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Sample records for allergy current research

  1. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Boverhof, Darrell R. Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders.

  2. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy medlineplus.gov/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...

  3. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  4. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis ... Asthma exacerbation Sinus infection Asthma exacerbation Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research ...

  5. Breast Milk and Food Allergy: Connections and Current Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Medico, Tegan; Commins, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    Breast milk, a living source of nutrition for babies, complements a baby's immune system, supplementing undeveloped defenses with immune factors while creating the foundation for the innate and adaptive immune systems. Such immune development includes tolerance of the environment and, in the case of food allergy, a lack of tolerance. Recent research questions the previous opinion that breast milk is protective against food allergy. This article reviews the immature immune system, the immunology and nutrition of breast milk, the literature exploring breast milk and food allergy, and the current recommendations regarding breast milk and the prevention of food allergy.

  6. Current understanding of egg allergy

    PubMed Central

    Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Wang, Julie

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Egg is one of the most important allergens in childhood feeding, and egg allergy can pose quality of life concerns. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white specific IgE will confirm the diagnosis of IgE-mediated reactions. Non-IgE-mediated symptoms such as in eosinophilic diseases of the gut might also be observed. Egg avoidance and education regarding the treatment of allergic reactions are the cornerstones of management of egg allergy. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and natural history of egg allergy. PMID:21453811

  7. [Current features of food allergies: the need of allergy surveillance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental

  8. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergies Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources ... Emergency Care Plan Emotional & Social Issues Facts & Statistics Food Labels Laws & Regulations Research Support Groups Treatment & Managing Reactions ...

  9. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  10. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China. PMID:26000282

  11. Current concepts: diagnosis and management of food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W

    2016-06-01

    Advances in the prevention and treatment of food allergy have been published in the last few years and are placed in context using a review format. Preventing food allergy has been studied for years with questions of whether avoidance or exposure was a better strategy. Recent research has suggested that peanut allergy can be substantially reduced in high-risk infants through intentional oral exposure. For children with food allergy, the primary treatment remains avoidance, but controlled trials have shown some success with oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy. Providers who see children with food allergies should be aware of the newer recommendations of preventing peanut allergy and the emerging therapies for children with immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy.

  12. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood food allergies: current diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Dyer, Ashley A; Jain, Namrita; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy is a growing public health concern in the United States that affects an estimated 8% of children. Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a specific food. Nearly 40% of children with food allergy have a history of severe reactions that if not treated immediately with proper medication can lead to hospitalization or even death. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened an expert panel in 2010 to develop guidelines outlining evidence-based practices in diagnosing and managing food allergy. The purpose of this review is to aid clinicians in translating the NIAID guidelines into primary care practice and includes the following content domains: (1) the definition and mechanism of childhood food allergy, (2) differences between food allergy and food intolerance, (3) the epidemiology of childhood food allergy in the United States, (4) best practices derived from the NIAID guidelines focused on primary care clinicians' management of childhood food allergy, (5) emerging food allergy treatments, and (6) future directions in food allergy research and practice. Articles focused on childhood food allergy were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were restricted to the English language and to those published within the past 40 years. A cross-listed combination of the following words, phrases, and MeSH terms was searched in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles: food allergy, food hypersensitivity, child, pediatric, prevalence, and epidemiology. Additional sources were identified through the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational Latex Allergy: the Current State of Affairs.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Olivier; Raulf, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) reached epidemic proportions during the nineties and led to intense preventive efforts. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive compilation of the current status of occupational NRL allergy. Recent advances led to the characterization of 15 NRL allergens and the development of assays for measuring the allergen content of NRL materials and specific IgE antibodies against NRL allergen components. Preventive measures aimed at reducing workplace exposure to NRL allergens were associated with decreasing incidence rates of NRL allergy. However, a pooled analysis of epidemiological surveys published during the last 10 years provided prevalence estimates of NRL sensitization and allergy similar to those derived from studies conducted before 2003. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding and prevention of NRL allergy, although the disease may still remain a worldwide cause of concern.

  15. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina P. Tree Nut Allergy Mary A. Food Allergy Mom Danielle ...

  16. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... clear up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental ...

  17. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat some allergies using medicines and allergy shots. Avoidance In some cases, as with food allergies, avoiding ... that might contain even tiny traces of them. Avoidance can help protect people against non-food or ...

  18. Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... use skin and blood tests to diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the substances that cause the reactions. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  19. Therapeutics in food allergy: the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Kanao; Fleischer, David M

    2012-02-01

    Food allergy is an increasing public health dilemma in Westernized countries, yet no viable treatments are currently available for those who are afflicted. The only options available for patients with food allergies are prevention of reactions by strict avoidance of the offending food(s) and symptomatic treatment of any adverse effects from accidental exposures. Approaches are being pursued to develop treatments, and allergen-specific therapies such as oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with different foods have shown promise. Other modalities are also being investigated, potentially leading to the discovery of novel therapeutic options.

  20. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  1. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  2. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  3. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  4. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table ... Study of Allergic Diseases: This National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) program is to identify ...

  5. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  6. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  7. Current Options for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lanser, Bruce J.; Wright, Benjamin L.; Orgel, Kelly A.; Vickery, Brian P.; Fleischer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence; as a result, there is intense focus on developing safe and effective therapies. Current methods of specific immunotherapy include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous, while nonspecific methods that have been investigated include: Chinese herbal medicine, probiotics, and anti-IgE antibodies. Although some studies have demonstrated efficacy in inducing desensitization, questions regarding safety and the potential for achieving immune tolerance remain. Although some of these therapies demonstrate promise, further investigation is required before their incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26456449

  8. Current Options for the Treatment of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Bruce J; Wright, Benjamin L; Orgel, Kelly A; Vickery, Brian P; Fleischer, David M

    2015-12-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence; as a result, there is intense focus on developing safe and effective therapies. Current methods of specific immunotherapy include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous, while nonspecific methods that have been investigated include: Chinese herbal medicine, probiotics, and anti-IgE antibodies. Although some studies have demonstrated efficacy in inducing desensitization, questions regarding safety and the potential for achieving immune tolerance remain. Although some of these therapies demonstrate promise, further investigation is required before their incorporation into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergies

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... respond by producing antibodies. These antibodies attach to mast cells, which are white blood cells containing the chemical ... As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast cells to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. ...

  10. Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes three articles about research in the school library media field: (1) "The State of Research Today" (Michael B. Eisenberg) (2) "Recent Trends in School Library Media Research" (Robert Grover and Susan G. Fowler); and (3) "Notes from ERIC" (Barbara Minor) provides references to 10 research overviews and…

  11. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Sian W; Boyle, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR) can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT) is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28), but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers) or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment. PMID:26229493

  12. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  13. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Food allergy (children)].

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Mika; Jartti, Tuomas; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Poikonen, Sanna; Remes, Sami; Schwab, Ursula; Sipilä, Raija; Tulonen-Tapio, Johanna; Voutilainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    This guideline, targeted to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic children, provides a review on the clinical aspects of pediatric food allergy. The main updates include: elimination diets are not recommended for breast-feeding mothers; probiotics are not recommended for allergy prevention or treatment; food challenges are the basis of the diagnosis, but it can be improved by IgE component diagnostics. The treatment for severe symptoms is specific food avoidance, mildly symptomatic children should continue with versatile diet. Specific oral tolerance induction is a safe and effective treatment in most of the pediatric patients.

  14. Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein. PMID:23121771

  15. Food allergy--science and policy needs--The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-12-30

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  16. Food allergy and risk assessment: Current status and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Benjamin C.

    2017-09-01

    Risk analysis is a three part, interactive process that consists of a scientific risk assessment, a risk management strategy and an exchange of information through risk communication. Quantitative risk assessment methodologies are now available and widely used for assessing risks regarding the unintentional consumption of major, regulated allergens but new or modified proteins can also pose a risk of de-novo sensitization. The risks due to de-novo sensitization to new food allergies are harder to quantify. There is a need for a systematic, comprehensive battery of tests and assessment strategy to identify and characterise de-novo sensitization to new proteins and the risks associated with them. A risk assessment must be attuned to answer the risk management questions and needs. Consequently, the hazard and risk assessment methods applied and the desired information are determined by the requested outcome for risk management purposes and decisions to be made. The COST Action network (ImpARAS, www.imparas.eu) has recently started to discuss these risk management criteria from first principles and will continue with the broader subject of improving strategies for allergen risk assessment throughout 2016-2018/9.

  17. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, K E C; Allen, K; Edwards, C A; Beyer, K; Boulay, A; van der Aa, L B; Sprikkelman, A; Belohlavkova, S; Clausen, M; Dubakiene, R; Duggan, E; Reche, M; Marino, L V; Nørhede, P; Ogorodova, L; Schoemaker, A; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A; Szepfalusi, Z; Vassilopoulou, E; Veehof, S H E; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wjst, M; Dubois, A E J

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  18. Current and Emerging Therapies for IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Robbie D; Jones, Stacie M

    2016-04-01

    Food allergies are a growing clinical problem leading to increased health care utilization and decreases in patient quality of life. Current treatment recommendations include strict dietary avoidance of the offending food as well as use of self-injectable epinephrine in case of accidental exposure with allergic reaction. Although many individuals will eventually outgrow their food allergies, a substantial number will not. Significant effort has been made to find novel treatments that protect patients from food-triggered reactions as well as to develop immune-modulating therapies that could lead to tolerance. In this review, three therapies that have shown the most promise for the treatment of food allergies are highlighted: oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy.

  19. Lymphocyte-based model systems for allergy research: a historic overview.

    PubMed

    Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Pickl, Winfried F

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, a multitude of studies applying distinct in vitro and in vivo model systems have contributed greatly to our better understanding of the initiation and regulation of inflammatory processes leading to allergic diseases. Over the years, it has become evident that among lymphocytes, not only IgE-producing B cells and allergy-orchestrating CD4(+) helper cells but also cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, γδ-T cells and innate lymphoid cells, as well as regulatory lymphocytes, might critically shape the immune response towards usually innocuous allergens. In this review, we provide a historic overview of pioneering work leading to the establishment of important lymphocyte-based model systems for allergy research. Moreover, we contrast the original findings with our currently more refined knowledge to appreciate the actual validity of the respective models and to reassess the conclusions obtained from them. Conflicting studies and interpretations are identified and discussed. The tables are intended to provide an easy overview of the field not only for scientists newly entering the field but also for the broader readership interested in updating their knowledge. Along those lines, herein we discuss in vitro and in vivo approaches to the investigation of lymphocyte effector cell activation, polarization and regulation, and describe depletion and adoptive transfer models along with gene knockout and transgenic (tg) methodologies. In addition, novel attempts to establish humanized T cell antigen receptor tg mouse models for allergy research are described and discussed.

  20. [Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergies in childhood. Current options and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, Valérie; Blümchen, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    During recent years increasing research has been conducted on casual treatment options for food allergy, with focus on oral immunotherapy (OIT) for hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut allergy. Several studies could show that OIT leads to desensitization or an increase of threshold. However, severe adverse events during this treatment are not uncommon. Whether OIT leads to a sustained, 'robust' development of tolerance in patients has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Besides OIT, some studies on sublingual (SLIT) and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) were performed, aiming to improve the safety profile. Furthermore, there are some pilot studies investigating a combined treatment of SLIT and OIT or a combined use of anti-IgE treatment or probiotic supplementation with OIT. Further placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed in order to develop standardized protocols before immunotherapy may be used as a therapeutic option for food allergy outside of clinical trials.

  1. Current prevalence rate of latex allergy: Why it remains a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaozong; McIntosh, James; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard. Methods: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed. Results: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of latex-derived products have been approved and regulated by government agencies, such as FDA, whereas the majority of finished products do not label whether they contain latex. Owing to millions of unidentifiable products containing latex and many routes for exposure to latex, preventing contact with latex allergens and reducing the prevalence of latex allergy are more difficult than expected. Reported data suggest that the average prevalence of latex allergy worldwide remains 9.7%, 7.2%, and 4.3% among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and general population, respectively. Conclusions: Latex-derived products are ubiquitous, and latex allergy remains a highly prevalent health risk in many occupations and to the general population. Developing alternative materials and increasing the ability to identify and label latex-derived products will be practicable approaches to effectively control the health risks associated with latex. PMID:27010091

  2. Current prevalence rate of latex allergy: Why it remains a problem?

    PubMed

    Wu, Miaozong; McIntosh, James; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-25

    This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard. Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed. Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of latex-derived products have been approved and regulated by government agencies, such as FDA, whereas the majority of finished products do not label whether they contain latex. Owing to millions of unidentifiable products containing latex and many routes for exposure to latex, preventing contact with latex allergens and reducing the prevalence of latex allergy are more difficult than expected. Reported data suggest that the average prevalence of latex allergy worldwide remains 9.7%, 7.2%, and 4.3% among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and general population, respectively. Latex-derived products are ubiquitous, and latex allergy remains a highly prevalent health risk in many occupations and to the general population. Developing alternative materials and increasing the ability to identify and label latex-derived products will be practicable approaches to effectively control the health risks associated with latex.

  3. Application of current allergy assessment guidelines to next-generation biotechnology-derived crops.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Gary A; Martino-Catt, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In any single day, our immune systems are exposed to thousands of different proteins from the environment and the food we eat. In a portion of the human population, some of those proteins will stimulate the immune systems to synthesize immunoglobulin E in an allergenic response. The discrepancy between the vast numbers of proteins we encounter and the limited number of proteins that actually become allergens have led scientists on a quest to discover what unique features exist that make proteins destined to be allergens. The information gained from these studies has led to an allergy assessment strategy that characterizes the potential allergenicity of biotechnology products prior to their commercialization. This testing strategy appears to be effective as shown by the fact that there have been no clinically documented food allergic reactions to any of the biotechnology proteins introduced into food crops, to date. The next generation of biotechnology products will most likely contain more complex traits, including nutritionally enhanced food crops, and the question arises as to whether the current allergy assessment strategy will be sufficient to protect the health of the consuming public. In this paper, we discuss general allergen characteristics in order to better understand how proteins become allergens, summarize the current allergy assessment process, evaluate the different aspects of this process for their adequacy in determining the allergenic potential of engineered functional foods, and, finally, we assess the possibility of new technologies having a positive impact on the allergy assessment of nutritionally enhanced crops.

