ cell count <200 cells/μl (I, HR 8.22 [4.36-15.51] and II, HR 1.90 [1.14-3.15]) and viral load >5 log10 copies/ml (I, HR 2.51 [1.33-4.75] and II, HR 1.77 [1.11-2.82]). Gender, age or HIV-transmission risk group were not independently associated with TB. Conclusion In the German ClinSurv HIV cohort, patients originating from Sub-Saharan Africa, with low CD4+ cell count or high viral load at enrollment were at increased risk of TB even after cART initiation. As patients might be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, early screening for latent TB infection and implementing isoniazid preventive therapy in line with available recommendations is crucial. PMID:24646042

  3. Skin manifestations of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Martin, B L

    1999-03-01

    The role of dietary factors in chronic skin diseases has been a subject of controversy, but several investigators have shown the effectiveness of elimination diets in the management of some patients with atopic dermatitis. Chronic skin diseases are common, complex, and often difficult to treat; therefore, the physician should consider all possible causes. More people consider themselves to have food allergies than can actually be documented to have an immunologic reaction to foods. Six foods--egg, peanut, cow's milk, soy, fish, and wheat--account for most skin reactions to food in children, with egg, peanut, and cow's milk being most common. Elimination of the offending food can be an effective form of treatment, but it must be done with caution, and while ensuring that the patient maintains adequate nutrition.

  4. Recent advances in peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2002-06-01

    Peanut remains preeminent as the food allergen most associated with severe and fatal allergic reactions. Reactions are frequent despite patients' best efforts to avoid peanut. In the future, better information sharing and communication between families and both schools and restaurants may lead to a decrease in the rate of severe reactions induced by exposure to peanut outside the home. Reaction severity may increase over time but up to 25% of young peanut allergic individuals may outgrow their peanut allergy. Personalized care plans and education programmes may have an impact on avoidance of peanut and on the appropriate responses of caregivers. Peanut's allergenicity may be affected by the method of cooking, with roasted peanuts appearing more allergenic than boiled or fried peanuts. Immunotherapy with modified peanut allergens and DNA based vaccines may soon move from animal studies to clinical trials.

  5. Global airway disease beyond allergy.

    PubMed

    Hellings, Peter W; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P

    2010-03-01

    Besides the anatomic continuity of the upper and lower airways, inflammation in one part of the airway influences the homeostasis of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction have been studied primarily in allergic disease, showing systemic immune activation, induction of inflammation at a distance, and a negative impact of nasal inflammation on bronchial homeostasis. In addition to allergy, other inflammatory conditions of the upper airways are associated with lower airway disease. Rhinosinusitis is frequently associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The impairment of purification, humidification, and warming up of the inspired air by the nose in rhinosinusitis may be responsible in part for bronchial pathology. The resolution of sinonasal inflammation via medical and/or surgical treatment is responsible for the beneficial effect of the treatment on bronchial disease. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of upper and lower airway communication beyond allergic disease.

  6. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China. PMID:26000282

  7. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  8. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  9. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-04-01

    The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

  10. Emerging therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Keet, Corinne A.; Wood, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach may be. Here, we review approaches that are currently in clinical trials, including oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy combined with anti-IgE, and Chinese herbal medicine as well as approaches that are in preclinical or early clinical investigation, including modified protein immunotherapy, adjuvants, DNA vaccines, and helminth administration. We discuss the importance of fully exploring the risks and benefits of any treatment before it is taken to general clinical practice and the need for clarity about the goals of treatment. PMID:24789880

  11. From allergen genes to allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Ferreira, Fatima; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Niederberger, Verena; Swoboda, Ines; Vrtala, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. The structures of the most common allergens have been revealed through molecular cloning technology in the past two decades. On the basis of this knowledge of the sequences and three-dimensional structures of culprit allergens, investigators can now analyze the immune recognition of allergens and the mechanisms of allergic inflammation in allergic patients. Allergy vaccines have been constructed that are able to selectively target the aberrant immune responses in allergic patients via different pathways of the immune system. Here we review various types of allergy vaccines that have been developed based on allergen structures, results from their clinical application in allergic patients, and future strategies for allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergy prophylaxis.

  12. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail. PMID:27177897

  13. Going to School with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can take several weeks to arrive. In addition to your child's name and type of allergies, consider including that epinephrine should be given in case of a severe reaction and listing your emergency contact number. At the ...

  14. Seeking Allergy Relief: When Breathing Becomes Bothersome

    MedlinePlus

    ... than one allergen,” Salo explains. “Grass, weed, and tree pollens are the most common causes of outdoor ... Flu, or Allergy? CONTACT US NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room 5B64 Bethesda, ...

  15. Documenting Penicillin Allergy: The Impact of Inconsistency

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirav S.; Ridgway, Jessica P.; Pettit, Natasha; Fahrenbach, John; Robicsek, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergy documentation is frequently inconsistent and incomplete. The impact of this variability on subsequent treatment is not well described. Objective To determine how allergy documentation affects subsequent antibiotic choice. Design Retrospective, cohort study. Participants 232,616 adult patients seen by 199 primary care providers (PCPs) between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014 at an academic medical system. Main Measures Inter-physician variation in beta-lactam allergy documentation; antibiotic treatment following beta-lactam allergy documentation. Key Results 15.6% of patients had a reported beta-lactam allergy. Of those patients, 39.8% had a specific allergen identified and 22.7% had allergic reaction characteristics documented. Variation between PCPs was greater than would be expected by chance (all p<0.001) in the percentage of their patients with a documented beta-lactam allergy (7.9% to 24.8%), identification of a specific allergen (e.g. amoxicillin as opposed to “penicillins”) (24.0% to 58.2%) and documentation of the reaction characteristics (5.4% to 51.9%). After beta-lactam allergy documentation, patients were less likely to receive penicillins (Relative Risk [RR] 0.16 [95% Confidence Interval: 0.15–0.17]) and cephalosporins (RR 0.28 [95% CI 0.27–0.30]) and more likely to receive fluoroquinolones (RR 1.5 [95% CI 1.5–1.6]), clindamycin (RR 3.8 [95% CI 3.6–4.0]) and vancomycin (RR 5.0 [95% CI 4.3–5.8]). Among patients with beta-lactam allergy, rechallenge was more likely when a specific allergen was identified (RR 1.6 [95% CI 1.5–1.8]) and when reaction characteristics were documented (RR 2.0 [95% CI 1.8–2.2]). Conclusions Provider documentation of beta-lactam allergy is highly variable, and details of the allergy are infrequently documented. Classification of a patient as beta-lactam allergic and incomplete documentation regarding the details of the allergy lead to beta-lactam avoidance and use of other antimicrobial

  16. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Methods Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File–Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Results Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. Conclusions The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage. PMID:23396542

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  18. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy.

  19. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review.

  20. [Special aspects of food allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B

    2012-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to foods represent the earliest and most important manifestation of allergic diseases in childhood. Sensitization to foods may happen very early in life. Basic options for alimentary allergy prevention are breast-feeding of at least 4 months and in case nursing is impossible, use of an alternative hypoallergenic formula. The most common food allergens in childhood are cow's milk, hen's egg, peanuts, tree nuts and wheat. The prevalence of food allergies in childhood is 2 to 6%. In up to 50% of infants and children with atopic eczema, food allergies play a role; vice versa 95% of children with an IgE-mediated food allergy have atopic eczema as an underlying disease. Diagnostic reliability in suspected allergic reactions to food is only achieved in most cases by performing controlled oral food challenges. The long-term prognosis is good for cow's milk and hen's egg allergy, while peanut and tree nut allergies often last life-long. The most important therapeutic option is a specific elimination diet; especially in infancy, a nutritionally adequate substitution diet has to be considered. Children who might inadvertently get into contact with their potentially life threatening food allergen, should be provided with an epinephrine autoinjector.

  1. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    PubMed

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.

  2. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964

  3. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  4. Developments in the field of allergy mechanisms in 2015 through the eyes of Clinical & Experimental Allergy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G; Boyle, R; Bryce, P J; Crane, J; Hogan, S P; Saglani, S; Wickman, M; Woodfolk, J A

    2016-10-01

    In the first of two papers we described the development in the field of allergy mechanisms as described by Clinical and Experimental Allergy in 2015. Experimental models of allergic disease, basic mechanisms, clinical mechanisms and allergens are all covered. A second paper will cover clinical aspects. PMID:27682977

  5. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Biló, B M; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude-Elberink, J N G

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula spp.) and honeybee stings are the most prevalent, whereas in the Mediterranean area stings from Polistes and Vespula are more frequent than honeybee stings; bumblebee stings are rare throughout Europe and more of an occupational hazard. Several major allergens, usually glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 10-50 kDa, have been identified in venoms of bees, vespids. and ants. The sequences and structures of the majority of venom allergens have been determined and several have been expressed in recombinant form. A particular problem in the field of cross-reactivity are specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes, which may induce multiple positive test results (skin test, in vitro tests) of still unknown clinical significance. Venom hypersensitivity may be mediated by immunologic mechanisms (IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated venom allergy) but also by nonimmunologic mechanisms. Reactions to Hymenoptera stings are classified into normal local reactions, large local reactions, systemic toxic reactions, systemic anaphylactic reactions, and unusual reactions. For most venom-allergic patients an anaphylactic reaction after a sting is very traumatic event, resulting in an altered health-related quality of life. Risk factors influencing the outcome of an anaphylactic reaction include the time interval between stings, the number of stings, the severity of the preceding reaction, age, cardiovascular diseases and drug intake, insect type, elevated serum tryptase, and mastocytosis. Diagnostic tests should be carried out in all patients with a history of a systemic sting reaction to detect sensitization. They are not recommended in subjects with

  6. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  7. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance.

    PubMed

    van Nunen, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  8. Summary of the NIAID-sponsored food allergy guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Fenton, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    Patients with suspected food allergies are commonly seen in clinical practice. Although up to 15 percent of parents believe their children have food allergies, these allergies have been confirmed in only 1 to 3 percent of all Americans. Family physicians must be able to separate true food allergies from food intolerance, food dislikes, and other conditions that mimic food allergy. The most common foods that produce allergic symptoms are milk, eggs, seafood, peanuts, and tree nuts. Although skin testing and in vitro serum immunoglobulin E assays may help in the evaluation of suspected food allergies, they should not be performed unless the clinical history suggests a specific food allergen to which testing can be targeted. Furthermore, these tests do not confirm food allergy. Confirmation requires a positive food challenge or a clear history of an allergic reaction to a food and resolution of symptoms after eliminating that food from the diet. More than 70 percent of children will outgrow milk and egg allergies by early adolescence, whereas peanut allergies usually remain throughout life. The most serious allergic response to food allergy is anaphylaxis. It requires emergency care that should be initiated by the patient or family using an epinephrine autoinjector, which should be carried by anyone with a diagnosed food allergy. These and other recommendations presented in this article are derived from the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States, published by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Food allergy: nuts and tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Jesus F; James, John M; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Rodriguez, Julia

    2006-11-01

    Nuts are a well-defined cause of food allergy, which affect approximately 1 % of the general population in the UK and the USA. There do appear to be differences in the frequency of nut allergy between different countries because of different dietary habits and cooking procedures. For example, in the USA and France, peanuts are one of the most frequent causes of food allergy, but in other countries, it seems to be less common. Genetic factors, in particular, appear to play a role in the development of peanut allergy. While the majority of nut allergens are seed storage proteins, other nut allergens are profilins and pathogenesis-related protein homologues, considered as panallergens because of their widespread distribution in plants. The presence of specific IgE antibodies to several nuts is a common clinical finding, but the clinical relevance of this cross-reactivity is usually limited. Allergic reactions to nuts appear to be particularly severe, sometimes even life-threatening, and fatal reactions following their ingestion have been documented. Food allergy is diagnosed by identifying an underlying immunological mechanism (i.e. allergic testing), and establishing a causal relationship between food ingestion and symptoms (i.e. oral challenges). In natural history investigations carried out in peanut-allergic children, approximately 20 % of the cases outgrew their allergy or developed oral tolerance. The treatment of nut allergies should include patient and family education about avoiding all presentations of the food and the potential for a severe reaction caused by accidental ingestion. Patients and families should be instructed how to recognise early symptoms of an allergic reaction and how to treat severe anaphylaxis promptly.

  10. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  11. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  12. House dust allergy and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Wayne R.