  4. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  5. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  6. Current immunological and molecular biological perspectives on seafood allergy: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Nicki Y H; Wai, Christine Y Y; Shu, ShangAn; Wang, Jinjun; Kenny, Thomas P; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Seafood is an important component in human diet and nutrition worldwide. However, seafood also constitutes one of the most important groups of foods in the induction of immediate (type I) food hypersensitivity, which significantly impacts the quality of life and healthcare cost. Extensive efforts within the past two decades have revealed the molecular identities and immunological properties of the major fish and shellfish allergens. The major allergen involved in allergy and cross-reactivity among different fish species was identified as parvalbumin while that responsible for shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) allergy was identified as tropomyosin. The cloning and expression of the recombinant forms of these seafood allergens facilitate the investigation on the detailed mechanisms leading to seafood allergies, mapping of IgE-binding epitopes, and assessment of their allergenicity and stability. Future research focusing on the immunological cross-reactivity and discovery of novel allergens will greatly facilitate the management of seafood allergies and the design of effective and life-long allergen-specific immunotherapies.

  7. Current practice of allergy diagnosis and the potential impact of regulation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Victoria; Demoly, Pascal; Dreborg, Sten; Fusun Kalpaklioglu, A; Klimek, Ludger; Muraro, Antonella; Pfaar, Oliver; Popov, Todor A; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2017-09-14

    In the European Union (EU), the regulatory framework regarding diagnostic allergen extracts is currently in the process of being implemented at the national level. Due to these regulations, the initial and periodic renewal expenses for the registration of diagnostic allergen extracts may render extract production unprofitable. Consequently, many extracts may be at risk of removal from the market. The current survey, which was conducted by a task force of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, aimed to assess the current practice of allergy diagnosis in Europe. This survey revealed that skin tests continue to be the main diagnostic procedure and are used as the first option in almost 2/3 of all types of allergic diseases and in 90% of individuals suffering from respiratory allergies. Therefore, there is a need to ensure the availability of high-quality allergen extracts to maintain the common diagnostic procedures used by EU professionals. To reach this goal, it is necessary to align efforts and establish active partnerships between manufacturers, relevant scientific societies, consumer organizations and authorities to maintain the availability of these diagnostic tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  9. Latest developments in allergic rhinitis in Allergy for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Ng, C L; Wang, D Y

    2015-12-01

    Research efforts in allergic rhinitis have always been intense. Over the past 3 years, numerous breakthroughs in basic science and clinical research have been made, augmenting our understanding of this condition that afflicts a significant proportion of the global population. New epidemiological findings, novel insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergy, enhancement of current developmental theories, new concepts of the goals and endpoints of management, and latest therapeutic modalities that includes the harnessing of information technology and big data are some areas where important advances were made. We attempt to bring you a summary of the key research advances made in the field of allergic rhinitis from 2013 to 2015. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Food allergy educational needs of pediatric dietitians: a survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research.

    PubMed

    Groetch, Marion E; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A; Jones, Stacie M; Sicherer, Scott H

    2010-01-01

    To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Respondents (n = 311) were registered dietitians and members of the PNPG. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Chi-square tests were applied for subgroup analyses. Percentage responses were calculated per question based on the number of respondents answering the question. On a 4-point scale of proficiency ("high," "moderate," "low," and "none"), respondents primarily rated themselves "moderate" for educating families, creating diets, and evaluating safe food items, and "low" for creating diagnostic food challenges. Education was primarily self-taught (75%). Preferences for future resources included handbooks (77%) and Web-based instructional programs (53%). On a 4-point scale ("very" to "not at all" needed) among practices that included >10% patients with FA, ratings of "very" were defined as need resources to update FA knowledge (87%) and need for a FA "tool kit" (84%). Pediatric dietitians manage FA for a substantial patient base although their self-reported proficiency is overall only moderate. Dietitians would prefer and likely benefit from Internet-accessible management handbooks and patient handouts. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Current Collection Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Oxidizing Gases .. ..... . ... 5-2 5.3.2 Hydrocarbon and Water Vapor Additives . . 5-4 SECTION 6: FIBER BRUSH RESEARCH.. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6-1 6.1...operating in controlled inert gas atmospheres with water vapor and/or other additives. Furthenmore, greatly reduced friction coefficients and voltage...period. ! 1-5 1.3.4 Current Collector Gaseous Environment Five non-oxidizing gases, combined with water vapor, were tested as the atmosphere for the

  12. Penicillin allergy: optimizing diagnostic protocols, public health implications, and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Unverified penicillin allergy is being increasingly recognized as a public health concern. The ideal protocol for verifying true clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy needs to use only commercially available materials, be well tolerated and easy to perform in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, and minimize false-positive determinations. This review concentrates on articles published in 2013 and 2014 that present new data relating to the diagnosis and management of penicillin allergy. Penicillin allergy can be safely evaluated at this time, in patients with an appropriate clinical history of penicillin allergy, using only penicilloyl-poly-lysine and native penicillin G as skin test reagents, if an oral challenge with amoxicillin 250 mg, followed by 1 h of observation, is given to all skin test negative individuals. Millions of individuals falsely labeled with penicillin allergy need to be evaluated to safely allow them to use penicillin-class antibiotics and avoid morbidity associated with penicillin avoidance. Further research is needed to determine optimal protocol(s). There will still be a 1-2% rate of adverse reactions reported with all future therapeutic penicillin-class antibiotic use, even with optimal methods used to determine acute penicillin tolerance. Only a small minority of these new reactions will be IgE-mediated.

  13. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Workshop on Drug Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A.K.; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Ostrov, David A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Pichler, Werner J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several NIH Institutes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053

  14. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D; Gleich, Gerald J; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A K; Naisbitt, Dean J; Ostrov, David A; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Pichler, Werner J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-08-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Safety assessment of biotechnology products for potential risk of food allergy: implications of new research.

    PubMed

    Selgrade, MaryJane K; Bowman, Christal C; Ladics, Gregory S; Privalle, Laura; Laessig, Susan A

    2009-07-01

    Food allergy is a potential risk associated with use of transgenic proteins in crops. Currently, safety assessment involves consideration of the source of the introduced protein, in silico amino acid sequence homology comparisons to known allergens, physicochemical properties, protein abundance in the crop, and, when appropriate, specific immunoglobulin E binding studies. Recently conducted research presented at an International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute-hosted workshop adds to the scientific foundation for safety assessment of transgenic proteins in five areas: structure/activity, serum screening, animal models, quantitative proteomics, and basic mechanisms. A web-based tool is now available that integrates a database of allergenic proteins with a variety of computational tools which could be used to improve our ability to predict allergenicity based on structural analysis. A comprehensive strategy and model protocols have been developed for conducting meaningful serum screening, an extremely challenging process. Several animal models using oral sensitization with adjuvant and one dermal sensitization model have been developed and appear to distinguish allergenic from non-allergenic food extracts. Data presented using a mouse model suggest that pepsin resistance is indicative of allergenicity. Certain questions remain to be addressed before considering animal model validation. Gel-free mass spectrometry is a viable alternative to more labor-intensive approaches to quantitative proteomics. Proteomic data presented on four nontransgenic varieties of soy suggested that if known allergen expression in genetically modified crops falls within the range of natural variability among commercial varieties, there appears to be no need to test further. Finally, basic research continues to elucidate the etiology of food allergy.

  16. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-07-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  18. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  19. Outline of Current Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MEDICAL RESEARCH, *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, DATA PROCESSING, BIOCHEMISTRY, REPORTS, PATHOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, PARASITIC DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, VETERINARY MEDICINE .

  20. Is Low Vitamin D Status A Risk Factor For Food Allergy? Current Evidence And Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Molloy, John; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Allen, Katrina J; Tang, Mimi L K; Collier, Fiona M; Ward, Alister C; Koplin, Jennifer; Vuillermin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Studies from several countries have reported an association between latitudes further from the equator and proxy markers of food allergy prevalence. As latitudes further from the equator are associated with lower sun exposure and vitamin D status (VDS), it has been proposed that low VDS may be a risk factor for food allergy. A range of basic science evidence supports the biological plausibility of this hypothesis; and recent work has identified a cross sectional association between low VDS and challenge proven food allergy in infants. Overall, however, the evidence regarding the relationship between VDS and food allergy remains controversial and the limited longitudinal data are discouraging. In this review we consider the evidence for and against low VDS as a risk factor for food allergy and discuss the possibility that other factors (including genetic variables) may contribute to the inconsistent nature of the available observational evidence. We then discuss whether genetic and/or environmental factors may modify the potential influence of VDS on food allergy risk. Finally, we argue that given the rising burden of food allergy, the balance of available evidence regarding the potential relevance of VDS to this phenomenon, and the inherent limitations of the existing observational data, there is a compelling case for conducting randomised clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of food allergy during early life.

  1. Clinical data mining and research in the allergy office.

    PubMed

    Dalan, Dan

    2010-06-01

    More data are anticipated from the expected increase in use of electronic health records (EHRs). Upcoming initiatives require reporting of quality measures, meaningful use of clinical decision support, alert systems, and pharmacovigilance - knowledge resulting through use of EHRs. Data mining is a new tool that will help us manage information and derive knowledge from these data, and is a part of evolving new disciplines of informatics and knowledge management. Studies are reported from smaller clinic data marts to larger repositories and warehouses in various health systems, biomedical registries, and the medical literature on the Internet. Data mining technologies show promise and challenges. Outcome measures as structured data and narrative text can be mined with human assistance and newer automated natural language processing software. Despite advances, the growing diversity of clinic EHRs lack integration and interoperability with Internet-based biomedical databases. Allergists have the capability to mine clinic EHRs to discover new information, which may be hidden in charts. A central allergy computer can serve not just as a registry but also allows functionalities to enable EHRs' meaningful use. Harmonization of technological and organizational standards will allow seamless use of new natural language processing (NLP) tools and ontologies through a semantic web.

  2. [Peanut allergy].

    PubMed

    Turcanu, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy currently affects around 1% of the UK and US paediatric population and represents a major healthcare concern because it is outgrown in less than 20% of cases and is a major cause of anaphylaxis. Its main symptoms, triggered by peanut ingestion, are cutaneous (urticaria, erythema, angioedema), gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea), respiratory (wheezing, dyspnoea) and cardiovascular (hypotension, arrhythmia, shock). The usual onset of symptoms occurs soon after peanut ingestion (minutes to hours); however some patients have biphasic reactions, with exacerbations occurring up to 8 hours later. Peanut allergy diagnostic is based mainly upon the medical history (preferably including a diet diary and elimination diets), skin testing, peanut-specific IgE measurement and ideally a peanut oral challenge. Peanut allergy management includes monitorisation and education for avoiding peanut-containing foods and for recognising and treating anaphylactic episodes (self-injectable adrenalin and rapid-acting antihistamines). In the past, anti-IgE antibodies were shown to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis by reducing the allergic patients' reactivity to peanuts. Recent investigations, driven by the need to develop efficient treatment and prevention strategies for peanut allergy, suggest that oral immunotherapy with peanuts, although exposing the patients to significant risk, may represent a promising therapeutic approach. Furthermore, contrary to the general view that peanut avoidance in infants could prevent peanut allergy, a recent study shows that the opposite may be true as early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

  3. Performance and Pain Tolerability of Current Diagnostic Allergy Skin Prick Test Devices.

    PubMed

    Tversky, Jody R; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; McGready, John; Hamilton, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Single- and multiheaded skin test devices (n = 10) were applied by a single operator in a prospective randomized manner. Histamine (1 and 6 mg/mL) and control diluent were introduced at 6 randomized locations onto the upper and lower arms of healthy subjects. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians. Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and 768 skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3.0 mm (ComforTen; Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash) to 6.8 mm (UniTest PC; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill) using 1 mg/mL histamine (P < .001) and 4.8 mm (GREER Pick; Greer, Lenoir, NC) to 8.4 mm (Duotip-Test II; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill; and Sharp-Test; Panatrex, Placentia, Calif) using 6 mg/mL histamine (P < .001). The false-negative rates ranged from 0% to 45% with 1 mg/mL histamine. The analytical specificity was 100% for all devices tested. All devices were well tolerated, with average pain score of less than 4 on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. The Multi-Test PC and the UniTest PC had the lowest pain scores compared with the other devices. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold. The use of histamine at 1 mg/mL is unacceptable for certain devices but may be preferable for the most sensitive devices. On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review on emerging frontiers of house dust mite and cockroach allergy research.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Meher, B R

    Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed.

  5. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  7. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy treatment for known HDM-allergic patients is weaker. The standard diagnostic techniques--skin prick test and specific IgE testing--can be confounded by cross-reactivity. However, component-resolved diagnosis using purified and recombinant allergens can improve the accuracy of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease, as well as further development and improved access to molecular allergy diagnosis. Furthermore, there is a need for the development of better-designed clinical trials to explore the utility of allergen-specific approaches, and uptake of data into guidance for physicians on more effective diagnosis and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice.

  8. What Do We Know Now about IgE-Mediated Wheat Allergy in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Czaja-Bulsa, Grażyna; Bulsa, Michał

    2017-01-01

    IgE-mediated wheat allergy is a gluten-related disorder. Wheat is one of the five most common food allergens in children. However, the natural history of IgE-mediated wheat allergy has seldom been described in the research literature. This study presents the current state of knowledge about the IgE-mediated wheat allergy in children. PMID:28054973

  9. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Food Allergy Research and Education website. Reading Food Labels Makers of foods sold in the ... outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & ...

  10. Research resources for tuberculosis at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Global control of tuberculosis (TB) requires the participation of multiple stakeholders that cross the spectrum of biomedical research, product development, and implementation and operational research. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), plays a critical role in TB biomedical research and product development by directly supporting and leveraging other funding support strategies and providing research resources to facilitate the translation of knowledge about TB into strategies and tools to more effectively combat disease. The primary mission of NIAID is to support high quality, peer reviewed, investigator initiated research that contributes to innovation in infectious disease research. It is also within the mission of NIAID to assure that research findings are translated into vaccines, diagnostics, and drugs to better prevent, diagnose, and treat this devastating disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reflections on current food allergy controversies: specific IgE test application, patch testing, eosinophilic esophagitis, and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Bahna, Sami L

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addresses four selected issues that are current controversies in the area of food allergy. First, the diagnostic proficiency of specific IgE (sIgE) measurement. sIgE testing has been a useful screening test; the higher the level, the more likely to be clinically relevant. However, published predictive values varied from one study to another. Levels derived from data on certain groups of patients reflect probabilities that can not be applied with certainty to individual patients. Several factors need to be considered in interpreting the value of sIgE in any particular patient. Definitive decisions require well-designed challenge testing. Second, a few studies suggested the usefulness of including patch testing in food allergy evaluation. It may reveal positive results that may or may not be clinically relevant. At present, its use is not generally accepted because of inconsistency in the reported findings and the lack of standardization of test materials and interpretation. It may possibly have a role in evaluating eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) more than in atopic dermatitis. Third, EE does not seem to be a new disease or is causing a miniepidemic. Its increasing diagnosis is probably because of a greater awareness and better biopsy assessment. Fourth, the usefulness of probiotics on allergy prevention or treatment has been reported by some studies but not by others. Appropriately designed studies are needed to identify the efficacious type(s) of probiotics, effective doses, method of administration, optimal time to begin, and duration of therapy.

  12. Th17 and treg cells innovate the TH1/TH2 concept and allergy research.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2008-01-01

    Allergic reactions are caused by harmless allergens, which are recognized by the specific immune system. Allergen-specific T cells are assumed to play a key role in the sensitization phase and in immunological memory. Current immunological concepts suggest that asymptomatic T-cell memory cells also exist, tagging the allergen as harmless and preventing an inappropriate response and thus allergic symptoms. Proinflammatory T cells mediate allergic inflammation by exceeding the induction of IgE and competing with other T-cell subsets. Therefore, molecular mechanisms leading to pro- or anti-inflammatory T-cell memory cells appear as the key mechanism in allergy.

  13. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  14. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community.

  15. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic contact dermatitis. This reaction to the chemical additives used during manufacturing produces signs and symptoms — usually ... they're common in your family. Connection between food allergy and latex allergy Latex allergy also is ...

  16. Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seizure Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days ... occur the first time you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can ...

  17. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinic Staff Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy ... broth and vegetable starch Besides "soy," "soya" and "soybeans," other words on food labels may indicate that ...

  18. The research agenda of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Peters, N Kent; Dixon, Dennis M; Holland, Steven M; Fauci, Anthony S

    2008-04-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is an intrinsic and inevitable aspect of microbial survival that continually challenges human health. Research on antimicrobial resistance is central to the mission of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). In fiscal year 2007, NIAID invested more than USD800 million to support basic and translational research on antimicrobials, more than USD200 million of which is devoted to understanding the causes, consequences, and treatments of antimicrobial drug resistance. The complex process that facilitates the transformation of ideas into therapies requires a pipeline that runs from bench to bedside, and NIAID has leveraged the entire spectrum of conventional and biodefense resources. NIAID works in partnership with other federal agencies, industry, foundation partners, and foreign governments. The basic and clinical research supported by NIAID will, ideally, continue to yield profound rewards in terms of the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  19. Current contraceptive research and development.

    PubMed

    Reape, Kathleen Z

    2005-10-01

    The approval of various new contraceptive products in recent years has resulted in broadening the options available to women. Trends in contraceptive research for hormonal products include variations in dose and dosing regimens, introduction of novel compounds, evaluation of products for noncontraceptive indications, and development of nonoral delivery systems and male contraceptives. Nonhormonal areas of research include microbicidal products, dual protection methods, and contraceptive vaccines. For each of these categories, contraceptive products currently in development and the potential implications for adolescents are discussed. Ongoing contraceptive research and development activity is robust and should ensure the continued availability of various new products for adolescents.

  20. Current Physics Research. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are two current physics research areas. Solar cell efficiencies are discussed relating to present and future conversion efficiencies. Topics discussed in Astrophysics include the observation of astronomical bodies at different wavelengths, in terms of electromagnetic spectrum, tools of astronomy, compact stars, pulsars X-ray binaries,…

  1. Current Physics Research. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are two current physics research areas. Solar cell efficiencies are discussed relating to present and future conversion efficiencies. Topics discussed in Astrophysics include the observation of astronomical bodies at different wavelengths, in terms of electromagnetic spectrum, tools of astronomy, compact stars, pulsars X-ray binaries,…

  2. Current status of allergy prevalence in Germany: Position paper of the Environmental Medicine Commission of the Robert Koch Institute.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Heinrich, Joachim; Niemann, Hildegard

    The lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases in adults in Germany [self-reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases, Study on Adult Health in Germany (Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland, DEGS1, 2008-2011) of the Robert Koch Institute] is 8.6 % for asthma, 14.8 % for hay fever, 3.5 % for atopic dermatitis, 8.1 % for contact dermatitis, 4.7 % for food allergies, and 2.8 % for insect venom allergies. Almost 20 % of German adults are currently affected by at least one allergy. In tests on 50 common single allergens and two mixtures comprising either inhalant allergens or grass pollen allergens, 48.6 % of participants exhibited at least one allergic sensitization (specific IgE antibody detection). Overall, 33.6 % of participants were sensitized to inhalant allergens, 25.5 % to at least one food allergens, and 22.6 % to at least one insect venom allergens. A comparison of data on adults from 1998 [Federal Health Survey 1998 (Bundes-Gesundheitssurvey 1998, BGS98) of the Robert Koch Institute] and 2008-2011 (DEGS1) shows an increase in prevalence over time of almost three percentage points, while the rate of sensitization to inhalant allergens has increased from 29.8 % to 33.6 %. The prevalence of doctor diagnosed hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies, on the other hand, has remained virtually unchanged over the last 15 years. The Germany-wide lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases in children and adolescents [Study on the Health of Children and Adolescents in Germany (Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland, KiGGS initial survey, 2003-2006) of the Robert Koch Institute] was 4.7 % for asthma, 10.7 % for hay fever, and 13.2 % for atopic dermatitis. Altogether, 40.8 % of German children and adolescents were sensitized to at least one of the inhalant or food allergens measured, while 20.0 % were sensitized to at least one food allergen. A marked increase in hay fever prevalence among East German children in the 1990s has

  3. Current issues with research support

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  4. Food Allergy: An Enigmatic Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Current research efforts are focused on understanding the immune basis of food allergy, identifying environmental factors that may contribute to its rising prevalence, and developing immunotherapeutic approaches to re-establish immune tolerance to foods. Technological advances such as peptide microarray and MHC class II tetramers have begun to provide a comprehensive profile of the immune response to foods. The burgeoning field of mucosal immunology has provided intriguing clues to the role of the diet and the microbiota as risk factors in the development of food allergy. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge that need answers in order to stem the progression of this disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:23648309

  5. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector.

  6. The role of epigenetic mediation and the future of food allergy research.

    PubMed

    Quake, Christine; Nadeau, Kari C

    2015-07-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a developing global health problem with prevalence rising at alarmingly fast rates. In this review, we discuss the interplay between genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of food allergies. We aim to highlight the most recent evidence that suggests how epigenetic control may mediate genetic susceptibility of food allergies. We also examine how epigenetic modifications may be the key in explaining how environmental factors modulate and modify gene expression, leading to the dysregulation of immune tolerance and consequently, the development of food allergies. The emerging epigenetic paradigm in food allergies is likely to provide new mechanistic insight into food allergy risk and development as well as shape our therapeutic and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowing What You Eat: Researchers Are Looking for Ways to Help People Cope with Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies and sensitivities have always been a public health problem but are becoming more prevalent worldwide. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports that millions of Americans have allergic reactions to food each year. More than 17 million Europeans have a food allergy, and hospital admissions for severe reactions in children have risen sevenfold over the past decade, according to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

  8. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the

  9. Infant fungal communities: current knowledge and research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tonya L; Knights, Dan; Gale, Cheryl A

    2017-02-13

    The microbes colonizing the infant gastrointestinal tract have been implicated in later-life disease states such as allergies and obesity. Recently, the medical research community has begun to realize that very early colonization events may be most impactful on future health, with the presence of key taxa required for proper immune and metabolic development. However, most studies to date have focused on bacterial colonization events and have left out fungi, a clinically important sub-population of the microbiota. A number of recent findings indicate the importance of host-associated fungi (the mycobiota) in adult and infant disease states, including acute infections, allergies, and metabolism, making characterization of early human mycobiota an important frontier of medical research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge with a focus on factors influencing infant mycobiota development and associations between early fungal exposures and health outcomes. We also propose next steps for infant fungal mycobiome research, including longitudinal studies of mother-infant pairs while monitoring long-term health outcomes, further exploration of bacterium-fungus interactions, and improved methods and databases for mycobiome quantitation.

  10. Sludge treatment: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Yingju; Lee, Yu-Jen

    2017-07-15

    Sludge is produced during wastewater treatment as a residue containing most insoluble and adsorbed soluble impurities in wastewaters. This paper summarized the currently available review papers on sludge treatments and proposed the research trends based on the points raised therein. On partition aspect, sludge production rate and the reduction of production rate and the fate and transformation of involved emergent contaminants including endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products are widely studied. On release aspect, development of thermal processes on sludge with migration and transformation of heavy metals in sludge during treatment is a research focus. The use of detailed fluid and biological reaction models and advanced instrumentation and control systems is studied to optimize treatment performances. On recovery part, co-digestion of sludge with co-substrates at mesophilic and hyperthermophilic conditions and the recovery of phosphorus at low costs are research highlights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deciphering the black box of food allergy mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Vanitha; Tupa, Dana; Graham, Michelle Toft; Chatila, Talal A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Nadeau, Kari C

    2017-01-01

    To review our current understanding of immunotherapy, the immune mechanisms underlying food allergy, and the methodological advances that are furthering our understanding of the role of immune cells and other molecules in mediating food allergies. Literature searches were performed using the following combination of terms: allergy, immunotherapy, food, and mechanisms. Data from randomized clinical studies using state-of-the-art mechanistic tools were prioritized. Articles were selected based on their relevance to food allergy. Current standard of care for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic foods and the use of epinephrine in case of severe reaction during unintentional ingestion. During the last few decades, great strides have been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy, and this information is spearheading the development of exciting new treatments. Immunotherapy protocols are effective in desensitizing individuals to specific allergens; however, recurrence of allergic sensitization is common after discontinuation of therapy. Interestingly, in a subset of individuals, immunotherapy is protective against allergens even after discontinuation of immunotherapy. Whether this protection is permanent is currently unknown because of inadequate long-term follow-up data. Research on understanding the underlying mechanisms may assist in modifying protocols to improve outcome and enable sustained unresponsiveness, rather than a temporary relief against food allergies. The cellular changes brought about by immunotherapy are still a black box, but major strides in our understanding are being made at an exciting pace. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Penicillin and beta-lactam allergy: epidemiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Penicillin is the most common beta-lactam antibiotic allergy and the most common drug class allergy, reported in about 8% of individuals using health care in the USA. Only about 1% of individuals using health care in the USA have a cephalosporin allergy noted in their medical record, and other specific non-penicillin, non-cephalosporin beta-lactam allergies are even rarer. Most reported penicillin allergy is not associated with clinically significant IgE-mediated reactions after penicillin rechallenge. Un-verified penicillin allergy is a significant and growing public health problem. Clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy can be safely confirmed or refuted using skin testing with penicilloyl-poly-lysine and native penicillin G and, if skin test is negative, an oral amoxicillin challenge. Acute tolerance of an oral therapeutic dose of a penicillin class antibiotic is the current gold standard test for a lack of clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy. Cephalosporins and other non-penicillin beta-lactams are widely, safely, and appropriately used in individuals, even with confirmed penicillin allergy. There is little, if any, clinically significant immunologic cross-reactivity between penicillins and other beta-lactams. Routine cephalosporin skin testing should be restricted to research settings. It is rarely needed clinically to safely manage patients and has unclear predictive value at this time. The use of alternative cephalosporins, with different side chains, is acceptable in the setting of a specific cephalosporin allergy. Carbapenems and monobactams are also safely used in individuals with confirmed penicillin allergy. A certain predictable, but low, rate of adverse reactions will occur with all beta-lactam antibiotic use both pre- and post-beta-lactam allergy evaluations.

  13. The Impact of Family History of Allergy on Risk of Food Allergy: A Population-Based Study of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Peters, Rachel L.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The apparent rapid increase in IgE-mediated food allergy and its implications are now widely recognized, but little is known about the relationship between family history (an indirect measure of genetic risk) and the risk of food allergy. In a population-based study of 5,276 one year old infants (HealthNuts), the prevalence of oral food challenge-confirmed food allergy was measured. Associations between family history of allergic disease and food allergy in infants were examined using multiple logistic regression. Food allergy was diagnosed in 534 infants. Compared to those with no family history of allergic disease, children meeting the current definition of “high risk” for allergic disease (one immediate family member with a history of any allergic disease) showed only a modest increase (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.7) in food allergy, while having two or more allergic family members was more strongly predictive of food allergy in the child (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). There were also differences in the associations between family history and egg and peanut allergy in the child. Re-defining “high risk” as two or more allergic family members may be more useful for identification of groups with a significantly increased risk of food allergy both clinically and within research studies. PMID:24284354

  14. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  15. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish QuestionsQuestions to Ask Your ...