    2012-01-01

    HDM allergy is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In many countries childhood asthma is predominantly found in HDM-allergic children with their probability of developing disease being proportional to their IgE antibody titers and the early development of Th2 responses. While the pathogenesis is complex and increasingly linked to infection the immunologically-based allergen immunotherapy and anti-IgE antibody therapy are highly beneficial. Immunotherapy could be a short-term treatment providing lifelong relief but the current regimens depend on repeated administration of allergen over years. Immunological investigations point to a contribution of responses outside the Th2 pathway and multiple potential but unproven control mechanisms. Over half of the IgE antibodies are directed to the group 1 and 2 allergens with most of remainder to the group 4, 5, 7 and 21 allergens. This hierarchy found in high and low responders provides a platform for introducing defined allergens into immunotherapy and defined reagents for investigation. PMID:22894952

  13. Allergy to Parietaria officinalis pollen.

    PubMed

    Cvitanović, S

    1999-03-01

    Parietaria pollen allergens (officinalis, judaica, lusitanica, creatica) are one of the most common causes of pollinosis in the Mediterranean (Spain, France, Italy, and Croatia). Parietaria has very long period of pollination, often reaching peaks of more than 500 grains/m3 of air at the beginning of June, and very strong allergenic properties. There is a significantly positive correlation for the newcomers between the intensity of the skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area, whereas autochthonous patients show a negative correlation between the age and intensity of hypersensitivity. This suggests that the environment encountered at birth may have a decisive role in the development of allergic respiratory diseases. Due to structurally similar pollen antigens in different Parietaria species, they are all equally useful in diagnosis and treatment of allergy, regardless of the pollen species to which the patient is sensitive or the prevalent species in the area. In our hands, specific immunotherapy with subcutaneous injections of partially purified, characterized, and standardized pollen extract of Parietaria allergen proved effective. It was possible to define an optimal maintenance dose of antigen per injection. During (years of) therapy, we observed an initial increase in total serum IgE concentration and increase in allergen-specific serum IgG blocking antibodies, decrease in allergen-specific serum IgE concentration and amount of histamine released from peripheral blood leukocytes challenged in vitro with the allergen, as well as in symptom and additional medication scores.

  14. Food Allergies Linked to Raised Risk of Asthma, Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... policy. More Health News on: Asthma Children's Health Food Allergy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma Children's Health Food Allergy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  15. Peanut Allergy Treatment: The Earlier in Childhood, the Better

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160504.html Peanut Allergy Treatment: The Earlier in Childhood, the Better Exposure ... 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A treatment for peanut allergies may work better if it's given to children ...

  16. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Health Capsules Genetic Clues ... infection, middle ear infection, asthma search Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Wise Choices Links Cold, ...

  17. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  18. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  19. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary.

  20. Infant food allergy: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Joneja, Janice M

    2012-01-01

    For many years, the prevailing maxim for prevention of food allergy in at-risk infants was to reduce allergic sensitization by avoiding exposure to highly allergenic foods until the baby's immune and digestive systems were sufficiently developed to cope with the allergen. Current thinking is completely different: exposure to food in the early stages of development may be the way to induce tolerance. Exclusive breastfeeding until 4-6 months, followed by introduction of complementary foods individually, is recommended. Any restrictions on mother's diet, other than avoidance of her own allergens during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are contraindicated. If a baby at high risk for allergy (defined as having 1 first-degree relative with diagnosed allergy) cannot be exclusively breastfed to 4-6 months of age, the preferred method of feeding for the prevention of atopic disease is an extensively hydrolyzed formula. There appears to be no value in delaying the introduction of any food beyond 6 months of age. Most food allergy is outgrown in childhood, but allergy to some foods tends to persist. Induction of tolerance to foods to which a child is allergic may be achieved by low-dose exposure in a process known as specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI). Early results indicate that some probiotic strains of bacteria, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or Lactobacillus F19, may reduce allergic sensitization.

  1. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations. PMID:26755097

  2. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  3. Molecular approach to allergy diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fatima; Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use of recombinant allergens allows full validation of identity, quantity, homogeneity, structure, aggregation, solubility, stability, IgE-binding and the biologic potency of the products. In contrast, such parameters are extremely difficult to assay and standardize for extract-based products. In addition to the possibility of bulk production of wild type molecules for diagnostic purposes, recombinant technology opened the possibility of developing safer and more efficacious products for allergy therapy. A number of molecule-based hypoallergenic preparations have already been successfully evaluated in clinical trials, bringing forward the next generation of allergy vaccines. In this contribution, we review the latest developments in allergen characterization, molecule-based allergy diagnosis, and the application of recombinant allergens in therapeutic setups. A comprehensive overview of clinical trials using recombinant allergens as well as synthetic peptides is presented.

  4. Molecular Approach to Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use of recombinant allergens allows full validation of identity, quantity, homogeneity, structure, aggregation, solubility, stability, IgE-binding and the biologic potency of the products. In contrast, such parameters are extremely difficult to assay and standardize for extract-based products. In addition to the possibility of bulk production of wild type molecules for diagnostic purposes, recombinant technology opened the possibility of developing safer and more efficacious products for allergy therapy. A number of molecule-based hypoallergenic preparations have already been successfully evaluated in clinical trials, bringing forward the next generation of allergy vaccines. In this contribution, we review the latest developments in allergen characterization, molecule-based allergy diagnosis, and the application of recombinant allergens in therapeutic setups. A comprehensive overview of clinical trials using recombinant allergens as well as synthetic peptides is presented. PMID:24954310

  5. The history of the idea of allergy.

    PubMed

    Igea, J M

    2013-08-01

    About 100 years ago, a young paediatrician understood that the function of the immune system should be rationalized not in terms of exemption of disease but in terms of change of reactivity. He coined a new word to represent such an idea: 'allergy': the first contact of the immune system with an antigen changes the reactivity of the individual; on the second and subsequent contacts, this change (or allergy) can induce a spectrum of responses from protective (literally, immune) to hypersensitivity ones. The idea was at first hardly understood by the scientific community because it undermined the essentially protective nature of the immune response as it was defined. Nevertheless, in the next years, the growing clinical evidence led to the acceptance of this new point of view, but not of the new word, at least not unconditionally. The original significance of the neologism 'allergy' became perverted and limited to describe hypersensitivity conditions. Perhaps because of the corruption of the term, today 'allergy' does not have a well-delimited significance among health professionals. Furthermore, the word has long ago escaped from physicians and gone to the streets, where it is popularly used also as synonymous with antipathy and rejection. This vulgarization of the term 'allergy' has significantly increased its imprecision.

  6. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations.

  7. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. PMID:26434966

  8. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  9. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation.

  10. British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines for the management of egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Clark, A T; Skypala, I; Leech, S C; Ewan, P W; Dugué, P; Brathwaite, N; Huber, P A J; Nasser, S M

    2010-08-01

    This guideline advises on the management of patients with egg allergy. Most commonly, egg allergy presents in infancy, with a prevalence of approximately 2% in children and 0.1% in adults. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay) will confirm the diagnosis in most cases. Egg avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Egg allergy often resolves and re-introduction can be achieved at home if reactions have been mild and there is no asthma. Patients with a history of severe reactions or asthma should have reintroduction guided by a specialist. All children with egg allergy should receive measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. Influenza and yellow fever vaccines should only be considered in egg-allergic patients under the guidance of an allergy specialist. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. The recommendations are evidence-based but where evidence was lacking consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and co-morbid associations.

  11. Food Allergies: Being Aware and Planning for Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…

  12. Mathematics Achievement and Inhalant Allergy in Middle School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchfield, Patricia Crosby; Easterday, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    This study of 137 students in grades 6 through 8 found no significant differences between the mean scores of sixth and seventh grade students with and without inhalant allergies on a mathematics concepts subtest, but found that eighth grade students with inhalant allergies performed better than eighth grade students without inhalant allergies.…

  13. Recommendations for competency in allergy training for undergraduates qualifying as medical practitioners: a position paper of the world allergy organization.

    PubMed

    Potter, Paul C; Warner, John O; Pawankar, Ruby; Kaliner, Michael A; Del Giacco, Sergio; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2009-08-01

    The Council acknowledges specific comments from: The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) (Amal H Assa'ad); The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) (Mark Dykewicz, D. Betty Lew, Bryan L. Martin); The Argentine Association of Allergy and Immunology (Ledit RF Ardusso); The Argentine Society of Allergy and Immunopathology (Estrella Asayag); The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) (Jill Smith); The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Stephen Durham); The Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunopathology (Nelson Rosario); The Bulgarian Society of Allergology (Vasil Dimitrov); The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) (Richard Warrington); The Chilean Society of Allergy and Immunology (Jessica Salinas); The Chinese Society of Allergology (Zhang Hongyu, Yin Jia); The Czech Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Jiri Litzman); The Danish Society of Allergology (Lone Winther, Peter Plaschke); The Egyptian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Kamal Maurice Hanna); The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (Yehia El-Gamal); The German Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Thilo Jakob, Claus Bachert, Bernhard Przybilla); The Hungarian Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Kristof Nekam); The Icelandic Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Björn R. Lúđvíksson); The Italian Association of Territorial and Hospital Allergists (Riccardo Asero); The Italian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Luigi Fontana); The Japanese Society of Allergology (Sankei Nishima); The Korean Academy of Asthma Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Joon Sung Lee, Hae-Sim Park); The Latvian Association of Allergists (Ieva Cirule); The Lebanese Society of Allergy & Immunology (Fares Zaitoun); The Mongolian Society of Allergology (S. Munkhbayarlakh); The Allergy and Clinical Immunology Society (Singapore) (Chng Hiok Hee); The Allergy

  14. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. PMID:24094685

  15. Food allergy in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2015-01-01

    In young children, food allergy is usually acquired via the gastrointestinal tract and directed toward egg and milk. Adolescent and adult patients, however, mainly acquire food allergy via primary sensitization to inhalant allergens on the basis of cross-reactivity between proteins in inhalant sources and in food. This type of food allergy is frequently mediated by sensitization to broadly represented allergens, or so-called panallergens. Food allergic reactions in adult patients - similar to those in children - range in severity from very mild and local symptoms, as in contact urticaria of the oral mucosa, to systemic symptoms involving distal organs, to a fatal outcome. Plant foods, such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables, are the most prevalent allergenic foods in this age group. PMID:26022864

  16. [Latex allergy--report on two cases].

    PubMed

    Lukesová, S; Krcmová, I; Kopecký, O

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years latex allergy has been increasingly recognised as a potential medical problem because of the increase in frequency and potential severity of latex-mediated reactions. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response to natural rubber latex protein with a variety of clinical signs ranging from contact urticaria, angioedema, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Also IV. type of immunology response can participate in it. In highest risk for latex allergy are patients with spina bifida, but health care workers, latex industry workers, patients with multiple surgical procedures and others who wear gloves are also at risk. Patients with history of atopy belong to the high risk group. Diagnosis is done by positive in vitro tests (EAST, CAP-FEIA, immunoblott etc.) and skin prick test. Allergen avoidance and substitution and the use of latex-safe devices including synthetic gloves are essential for the affected patient. PMID:16193945

  17. A contemporary review of seafood allergy.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is common item in the world diet; Asian countries have the highest rates of fish consumption in the world, which is higher than world average. Several studies have been conducted on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of seafood allergy in different countries, and some of the fish and seafood allergens unique to those regions have been characterized. Review on published data showed that seafood allergy is very ubiquitous in some regions of the world. Fish and shellfish are the most common seafood that cause adverse allergic reactions among nations; the symptoms ranged from oral allergy syndromes to urticaria and anaphylaxis. The major identified allergens are parvalbumin in fish and tropomyosin in shellfish. Nevertheless, such studies are lacking from some regions with high fish and seafood consumption. Furthermore, the published data are mostly from small groups of populations, which large-scale epidemiological studies need to be performed.

  18. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management.

  19. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  20. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-11-01

    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients. PMID:19899529

  1. Adjuvants and vector systems for allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Lombardi, Vincent; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Tourdot, Sophie; Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a curative treatment of type I allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is conducted with allergens adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate particles, whereas sublingual immunotherapy relies on high doses of soluble allergen without any immunopotentiator. There is a potential benefit of adjuvants enhancing regulatory and Th1 CD4+T cell responses during specific immunotherapy. Molecules affecting dendritic cells favor the induction of T regulatory cell and Th1 responses and represent valid candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Furthermore, the interest in viruslike particles and mucoadhesive particulate vector systems, which may better address the allergen(s) to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is documented.