  16. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albuterol in Schools Access to Medications Clean Air Climate and Health Epinephrine in Schools Healthy Settings Food ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food ...

  17. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause anaphylaxis — a severe, life-threatening reaction. Avoidance is the primary treatment for milk allergy. Fortunately, ... the symptoms, such as allergy medication or milk avoidance? What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms? ...

  18. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are caused by allergies (such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema) may need other treatments. Medicines that ... shots are most effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used ...

  19. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sep. 01, 2016 Eye allergies, also called allergic conjunctivitis, are quite common. They occur when the eyes ... can tear and burn. Unlike other kinds of conjunctivitis, eye allergies are not spread from person to ...

  20. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in allergy and immunology to epidemiological and observational studies to identify risk factors and to clinical trials that are testing new strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. Read on ...

  1. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy Egg Allergy Soy Allergy ... Gluten Substitutions for Soy Substitutions for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the ...

  2. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Library View All » Allergy-Free Recipes » Allergy-Free Play Dough Recipes » Anaphylaxis Action Plan » Anaphylaxis Wallet Card » ... D and Food Allergy » When Should Children and Adolescents Assume Responsibility for Self-Treatment of ... Free Zone » Peanut Free Zone » Information ...

  3. Shellfish allergy--an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Gerez, Irvin; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Bee Wah

    2012-03-01

    Shellfish forms a common food source in the Asia-Pacific and is also growing in the West. This review aims to summarize the current literature on the epidemiology and research on shellfish allergy with particular focus on studies emerging from the Asia-Pacific region. A PubMed search using search strategies "Shellfish AND Allergy", "Shellfish Allergy Asia", and "Shellfish AND anaphylaxis" was made. In all, 244 articles written in English were reviewed. Shellfish allergy in the Asia-Pacific ranks among the highest in the world and is the most common cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Shellfish are classified into molluscs and arthropods. Of the arthropods, the crustaceans in particular Penaeid prawns are the most common cause of allergy and are therefore most extensively studied. Several classes of allergens have been identified. The tropomyosins (class 1 allergens) are the best defined. Despite the establishment of molecular homology and allergenic cross reactivity between allergens of the same class, clinical cross-reactivity is more variable between patients and less clearly defined. There are two relatively unique clinical manifestations of IgE-mediated prawn allergy: (1) isolated oral allergy symptoms; and (2) wide spectrum of severity and sometimes even within the same individual. Shellfish allergy is common in the Asia Pacific. More research including food challenge-proven subjects are required to establish the true prevalence, as well as to understand clinical cross reactivity and variations in clinical features.

  4. Fungal allergy in asthma–state of the art and research needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to fungi and long term or uncontrolled fungal infection are associated with poor control of asthma, the likelihood of more severe disease and complications such as bronchiectasis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Modelling suggests that >6.5 million people have severe asthma with fungal sensitizations (SAFS), up to 50% of adult asthmatics attending secondary care have fungal sensitization, and an estimated 4.8 million adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). There is much uncertainty about which fungi and fungal allergens are relevant to asthma, the natural history of sensitisation to fungi, if there is an exposure response relationship for fungal allergy, and the pathogenesis and frequency of exacerbations and complications. Genetic associations have been described but only weakly linked to phenotypes. The evidence base for most management strategies in ABPA, SAFS and related conditions is weak. Yet straightforward clinical practice guidelines for management are required. The role of environmental monitoring and optimal means of controlling disease to prevent disability and complications are not yet clear. In this paper we set out the key evidence supporting the role of fungal exposure, sensitisation and infection in asthmatics, what is understood about pathogenesis and natural history and identify the numerous areas for research studies. PMID:24735832

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  6. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Joshua A.; Assa'ad, Amal; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Wood, Robert A.; Plaut, Marshall; Cooper, Susan F.; Fenton, Matthew J.; Arshad, S. Hasan; Bahna, Sami L.; Beck, Lisa A.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Camargo, Carlos A.; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Furuta, Glenn T.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Jones, Carol; Kraft, Monica; Levy, Bruce D.; Lieberman, Phil; Luccioli, Stefano; McCall, Kathleen M.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Simon, Ronald A.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Teach, Stephen J.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Schwaninger, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy also may vary from one clinical practice setting to another. Finally, because patients frequently confuse nonallergic food reactions, such as food intolerance, with food allergies, there is an unfounded belief among the public that food allergy prevalence is higher than it truly is. In response to these concerns, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with 34 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, led the development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. These Guidelines are intended for use by a wide variety of health care professionals, including family practice physicians, clinical specialists, and nurse practitioners. The Guidelines include a consensus definition for food allergy, discuss comorbid conditions often associated with food allergy, and focus on both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions to food. Topics addressed include the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, as well as the management of severe symptoms and anaphylaxis. These Guidelines provide 43 concise clinical recommendations and additional guidance on points of current controversy in patient management. They also identify gaps in the current scientific knowledge to be addressed through future research. PMID:21134576

  7. Systematic review of nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple IgE-mediated food allergies.

    PubMed

    Sova, Cassandra; Feuling, Mary Beth; Baumler, Megan; Gleason, Linda; Tam, Jonathan S; Zafra, Heidi; Goday, Praveen S

    2013-12-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of American children. The current recommended treatment for food allergies is strict elimination of the allergens from the diet. Dietary elimination of nutrient-dense foods may result in inadequate nutrient intake and impaired growth. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze available research on the effect of an elimination diet on nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple food allergies. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and a workgroup was established to critically analyze each relevant article. The findings were summarized and a conclusion was generated. Six studies were analyzed. One study found that children with food allergies are more likely to be malnourished than children without food allergies. Three studies found that children with multiple food allergies were shorter than children with 1 food allergy. Four studies assessed nutrient intake of children with multiple food allergies, but the inclusion and comparison criteria were different in each of the studies and the findings were conflicting. One study found that children with food allergies who did not receive nutrition counseling were more likely to have inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Children with multiple food allergies have a higher risk of impaired growth and may have a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake than children without food allergies. Until more research is available, we recommend monitoring of nutrition and growth of children with multiple food allergies to prevent possible nutrient deficiencies and to optimize growth.

  8. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  9. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  10. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional research is warranted to address gaps in knowledge, such as the effects of cell phone use ... Report - Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices ... Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  11. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  12. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  13. Drug and vaccine allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2015-02-01

    Most children with a history of penicillin allergy are labeled allergic and denied treatment with penicillin and sometimes other beta-lactam antibiotics. Most of these children never were or are no longer allergic to penicillin. Penicillin skin testing and oral challenge can identify patients who are not currently allergic, allowing them to be treated with penicillin. Children with egg allergy are often denied influenza vaccination, because the vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that children with even severe egg allergy can safely receive the vaccine, reducing their risk of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza.

  14. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  15. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations.

  16. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  17. Current Physics Research: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1980-01-01

    This article is a preview of the book, "Physics News in 1980." Five research areas are reviewed: high energy particle accelerators, fusion reactors, solar cells, astrophysics, and gauge theories. (Author/DS)

  18. Current Physics Research: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1980-01-01

    This article is a preview of the book, "Physics News in 1980." Five research areas are reviewed: high energy particle accelerators, fusion reactors, solar cells, astrophysics, and gauge theories. (Author/DS)

  19. Developmental Dyslexia: Current Anatomical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert

    1983-01-01

    Findings from anatomical research are highlighted in a discussion of the role of anomalous lateralization and asymmetry in the dyslexic brain. Studies of animal asymmetry are cited along with studies of humans. (CL)

  20. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.

  1. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  2. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English as the instructional medium, teacher's use of language, Tamil language management, standardizing texts, cross-cultural business negotiations, and assessment of English language needs in computer science. (LB)

  3. Current Research on Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, Lucy W., Comp.

    Focusing on women, this annotated bibliography reviews recent research-oriented literature that investigates sex roles. The main concern is the role and place of women in present-day United States society. The literature areas which the bibliography covers are bibliographies and sources, action organizations, media, women's movement, affirmative…

  4. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English as the instructional medium, teacher's use of language, Tamil language management, standardizing texts, cross-cultural business negotiations, and assessment of English language needs in computer science. (LB)

  5. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  6. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Do Allergies Cause Asthma? ... Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who have allergies , or a family history of allergies, are more likely to get asthma ...

  7. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  8. Current research in preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Dhelia M; Abe, Karon; Bean, Christopher; Ferré, Cynthia; Henderson, Zsakeba; Lackritz, Eve

    2008-12-01

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant mortality and the leading cause of infant morbidity in the United States. It accounts for >70% of neonatal deaths and almost half of long-term neurological disabilities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with state health departments, universities, communities, and healthcare providers to understand why preterm births occur and how to address preterm birth risk factors. These collaborations include identification of genetic and other biological markers for the early detection of women at high risk of preterm birth; improving understanding of the relationships among psychosocial stress, immune and inflammatory responses, and preterm risk; and designing community strategies to improve the health of pregnant women. By conducting public health research activities that explore the genetic, biological, clinical, behavioral, social, and community determinants of preterm birth, CDC will continue to elucidate the complex interactions of these factors and how they influence preterm birth.

  9. Current Research on Antiepileptic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheng-Xi; Bian, Ming; Gong, Guo-Hua

    2015-11-20

    Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world's population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development of more effective and safer AEDs. Based on our research work on antiepileptic compounds and other references in recent years, this review covers the reported work on antiepileptic compounds which are classified according to their structures. This review summarized 244 significant anticonvulsant compounds which are classified by functional groups according to the animal model data, although there are some limitations in the data. This review highlights the properties of new compounds endowed with promising antiepileptic properties, which may be proven to be more effective and selective, and possibly free of unwanted side effects. The reviewed compounds represent an interesting possibility to overcome refractory seizures and to reduce the percentage of patients with a poor response to drug therapy.

  10. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671

  11. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a dust mite allergy can make worse Allergy shots are effective for common allergens such as: Weed and tree pollen Grass Mold or fungus Animal dander Dust mites Insect stings Adults (including the older people) as ...

  12. Current COIL research in Samara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolayev, V. D.

    1996-02-01

    Development of the high pressure singlet oxygen generator (SOG) is a very important aspect for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Increasing of oxygen pressure up to 30 torr and more at conserving high O2(1(Delta) ) yield and maintaining BHP temperature at minus (10 divided by 20) degrees Celsius permits us to decrease ration [H2O]/[O2] to 5% and less. In this case COIL can operate successfully without a water vapor trap. With raising the total pressure Reynolds number increases too, diminishing boundary layers in supersonic nozzles and improving pressure recovery. The weight and dimensions of the SOG and laser become reduced for the same gas flow rate. For solving these problems the jet SOG has been suggested and developed in Lebedev Physical Institute, Samara Branch. The advantages of the jet SOG consist of the following: (1) Large and controlled specific surface of contact liquid-gas provides for high mass transfer efficiency. (2) High jets velocity guarantees fast basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) surface renovation. (3) High gas velocity in the reaction zone diminishes O2(1(Delta) ) quenching. (4) Efficient gas-liquid heat exchange eliminates the gas heating and generation water vapor due O2(1(Delta) ) quenching. (5) Counterflowing design of the jet SOG produces the best conditions for self-cleaning gas flow of droplets in the reaction zone and gives the possibility of COIL operation without droplets separator. High pressure jet SOG has some features connected with intrachannel jet formation, free space jets reconstruction, interaction jets ensemble with counter moving gas flow and drag part of gas by jets, disintegrating jets, generation and separation of droplets, heat effects, surface renovation, impoverishment BHP surface by HO2- ions, moving solution film on the reaction zone walls, etc. In this communication our current understanding of the major processes in the jet SOG is set forth. The complex gas and hydrodynamic processes with heat and mass transfer

  13. Allergy in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Anaphylaxis Types of Allergies: Ragweed Allergy Pine Tree Allergy Hives (Urticaria) Food Allergy Types of Food ... Fish Allergy Eosinophilic Esophagitis Egg Allergy Corn Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Food Allergy Diagnosis Food Allergy Avoidance ...

  15. Clinical Management of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Benjamin L.; Walkner, Madeline; Vickery, Brian P.; Gupta, Ruchi S.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Food allergies have become a growing public health concern. Currently the standard of care focuses on avoidance of trigger foods, education, and treatment of symptoms following accidental ingestions. Here we provide a framework for primary care physicians and allergists for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric food allergy. PMID:26456440

  16. 77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Panel; NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation. Date..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  17. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

  18. Recent, Current, and Projected Research at Gallaudet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The document contains summaries of recently completed, current, or projected research from Gallaudet College on the social and cultural aspects of deafness, language and communication, and educational research. Among the issues addressed by the research are the following: deafness in media, relationship between deaf students and their parents in…

  19. Peanut allergy: an evolving clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Kanao; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2011-10-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated food allergy responsible for causing severe and occasionally fatal reactions in those sensitized to peanuts. The prevalence of peanut allergy appears to be on the rise worldwide, yet there are no therapeutics currently available that can alter the course of this condition. This article will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of peanut allergy and discuss future possibilities in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  20. Current practice trends in allergy: results of a united states survey of otolaryngologists, allergist-immunologists, and primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew W; Marple, Bradley F; Leatherman, Bryan; Mims, J Whit; Fornadley, John; Veling, Maria; Lin, Sandra Y

    2014-10-01

    Clinical practices for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease evolve over time in response to a variety of forces. The techniques used by various physician specialties are not clearly defined and may vary from published descriptions or recommendations in the literature. This work is a Web-based survey enrolling 250 U.S. physicians in the following specialties: otolaryngology (ENT), allergy-immunology (A/I), and primary care (PCP). Respondents reported that skin-prick testing is the most common diagnostic testing method, followed by in vitro specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing. ENTs were more likely to use intradermal testing compared to other specialties (p = 0.0003 vs A/I; p < 0.0001 vs PCP). Respondents reported a wide distribution in number of allergens tested, regardless of testing method (range, 11 to >60). Significant use of home immunotherapy injections (defined as >10% of immunotherapy patients) ranged from 27% to 36% of physicians, with no statistically significant difference noted based upon specialty. PCPs reported greater use of sublingual immunotherapy (PCP, 68%; A/I, 45%; otolaryngology, 35%; A/I vs PCP, p = 0.005; ENT vs PCP p < 0.001)). A variety of allergy testing and treatment methods are employed by U.S. physicians, with some differences noted based upon specialty. Home immunotherapy continues to be employed in allergy practices, and sublingual immunotherapy is a common form of delivery, especially in primary care practices. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. Avoiding the problem foods may be easy if the food is ...

  2. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves are coated with cornstarch powder, latex protein particles can stick to the cornstarch and fly into ... removed frequently, the air may contain many latex particles. SymptomsWhat are the symptoms of latex allergy?Latex ...

  3. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  4. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching shellfish or breathing in vapors from cooking shellfish. Shellfish allergy can develop at ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  5. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All Rights Reserved. Legal Notices | Site Map | Contact Us Social navigation Facebook Twitter Mobile navigation Home Conditions & Treatments Education & Training Practice Resources About AAAAI Search navigation Find ...

  6. Sun Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ... have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ...

  7. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a shellfish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  8. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  9. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food ... are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have more than one food allergy, ...

  10. [Ocular allergies].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2005-05-01

    Recent developments indicate that ocular allergy is more than an IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. Ocular allergy is a disease affecting the entire ocular surface including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, lacrimal gland and tear film. Besides an IgE-mediated reaction, a complex chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many ocular allergies. According to their pathogenesis and clinical picture, ocular allergies are classified into mild forms, such as seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis as well as giant papillary conjunctivitis, and chronic, potentially blinding forms such as atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. New therapeutics act on the entire inflammatory process or try to modulate the allergic reaction early and specifically. The association with non-ocular allergic symptoms requires an interdisciplinary approach.

  11. Penicillin Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions cannot be detected by skin tests. Graded challenge If the diagnosis of a penicillin allergy is ... he or she may recommend a graded drug challenge. With this procedure, you receive four to five ...

  12. Kiwifruit allergies.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima

    2013-01-01

    While kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. Isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. Eleven green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as Act d 1 through Act d 11. Bet v 1 homologue (Act d 8) and profilin (Act d 9) are important allergens in polysensitized subjects, whereas actinidin (Act d 1) is important in kiwifruit monosensitized subjects. Differences in allergenicity have been found among kiwifruit cultivars. Allergy sufferers might benefit from the selection and breeding of low-allergenic kiwifruit cultivars.

  13. Allergy and orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  14. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  16. The Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository: A Novel Framework for Childhood Asthma and Allergy Research.

    PubMed

    Butsch Kovacic, Melinda; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Lindsey, Mark; Patterson, Tia; Sauter, Sharon; Ericksen, Mark B; Ryan, Patrick; Assa'ad, Amal; Lierl, Michelle; Fischer, Thomas; Kercsmar, Carolyn; McDowell, Karen; Lucky, Anne W; Sheth, Anita P; Hershey, Andrew D; Ruddy, Richard M; Rothenberg, Marc E; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic disorders, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and food allergy, are a major global health burden. The study and management of allergic disorders is complicated by the considerable heterogeneity in both the presentation and natural history of these disorders. Biorepositories serve as an excellent source of data and biospecimens for delineating subphenotypes of allergic disorders, but such resources are lacking. METHODS: In order to define subphenotypes of allergic disease accurately, we established an infrastructure to link and efficiently utilize clinical and epidemiologic data with biospecimens into a single biorepository called the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository (GCPCR). Children with allergic disorders as well as healthy controls are followed longitudinally at hospital clinic, emergency department, and inpatient visits. Subjects' asthma, allergy, and skin symptoms; past medical, family, social, diet, and environmental histories; physical activity; medication adherence; perceived quality of life; and demographics are ascertained. DNA is collected from all participants, and other biospecimens such as blood, hair, and nasal epithelial cells are collected on a subset. RESULTS: To date, the GCPCR has 6,317 predominantly Caucasian and African American participants, and 93% have banked DNA. This large sample size supports adequately powered genetic, epidemiologic, environmental, and health disparities studies of childhood allergic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The GCPCR is a unique biorepository that is continuously evaluated and refined to achieve and maintain rigorous clinical phenotype and biological data. Development of similar disease-specific repositories using common data elements is necessary to enable studies across multiple populations of comprehensively phenotyped patients.

  17. Medication/Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  18. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network -- www.allergyasthmanetwork.org American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology -- www. ...

  19. Management of food allergy: a survey of Australian paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Deborah Y; Hiscock, Harriet; Allen, Katrina J; Davies, Sarah; Danchin, Margie H

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy in the developed world is increasing, overwhelming tertiary allergy services. Alternative models of care are required. General paediatricians could provide this care but may require further training to do so. We aimed to determine Australian general paediatricians': (i) knowledge and management of IgE-mediated food allergy; (ii) access to and use of diagnostic services; and (iii) interest in further training. Members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network completed an online survey in 2011/12. A case study elicited paediatrician's knowledge of diagnostic history taking, testing and key management principles. Study-designed questions assessed paediatricians' current practice, access to allergy services and interest in further training. One hundred sixty-eight (43%) of 390 paediatricians responded; 93 paediatricians reported managing food allergy. Diagnostic and management practices varied widely. Paediatricians had high levels of agreement (>90%) for only three of 13 questions pertaining to diagnosis and management. Only 56 (61%) correctly identified that a diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy requires a history consistent with a clinical reaction and a positive specific serum IgE antibody or skin prick test result. Reported waiting times for tertiary allergy services ranged from 5.4 (private) to 10.6 months (public). Most (91%) paediatricians expressed interest in further training. General paediatricians would benefit from further training if they are to practice allergy care as their diagnosis and management is often inconsistent with international guidelines. Training could be delivered online to maximise reach and uptake. If effective, such a model could relieve some of the burden experienced by Australian tertiary allergy services. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use.

  2. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic Diseases, Host Responses, Cancer, Autoinflammatory Diseases, Type 1 diabetes and viruses. There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. PMID:22132881

  3. Allergy to Uncommon Pets: New Allergies but the Same Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are three main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies. PMID:24416032

  4. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  5. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  6. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  7. Forestry research evaluation: current progress, future directions.

    Treesearch

    Christopher D. Risbrudt; Pamela J. Jakes

    1985-01-01

    Research evaluation is a relatively recent endeavor in forestry economics. This workshop represents most of the current and recently completed studies available in this subfield of forestry and evaluation. Also included are discussions of scientists and policymakers concerning the uses of forestry research evaluations, evaluation problems encountered, solutions...

  8. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  9. Modifying the infant's diet to prevent food allergy.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Kate; Logan, Kirsty; O'Donovan, Sinead; Kiely, Mairead; Patient, Karine; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Beyer, Kirsten; Campbell, Dianne E; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Lack, Gideon; Mills, Clare; Wal, Jean-Michel; Roberts, Graham

    2017-02-01

    Recommendations and guidelines on the prevention of food allergy have changed in recent decades. The aim of this review of the current evidence and ongoing studies is to provide a comprehensive and up to date picture of prevention of food allergy for healthcare professionals. The review was undertaken as part of the European Union funded Integrated Approaches to Food Allergy and Allergen Management (iFAAM) study. This is a wide ranging project bringing together expertise across the breadth of food allergy research. Specifically, the review discusses dietary manipulation in food allergy prevention, and covers the possible preventive strategies of allergen avoidance, early allergen introduction, general nutrition and supplements, as well as other strategies, such as prebiotics and probiotics. The review concludes that despite agreement that allergen avoidance strategies should not be undertaken for allergy prevention, there is currently no consensus regarding what actions should be recommended beyond exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life. Recent and upcoming trial results, which are detailed in this review, should help inform the debate and add clarity to the topic. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Baral, V R; Hourihane, J O'B

    2005-11-01

    Food allergy is being increasingly recognised with the highest prevalence being in preschool children. Pathogenesis varies so diagnosis rests on careful history and clinical examination, appropriate use of skin prick and serum-specific IgE testing, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. A double blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard diagnostic test. Avoidance of the allergenic food is the key towards successful management. IgE mediated food allergy may present as a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, and management consists of the appropriate use of adrenaline (epinephrine) and supportive measures. Sensitisation remains a key target for intervention. Disease modifying agents are currently under trial for managing difficult allergies. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and follow up.

  11. Latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Gawchik, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important clinical condition that occurred after the institution of universal precautions to protect healthcare workers. A rapid increase and production of both examination and surgical gloves resulted in an epidemic of allergy to latex protein. Healthcare workers in both the medical and dental environments, as well as specific groups of individuals including those with spina bifida, myelodysplasia, and food allergies (banana, kiwi, avocado, and others), were at increased risk of sensitization. Clinical symptoms in the latex allergic individual ranged from type I hypersensitivity reaction including rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and systemic reaction to type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which occur from the chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Diagnosis of latex allergy is based on a clinical history that correlates the development of symptoms in relationship to exposure. In the United States there are no skin tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore a combination of clinical judgment and serologic testing such as ImmunoCAP and Immulite is helpful. The primary treatment of latex allergy is avoidance of exposure to the latex protein.

  12. Adult-onset food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  13. 75 FR 29770 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  14. 76 FR 31618 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856...

  15. 76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Panel, ``NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (R24....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. Current challenges in dedifferentiated fat cells research.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mickey; George, Richard L; Evancho-Chapman, M Michelle; Zhang, Ge

    2016-07-02

    Dedifferentiated fat cells show great promises as a novel cell source for stem cell research. It has many advantages when used for cell-based therapeutics including abundance, pluripotency, and safety. However, there are many obstacles researchers need to overcome to make the next big move in DFAT cells research. In this review, we summarize the current main challenges in DFAT cells research including cell culture purity, phenotypic properties, and dedifferentiation mechanisms. The common methods to produce DFAT cells as well as the cell purity issue during DFAT cell production have been introduced. Current approaches to improve DFAT cell purity have been discussed. The phenotypic profile of DFAT cells have been listed and compared with other stem cells. Further studies on elucidating the underlying dedifferentiation mechanisms will dramatically advance DFAT cell research.

  17. Macrolides allergy.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Luis; Demoly, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Macrolides are characterised by their basic structure which is made up of a lactonic cycle with 2 osidic chains. They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in the cycle : 14 membered macrolides (erythromicin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, clarithromycin), 15 membered (azithromycin) and 16 membered (spiramycin, josamycin, midecamycin) macrolides. Epidemiological studies show that macrolides are amongst the safest antibiotics, but in these series, no drug allergy work up was performed. An immediate IgE dependent hypersensitivity has been shown with erythromycin in some cases. The mechanism is unknown and the skin tests are negative in most other cases. It would appear that the macrolide allergies are unlikely to be class allergies. Eviction is the treatment of choice. Desensitization has been successful in a few cases.

  18. [Drug allergy].

    PubMed

    Pichler, W J

    1994-01-01

    Drug allergies can cause a great variety of symptoms and can thus imitate various diseases, like in previous times the lues. Drug allergies can be classified into three subgroups, which differ in their pathophysiology and require different diagnostic steps: firstly, classical drug allergies which are directed to the drug itself, a reactive compound of it or some contamination of the drug; secondly, pseudoallergic reactions which are caused by nonimmune mediated degranulation of mast cells and basophils; and thirdly, autoimmune reactions in which the drug elicits an immune reaction to autologous structures. A very detailed (criminalistic) history has the highest priority for the clarification of a suspected drug-allergic reaction; in addition, skin tests, serological tests and the lymphocyte transformation test might be useful. One should differentiate between tests which imitate the drug-elicited allergic reaction (i.e. Coombs test in drug induced hemolytic anemia) and tests which solely indicate a sensitization, these tests should be interpreted accordingly.

  19. [Respiratory allergies].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Demoly, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory allergies represent a global and public health problem, due to their prevalence (still increasing), morbidity, impact on the quality of life and costs for the society. They mainly concern rhinitis (or rhinoconjunctivitis) and asthma. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options that are otherwise not appropriate, such as allergen immunotherapy and allergen avoidance, that are prescribed following a stepwise approach. It has been a century since the first trial in specific immunotherapy was performed and this still remains the only disease modifying treatment for allergic individuals. In terms of route of administration, sublingual immunotherapy represents a good alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy, considering its proven efficacy and better safety profile.

  20. GOALS AND CURRENT RESEARCH OF EPA'S STREAM RESTORATION RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is involved in ongoing research on stream and riparian restoration. This presentation is designed to discuss current EPA research efforts, identify key issues in the science and practice of stream restoration, and to help frame a future National Research Council study...

  1. 78 FR 24761 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  2. 78 FR 19276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  3. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography), 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The titles, managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, investigators and objectives of 127 current research projects in advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning, visibility, low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, and turbulence are tabulated and cross-referenced. A list of pertinent reference material produced through the above tabulated research activities is given. The acquired information is assembled in bibliography form to provide a readily available source of information in the area of aviation meteorology.