  2. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-11-01

    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients.

  3. Occupational allergies in seafood-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2012-01-01

    Global increased demand for seafood and its products has been associated with a concomitant rise in fishing, aquaculture, and processing activities. This increased harvesting of seafood is associated with more frequent reporting of allergic health problems among seafood processors. This review outlines the high-risk working populations, work processes, as well as host and environmental exposure risk factors for occupational respiratory and skin allergies. It also provides insights into the major and minor allergens as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated. Diagnostic and preventive approaches are outlined in managing work-related allergy associated with seafood processing.

  4. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-05-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence.

  5. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence. PMID:24862746

  6. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P < 0.001). All respondents reported that all six items (bold font, font color, box frame, warning statement, front label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  7. The Prevalence and Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:27333776

  8. Fish and shellfish allergy in children: review of a persistent food allergy.

    PubMed

    Tsabouri, Sophia; Triga, Maria; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Church, Martin K; Priftis, Kostas N

    2012-11-01

    The increased consumption of fish and shellfish has resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions to seafood, emphasizing the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of this condition and exploring reasons for the persistence of this allergy. This review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish and shellfish allergy. New allergens and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. The diagnostic approach may require prick to-prick tests using crude extracts of both raw and cooked forms of seafood for screening seafood sensitization before a food challenge or where food challenge is not feasible. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can be important; mutated less allergenic seafood proteins have been developed for this purpose. The persistence of allergy because of seafood proteins' resistance after rigorous treatment like cooking and extreme pH is well documented. Additionally, IgE antibodies from individuals with persistent allergy may be directed against different epitopes than those in patients with transient allergy. For a topic as important as this one, new areas of technological developments will likely have a significant impact, to provide more accurate methods of diagnosing useful information to patients about the likely course of their seafood allergy over the course of their childhood and beyond.

  9. Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert

    2014-11-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Food Allergy: A practice parameter update-2014." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing one, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, ACAAI, and JCAAI. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.

  10. Allergy and Asthma. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezkovich, Jan, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to review the literature in the related fields of allergy and asthma. Included is material appropriate for both the lay reader and the professional interested in recent research into causes and treatments. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, the guide is designed to specifically target resource…

  11. [Contact allergy to dexpanthenol (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ippen, H

    1981-01-01

    During the testing for skin irritation of a sun protective and baby care lotion in epicutaneous tests over 24 hours, an eczematous test reaction appeared on a 30 year old physiotherapist. Testing of the single ingredients of both lotions showed the presence of contact allergy to Dexpanthenol.

  12. How to test for fragrance allergy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    2000-01-01

    Fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. Fragrance allergy detection is best accomplished by testing with the fragrance mixture, balsam of Peru, and either jasmine synthetic or absolute. It would be desirable to have common fragrance allergens listed on cosmetic labels so that patients could avoid the allergens to which they are allergic.

  13. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  14. Adverse reactions to food: allergies and intolerances.

    PubMed

    Montalto, Massimo; Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Curigliano, Valentina; Gallo, Antonella; Visca, Dina; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as 'adverse reactions to food'. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into 'food allergies' when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and 'food intolerances' when there are no immunological implications. The diagnostic approach to adverse reactions to food is based on accurate clinical history and objective examination, and further execution of specific tests when allergy or intolerance is suspected. The therapy for food allergies is the elimination of the food to which hypersensibility has been found; this strategy can lead, especially in pediatric age, to tolerance. If elimination diets cannot be completely performed, or if it is not possible to identify the food to eliminate, some drugs (e.g. antihistaminics, steroids, etc.) can be administered. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been recently introduced. Fundamental is food allergy prevention, especially in high-risk subjects. The therapeutic approach to secondary food intolerances is based principally on primitive disease resolution; on the other hand, some specific treatments (e.g. beta-galactosidases in lactose malabsorption) are available in case of primary intolerance. PMID:18431058

  15. Preventing Food Allergies by Tricking Dendritic Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies are adverse responses to components (usually proteins) within the foods we eat, which result in a self-damaging response from our immune system. A myriad of cellular and molecular components are involved in the decision to tolerate or respond to foreign molecules that pass through the...

  16. [Latex allergy - an emerging health care problem.].

    PubMed

    Gislason, D; Bjornsdottir, U S

    1996-08-01

    Since immediate hypersensitivity reaction to natural rubber was described 17 years ago, the incidence of latex allergy has been increasing rapidly. This is in part due to a growing awareness of the problem along with improved diagnostic methods. Additionally, in accordance with universal health care plans and the HIV epidemic, more rubber products such as latex gloves and condoms are in general use. Changes in methods of rubber production may also contribute to the increasing prevalence in latex allergy. Individuals at greatest risk for developing latex allergy are patients who have undergone multiple operations. These include children with myelomeningocele (spina bifida) and congenital defects of the urinary tract. Another high risk group includes health care providers and individuals working in rubber production. Latex containing products are in general use in the hospital setting as well as in the home environment. They can therefore pose a great risk to sensitized patients if prophylactic measures are not undertaken. Defining high risk patients and subsequent diagnosis with appropriate skin tests are important. Patients with latex allergy must then be provided with self-administered adrenalin (Epi-pen) and instructed in avoidance measures. In this article we describe 23 individuals who have been diagnosed allergic to latex in Iceland. PMID:20065424

  17. Allergy to local anesthetics: Reality or myth?

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, Jean-Marc; Chiriac, Anca M; Tacquard, Charles; Mertes, Paul Michel; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of allergic reactions to local anesthetics is low. Most cases involve a psychogenic reaction rather than an allergic reaction. Additives and preservatives added to local anesthetics may cause allergic reactions. Vascular resorption of epinephrine-containing local anesthetics may produce cardiovascular signs similar to an allergic reaction. Diagnosis of allergy to local anesthetics must be established by skin testing and provocative challenge.

  18. Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Home Features Keeping Up in School? Curb Your Eating Health Capsules Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy Be Sweet to Your Feet Featured Website: It’s a Noisy Planet. Protect Their Hearing. Past Issues Most Viewed September ...

  19. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  20. Food allergy to Helix terrestre (snail).

    PubMed

    de la Cuesta, C G; García, B E; Córdoba, H; Diéguez, I; Oehling, A

    1989-01-01

    Among the rare foods capable of producing food allergies is the snail (Helix terrestre). The snail is a delicacy eaten in Spain, France and Portugal. This study presents the findings of an allergic study of 10 patients with this infrequent food allergy during the past 10 years. The shock organ in the majority (80%) of these patients was the bronchial tree. Six of them did not have any digestive or skin symptoms which are usually seen in cases of food allergy. All patients manifested the symptomatology after ingestion of Helix terrestre. Two also had reactions after eating Patella vulgata (limpet). The snail and the limpet are within the phylogenetic line of molluscs, i.e. of gastropods. All patients tolerated the ingestion of cephalopods and bivalves which belong to two other phylogenetic lines. Skin tests to seafoods (squids, prawns, lobsters and clams) were negative for all patients. This suggests that the sensitizing antigen is probably a protein found only in gastropod molluscs. Skin tests along with the histamine release test were valid diagnostic methods for this food allergy. The limited bibliography on this subject is probably due to the fact that the consumption of snails as well as limpets is limited to specific geographical areas.

  1. Manifestations of food allergy: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, S H

    1999-01-15

    The term "food allergy" refers to adverse immunologic reactions to food. Food allergy is usually mediated by IgE antibody directed to specific food proteins, but other immunologic mechanisms can also play a role. The primary target organs for food allergic reactions are the skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system. Both acute reactions (hives and anaphylaxis) and chronic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal disorders) may be caused or exacerbated by food allergy. The foods most commonly causing these reactions in children are milk, egg, peanuts, soy, wheat, tree nuts, fish and shellfish; in adults, they are peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish and fish. The diagnosis of food allergy requires a careful search for possible causes, confirmation of the cause(s) with supporting tests, including specific tests for IgE (i.e., prick skin tests, radioallergosorbent tests) and, in some cases, oral food challenges. Treatment consists of elimination of the causal food(s) along with medical treatment, including the prompt self-administration of epinephrine in the event of a serious reaction.

  2. Factors affecting the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2002-11-01

    Food allergy is an important health issue. The estimated prevalence among adults in Western Europe is thought to be between 1 and 2%, with the frequency in infants being greater (approximately 5%). Most confirmed food allergies are associated with a relatively limited range of produce, including cow's milk, eggs, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, fish and shellfish, although the prevalence of allergy to individual foods is known to vary geographically, due largely to differences in dietary practices. Although formal evidence is lacking, it is assumed that (in line with other forms of atopic disease) the incidence of food allergy is increasing. There is no doubt that genetic predisposition is an important determinant. However, acquisition of sensitisation to food proteins and subsequent allergic disease is known to be influenced by a variety of environmental factors and the timing, duration and extent of exposure. Moreover, the nature of the allergen itself may have an important impact on the severity and persistence of clinical disease. The purpose here is to discuss the relevance of some of these variables in the context of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated allergic responses.

  3. An update on immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent investigation has resulted in significant advances toward definitive therapeutic options for food allergy. In this review, we will explore novel immunotherapeutic interventions for the active treatment of food allergy. Recent findings Because the injection route for allergen immunotherapy to foods has been associated with an unacceptable risk of severe anaphylactic reactions, use of mucosally targeted therapeutic strategies is of significant interest for food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches such as oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and peptide immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in increasing threshold dose and inducing immunologic changes associated with both desensitization and oral tolerance in animal and human trials. More global immunomodulatory strategies, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine and anti-IgE therapy have been shown to effectively target the allergic response, and clinical trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy and safety in human food allergy. Summary The advent of therapies that target the mucosal immune response to promote oral tolerance have shown great promise in the treatment of food hypersensitivity. However, there is still significant risk of adverse reactions associated with these therapeutic strategies and further study is needed to carefully advance these therapeutic modalities toward general clinical implementation. PMID:20856110

  4. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  5. Parent report of childhood shellfish allergy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lau, Claudia H; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Holl, Jane L; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2012-01-01

    Although shellfish allergy frequently results in emergency department visits, national prevalence studies focusing on shellfish allergy in children are scarce. This study describes parent reports of shellfish allergy among children in the United States. Data from shellfish-allergic children were identified for analysis from a randomized, cross-sectional survey administered in US households with children from June 2009 to February 2010. Child characteristics, parent-reported prevalence, severity, symptoms, diagnostic methods, and reaction history were analyzed as weighted proportions. Adjusted models were estimated to examine the association of child characteristics, reaction history, and diagnosis methods with odds of shellfish allergy and severe shellfish allergy. Among the 38,480 children included in this study, 499 were reported to have a shellfish allergy, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.3%. The mean age for first reaction to shellfish allergy was 5.8 years. Nearly one-half of all children with shellfish allergy had a history of severe life-threatening reactions (47.1%). Shellfish allergy was diagnosed by a physician at a rate of 58.5% (35.0% confirmed with testing), significantly lower than the rate of diagnosis for other common childhood food allergies (72.7%). Children with a shellfish allergy had lower odds (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.54) of developing tolerance compared with children with other common food allergies. Childhood shellfish allergy is a serious and underdiagnosed problem in the United States. Findings suggest that the impact of disease may be greater than previously reported. Accordingly, efforts are needed to improve awareness and management of shellfish allergy among children in the United States.

  6. Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee Wah

    2013-01-01

    Asia is a populous and diverse region and potentially an important source of information on food allergy. This review aims to summarize the current literature on food allergy from this region, comparing it with western populations. A PubMed search using strategies "Food allergy AND Asia", "Food anaphylaxis AND Asia", and "Food allergy AND each Asian country" was made. Overall, 53 articles, published between 2005 and 2012, mainly written in English were reviewed. The overall prevalence of food allergy in Asia is somewhat comparable to the West. However, the types of food allergy differ in order of relevance. Shellfish is the most common food allergen from Asia, in part due to the abundance of seafood in this region. It is unique as symptoms vary widely from oral symptoms to anaphylaxis for the same individual. Data suggest that house dust mite tropomysin may be a primary sensitizer. In contrast, peanut prevalence in Asia is extremely low compared to the West for reasons not yet understood. Among young children and infants, egg and cow's milk allergy are the two most common food allergies, with prevalence data comparable to western populations. Differences also exist within Asia. Wheat allergy, though uncommon in most Asian countries, is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in Japan and Korea, and is increasing in Thailand. Current food allergy data from Asia highlights important differences between East and West, and within the Asian region. Further work is needed to provide insight on the environmental risk factors accounting for these differences.

  7. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A E J; Du Toit, G; Eigenmann, P A; Grimshaw, K E C; Hoest, A; Lack, G; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Panesar, S; Prescott, S; Roberts, G; de Silva, D; Venter, C; Verhasselt, V; Akdis, A C; Sheikh, A

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers includes a normal diet without restrictions during pregnancy and lactation. For all infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 4-6 months of life. If breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible, infants at high-risk can be recommended a hypoallergenic formula with a documented preventive effect for the first 4 months. There is no need to avoid introducing complementary foods beyond 4 months, and currently, the evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic foods after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. There is no evidence to support the use of prebiotics or probiotics for food allergy prevention.

  8. Allergy to peanut oil--clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Ring, J; Möhrenschlager, M

    2007-04-01

    The increasing prevalence of food allergies (especially allergy to peanuts) has led to a discussion of how safe topical preparations containing peanut oil are with respect to allergy. The major allergens from peanuts are proteins that have been characterized at a molecular level and cloned. Clinical signs of peanut allergy symptoms can be observed on the skin (urticaria), or in the gastrointestinal and/or respiratory tract culminating in cardiovascular symptoms and anaphylactic reactions. In most cases, symptoms are elicited by oral uptake; rarely, a contact urticaria has been described. In vegetable oils, the contents of protein differ depending on the production process: crude oils contain approximately 100 times more proteins than refined oils. This has clear-cut implications for allergic individuals. Quantitative data are available regarding elicitation of symptoms in allergic individuals with a threshold dose of 0.1-1 mg peanut allergen in oral provocation tests. There are anecdotal reports of adverse reactions after topical use of peanut oils. In one epidemiological trial, an association between topical use of skin care products containing peanut oil and the development of peanut allergy was observed; however, the data reflect a retrospective analysis without specifying skin care products containing peanut oil and also without analysing the quantity of topicals used. In contrast, oral tolerance was prevented and allergic sensitization was enhanced in a mouse model using high concentrations of peanut protein. So far, no reliable data are available regarding doses required to induce sensitization against peanut allergen via the epidermal route. A possible induction of sensitization against peanut proteins through contact with the skin via skin care products and the respective protein concentrations is a matter of speculation. Patients with atopic diseases, namely eczema, need appropriate skin care because of the disturbed skin barrier function. The benefit of

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  10. Clinical Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Allergy (cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy

  11. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T; Cauwenberge, P V; Akdis, C A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Fokkens, W J; Kauffmann, F; Kowalski, M L; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Toskala, E; Wickman, M; Anto, J; Auvergne, N; Bachert, C; Bousquet, P J; Brunekreef, B; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Gjomarkaj, M; Haahtela, T; Howarth, P; Lenzen, G; Lotvall, J; Radon, K; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Schünemann, H J; Szczecklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Valovirta, E; von Mutius, E; Zock, J P

    2009-07-01

    Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development and implementation of guidelines. The major achievements of GA(2)LEN are reported in this paper. PMID:19392994

  12. Evaluation of a novel automated allergy microarray platform compared with three other allergy test methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Önell, A; Baldracchini, F; Hui, V; Jolles, S; El-Shanawany, T

    2016-04-01

    Microarray platforms, enabling simultaneous measurement of many allergens with a small serum sample, are potentially powerful tools in allergy diagnostics. We report here the first study comparing a fully automated microarray system, the Microtest allergy system, with a manual microarray platform, Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC), and two well-established singleplex allergy tests, skin prick test (SPT) and ImmunoCAP, all tested on the same patients. One hundred and three adult allergic patients attending the allergy clinic were included into the study. All patients were tested with four allergy test methods (SPT, ImmunoCAP, Microtest and ISAC 112) and a total of 3485 pairwise test results were analysed and compared. The four methods showed comparable results with a positive/negative agreement of 81-88% for any pair of test methods compared, which is in line with data in the literature. The most prevalent allergens (cat, dog, mite, timothy, birch and peanut) and their individual allergen components revealed an agreement between methods with correlation coefficients between 0·73 and 0·95. All four methods revealed deviating individual patient results for a minority of patients. These results indicate that microarray platforms are efficient and useful tools to characterize the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E profile of allergic patients using a small volume of serum sample. The results produced by the Microtest system were in agreement with diagnostic tests in current use. Further data collection and evaluation are needed for other populations, geographical regions and allergens.

  13. Evaluation of a novel automated allergy microarray platform compared with three other allergy test methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Önell, A; Baldracchini, F; Hui, V; Jolles, S; El-Shanawany, T

    2016-04-01

    Microarray platforms, enabling simultaneous measurement of many allergens with a small serum sample, are potentially powerful tools in allergy diagnostics. We report here the first study comparing a fully automated microarray system, the Microtest allergy system, with a manual microarray platform, Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC), and two well-established singleplex allergy tests, skin prick test (SPT) and ImmunoCAP, all tested on the same patients. One hundred and three adult allergic patients attending the allergy clinic were included into the study. All patients were tested with four allergy test methods (SPT, ImmunoCAP, Microtest and ISAC 112) and a total of 3485 pairwise test results were analysed and compared. The four methods showed comparable results with a positive/negative agreement of 81-88% for any pair of test methods compared, which is in line with data in the literature. The most prevalent allergens (cat, dog, mite, timothy, birch and peanut) and their individual allergen components revealed an agreement between methods with correlation coefficients between 0·73 and 0·95. All four methods revealed deviating individual patient results for a minority of patients. These results indicate that microarray platforms are efficient and useful tools to characterize the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E profile of allergic patients using a small volume of serum sample. The results produced by the Microtest system were in agreement with diagnostic tests in current use. Further data collection and evaluation are needed for other populations, geographical regions and allergens. PMID:26437695

  14. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.

  15. Clinical Management of Psychosocial Concerns Related to Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda; Shemesh, Eyal; Bender, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that 4% to 8% of children in the United States are diagnosed with food allergy, and more than 40% of US children with food allergy experience severe allergic reactions. Families trying to avoid foods that may trigger an allergic reaction and ensure adequate treatment of allergic reactions that do occur face numerous challenges. The rise in the number of children diagnosed with food allergies underscores the importance of food allergy-related interventions to address elevated psychosocial concerns, such as parenting stress, anxiety, and worries about bullying. This review provides an overview of common psychosocial concerns among children with food allergy and their families across the developmental spectrum, and offers guidance to medical providers regarding the identification and treatment of food allergy-related psychosocial challenges. PMID:26968959

  16. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  17. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Allergen ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/allergyandasthma/ National Survey of Lead and ...

  18. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/allergyandasthma/ National Survey of Lead and ...

  19. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments available that ... wheat, shellfish, and fish. Treating a Food Allergy Reaction Unintentional exposure When you have food allergies, you ...

  20. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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  15. Promising Candidates for Prevention of Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children has led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products may be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility and potential impact for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases, and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  16. Cell-based therapy in allergy.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Gattringer, Martina; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is an immunological disorder occurring in response to otherwise harmless environmental antigens (i.e., allergens). Development of effective therapeutic or preventive approaches inducing robust tolerance toward allergens remains an unmet goal. Several experimental tolerance approaches have been described. The therapeutic use of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the establishment of molecular chimerism are two cell-based strategies that are of particular interest. Treg therapy is close to clinical application, but its efficacy remains to be fully defined. Recent proof-of-concept studies demonstrated that transplantation of syngeneic hematopoietic stem cells modified in vitro to express a major allergen leads to molecular chimerism and robust allergen-specific tolerance. Here we review cell-based tolerance strategies in allergy, discussing their potentials and limitations.

  17. Fragrance allergy and hand eczema - a review.

    PubMed

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2003-02-01

    Because hand eczema and fragrance allergy are common both among patients and in the general population, simultaneous occurrence by chance must be expected. Fragrances are ubiquitous and a part of many domestic and occupational products intended for hand exposure. The present review is based on a systematic literature research using both a manual and a Medline based search. The search identified 39 studies, including epidemiological patch test studies, general population patch test studies, case studies, and studies of occupational groups. The published data indicate a possible association between fragrance allergy and hand eczema. In future studies, a more detailed exposure assessment is needed, combined with patch test studies among patients with hand eczema tested with relevant fragrance allergens, as well as experimental control exposure studies to specific fragrance allergens on the hands. As exposures to fragrances on the hands are often simultaneous exposures to irritants, this combined exposure approach needs to be considered.

  18. Biotechnology-based allergy diagnosis and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-03-01

    The diagnosis and immunotherapy currently applied to allergic diseases involve the use of crude extracts of the allergen source without defining the allergy-eliciting molecule(s). Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made identification, cloning, expression and epitope mapping of clinically significant allergens possible. Recombinant allergens that retain the immunological features of natural allergens form the basis of accurate protein-chip-based methods for diagnosing allergic conditions. The ability to produce rationally designed hypoallergenic forms of allergens is leading to the development of novel and safe forms of allergy vaccines with improved efficacy. The initial clinical tests on recombinant-allergen-based vaccine preparations have provided positive results, and ongoing developments in areas such as alternative routes of vaccine delivery will enhance patient compliance.

  19. Optimizing the Diagnosis of Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Making an accurate diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a possible food allergy is particularly important both to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions and to prevent life threatening reactions. The testing modalities used routinely in clinical practice, including skin prick testing and food specific IgE levels, have limited accuracy, and a physician-supervised oral food challenge is often required to make a definitive diagnosis. Given the labor-intensive nature of this test and the risk of inducing an allergic reaction, researchers have investigated a number of alternative diagnostic modalities to improve the accuracy of food allergy testing. Testing for IgE antibodies to particular protein components in foods has already shown promise to improve diagnostics and has entered clinical practice. Additional modalities are under study that show potential including epitope binding, T cell studies, basophil activation and others. PMID:25459577

  20. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  1. Genital contact allergy: A diagnosis missed

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404

  2. Allergy to Unna boots in four patients.

    PubMed

    Praditsuwan, P; Taylor, J S; Roenigk, H H

    1995-11-01

    We report the cases of four patients seen in our department since 1967 with allergic reactions to preservatives in Unna boots. The first three patients had reactions to parabens and the last had a photoallergic reaction to hexachlorophene. Preservative-free Unna boots were successfully applied to patients with allergy to parabens. A table of some currently available Unna boots, detailing their ingredients, is also presented.

  3. [Progresses in the diagnosis of allergy].

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Nieto, María; Mazón, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diagnosis of allergy by Prick tests and/or RAST offers very limited information about the real nature of allergic problems and of their clinical, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The diagnosis by allergic components (natural or recombinant) suppose a great qualitative step leading a great improving in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients, because its use with clinical history and other diagnostic in vivo or in vitro methods improve importantly the diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Quality of Life in Food Allergy Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Madeline; Warren, Christopher; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric food allergy is a growing health problem in the United States that has been found to adversely impact the quality of life of both affected children and their caregivers. This article provides a review of how food allergy affects the quality of life of patients and their families within the domains of school, social activities, relationships, and daily life. Efforts to improve food allergy-related quality of life among caregivers are also discussed. PMID:26456443

  5. Penicillin and beta-lactam allergy: epidemiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Penicillin is the most common beta-lactam antibiotic allergy and the most common drug class allergy, reported in about 8% of individuals using health care in the USA. Only about 1% of individuals using health care in the USA have a cephalosporin allergy noted in their medical record, and other specific non-penicillin, non-cephalosporin beta-lactam allergies are even rarer. Most reported penicillin allergy is not associated with clinically significant IgE-mediated reactions after penicillin rechallenge. Un-verified penicillin allergy is a significant and growing public health problem. Clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy can be safely confirmed or refuted using skin testing with penicilloyl-poly-lysine and native penicillin G and, if skin test is negative, an oral amoxicillin challenge. Acute tolerance of an oral therapeutic dose of a penicillin class antibiotic is the current gold standard test for a lack of clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy. Cephalosporins and other non-penicillin beta-lactams are widely, safely, and appropriately used in individuals, even with confirmed penicillin allergy. There is little, if any, clinically significant immunologic cross-reactivity between penicillins and other beta-lactams. Routine cephalosporin skin testing should be restricted to research settings. It is rarely needed clinically to safely manage patients and has unclear predictive value at this time. The use of alternative cephalosporins, with different side chains, is acceptable in the setting of a specific cephalosporin allergy. Carbapenems and monobactams are also safely used in individuals with confirmed penicillin allergy. A certain predictable, but low, rate of adverse reactions will occur with all beta-lactam antibiotic use both pre- and post-beta-lactam allergy evaluations.