  4. The microbiome in allergic disease: Current understanding and future opportunities-2017 PRACTALL document of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yvonne J; Marsland, Benjamin J; Bunyavanich, Supinda; O'Mahony, Liam; Leung, Donald Y M; Muraro, Antonella; Fleisher, Thomas A

    2017-04-01

    PRACTALL is a joint initiative of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology to provide shared evidence-based recommendations on cutting-edge topics in the field of allergy and immunology. PRACTALL 2017 is focused on what has been established regarding the role of the microbiome in patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. This is complemented by outlining important knowledge gaps regarding its role in allergic disease and delineating strategies necessary to fill these gaps. In addition, a review of progress in approaches used to manipulate the microbiome will be addressed, identifying what has and has not worked to serve as a baseline for future directions to intervene in allergic disease development, progression, or both. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  6. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-10-31

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  7. Current Research of Family Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sharon; Wuelser, Ann

    This paper investigates existing research about the strengths and weakness of current family literacy programs and presents a 98-item list of family literacy activities across the curricula for adult educators to promote intergenerational literacy. Educational experts feel that family literacy programs need more evaluation, and that the…

  8. Novel approaches to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-06-01

    Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future.

  9. Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

  10. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  11. The current overuse and misuse of meta-analyses on sublingual immunotherapy: the case of grass pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Gritti, Bruna Luciana; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Meta-analysis provides the highest level of evidence-based efficacy of a medical treatment or intervention. Allergen immunotherapy in its two forms of subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an effective treatment of respiratory allergy as shown by meta-analyses, but in recent years there has been an overflow of meta-analyses on SLIT, with contrasting results that may generate confusion among physicians. It can be observed that flaws are often present in meta-analyses including: incorrect selection of trials, inappropriate use of evaluation parameters for the analysis, and unsuitable analyses. For instance, it is clear that a meta-analysis of several small studies does not predict the results of a single large study that remains the gold standard to assess the efficacy and safety of a treatment. To assess the interest of the matter, we calculated the number of citations of meta-analyses on SLIT efficacy in the 10 years after the first publication in 2005 and detected a continuous decrease in citations. Today, the appropriateness of a meta-analysis should be carefully evaluated, taking into account that a meta-analysis uses a statistical approach to combine the results from multiple small studies to increase power, to improve estimates of the size of the effect, and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. Editors and reviewers of medical journals should consider that to judge a meta-analysis requires a high level of expertise that is obvious in reviewers belonging to the Cochrane organization.

  12. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Panel; NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (R24....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  13. 78 FR 4423 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date...@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  14. 75 FR 58410 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  15. 77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Emphasis Panel, NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

  16. 77 FR 21789 - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

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  17. 76 FR 5596 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  18. 76 FR 64358 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  19. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  20. 76 FR 61719 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  1. 75 FR 7486 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  2. 76 FR 70155 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  3. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...

  4. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34) Grants..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  5. 78 FR 23771 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. Integrated fundamental research on current collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris; Tran, Leo

    1993-06-01

    The aim of our research was to add to the basic understanding in the area of current collection with particular emphasis on topics likely to benefit practical objectives. Under sponsorship of this contract, 23 papers were published in the international literature. Additionally, 13 invited lectures and 11 contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were delivered at universities, research laboratories, and international conferences by the principal investigator and co-workers. The development of a novel metal fiber material for sliding electrical contacts was continued with much success. This is expected to become very useful for making metal fiber brushed for homopolar motors/generators, as well as for EML armatures. Included in this report are title pages (and abstracts) for the 23 published papers.

  7. Integrated fundamental research on current collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris

    1992-10-01

    The aim of our research has been to add to basic understanding in the area of current collection with particular emphasis on topics likely to benefit practical objectives. Under sponsorship of this contract twenty three papers were published in the international literature as listed in the last section. Additionally, thirteen invited lectures and eleven contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were delivered at Universities, Research Laboratories and International Conferences by the Principal Investigator and co-workers. Last not least, development of a novel metal fiber material for sliding electrical contacts has been continued with much success. This is expected to become very useful for making metal fiber brushes for homopolar motors/generators as well as for EML armatures.

  8. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  9. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 years old. Allergy shots, which are given year-round, work better against some substances than others. Generally, ... peak allergy season. But many kids battle allergies year-round, and some can't control their symptoms with ...

  10. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Too Short All About Puberty Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? ... a tight feeling in the chest. Do Allergies Cause YOUR Asthma? If you have asthma, it's a ...

  11. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy ... worse. previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... may order allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Food Allergy Hay Fever Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  13. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  14. Immunotherapy in food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:20543886

  15. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  16. Sublingual vs Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Narisety, Satya D.; Keet, Corinne A.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy in developed countries has increased in recent years, escalating the need to find a suitable form of treatment as an alternative to current management, which includes strict avoidance and ready availability of injectable epinephrine (adrenaline). Allergen immunotherapy is currently being studied for use in the treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy to the most common foods, including peanut, tree nut, milk and egg. Two modalities, oral immunotherapy (OIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), have shown great promise. Both OIT and SLIT have been able to desensitize subjects to varying degrees, but the two treatment methods differ in doses that can be achieved, duration of treatment, safety profile and ease of use outside the research setting, among other aspects. More research is needed to conclude which mode of treatment is more effective in inducing long-term tolerance with the least amount of serious adverse reactions. However, OIT and SLIT show great promise, and a widespread treatment for food allergy may be within reach. PMID:23009174

  17. The Health Services Research Workforce: Current Stock

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Sandra; Moore, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the size and characteristics of the health services research (HSR) workforce; the job satisfaction, job security, and future plans reported by the workforce; and the future of the HSR workforce supply. Data Sources (1) AcademyHealth active and lapsed members since 2000 and annual research meeting presenters and interest group participants; (2) principal investigators of research projects listed in the HSRProj database; and (3) authors of articles published in two HSR journals. Study Design Data on investigators conducting HSR in selected venues were collected and compared in order to identify the percentage of the HSR workforce represented in the “core” versus related disciplines and to investigate the extent to which the “core” researchers publish, present, or participate in disciplinary venues. Principal Findings The field appears to have grown dramatically since 1995, from an estimated 5,000 health services researchers to an estimated 11,596 in 2007. This is a broad workforce characterized by various levels of involvement in the field. Some researchers self-identify with the field of HSR, while others are associated primarily with venues related to specific disciplines. Many researchers who identify with HSR also publish in venues related to multiple other disciplines. Conclusions The field may face future challenges related to demographic change, such as an aging workforce and an increased need for diversity. International collaboration appears common, and in the future the field may need to be defined internationally rather than nationally. At the same time, there are also many indications that HSR is a good field to work in. Health services researchers reported high levels of satisfaction with their profession and current employer, as well as little desire to change jobs and little concern about job security. PMID:20459584

  18. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular nondepolarizing agents, sex factors, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Additional studies were identified from article reference lists. Relevant, peer-reviewed original research articles, case series and reviews were considered for review. Current epidemiological studies on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have used different definitions for ADR-related terminology, often do not differentiate immunologically and non-immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity, study different study populations (different ethnicities, inpatients or outpatients, adults or children), utilize different methodologies (spontaneous vs. non-spontaneous reporting, cohort vs. case-control studies), different methods of assessing drug imputability and different methods of data analyses. Potentially life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. HLA associations for SCAR associated with allopurinol, carbamazepine and abacavir have been reported with the potential for clinical use in screening prior to prescription. Identification of risk factors for drug allergy and appropriate genetic screening of at-risk ethnic groups may improve the outcomes of drug-specific SCAR. Research and collaboration are necessary for the generation of clinically-relevant, translational pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenomic knowledge, and success of health outcomes research and policies on drug allergies. PMID:21480948

  19. Surgical and immune reconstitution murine models in bone marrow research: Potential for exploring mechanisms in sepsis, trauma and allergy

    PubMed Central

    Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; Ferreira, Renato Nunes; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez C

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow, the vital organ which maintains lifelong hemopoiesis, currently receives considerable attention, as a source of multiple cell types which may play important roles in repair at distant sites. This emerging function, distinct from, but closely related to, bone marrow roles in innate immunity and inflammation, has been characterized through a number of strategies. However, the use of surgical models in this endeavour has hitherto been limited. Surgical strategies allow the experimenter to predetermine the site, timing, severity and invasiveness of injury; to add or remove aggravating factors (such as infection and defects in immunity) in controlled ways; and to manipulate the context of repair, including reconstitution with selected immune cell subpopulations. This endows surgical models overall with great potential for exploring bone marrow responses to injury, inflammation and infection, and its roles in repair and regeneration. We review three different murine surgical models, which variously combine trauma with infection, antigenic stimulation, or immune reconstitution, thereby illuminating different aspects of the bone marrow response to systemic injury in sepsis, trauma and allergy. They are: (1) cecal ligation and puncture, a versatile model of polymicrobial sepsis; (2) egg white implant, an intriguing model of eosinophilia induced by a combination of trauma and sensitization to insoluble allergen; and (3) ectopic lung tissue transplantation, which allows us to dissect afferent and efferent mechanisms leading to accumulation of hemopoietic cells in the lungs. These models highlight the gain in analytical power provided by the association of surgical and immunological strategies. PMID:28890868

  20. Mechanisms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, R M; Burks, A W

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in 'westernized' societies; it has been linked to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and allergenicity are current topics of controversy.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan M H; Dumitru, Catalina; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-11-01

    Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers.

  2. Current Research of Trichinellosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Xiaolei; Tang, Bin; Liu, Mingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Trichinellosis, caused by Trichinella, is an emerging or re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease, which is distributed worldwide with major socio-economic importance in some developing countries. In particular, it has been calculated that more than 40 million people are at risk of Trichinella infection in China. This review summarizes the current information on the epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and vaccines of trichinellosis in China. Moreover, study of the treatment potential of using Trichinella for immune-related diseases and cancer, as well as the transcription and post-transcription modification of Trichinella were also collected, providing viewpoints for future investigations. Current advances in research will help us to develop new strategies for the prevention and control of trichinellosis and may potentially yield biological agents for treating other diseases. PMID:28824597

  3. [Leadership behaviour and health - current research state].

    PubMed

    Gregersen, S; Kuhnert, S; Zimber, A; Nienhaus, A

    2011-01-01

    The link between leaders' behaviour and health has only recently been the focus of scientific research and the results which already exist on this topic have, to date, not been systematically evaluated or summarized. The objective of this article is to make an attempt to provide a summarised overview of the current state of research. Subject-related databases list 42 publications dealing with the relationship between leaders' behaviour and the state of health and well-being of their employees. The literature discusses leaders' behaviour as being both a stressor (source of stress) and a resource. The publications discussed here also provide the first empirical evidence on the influence of various leadership styles on the health of the employees. In particular, transformational and employee-orientated leadership are considered to be beneficial to health. But the question of how leaders' behaviour influences health has not been satisfactorily explained. In most of the publications included, a direct link was assumed and, in the majority of cases, confirmed empirically. In addition, it also appears that there may be an indirect influence which may be moderated or mediated by, e. g., working conditions or the personality of the individual. The relatively small number of research examinations into the influence of leaders' behaviour on the health and well-being of their staff shows that there is a need for additional research.

  4. Feature: Controlling Seasonal Allergies | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to allergens, helping to prevent allergic reactions. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Allergen and T-Cell Reagent Resources for the Study of Allergic Diseases: This National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( ...

  5. Food Allergy: Present and Future Management

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy poses a significant burden on patients, families, health care providers, and the medical system. The increased prevalence of food allergy has brought about investigation as to its cause and new treatments. Currently, the only treatment available is to avoid the food and symptomatically treat any reactions. There are multiple clinical and murine models of food allergy treatment that use allergen specific and nonspecific pathways. Allergen specific treatments use mucosal antigen exposure as a method of inducing desensitization and tolerance. Allergen nonspecific methods act via a more global TH2 suppressive mechanism and may be useful for those patients with multiple food allergies. PMID:23282314

  6. Future therapies for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A

    2011-03-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, and shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow's milk and hen's egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen specific and nonspecific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, coadministered within heat-killed Escherichia coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for patients with food allergy. Nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which might increase the threshold dose for food allergen in patients with food allergy, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The current development of CNS drug research.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Gregers; Rujescu, Dan

    2013-08-01

    In the past few years, several high profiled pharmaceutical companies have decided to shut down major research activities within the central nervous system (CNS) area. For example, in December 2011 Novartis announced that the company is closing its neuroscience facility in Basel, Switzerland, where Novartis is headquartered (Abbott, 2011). It follows similar moves by GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, both based in the UK, which in 2010 announced the closure of major parts of their neuroscience research divisions globally (Jack, Financial Times, 4 February 2010). Also companies primarily based in the USA, Pfizer and Merck, as well as the French company Sanofi, have pulled back on research into brain disorders. This development is still proceeding, as e.g. AstraZeneca closed their CNS/pain centres (Fiercebiotech, press release, 2 February 2012). Several of the companies have launched smaller new initiatives based on studies of genetics and biomarkers, but as mental disorders such as unipolar depression impose the largest disease burden worldwide, e.g. 6.2% disability-adjusted life year of total (WHO, 2008), and current treatments do not work particularly well for many patients, this has obviously raised a number of concerns related to how the future developments should be carried out, and whether the genetic approach may be sufficient. In June 2012, the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (http://www.cinp.org) hosted an international workshop in order to discuss and consider the consequences and implications of the withdrawal of these research activities. This paper presents the problem background together with a summary of the viewpoints of the invited speakers and recommendations for future intervention.

  8. History of the World Allergy Organization: The World Allergy Organization Congress - XVIII ICACI, Vancouver 2003

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the World Allergy Organization traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the World Allergy Organization Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series." Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007) World Allergy Organization PMID:23282543

  9. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  10. Current research in cavitating fluid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E. (Editor); Ball, J. H. (Editor); Khonsari, M. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A review of the current research of cavitation in fluid films is presented. Phenomena and experimental observations include gaseous cavitation, vapor cavitation, and gas entrainment. Cavitation in flooded, starved, and dynamically loaded journal bearings, as well as squeeze films are reviewed. Observations of cavitation damage in bearings and the possibility of cavitation between parallel plates with microasperities were discussed. The transcavity fluid transport process, meniscus motion and geometry or form of the film during rupture, and reformation were summarized. Performance effects were related to heat transfer models in the cavitated region and hysteresis influence on rotor dynamics coefficients. A number of cavitation algorithms was presented together with solution procedures using the finite difference and finite element methods. Although Newtonian fluids were assumed in most of the discussions, the effect of non-Newtonian fluids on cavitation was also discussed.