  6. Misdiagnosed food allergy resulting in severe malnutrition in an infant.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Michael; Kao, Leon; Mittal, Vineeta; Wuu, Alice; Clark, April; Bird, J Andrew

    2013-07-01

    As food allergies become increasingly prevalent and testing methods to identify "food allergy" increase in number, the importance of careful diagnosis has become even more critical. Misdiagnosis of food allergy and inappropriate use of unproven testing modalities may lead to a harmful food-elimination diet. This case is an example of an infant who was placed on an overly restrictive elimination diet at the recommendation of her health care providers, resulting in kwashiorkor and acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica.

  7. Food allergy diagnosis and therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Aleena; Kohli, Arunima; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing worldwide epidemic that adversely effects up to 10% of the population. Causes and risk factors remain unclear and diagnostic methods are imprecise. There is currently no accepted treatment for food allergy. Therefore, there is an imminent need for greater understanding of food allergies, revised diagnostics and development of safe, effective therapies. Oral immunotherapy provides a particularly promising avenue, but is still highly experimental and not ready for clinical use. PMID:23998729

  8. Laboratory Animal Allergy in the Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meinir

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory animal workers face a high risk of developing laboratory animal allergy as a consequence of inhaling animal proteins at work; this has serious consequences for their health and future employment. Exposure to animal allergen remains to be the greatest risk factor although the relationship is complex, with attenuation at high allergen exposure. Recent evidence suggests that this may be due to a form of natural immunotolerance. Furthermore, the pattern of exposure to allergen may also be important in determining whether an allergic or a tolerant immune response is initiated. Risk associated with specific tasks in the laboratory need to be determined to provide evidence to devise a code of best practice for working within modern laboratory animal facilities. Recent evidence suggests that members of lipocalin allergens, such as Mus m 1, may act as immunomodulatory proteins, triggering innate immune receptors through toll-like receptors and promoting airway laboratory animal allergy. This highlights the need to understand the relationship between endotoxin, animal allergen and development of laboratory animal allergy to provide a safe working environment for all laboratory animal workers.

  9. Food allergy as seen by an allergist.

    PubMed

    Cox, Helen E

    2008-11-01

    The clinical expression of allergic disease is the consequence of a series of complex gene-environment interactions that occur at the materno-fetal interface and throughout infancy, leading to persistence of the Th2 immune response. It has been proposed that atopic eczema is the cutaneous manifestation of a systemic disorder that also gives rise to asthma, food allergy, and allergic rhinitis. The recent emergence of genes regulating epidermal barrier function has raised the question of whether the skin barrier in atopic eczema is defective from the outset, rendering the epidermis "leaky," thereby increasing the risk of allergen penetration and the succeeding inflammatory reaction that contributes to atopic eczema. Food allergic sensitisation and eczema frequently coexist during the first 2 years of life, and food allergy is more prevalent in infants and children with moderate to severe eczematous inflammation. The majority of food allergic reactions are caused by 8 foods, with milk, egg, and peanut occurring with greatest frequency. The acquisition of food-specific tolerance occurs predominantly with foods in which the epitopes are grouped together in a conformational structure (milk, egg, wheat, soy), whilst it rarely occurs in patients allergic to foods in which the epitopes are arranged in a linear fashion (nuts, seeds, fish). Better tests and novel therapies, such as immunotherapy and oral tolerance induction, are required for the management of food allergy.

  10. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    PubMed

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  11. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

  12. Helicobacter pylori and allergy: Update of research

    PubMed Central

    Daugule, Ilva; Zavoronkova, Jelizaveta; Santare, Daiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association. Although data from cohort studies point to a possible association of H. pylori with some of the allergic diseases, no definite proof for causal relationship has been clearly demonstrated yet. A biological mechanism proposed to explain the preventive action of H. pylori to allergy is reduced exposure to a major stimulus for the generation of Treg cells in individuals without H. pylori infection. In addition, H. pylori could be an indicator for changes in gut microbiome, reflecting the complex interaction between microbes and immune system. PMID:26713280

  13. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  14. Identifying and managing Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2016-05-25

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630

  15. Molecular diagnosis of egg allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects up to 2.5% of young children and is potentially life-threatening. Several phenotypes of egg allergy have been identified, including those who tolerate extensively heated egg in bakery products. Diagnosis and monitoring for resolution often requires oral food challenges, which can result in anaphylaxis. Newer approaches, such as component-resolved diagnostics, microarray analysis and epitope mapping, are being evaluated to determine if these strategies can replace or reduce the need for oral food challenges. Studies suggest that elevated levels of ovomucoid IgE indicate an inability to tolerate extensively heated forms of egg. Egg protein-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios may be helpful in predicting tolerance. Additionally, patients with conformational epitopes to hen's egg are more likely to resolve their allergy compared with those with IgE binding to sequential epitopes. The pairing of microarray technology to epitope mapping is a potential tool to improve diagnosis. This review examines the current body of literature on these tools. PMID:25975845

  16. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy.

  17. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yuri; Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  18. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  19. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Farhan; Jenner, Edward; Faisal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR) in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded. PMID:26543657

  20. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:26442851

  1. 75 FR 29770 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  2. 75 FR 58410 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  3. 76 FR 31618 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  4. 77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Panel; NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation. Date..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  5. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date..., keichelberg@niaid.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy,...

  6. 76 FR 56207 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date..., zhuqing.li@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy,...

  7. 77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Emphasis Panel, NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  8. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Panel; NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (R24....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  9. 76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Panel, ``NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (R24....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  10. 78 FR 4423 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date...@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  11. Environmental pollution and allergy: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made

  12. History of the World Allergy Organization: 1989 to 2006, the XVIII World Allergy Congress, Journal Development, Reorganization, and New Programs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the WAO traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México, as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the WAO Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series." Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007), World Allergy Organization PMID:23282542

  13. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world. PMID:26233427

  14. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world.

  15. Back Cover: Eur. J. Immunol. 9'16.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Our cover picture features an H&E staining of liver sections from mice with a mutation in the SH2 domain of the signal transducing adaptor protein slp-76. The application of concanavalin A (Con A) induces milder hepatitis in these mice than in wild-type B6 mice due to a decreased activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. The image relates to the article by Danzer et al. (pp. 2121-2136) in which the authors describe a pivotal role of slp-76 in activation and tissue distribution of iNKT cells. PMID:27600676

  16. Back Cover: Eur. J. Immunol. 8'16.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The cover shows a light sheet fluorescence microcopy image of a murine heart from diphtheria toxin treated CD11c-DTR mouse affected by fulminant myocarditis. The massive leukocyte infiltration was visualized by intravenous injection of fluorescent anti-CD45 antibodies. The autofluorescence channel reveals massive organ dilatation (grey). The leukocytic infiltrate is depicted in a heat map overlay from low (blue) to very high (bright yellow) and mainly affects the zone of the stimulus transduction system and the valves. The image is taken from Männ et al. (pp. 2028-2042) where the authors demonstrate, that a frequently used animal model for selective depletion of CD11c-expressing cells with diphtheria toxin suffers from a massive and 100% lethal phenotype of heart inflammation, which occurs within a few days after application of the toxin. This finding has important implications for previous and future studies using this animal model but may also provide a novel system to study fulminant myocarditis. PMID:27518704

  17. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Agache, I; Clark, A; Sheikh, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Borrego, L M; Higgs, J; Hourihane, J O'B; Jorgensen, P; Mazon, A; Parmigiani, D; Said, M; Schnadt, S; van Os-Medendorp, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wickman, M

    2014-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early-childhood and school settings as well as providers of non-prepackaged food (e.g., restaurants, bakeries, takeaway, deli counters, and fast-food outlets) and targets the audience of individuals with FA, their families, patient organizations, the general public, policymakers, and allergists. Food allergy is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community. Providing children and caregivers with comprehensive information on food allergen avoidance and prompt recognition and management of allergic reactions are of the utmost importance. Provision of adrenaline auto-injector devices and education on how and when to use these are essential components of a comprehensive management plan. Managing patients at risk of anaphylaxis raises many challenges, which are specific to the community. This includes the need to interact with third parties providing food (e.g., school teachers and restaurant staff) to avoid accidental exposure and to help individuals with FA to make safe and appropriate food choices. Education of individuals at risk and their families, their peers, school nurses and teachers as well as restaurant and other food retail staff can reduce the risk of severe/fatal reactions. Increased awareness among policymakers may improve decision-making on legislation at local and national level.

  18. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  19. A World Allergy Organization International Survey on Diagnostic Procedures and Therapies in Drug Allergy/Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mirakian, Rita; Castells, Mariana; Pichler, Werner; Romano, Antonino; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Diana, Deleanu; Kowalski, Marek; Yanez, Anahi; Lleonart, Ramon; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Demoly, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic and treatment modalities used in drug allergy/hypersensitivity among members of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Methods A questionnaire comprising 39 questions was circulated electronically to member societies, associate member societies, and regional and affiliate organizations of WAO between June 29, 2009, and August 9, 2009. Results Eighty-two responses were received. Skin testing was used by 74.7%, with only 71.4% having access to penicillin skin test reagents. In vitro–specific IgE tests were used by 67.4%, and basophil activation test was used by 54.4%. Lymphocyte transformation tests were used by 36.8% and patch tests by 54.7%. Drug provocation tests were used by 68.4%, the most common indication being to exclude hypersensitivity where history/symptoms were not suggestive of drug hypersensitivity/allergy (76.9%). Rapid desensitization for chemotherapy, antibiotics, or biologic agents was used by 69.6%. Systemic corticosteroid was used in the treatment of Stevens–Johnson syndrome by 72.3%, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in toxic epidermal necrolysis by 50.8%. Human leukocyte antigen screening before prescription of abacavir was used by 92.9% and before prescription of carbamazepine by 21.4%. Conclusions Results of this survey form a useful framework for developing educational and training needs and for improving access to drug allergy diagnostic and treatment modalities across WAO member societies. PMID:23268453

  20. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Agache, I; Clark, A; Sheikh, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Borrego, L M; Higgs, J; Hourihane, J O'B; Jorgensen, P; Mazon, A; Parmigiani, D; Said, M; Schnadt, S; van Os-Medendorp, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wickman, M

    2014-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early-childhood and school settings as well as providers of non-prepackaged food (e.g., restaurants, bakeries, takeaway, deli counters, and fast-food outlets) and targets the audience of individuals with FA, their families, patient organizations, the general public, policymakers, and allergists. Food allergy is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community. Providing children and caregivers with comprehensive information on food allergen avoidance and prompt recognition and management of allergic reactions are of the utmost importance. Provision of adrenaline auto-injector devices and education on how and when to use these are essential components of a comprehensive management plan. Managing patients at risk of anaphylaxis raises many challenges, which are specific to the community. This includes the need to interact with third parties providing food (e.g., school teachers and restaurant staff) to avoid accidental exposure and to help individuals with FA to make safe and appropriate food choices. Education of individuals at risk and their families, their peers, school nurses and teachers as well as restaurant and other food retail staff can reduce the risk of severe/fatal reactions. Increased awareness among policymakers may improve decision-making on legislation at local and national level. PMID:24905609

  1. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  2. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  3. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered. PMID:26549334

  4. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  5. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models.

  6. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  7. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Eun

    2016-01-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy. PMID:26996550

  8. Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? Print A A A Text Size My son ... common cold can be so much alike that it's sometimes hard to tell the two apart. But ...

  9. Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

  10. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-05-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.

  11. [2009 Japanese Society of Latex Allergy guidelines for the safe management of latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; In-Nami, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to natural latex antigen. Operating room equipment frequently includes medical devices, such as surgical gloves, intravenous lines, and urinary catheters, which are made from latex or contain latex. These products can trigger an allergic reaction that can result in anaphylactic shock. Removal of natural rubber and latex-containing products from the operating room and avoidance of external and internal exposure of patients to latex antigen will prevent such allergic reactions. Updated guidelines for the safe management of latex allergy were published in 2009 by the Japanese Society of Latex Allergy. The previous guidelines regarding this topic were published in 2006. The new guidelines consist of 11 chapters that deal with background, exposure to latex antigen and development of sensitization, high-risk groups, natural rubber products, allergic reactions triggered by natural rubber products, diagnosis, latex-fruit syndrome, countermeasures and treatments in emergencies, prevention and safe management in the hospital, countermeasures in daily life, and limits for application of the guidelines. We had a case that required management according to the 2009 guidelines. A 49-year-old male doctor with a history of allergy to latex gloves was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general and epidural anesthesia for recurrent, acute cholecystitis. The anesthesia and operation were performed uneventfully with latex-free medical devices and machines in a latex-safe environment in the operating room under the new guidelines. Safe anesthetic management under the 2009 guidelines should be available for all operations in Japan on patients with latex allergy. PMID:21710779

  12. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  13. Utility of Component-Resolved Diagnostics in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Tuano, Karen S; Davis, Carla M

    2015-06-01

    Allergen component-resolved diagnostic testing (CRD) is a new methodology in clinical food allergy diagnosis, improving the ability to identify specific clinical phenotypes. Instead of relying on the crude allergen extracts used in standard allergy diagnostics, CRD utilizes purified or recombinant allergens for identification of specific molecules causing sensitization or allergy. This method is able to determine risk of the severity of allergic reactions in specific cases, like soy, peanut, and hazelnut allergy. The severity of allergic reaction can be predicted in peanut allergy with Ara h 2, and clinically relevant disease in pollen-allergic patients can be identified. However, age and geographic differences affect CRD results and it should always be utilized in the context of a clinical history. In the future, clinical phenotypes may be differentiated with larger prospective studies utilizing food challenges.

  14. Impact of food allergies on school nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher; Muñoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J; Arbit, Julie

    2004-10-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called anaphylaxis, have occurred in schools. In a nationwide telephone survey of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% reported an increase in children with food allergies in their schools over the last 5 years; more than one third had 10 or more students with food allergies; 78% did staff training as a preventive strategy, with 74% developing their own training guidelines; and 90% stated students' epinephrine was stored in the nurse's office. Standardized training in food allergies as well as timely access to epinephrine is needed to respond appropriately to an anaphylactic reaction in the school setting.

  15. The natural history of peanut and tree nut allergy.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M

    2007-06-01

    Peanut and tree nut allergies were once thought to be permanent. Recent studies have shown that about 20% and 10%, respectively, of young patients may outgrow peanut and tree nut allergies. For the majority of patients, however, the natural history is not favorable. In addition, approximately 8% of patients who outgrow peanut allergy may suffer a recurrence. The rising prevalence of these allergies, coupled with the knowledge that allergic reactions to these foods have the potential to be severe or fatal and that accidental exposures are common, makes developing effective treatments to alter the natural history of peanut and tree nut allergies even more crucial for those who will not outgrow them. At this time, avoidance of the offending foods and being prepared to treat a potential reaction after accidental ingestion is the only treatment, but many promising therapeutic interventions are being investigated.

  16. Diagnosis, Management, and Investigational Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods—2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:25633563

  17. The rise of food allergy: Environmental factors and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Benedé, Sara; Blázquez, Ana Belen; Chiang, David; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy. PMID:27322456

  18. Prevalence and severity of food allergy--need for control.

    PubMed

    Hourihane, J O

    1998-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly recognized manifestation of atopy. Patient and public awareness of food allergy is also increasing. Justifiable demands are being made for better medical guidance of the practice of food labelling for industry and catering businesses. Such advice must bear in mind the relative frequency and severity of allergies to certain foods. Some commonly allergenic foods (milk, egg, soya, wheat) are staple components of the diets of populations, used widely in prepared foods. The frequency of the allergies to these foods and their widespread uses means they and their derivatives must be declared on food labels. Less commonly used foods such as fish, shellfish, peanut, and tree nuts demand declaration due to the severity of reactions induced in the admittedly more rare, but increasingly common, sufferers of these allergies. Reactions to more unusual foods are increasingly being identified, and the "minimum" list is likely to be extended in the future.

  19. Oral Allergy Syndrome: An Update for Stomatologists

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction in the oral cavity subsequent to the consumption of food such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables. It occurs mainly due to homology of proteins of pollen to the proteins of fruits and vegetables. In OAS, the immune system produces antibodies that are directed against the proteins of pollen and structurally similar proteins in food, hence, resulting in allergic symptoms limited mainly to the oral cavity. In this review, we have summarized the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of OAS as an update for stomatologists. PMID:26633978

  20. Occupational allergy to squid (Loligo vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, M; Tymoszuk, D; Pas-Wyroślak, A; Nowakowska-Świrta, E; Chomiczewska-Skóra, D; Pałczyński, C; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2013-06-01

    Occupational allergy from exposure to squid has been rarely described, mainly as contact dermatitis or urticaria. Our report presents the first case of occupational asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and contact urticaria to squid in a 33-year-old seafood production worker, with documented increased eosinophilia in the nasal and tear fluids after specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) with squid. IgE-mediated sensitization to squid was confirmed by positive skin prick test and opened skin test with squid extract. SICT demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to squid and the allergic response from the respiratory system and conjunctiva.

  1. Endoscopic laser treatment for pediatric nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Suzuki, N; Sato, H; Yamaguchi, T; Fujita, H; Umezawa, Y; Suzuki, M

    2000-01-01

    We have used the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser and the gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with flexible fiber delivery instruments for vaporization of the inferior nasal turbinate in pediatric patients since 1993. Under endoscopic control, the whole inferior turbinate was vaporized by 5-10 W laser output delivered via an optical fiber. Generally, the nasal mucosa changes into normal mucosa, and symptoms improve. The greatest symptomatic improvement was in nasal obstruction. The results obtained by the two laser devices were similar although they have had different characteristics. Endoscopic laser surgery is effective in the treatment of pediatric nasal allergy.

  2. Beef allergy and the Persian Gulf syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hollander, D H

    1995-09-01

    It is suggested that the Persian Gulf Syndrome (PGS) is caused by beef allergy. In the first symptomless phase, as a result of an energetic US Army immunizing program, using sera with adjuvants to produce detectable antibody levels, the subjects not only developed immunity to the targeted substances, but also became sensitized to one or more of the other substances in the immunizing sera, and specifically to beef protein. The subjects remained healthy while in the war zone on a restricted diet essentially free from beef, but developed PGS after they came home, and were again able to obtain steaks and hamburgers.

  3. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field.

  4. [Food-induced anaphylaxis in latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Abeck, D; Börries, M; Kuwert, C; Steinkraus, V; Vieluf, D; Ring, J

    1994-06-01

    Contact uticaria and anaphylactic reactions to latex-containing rubber products are being recognized with increasing frequency in all kinds of medical disciplines. Recently a number of reports have been published describing anaphylactic reactions to food items in patients with latex allergy. The cases of three patients who developed anaphylactic reactions to both latex and food items are presented, and the importance of the association of latex and cross-reactivity with food items is stressed. The food items that led to anaphylactic reactions were banana and avocado; banana, avocado and buckwheat; and banana, avocado and tomato. The cross-reactivity of latex to buckwheat and tomato has not been reported before.

  5. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy.

  6. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2016-01-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  7. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  8. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  9. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  10. [Allergy to cashew nuts and peanuts].

    PubMed

    de Groot, H

    2007-05-01

    Anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of peanuts is a serious, common condition, known to both the general public and physicians. Recently, an increasing number ofpatients with an anaphylactic reaction after eating small amounts of cashew nuts have been reported. In three children, a boy aged 7 and two girls aged 9 and 10 years, respectively, with heterogeneous case histories involving allergic upper airway and conjunctival symptoms and constitutional eczema, allergy for cashew nuts was diagnosed in the first two and allergy for peanuts in the third. They were given dietary advice and an adrenaline auto-injector for emergencies. In most cases, a detailed food history, together with the demonstration of IgE against cashew nuts by means of serology or skin prick tests, are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. If the clinical relevance of a sensitisation to cashew nuts is unknown, a food provocation test may be necessary. The treatment consists of dietary intervention, and an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed for a serious anaphylactic reaction. So far, three major allergens from the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) have been identified and purified.

  11. A comprehensive review of legume allergy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-08-01

    Legumes belonging to Fabaceae family of the order Fabales are a rich and important source of proteins and many essential elements. Due to its nutritious elements, these are preferably included in human diet in most part of the world. But, unfortunately, IgE binding proteins have been identified in majority of legumes, and allergenic response to these legumes may range from mild skin reactions to life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Overall, allergenicity due to consumption of legumes in decreasing order may be peanut, soybean, lentil, chickpea, pea, mung bean, and red gram. So far, several allergens from different legumes have been identified and characterized. Most of identified allergens belong to storage proteins family, profilins, or the pathogenesis-related proteins. Legumes also have property of immunological cross-reactivity among themselves and from other sources that also increases the severity of allergenic response to a particular legume. This review summarizes the currently available knowledge on legume allergy and describes the allergenic problems associated with different legumes. It also tries to explore about the legume allergens identified so far by different scientific groups. The culmination of knowledge about identification and characterization of allergens from different legumes will be helpful in diagnosis and treatment of allergy, for development of novel therapeutic strategies, for strict avoidance of particular legume in diet by susceptible individual and also to produce hypoallergenic cultivars of leguminous crop through conventional breeding or genetic modification.

  12. Lactose intolerance in systemic nickel allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, I A; Vadrucci, E; Cammarota, G; Minelli, M; Gasbarrini, A

    2011-01-01

    Some patients affected by nickel-contact allergy present digestive symptoms in addition to systemic cutaneous manifestations, falling under the condition known as systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). A nickel-related pro-inflammatory status has been documented at intestinal mucosal level. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance in patients affected by SNAS compared to a healthy population. Consecutive patients affected by SNAS referring to our departments were enrolled. The control population consisted of healthy subjects without gastrointestinal symptoms. All subjects enrolled underwent lactose breath test under standard conditions. One hundred and seventy-eight SNAS patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled. Positivity of lactose breath test occurred in 74.7% of the SNAS group compared to 6.6% of the control group. Lactose intolerance is highly prevalent in our series of patients affected by SNAS. Based on our preliminary results, we can hypothesize that in SNAS patients, the nickel-induced pro-inflammatory status could temporarily impair the brush border enzymatic functions, resulting in hypolactasia. Further trials evaluating the effect of a nickel-low diet regimen on lactase activity, histological features and immunological pattern are needed.

  13. Particularities of allergy in the Tropics.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Luis; Zakzuk, Josefina; Lee, Bee Wah; Acevedo, Nathalie; Soh, Jian Yi; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Hossny, Elham; García, Elizabeth; Rosario, Nelson; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Puerta, Leonardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Cardona, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are distributed worldwide and their risk factors and triggers vary according to geographical and socioeconomic conditions. Allergies are frequent in the Tropics but aspects of their prevalence, natural history, risk factors, sensitizers and triggers are not well defined and some are expected to be different from those in temperate zone countries. The aim of this review is to investigate if allergic diseases in the Tropics have particularities that deserve special attention for research and clinical practice. Such information will help to form a better understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of allergic diseases in the Tropics. As expected, we found particularities in the Tropics that merit further study because they strongly affect the natural history of common allergic diseases; most of them related to climate conditions that favor permanent exposure to mite allergens, helminth infections and stinging insects. In addition, we detected several unmet needs in important areas which should be investigated and solved by collaborative efforts led by the emergent research groups on allergy from tropical countries. PMID:27386040

  14. Particularities of allergy in the Tropics.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Luis; Zakzuk, Josefina; Lee, Bee Wah; Acevedo, Nathalie; Soh, Jian Yi; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Hossny, Elham; García, Elizabeth; Rosario, Nelson; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Puerta, Leonardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Cardona, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are distributed worldwide and their risk factors and triggers vary according to geographical and socioeconomic conditions. Allergies are frequent in the Tropics but aspects of their prevalence, natural history, risk factors, sensitizers and triggers are not well defined and some are expected to be different from those in temperate zone countries. The aim of this review is to investigate if allergic diseases in the Tropics have particularities that deserve special attention for research and clinical practice. Such information will help to form a better understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of allergic diseases in the Tropics. As expected, we found particularities in the Tropics that merit further study because they strongly affect the natural history of common allergic diseases; most of them related to climate conditions that favor permanent exposure to mite allergens, helminth infections and stinging insects. In addition, we detected several unmet needs in important areas which should be investigated and solved by collaborative efforts led by the emergent research groups on allergy from tropical countries.

  15. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children.