  11. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; ...

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installedmore » in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.« less

  12. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  13. Epilepsy and driving: current status of research.

    PubMed

    L Devlin, Anna; Odell, Morris; L Charlton, Judith; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2012-12-01

    In many parts of the world, licensing guidelines state that drivers with medical conditions such as epilepsy are restricted or prohibited from driving. These guidelines are sometimes subjective and not strongly evidence-based, rendering the task of assessing fitness to drive a complex one. Determining fitness to drive is not only essential for maintaining the safety of individual drivers but has implications for the community at large. It is therefore important to review the current state of knowledge regarding epilepsy and driving in order to aid health professionals required to assess fitness to drive and to guide future research directions. This review outlines the functional impairments related to epilepsy and driving, treatment and management issues, motor vehicle crash risk for drivers with epilepsy, estimates of predicted seizure occurrence and concludes with a discussion of the international licensing guidelines and relevant legal issues. More comprehensive research, including investigation into the effects of antiepileptic medication on driving, could aid in the development of policies and guidelines for assessing fitness to drive.

  14. [Stress and allergy].

    PubMed

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  15. Cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Katial, Rohit K

    2003-08-01

    The ubiquitous existence of cockroaches and the large-scale domestic infestation seen in inner cities make cockroach proteins a significant indoor allergen and a risk factor for asthma among inner-city residents. Studies have shown that early exposure to high levels of allergen may lead to the development of asthma in individuals with a genetic predisposition to asthma. Although field trials at cockroach abatement do not yield promising results, integrated pest management still remains the best control strategy. In highly susceptible or symptomatic patients, allergen-specific immunotherapy may be beneficial, although data are limited. As molecular techniques improve and recombinant allergens are developed, a more novel form of T-cell-specific immunotherapy may prove to be efficacious without the anaphylactic side effects seen with traditional allergy vaccines.

  16. Future therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy. PMID:22894951

  17. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  19. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  20. Allergies and Learning Disabilities: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…

  1. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Shi, Xiaolei; Burk, Caitlin M; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have emerged to reduce/eliminate the allergenicity of peanuts or to better treat peanut-allergic individuals. In this review, we give an overview of peanut allergy, with a focus on peanut proteins, including the impact of thermal processing on peanut protein structure and detection in food matrices. We discuss several strategies currently being investigated to mitigate peanut allergy, including genetic engineering, novel processing strategies, and immunotherapy in terms of mechanisms, recent research, and limitations. All strategies are discussed with considerations for both peanut-allergic individuals and the numerous industries/government agencies involved throughout peanut production and utilization.

  2. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  3. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Guidelines for the Management of Latex Allergies. Updated 2016. latexallergyresources.org/articles/guidelines-management-latex-allergies . Accessed April 7, 2016.

  4. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Featured Diseases & Conditions Food Allergy HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find ... Schistosomiasis Resource Center Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center Network on ...

  5. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The epidemiology of milk allergy in US children.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher M; Jhaveri, Simone; Warrier, Manoj R; Smith, Bridget; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2013-05-01

    Milk is one of the most common food allergies in US children, yet little is known about its distribution and diagnosis. To better understand current pediatric milk allergy distribution and diagnosis trends in the United States. A randomized, cross-sectional survey was administered to parents belonging to a representative sample of US households with children from June 2009 to February 2010. Data from 38,480 parents regarding demographic characteristics, allergic symptoms associated with food ingestion, and methods used to diagnose food allergy were collected and analyzed as weighted proportions. Adjusted models were estimated to examine association of these aspects with odds of milk allergy. Of the 3,218 children identified with food allergy, 657 (19.9%) were reported to have milk allergy. Asian (odds ratio [OR], 0.5) and black (OR, 0.4) children were half as likely as white children to develop milk allergy. The highest percentage of milk-allergic children (23.8%) were aged 6 to 10 years, and the lowest percentage of milk-allergic children (15.0%) were aged 11 to 15 years. Nearly one-third (31.4%) of children with milk allergy had a history of severe reactions. Compared with children with other food allergies, children with milk allergy had a higher odds of having physician-diagnosed allergy (OR, 1.7) and were twice as likely (OR, 2.1) to outgrow their milk allergy. Childhood milk allergy, which accounts for one-fifth of US food allergies, is less prevalent among Asian and black children than white children. Although less than half of children with milk allergy received confirmatory testing, it is the most commonly diagnosed food allergy. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Research Leads: Current Practice, Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggall, Anna; Singer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This report was conceived as one of three publications that collectively provide a commentary on research awareness and research use within schools in England. This third report in the series presents findings from a small-scale, detailed study of teachers who are operating as their school's Research Lead. The small scale of the study is…

  8. Current Research on Effective Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    This presentation provides an overview of research on classroom management, emphasizing results from a program of research conducted at the Research and Development Center for Teacher Education (University of Texas) during the last 5 years. These studies, along with others, provide a basis for describing important dimensions of teacher behavior…

  9. Food allergy: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wong; Freeland, Deborah M Hussey; Nadeau, Kari C

    2016-12-01

    Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly, immune reaction triggered by normally innocuous food protein antigens. The prevalence of food allergies is rising and the standard of care is not optimal, consisting of food-allergen avoidance and treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions with adrenaline. Thus, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment are pressing needs, research into which has been catalysed by technological advances that are enabling a mechanistic understanding of food allergy at the cellular and molecular levels. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy in the context of the immune mechanisms associated with healthy tolerance to common foods, the inflammatory response underlying most food allergies, and immunotherapy-induced desensitization. We highlight promising research advances, therapeutic innovations and the challenges that remain.

  10. Food allergy: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kari C.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly, immune reaction triggered by normally innocuous food protein antigens. The prevalence of food allergies is rising and the standard of care is not optimal, consisting of food-allergen avoidance and treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions with adrenaline. Thus, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment are pressing needs, research into which has been catalysed by technological advances that are enabling a mechanistic understanding of food allergy at the cellular and molecular levels. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy in the context of the immune mechanisms associated with healthy tolerance to common foods, the inflammatory response underlying most food allergies, and immunotherapy-induced desensitization. We highlight promising research advances, therapeutic innovations and the challenges that remain. PMID:27795547

  11. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Statistics used in current nursing research.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Kathleen; Boerst, Connie J; Tabb, Wil

    2007-02-01

    Undergraduate nursing research courses should emphasize the statistics most commonly used in the nursing literature to strengthen students' and beginning researchers' understanding of them. To determine the most commonly used statistics, we reviewed all quantitative research articles published in 13 nursing journals in 2000. The findings supported Beitz's categorization of kinds of statistics. Ten primary statistics used in 80% of nursing research published in 2000 were identified. We recommend that the appropriate use of those top 10 statistics be emphasized in undergraduate nursing education and that the nursing profession continue to advocate for the use of methods (e.g., power analysis, odds ratio) that may contribute to the advancement of nursing research.

  13. Food Allergy: State of the Science--Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee.

    PubMed

    Reisacher, William; Damask, Cecelia; Calhoun, Karen; Veling, Maria

    2011-11-01

    In the past several years, food allergies have taken center stage in the media and have become a topic of great concern for our patients and their families. Whether or not this is due to a rise in the prevalence of food allergies or just a heightened awareness, it is our responsibility as clinicians and scientists to critically analyze the current evidence available concerning the epidemiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and management of this disease. In 2010, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) published guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of food allergies. Since 2009, the Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery has sponsored a miniseminar titled, "Food Allergy: State of the Science." This commentary focuses on the highlights from the 2010 meeting and provides some thoughts on what this latest publication means to otolaryngologists.

  14. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  15. Contact allergy to hairdressing allergens in female hairdressers and clients--current data from the IVDK, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Lessmann, Holger; Geier, Johannes; Schnuch, Axel

    2007-11-01

    Hair cosmetics, in particular hair dyes, bleaches, and permanent wave solutions, contain a number of potential contact allergens. The pattern of exposure to these in hairdressers, clients and home-users may change over time. Data on female patients who consulted centers of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK, http://www.ivdk.org) between 01/2003 and 12/2006 was analyzed. Patients were divided into a) hair-dressers, given they worked in this occupation and suffered from occupational skin disease (n = 480),and b) "clients",who never worked as hairdressers, but in whom hair cosmetics were considered a potential cause of contact dermatitis (n = 780). In hairdressers, the most important allergens were ammonium persulfate (21.7% positive),p-toluenediamine (PTD,19.6% positive),p-phenylenedi-amine (PPD,18.1% positive) and, with decreasing time trend, glyceryl monothioglycolate (2005/2006 still 7.5% positive). Biocides must be regarded as important allergens in hairdressers, namely,(chloro) methylisothiazolinone and methyldibromoglutaronitrile. Clients, who were considerably older on average, had possibly been tested in a more aimed fashion, yielding (strikingly) higher sensitization prevalences to a number of allergens of oxidative hair dyes such as PPD or PTD. The continual analysis of sensitization prevalences in patients patch tested can identify areas needing in-depth research and preventive intervention, such as avoiding the use of certain biocides in shampoo intended for professional use by hairdressers or further reducing the concentrations in oxidative hair dyes.

  16. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, D. E.; Frost, W.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography of 326 readily usable references of basic and applied research programs related to the various areas of aviation meteorology was assembled. A literature search was conducted which surveyed the major abstract publications such as the International Aerospace Abstracts, the Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts, and the Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports. In addition, NASA and DOT computer literature searches were run; and NASA, NOAA, and FAA research project managers were requested to provide writeups on their ongoing research.

  17. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  18. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Luncheon Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Tree Nut Allergies Tree nut allergy is one of ... with tree nuts during manufacturing and processing. Avoiding Tree Nuts The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer ...

  19. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  20. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dust mite allergy. What causes the allergic reaction Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to ... nurse observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions after 15 minutes. If you're allergic to ...

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggered by an allergy to something (called an allergen ). In these people, the symptoms of asthma like ... breathing are often brought on by being around allergens. Allergies have a lot to do with your ...

  2. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad might have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: AL-ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  3. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  4. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/allergy.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  6. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  7. Peanut Allergy: New Developments and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kim, Edwin H; Orgel, Kelly; Kulis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-two major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies.

  8. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  9. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  10. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  11. Current Research on Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph summarizes an extensive body of sleep and dream research in order to indicate the major trends of work in this area. Although a mosaic of disciplines are represented, a spirit of cooperation has made it possible to knit together data which might have remained unrelated. The research reported here provides knowledge about: (1) the…

  12. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    PubMed Central

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  13. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  14. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-01-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy.

  15. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  16. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  17. Coconut Allergy Revisited.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-09-29

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  18. Antihistamines for allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy symptoms, such as a pet or certain plants For many people with allergies, symptoms are the worst around 4 a.m. to 6 a.m. Taking an antihistamine at bedtime may help you or your child feel better in the morning during allergy season.

  19. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  20. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: ...

  2. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  3. [Latex allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Mavale-Manuel, S; Paty, E; Scheinmann, P; de Blic, J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of latex allergy and the clinical features of children with latex allergy. We prospectively investigated 243 children consulting in our allergy out-patients unit during 1 year. Parents answered a questionnaire, and children underwent skin prick tests with common allergens and latex. Latex-specific serum immunoglobulin E was determined by CAP test in children with latex sensitization. The results were compared in children with and without latex allergy. The prevalence of latex allergy was 1.3%. A family history of atopy (75%) and a personal history of previous surgery was associated with latex allergy (P < 0.0001). In children with latex allergy, the frequency of sensitization to inhaled and food allergens, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis was higher than in children without latex allergy (P < 0.05). Avocado allergy was the food allergy most commonly associated with clinical symptoms. Balloon was the most common latex product causing symptoms (60%). Due to its potential severe consequences, latex allergy should be investigated in children who had undergone multiple surgical procedures and in the children with pollen-food allergy syndrome. Avoidance of latex is an important preventive measure.

  4. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  5. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  6. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries. PMID:27092031

  7. Current Psychotherapy Research Methodology Applied to Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    VAUGHAN, SUSAN C.; MARSHALL, RANDALL D.; MACKINNON, ROGER A.; ROOSE, STEVEN P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a study to assess the feasibility of applying the methodology and instruments used in brief-term psychotherapy outcome research to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. PMID:22700201

  8. Nonallergen-specific treatments for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Jay A; Wang, Julie

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes recent reports on nonallergen-specific therapies for food allergy. These therapies are especially appealing for food allergy because unlike allergen-specific immunotherapy, they would allow the treatment of multiple food allergies in a single patient with one therapy. Chinese herbal therapy, anti-IgE, probiotics, engineered lactic acid bacteria, and helminth therapy are all examples of allergen nonspecific therapies that have been investigated in recent years. Although some have only been studied in animal models of food allergy, some are undergoing rigorous, human clinical trials. Increasing amounts of research are examining the efficacy and safety of nonallergen-specific therapies for food allergy. There is hope that clinicians will have effective treatments either as an alternative or as an adjunct to immunotherapy.

  9. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  10. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  11. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  12. Current research on public perceptions of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Besley, J

    2010-01-01

    This review explores research on public perceptions of nanotechnology. It highlights a recurring emphasis on some researchers' expectations that there will be a meaningful relationship between awareness of nanotechnology and positive views about nanotechnology. The review, however, also notes that this emphasis is tacitly and explicitly rejected by a range of multivariate studies that emphasize the key roles of non-awareness variables, such as, trust, general views about science, and overall worldview. The review concludes with a discussion of likely future research directions, including the expectation that social scientists will continue to focus on nanotechnology as a unique opportunity to study how individuals assess risk in the context of relatively low levels of knowledge.