  16. Diagnostic tests in allergy to green coffee.

    PubMed

    Osterman, K; Johansson, S G; Zetterström, O

    1985-07-01

    Twenty-two coffee roastery workers with work-related symptoms of various degree from the eyes, nose or bronchi were tested with partly purified water-soluble extract from dust of green coffee beans (GCB). Eighteen persons had a positive prick test, eight a positive bronchial provocation test and seven a positive nasal provocation test. Fourteen had a positive methacholine test, indicating unspecific bronchial hyperreactivity. Specific IgE antibodies to GCB extract were found in sera of 11 workers and to castor bean (CB) extract in 16. The workers measured their lung function with an air flow meter, three times a day for 1 week, and the values were lower in the second half of the week for the workers with IgE antibodies to GCB, but not for the others. It is concluded that the case history, prick test, RAST, and simple lung function tests for one or a few weeks are the best tools when investigating occupational allergy. When the allergen is unknown, but the occurrence of an IgE-mediated allergy is suspected, serial lung function measurements and determinations of total serum IgE, in addition to taking a careful case history, are valuable methods with which to start the investigation.

  17. Fragrance sensitisers: Is inhalation an allergy risk?

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that some fragrance substances have the potential to cause skin sensitisation associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances are invariably relatively volatile leading to the consideration that inhalation of fragrances might be a relevant route for either the induction of allergic sensitisation or the elicitation of allergic reactions. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition that allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract can be induced by topical exposure to certain chemical allergens. Here the central question addressed is whether inhalation exposure to fragrance allergens has the potential to cause skin and/or respiratory sensitisation via the respiratory tract, or elicit allergic symptoms in those already sensitised. In addressing those questions, the underlying immunobiology of skin and respiratory sensitisation to chemicals has been reviewed briefly, and the relevant experimental and clinical evidence considered. The essential mechanistic differences between skin and respiratory allergy appear consistent with other sources of information, including the phenomenon of ACD that can arise from topical exposure to airborne allergens, but in the absence of accompanying respiratory effects. The conclusion is that, in contrast to topical exposure (including topical exposure to airborne material), inhalation of fragrance sensitisers does not represent a health risk with respect to allergy.

  18. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    PubMed Central

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  19. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-01

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  20. Identification of Candida haemulonii Complex Species: Use of ClinProTools(TM) to Overcome Limitations of the Bruker Biotyper(TM), VITEK MS(TM) IVD, and VITEK MS(TM) RUO Databases.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, Rafaella C; da Silva Junior, Afonso R; Del Negro, Gilda M B; Munhoz, Regina B; Gimenes, Viviane M F; Assis, Diego M; Rockstroh, Anna C; Motta, Adriana L; Rossi, Flavia; Juliano, Luiz; Benard, Gil; de Almeida Júnior, João N

    2016-01-01

    Candida haemulonii is now considered a complex of two species and one variety: C. haemulonii sensu stricto, Candida duobushaemulonii and the variety C. haemulonii var. vulnera. Identification (ID) of these species is relevant for epidemiological purposes and for therapeutic management, but the different phenotypic commercial systems are unable to provide correct species ID for these emergent pathogens. Hence, we evaluated the MALDI-TOF MS performance for the ID of C. haemulonii species, analyzing isolates/strains of C. haemulonii complex species, Candida pseudohaemulonii and Candida auris by two commercial platforms, their databases and softwares. To differentiate C. haemulonii sensu sctricto from the variety vulnera, we used the ClinProTools(TM) models and a single-peak analysis with the software FlexAnalysis(TM). The Biotyper(TM) database gave 100% correct species ID for C. haemulonii sensu stricto, C. pseudohaemulonii and C. auris, with 69% of correct species ID for C. duobushaemulonii. Vitek MS(TM) IVD database gave 100% correct species ID for C. haemulonii sensu stricto, misidentifying all C. duobushaemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii as C. haemulonii, being unable to identify C. auris. The Vitek MS(TM) RUO database needed to be upgraded with in-house SuperSpectra to discriminate C. haemulonii sensu stricto, C. duobushaemulonii, C. pseudohaemulonii, and C. auris strains/isolates. The generic algorithm model from ClinProTools(TM) software showed recognition capability of 100% and cross validation of 98.02% for the discrimination of C. haemulonii sensu stricto from the variety vulnera. Single-peak analysis showed that the peaks 5670, 6878, or 13750 m/z can distinguish C. haemulonii sensu stricto from the variety vulnera.

  1. Wood tars allergy, cross-sensitization and coal tar.

    PubMed

    Roesyanto, I D; van den Akker, T W; van Joost, T W

    1990-02-01

    In a population of 1883 patients tested for allergic contact dermatitis (1985-1988), a prevalence of 5.4% (103 cases) was seen for wood tars (ICDRG allergen, 12% pet.) sensitization. In this group (n = 103), retrospectively, a combined allergy was seen to wood tars and fragrance mix in 43% and to wood tars and balsam of Peru in 31%. A combined allergy to wood tars and coal tar was seen in 19 patients (18.5%): 14 to liquor carbonis detergens (LCD), 8 to lianthral and 3 to both LCD and lianthral. Within the group with wood tars allergy (n = 103), a minority (n = 37) had a history of atopic dermatitis. Comparison of the test results in atopic and non-atopic subgroups (within the group of 103) revealed a higher incidence of combined wood tars-fragrance mix allergy in the atopic group (n = 37). In this group, a lower incidence of combined wood tars-coal tar sensitization was seen in comparison with the non-atopic group (n = 66). The authors believe that combined "wood tars-coal tar" allergy could be the consequence of cross-sensitization rather than due to long-term previous topical treatment with tar derivatives. The high % of cross-allergy between wood tars and fragrance mix emphasizes the role of wood tars as an important indicator allergen in perfume allergy.

  2. The influence of shaving method on perfume allergy.

    PubMed

    Edman, B

    1994-11-01

    Among men, the most frequent contact allergens are perfumes (fragrance mix and balsam of Peru). Considering that the main cause of nickel allergy is ear-piercing, shaving with a razor blade might be the cause of perfume contact allergy, by creating small wounds that increase the penetration of applied perfume substances derived from soaps, shaving foams and after-shave lotions. 19 males with contact allergy to fragrance mix and/or to balsam of Peru were interviewed about their shaving habits by letter. 17 responded (89%), of whom 12 (71%) had been using razor blades continuously for a period of at least 1 year. At our clinic, the frequency of razor blade usage was found to be 45% in patch tested men without perfume contact allergy. When comparing the frequencies of razor blade usage among patch tested men with and without perfume contact allergy, there was a statistically significant over-representation (p = 0.047) among those with perfume allergy. The risk of perfume allergy when using razor blades was found to be 2.9 (odds ratio).

  3. The impact of food allergies on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bacal, Liane R

    2013-07-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize and appreciate the impact of food allergies on psychosocial health. 2. List the factors that have been shown to negatively affect health-related quality of life. 3. Understand how physicians can directly help to improve a child's quality of life while living with food allergies. Food allergy is a serious problem affecting a growing number of children worldwide. There is a large body of evidence supporting the detrimental effects that food allergy can have on a child's quality of life. With validated tools, we can identify these children and focus on how to protect, guide, and help them to live a safe life. Recent research articulates how food allergies impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). There are studies reported from the child's perspective, as well as studies reported from the parent's perspective. With the development of validated disease and age-specific questionnaires, researchers can reliably gather data on the psychological aspect of children with food allergies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature examining the psycho-social impact of food allergies on children. This article was designed to outline suggestions to help physicians care for the whole child - both mind and body. PMID:23805962

  4. Food allergy prevalence: new possibilities for therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.

  5. Transfer of peanut allergy following lung transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schuller, A; Barnig, C; Matau, C; Geny, S; Gosselin, M; Moal, M C; Champion, G; Atal, L; de Blay, F; Massard, G; Kessler, R

    2011-12-01

    This case study describes a patient who developed peanut allergy following lung transplantation. A 54-year-old woman underwent bilateral lung transplantation on June 2009 owing to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. She had no history of food allergy before transplantation. The donor, however, was a 20-year-old man who was fatally injured during an automobile accident; he was allergic to peanuts. At 3 months after transplantation, the lung recipient presented with acute dyspnea and urticaria 15 minutes after consuming food containing peanut derivatives. Pre- and posttransplantation recipient blood samples analyzed for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for peanut allergens confirmed that the allergy had been passively transfered as a consequence of transplantation. Food allergy following solid organ transplantation is thought to be rare, mostly occurring in children. Two mechanisms may explain the observations described for the patient reported in this study: de novo development of peanut allergies after transplantation, or passive transfer of peanut allergies from a peanut-sensitized organ donor. This case report documenting pre- and posttransplantation IgE status in a lung transplantation case suggested that the allergic status of organ donors should be thoroughly assessed before transplantation, and potential allergy transfer risks must be discussed with the transplant team and the patient. PMID:22172896

  6. Prevalence of food allergy in 137 latex-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, K T; Hussain, H

    1999-01-01

    There have been reports of increased prevalence of certain food allergies in patients with Type I latex allergy (LA). A detailed food allergy history was obtained from 137 patients with LA. Latex allergy was defined by positive history of IgE mediated reactions to contact with latex and positive skin prick test to latex and/or positive in vitro test (AlaSTAT and/or Pharmacia CAP). Food allergy was diagnosed by a convincing history of possible IgE mediated symptoms occurring within 60 minutes of ingestion. We identified 49 potential allergic reactions to foods in 29 (21.1%) patients. Foods responsible for these reactions include banana 9 (18.3%), avocado 8 (16.3%), shellfish 6 (12.2%), fish 4 (8.1%), kiwi 6 (12.2%), tomato 3 (6.1%), watermelon, peach, carrot 2 (4.1%) each, and apple, chestnut, cherry, coconut, apricot, strawberry, loquat, one (2.0%) each. Reactions to foods included local mouth irritation, angioedema, urticaria, asthma, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, or anaphylaxis. Our study confirms the earlier reports of increased prevalence of food allergies in patients with LA. We also report increased prevalence of shellfish and fish allergy not previously reported. The nature of cross reacting epitopes or independent sensitization between latex and these foods is not clear.

  7. Food allergy update: more than a peanut of a problem.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Food allergies have become a significant medical and legal concern for children worldwide, as there is a rising incidence of potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions. The most common foods implicated include cow milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut, tree nuts such as walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, and pistachios, fish and shellfish. The majority of food allergies represent an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to specific proteins found in foods. Peanut allergy, in particular, is a significant food allergy responsible for the majority of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities to food proteins in the sensitized individual can lead to fatal reactions. There is often a rapid onset of symptoms after exposure, with prominent cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. The majority of children outgrow allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat. However, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are usually lifelong conditions, as few outgrow it. Children with food allergies and their families should be knowledgeable of management strategies for the condition, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising.

  8. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J.; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Smith, Bridget M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. Objective: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternal–child factors. Methods: Children ages 0–21 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Results: Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.70–2.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.34–1.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.27–1.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]). Conclusion: Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  9. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort. PMID:26739411

  10. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort. PMID:26739411

  11. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort.

  12. [Nut allergy - a difficult problem for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Mäkelä, Mika; Pelkonen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Nuts belong to the most significant causes of food anaphylaxis in Finland. Diagnosis of nut allergy is complicated by the fact that for those having birch allergy, skin prick tests and serum tests yield a positive reaction for peanut and hazelnut without the nut causing the allergy reactions. For fear of anaphylaxis, avoidance of nuts on the basis of conventional tests measuring allergic sensitization leads to an unnecessary therapeutic diet. Attempts must be made to recognize patients for whom the ingestion of even minute doses of nuts may be life-threatening. For patients having severe symptoms, guidance counseling and first-aid medication are offered as a precaution for accidental exposure.

  13. [Allergy caused by sodium fluoride glycerin: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jihong

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, though more and more ulcerations of oral mucosa caused by allergy to drug occurred clinically, allergy to sodium fluoride glycerin is extremely rare. A case of allergy to sodium fluoride glycerin occurred in Qianfoshan Campus Hospital of Shandong University. After treatment by sodium fluoride glycerin, there was mucosal edema, a large number of red miliary granules in buccal and palatal mucosa. After 3 hours, there were swallowing difficulties, but no breathing difficulties. Next day large ulcers of oral mucosa developed. The patient was cured 7 days after treatment. Fluoride-sensitive test result was positive.

  14. Allergy-preventive effects of the flowers of Impatiens textori.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Emiko; Oku, Hisae; Iinuma, Munekazu; Ishiguro, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-preventive activity of a 35% EtOH extract (IT) of flowers of Impatiens textori MIQ. was demonstrated in a continuing search for allergy-preventive substances from natural sources. The evaluation of its activity used an in vivo assay method for monitoring the blood flow decrease in the tail vein microcirculation of mice subjected to sensitization with hen-egg white lysozyme. Among the principal compounds in IT, apigenin (1), luteolin (3), and luteolin 7-glucoside (4) showed significant allergy-preventive effects. PMID:20410612

  15. Use of Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of nickel allergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alda, Javier; Castillo-Martinez, Claudio; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Moncada, Benjamin; González, Francisco J.

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectra of the skin of subjects with nickel allergy are analyzed and compared to the spectra of healthy subjects to detect possible biochemical differences in the structure of the skin that could help diagnose metal allergies in a noninvasive manner. Results show differences between the two groups of Raman spectra. These spectral differences can be classified using principal component analysis. Based on these findings, a novel computational technique to make a fast evaluation and classification of the Raman spectra of the skin is presented and proposed as a noninvasive technique for the detection of nickel allergy.

  16. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, Rosalía

    2011-08-01

    Shellfish allergy is a frequent, long-lasting, life-threatening disorder. As shellfish consumption increases, the number of allergic reactions to shellfish is expected to continue to rise as well. During the past decade, much has been learned about the allergens involved in shellfish allergy. Potential cross-reacting allergens between shellfish and other arthropods have been identified. As our knowledge of shellfish allergen improves, we will be able to develop more accurate methods of diagnosing shellfish allergy. In addition, extensive research is currently under way for the development of safer, more effective methods of managing shellfish hypersensitivity.

  17. Alleviation of Peanut Allergy Through Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques (NAET): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nambudripad, Roy

    2014-07-01

    This case report illustrates the reduction of immunoglobulin E titers and clinical reactivity of peanut allergy in a patient, using Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques (NAET). The patient's initial symptoms and immunoglobulin E result correlated with an oral challenge test that showed signs of anaphylaxis upon ingestion of a fragment of dry-roasted peanut. The symptoms subsided after the patient completed a program of treatments, which lasted approximately 18 months. Moreover, the immunoglobulin E titers decreased in two different types of immunoassays after a total of 18 months: HY*TEC enzyme immunoassay (Hycor Biomedical Inc, Garden Grove, California) and ImmunoCAP system (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden). A repeat oral challenge test was performed with peanut concentrate solution (1:20 weight/volume extract by Greer Laboratories, Inc, Lenoir, North Carolina), and the patient exhibited no reaction after ingesting up to 1 gram of peanut protein gradually over a 3-hour period. This report could support further investigation into the possibility of successful desensitization toward food allergies using NAET.

  18. Children’s Food Allergies: Development of the Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Fedele, David A.; Faino, Anna; Strand, Matthew; Robinson, Jane; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David M.; O’B. Hourihane, Jonathan; Cohen, Sophia; Fransen, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Develop a measure that evaluates effective pediatric food allergy (FA) management, child and parent FA anxiety, and integration of FA into family life. Methods A semistructured family interview was developed to evaluate FA management using a pilot sample (n = 27). Rating scales evaluated eight dimensions of FA management (FAMComposite), child anxiety, parent anxiety, and overall balanced integration (BI). Families of children with IgE-mediated food allergies (n = 60, child age: 6–12) were recruited for interview and rating scale validation. Results FAMComposite was correlated with physician ratings for families’ food avoidance and reaction response readiness. FA anxiety was correlated with general anxiety measures for children, but not parents. Parents’ FA anxiety was correlated with expectations of negative outcomes from FA. Low BI was associated with poor quality of life and negative impact on family functioning. Conclusions Preliminary analyses support Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale validity as a measure of family adaptation to pediatric FA. PMID:25797945

  19. [Contact allergies to recently introduced preservatives].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Köllner, A; Tholen, S; Frosch, P J

    1991-04-01

    Preservatives have come under fire due to their possible detrimental properties and the high rate of contact allergies some of them cause. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry is searching for alternatives that will be effective, safe and economical. The present paper introduces a selection of new or revived biocides (Kathon CG, benzisothiazolinone, Euxyl K 400, Biobans, Grotans, Bronopol, Germall II), and the range of application and the sensitization potency of each are discussed. Test concentrations for patch tests are recommended. Kathon CG is the most commonly used preservative among these biocides, although it has a high sensitization potency and is a frequently encountered contact allergen. To make discovery of a new allergen easier and to reduce the risk of side effects, manufacturers should be required to specify the ingredients of their products on the labels.

  20. Contact and photocontact allergy to musk ambrette.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowska, F; Calnan, C D

    1986-06-01

    Musk ambrette, a contact and photocontact allergen, is a synthetic fragrance present in aftershave lotions and many toiletries. Thirty-four patients with contact and photocontact allergy to musk ambrette were studied. All had a facial eczema. Four distinctive clinical pictures were seen. These were plaques of eczema, jawline (mandibular) dermatitis, acute contact dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis. Twenty-six patients were light sensitive by history and 10 were diagnosed by clinical criteria as having chronic actinic dermatitis. Patch and photopatch testing to musk ambrette showed that seven patients had pure photocontact dermatitis to musk ambrette. Eight patients had contact dermatitis to musk ambrette but this was exacerbated by irradiation. Cross reaction with moskene occurred. Scrupulous avoidance of musk ambrette has resulted in clinical resolution in most patients.

  1. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested. PMID:27427818

  2. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  3. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  4. Insect venom allergy: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valentine, M D

    1984-03-01

    Allergy to insect venom is IgE mediated. Untreated, it occasionally terminates fatally and often causes temporary illness. Medical intervention with venom immunotherapy in patients with prior systemic reactions presents reactions to stings by inducing IgG-antibody formation, although in some groups of patients this results in little real benefit. Emergency self-treatment kits (Epi-Pen and Epi-Pen Jr., Center Laboratories, Port Washington, N.Y.; Ana Kit, Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash.), if promptly and intelligently used, may reverse most moderate sting reactions. Some severe reactions require aggressive therapy. Until better treatment criteria are available, the most certain way of reducing the risk of systemic reactions to stings is with venom immunotherapy. PMID:6366028

  5. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  6. Immune reactions and allergy in experimental anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haneul Nari

    2006-01-01

    The third-stage larvae (L3) of the parasitic nematode, Anisakis simplex, have been implicated in the induction of hyperimmune allergic reactions in orally infected humans. In this work, we have conducted a review of an investigation into immune reactions occurring in animals experimentally infected with A. simplex L3. The patterns of serum antibody productions in the experimental animals against excretory-secretory products (ESP) of A. simplex L3 contributed to our current knowledge regarding specific humoral immune reactions in humans. In our review, we were able to determine that L3 infection of experimental animals may constitute a good model system for further exploration of immune mechanisms and allergy in anisakiasis of humans. PMID:17170569

  7. Food allergy: what are the issues?

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Dearman, R J

    2001-03-31

    With a growing interest in the development of genetically modified crop plants there is a need for appropriate approaches to safety assessment. Among the issues that have to be addressed is consideration of whether the products of novel genes have the potential to cause allergic sensitization. Resulting from a collaboration between the International Food Biotechnology Council and the International Life Sciences Institute recommendations have been made for a step-wise approach to the assessment of allergenic potential based upon considerations of serological identity, and sequence or structural homology, with known allergens and examination of the stability of the test protein in a simulated gastric fluid. In parallel there has been interest in the development of animal models, which would permit a more direct evaluation of potential allergenic activity. Progress in these areas is reviewed briefly in the context of what is known of food allergy and some of the important issues, which must be addressed in designing safety assessment strategies identified.

  8. Fragrance contact allergy: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix. This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure.

  9. [Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].

    PubMed

    Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S

    2003-01-01

    Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy. PMID:13679965

  10. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... class of antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Weed Pollen Ragweed and other weeds, such as curly dock, ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Grass Pollen Grass pollens are regional as well as seasonal. ...

  11. Contact and photocontact allergy to octocrylene: a review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Roberts, David W

    2014-04-01

    Octocrylene is an ultraviolet (UV)B and UVAII absorber that was introduced some 15 years ago, and is now widely used in sunscreen agents and skin care cosmetics. Since 2003, several studies, notably from France, Belgium, Spain, and Italy, have reported an increasing number of patients with photocontact allergy to octocrylene. This reaction is seen mainly in adult patients who have previously used topical products containing the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. Photosensitization to ketoprofen leads, in many cases, to photocontact allergy to octocrylene; the mechanism of this reaction is unknown. Contact allergy to octocrylene also occurs, but is far less frequent, and is seen, in most cases, in children, resulting from the use of octocrylene-containing sunscreen products. In this article, (photo)contact allergy to octocrylene is fully reviewed. PMID:24628344

  12. Colds, Allergies and Sinusitis - How to Tell the Difference

    MedlinePlus

    ... weather is a prime time for stuffy noses, sore throats and watery, itchy eyes. But if your symp- ... Time Similar to allergies, but may also include sore throat, fever and body aches Develops over several days ...

  13. Food Allergy Treatment and Avoidance (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with the food during the manufacturing process. As an example, a blueberry muffin may ... are reading. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to food additives Clinical manifestations of food allergy: An overview Clinical ...

  14. Does this child really have a penicillin allergy?

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Scanlan, B; Coghlan, D

    2015-04-01

    Penicillins, the most prescribed paediatric medications worldwide, are also the most commonly reported cause of medication allergy, although this is rarely confirmed. An oral penicillin challenge is considered the gold standard in assessing children with suspected allergy but is seldom performed due to lack of appropriately trained staff and insufficient facilities. We introduced a standardised nurse-led protocol to evaluate children with suspected penicillin allergy fulfilling low risk criteria. In total, 40 children participated, including 22 girls and 18 boys, of which 38 met study criteria. There were 36 (95%) negative challenges completed, allowing these children to be safely prescribed oral penicillin in the future. There were 2 (5%) positive challenges developing similar signs to their initial reaction. This standardised protocol appears to be safe for use and efficient in the evaluation of low risk children with suspected penicillin allergy.

  15. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Allergic reactions to food can range from the uncomfortable to ... avoid and treat them. What Is an Allergic Reaction to Food? An allergy is an adverse health ...

  16. Latex allergy: an emerging problem in health care.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, S W; McClure, N; Wilham, S

    1995-10-01

    Allergy to latex has been increasing as the use of latex products has grown. The increase is disproportionately occurring in those people with myelodysplasias, those who have undergone multiple surgical procedures, and health care providers. Within those groups, the most susceptible to latex allergy are people with other allergies. Early identification of high-risk individuals and their avoidance of products containing latex can minimize the occurrence of this allergic response. Heightened awareness among health care providers is needed because latex is very common in hospitals and clinics. Inadvertent exposure places latex-sensitive individuals in danger of anaphylaxis. Nurses caring for infants and children are able to modify the environment of those at risk for latex allergy, reducing exposure to this potentially dangerous substance. Teaching families of children at risk will help them avoid latex in the home; many common household substances contain latex and are likely to trigger allergic responses. PMID:7565525

  17. What FDA Learned About Dark Chocolate and Milk Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates What FDA Learned About Dark Chocolate and Milk Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... to top No Message Doesn’t Mean No Milk You shouldn’t assume that dark chocolate contains ...

  18. Recent Advances in Management of Pediatric Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Swan, Kate; Fox, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Many children now suffer with a food allergy, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and/or non-IgE mediated. Food allergies have a significant impact on the child’s quality of life, as well as that of their family, due to the resultant dietary restrictions and the constant threat of a potentially life-threatening reaction. At present, there is no cure for food allergies, but there are exciting advances occurring in the management of IgE mediated allergies, including a more active approach to management with anticipatory screening testing, early introduction of common food allergens, active tolerance induction, use of biologics and active risk management. These areas will be discussed in this review. PMID:27417375

  19. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits. PMID:18669179

  20. Immunotherapy for food allergies: a myth or a reality?

    PubMed

    Praticò, Andrea D; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a worldwide issue, with an estimated prevalence of 2-10%. An effective treatment is not available for people affected and the only management is the avoidance of the allergen. Oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy have been tested by several authors, in particular for milk, egg and peanuts allergy, with significant results in term of desensitization induction. The achievement of tolerance is by the contrary doubtful, with different results obtained. In this review, we reviewed protocols of oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy published in literature, mainly against milk, egg and peanut. At present, immunotherapy does not represent the gold standard in the treatment of food allergy, even if it can desensitize patients.