  13. Oral desensitization for milk allergy in children: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Pajno, Giovanni B

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to research current evidence on cow's milk oral immunotherapy for the treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). The specific, active treatment for IgE-mediated food allergy included CMA, which is currently being investigated in human trials. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy. Reports on oral immunotherapy (OIT) for the treatment of milk allergy have been more extensive and carried out mostly with native proteins. The aim of OIT with cow's milk is the achievement of desensitization or tolerance by patients suffering from CMA. Desensitization state can be achieved by approximately 36-92% of the children treated with specific immunotherapy; the rate of permanent tolerance is unknown. Longer duration of desensitization may result in permanent tolerance. The possibility of adverse events or reactions during OIT is quite frequent. Side-effects have been reported by patients in all published studies. OIT as an active treatment for CMA represents an emerging reality. Before this treatment can be used in clinical practice, additional studies are needed. Currently, many issues remain unanswered: severity and type of food allergy responsive to specific immunotherapy, degree of protection, 'shared schedules' of desensitization(s) in research settings and well established risk-to-benefit ratio. However the field of specific, active treatment of food allergy is poised for clinically important advances.

  14. Don't Sweat the Small Stuff: Food Allergy Sufferer Lives a Cautious but Normal Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but normal life Follow us Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but normal life Anthony ...

  15. Current Issues in Research on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alberta E.

    Research on early development is moving apace. Developmental psychology is again giving serious attention to ages and stages. This attention is due, in great part, to the formulations about cognitive development by Piaget. Earlier in the century, the experimental approach to child study came to reflect psychology's generally heavy commitment to…

  16. Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research.

    PubMed

    Schäberle, Till F; Hack, Ingrid M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward.

  17. The Current State of Research on Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geering, Adrian D.

    The literature on motivation theory is growing rapidly due to increased interest by leaders in all types of organizations in social-psychology variables such as internal commitment and motivation to work. This paper presents an overview of motivational research, covering early behavior theories such as scientific management and human relations,…

  18. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  19. The Current State of Research on Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geering, Adrian D.

    The literature on motivation theory is growing rapidly due to increased interest by leaders in all types of organizations in social-psychology variables such as internal commitment and motivation to work. This paper presents an overview of motivational research, covering early behavior theories such as scientific management and human relations,…

  20. Current research on public perceptions of nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Besley, J

    2010-01-01

    This review explores research on public perceptions of nanotechnology. It highlights a recurring emphasis on some researchers’ expectations that there will be a meaningful relationship between awareness of nanotechnology and positive views about nanotechnology. The review, however, also notes that this emphasis is tacitly and explicitly rejected by a range of multivariate studies that emphasize the key roles of non-awareness variables, such as, trust, general views about science, and overall worldview. The review concludes with a discussion of likely future research directions, including the expectation that social scientists will continue to focus on nanotechnology as a unique opportunity to study how individuals assess risk in the context of relatively low levels of knowledge. PMID:22460398

  1. Current emotion research in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Classical theories of emotion have long debated the extent to which human emotion is a universal or culturally-constructed experience. Recent advances in emotion research in cultural neuroscience highlight several aspects of emotional generation and experience that are both phylogenetically conserved as well as constructed within human cultural contexts. This review highlights theories and methods from cultural neuroscience that examine how cultural and biological processes shape emotional generation, experience and regulation across multiple time scales. Recent advances in the neurobiological basis of culture-bound syndromes, such as Hwa-Byung (fire illness), provide further novel insights into emotion and mental health across cultures. Implications of emotion research in cultural neuroscience for population health disparities in psychopathology and global mental health will be discussed. PMID:26346827

  2. Current research in sonic-boom minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.; Mack, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of several questions as yet unanswered in the area of sonic-boom research. Efforts, both here at Langley and elsewhere, in the area of minimization, human response, design techniques and in developing higher order propagation methods are discussed. In addition, a wind-tunnel test program being conducted to assess the validity of minimization methods based on a forward spike in the F-function is described.

  3. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  4. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  5. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  6. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dairy animal welfare: current and needed research.

    PubMed

    Albright, J L

    1987-12-01

    Of 25 milestones in dairy animal welfare, 10 were linked to laws and regulations, 9 to research, education, and development, 4 to books and publications, and 2 to human error (accidents). Animal rightists have attacked the dairy industry because of farm conditions, bovine somatotropin, overproduction of milk, dairy lobbies, and advertising of milk products. Evidence from Europe suggests that animal welfare has been largely promoted as a sociopolitical issue by nonagriculturalists. Codes, guidelines, and recommendations are well-established for northern Europe. The American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Committee has prepared the pamphlet on food animal welfare and addressed specific bovine welfare issues in its guide for veal calf care and production. From 1978 to 1986, only four US experiment station projects were concerned with dairy animal welfare. Needed research includes studying learned helplessness; analysis and economics of alternative husbandry systems for veal calves (and cows) freestall design and surfaces; and shade, cooling, and misting of mangers and holding pens prior to entering the parlor. Alert caretakers are encouraged to read behavior signals of cattle. Increased standing of cattle is often taken now as a sign of discomfort or discontent in studies of cow and calf confinement. Criteria that should be considered in assessing welfare or well-being are behavior, health, musculoskeletal soundness, productivity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and reproduction.

  8. Current research in composite structures at NASA's Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of composite structures at NASA's Langley Research Center is discussed. The advantages and limitations of special purpose and general purpose analysis tools used in research are reviewed. Future directions in computational structural mechanics are described to address analysis short-comings. Research results on the buckling and postbuckling of unstiffened and stiffened composite structures are presented. Recent investigations of the mechanics of failure in compression and shear are reviewed. Preliminary studies of the dynamic response of composite structures due to impacts encountered during crash-landings are presented. Needs for future research are discussed.

  9. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Stephen U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  10. Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Kubricht, James R; Holyoak, Keith J; Lu, Hongjing

    2017-10-01

    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  12. Current antenna research at K. U. Leuven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Capelle, A.; Cao, C.; Demuynck, F.; Nauwelaers, B.; Vandenbosch, G.; van Himbeeck, C.; van Lil, E.

    1991-10-01

    Four antenna research projects at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven are described. In the first project, four different methods for the transformation of plane-polar near-field data to far-field antenna characteristics have been compared, and the method with the best performance (accuracy versus computer time) has been implemented on an HP1000 and on a VAX under VMS. In the second project, a test method has been developed to detect faulty columns in three-dimensional array antennas. The method is based on a reconstruction technique, and has been implemented in an air-surveillance secondary radar system. In the third project, the transmission-line model developed for rectangular microstrip antennas has been implemented and verified for linear and planar arrays. The software package runs on a PC, as well as on VAX workstations. In the fourth project, a software package, running on a VAX under VMS, has been developed based on a moment-method approach for the analysis of multiprobe, multipatch configurations in stratified-dielectric media. The procedure developed contains features to improve the convergence, accuracy, and efficiency of the moment method.

  13. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  14. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; McMaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  15. 78 FR 34110 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  16. 78 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  17. 78 FR 12767 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  18. 75 FR 54896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. 78 FR 13360 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  1. The management of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Clark, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies such as egg and milk. Measures aiming to reduce its prevalence via maternal avoidance during pregnancy and lactation, or delayed introduction into the diet, have failed to show any benefit. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication. Families find avoidance challenging as peanut is hidden in various food products. Despite the fact that food labelling has improved, with a legal obligation to declare certain food allergens (including nuts) in prepacked products, it still causes confusion and does not extend to cross-contamination. In an effort to address issues of safety at school, a lot of work has been undertaken to better care for peanut-allergic children in that environment. This includes training of school staff on how to recognise and treat allergic reactions promptly. Recent developments in the management of peanut allergy, such as immunotherapy, have shown some promise as an active form of treatment, but larger studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Allergies: their role in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Paul W; Holland, Erica; Sherman, Janet Shellman

    2008-12-01

    The nature of the biological relationships between cancers and allergies has intrigued researchers and health care providers for five decades. Three hypotheses have been proposed: antigenic stimulation predicts positive associations between cancers and allergies (i.e., allergy sufferers are more likely to get cancer), whereas immunosurveillance and prophylaxis predict inverse associations (i.e., allergy sufferers are less likely to get cancer). Immunosurveillance predicts inverse associations for cancers of all tissues and organ systems, and prophylaxis predicts inverse associations specifically for cancers of tissues and organ systems that interface with the external environment. To comparatively evaluate these hypotheses, we comprehensively reviewed the literature on cancer and allergies. We located 148 papers published from 1955 through 2006 that reported results of 463 studies of relationships between patients' histories of 11 specific allergies and cancers of 19 tissues and organ systems, and 183 studies of patients' histories of multiple allergies in relation to various types/sites of cancers. Analyses of these studies revealed that (1) frequencies of positive, inverse, and null allergy-cancer associations differed considerably among cancers of different tissues and organ systems; (2) more than twice as many studies reported inverse allergy-cancer associations as reported positive associations; (3) inverse associations were particularly common for cancers of the mouth and throat, brain glia, colon and rectum, pancreas, skin, and cervix but (4) particularly rare for cancers of the breast, prostate, and brain meninges, and for myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and myelocytic leukemia; (5) lung cancer was positively associated with asthma but inversely associated with other allergies; (6) inverse associations with allergies were more than twice as common for cancers of nine tissues and organ systems that interface with the external environment compared to cancers

  3. Food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  4. Immunotherapy for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Chan, June; Lau, Vivian W Y; Lee, W L; Lau, P C; Lo, M H

    2014-08-01

    Peanut allergy is one of the commonest food hypersensitivities causing fatal or near-fatal reactions. There is, currently, no preventive treatment and the incidence of severe allergic reactions during peanut desensitisation has limited its clinical use. Anti-immunoglobulin E therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing peanut-induced reactions but it does not result in long-term tolerance. Two important advances have recently been reported. One involves gradual oral introduction of peanut protein to desensitise, whereas the other approach uses a combination of anti-immunoglobulin E and oral peanut immunotherapy. Both approaches could offer a way to desensitise with a far greater margin of safety than has, hitherto, been reported. This article provides an overview of the literature on peanut immunotherapy and describes the experience in a small group of children in Hong Kong who were treated successfully using anti-immunoglobulin E combined with oral peanut desensitisation.

  5. [Orthopedic surgical implants and allergies. Joint statement by the Implant Allergy Working Group (AK 20) of the DGOOC (German Association of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery), DKG (German Contact Dermatitis Research Group) and DGAKI (German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology)].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Ring, J; Thomsen, M

    2008-03-01

    Materials used in osteosynthesis or artificial joint replacement are usually well tolerated. Complaints after such operations are mostly related to infection or mechanical problems but may also be caused by allergic reactions. The latter encompass skin changes, e.g., eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusion, pain, or implant loosening. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal contact allergy, allergies associated with implants are a rare condition. However, epidemiological data on the incidence of implant-related allergic reactions are still missing. Typical elicitors are nickel, chromium, cobalt, and constituents of bone cement (acrylates und additives such as gentamicin or benzoyl peroxide). After exclusion of the most common differential diagnoses, allergy diagnostic procedures are primarily based on patch tests including a metal and bone cement component series. Additional analysis of periimplant tissue is recommended. However, further studies are necessary to show the significance of the histologic findings and the role of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Which combinations of factors will induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger periimplant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy is still unknown. Titanium-based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients. In elective hip replacements, a ceramic/polyethylene (PE) articulation should be used, and in knee replacements "alternative materials". If a regular, potentially applicable CoCr/PE articulation is preferred, the patient must be well informed and must give his/her written consent.

  6. [Orthopedic surgical implants and allergies: joint statement by the implant allergy working group (AK 20) of the DGOOC (German association of orthopedics and orthopedic surgery), DKG (German contact dermatitis research group) and dgaki (German society for allergology and clinical immunology)].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Ring, J; Thomsen, M

    2008-01-01

    Materials used in osteosynthesis or artificial joint replacement are usually well tolerated. Complaints after such operations are mostly related to infection or mechanical problems but may also be caused by allergic reactions. The latter encompass skin changes, e.g., eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusion, pain, or implant loosening. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal contact allergy, allergies associated with implants are a rare condition. However, epidemiological data on the incidence of implant-related allergic reactions are still missing. Typical elicitors are nickel, chromium, cobalt, and constituents of bone cement (acrylates und additives such as gentamicin or benzoyl peroxide). After exclusion of the most common differential diagnoses, allergy diagnostic procedures are primarily based on patch tests including a metal and bone cement component series. Additional analysis of periimplant tissue is recommended. However, further studies are necessary to show the significance of the histologic findings and the role of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Which combinations of factors will induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger periimplant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy is still unknown. Titanium-based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients. In elective hip replacements, a ceramic/polyethylene (PE) articulation should be used, and in knee replacements "alternative materials". If a regular, potentially applicable CoCr/PE articulation is preferred, the patient must be well informed and must give his/her written consent.

  7. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  8. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  9. Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Thalayasingam, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Asia is a populous and diverse region and potentially an important source of information on food allergy. This review aims to summarize the current literature on food allergy from this region, comparing it with western populations. A PubMed search using strategies "Food allergy AND Asia", "Food anaphylaxis AND Asia", and "Food allergy AND each Asian country" was made. Overall, 53 articles, published between 2005 and 2012, mainly written in English were reviewed. The overall prevalence of food allergy in Asia is somewhat comparable to the West. However, the types of food allergy differ in order of relevance. Shellfish is the most common food allergen from Asia, in part due to the abundance of seafood in this region. It is unique as symptoms vary widely from oral symptoms to anaphylaxis for the same individual. Data suggest that house dust mite tropomysin may be a primary sensitizer. In contrast, peanut prevalence in Asia is extremely low compared to the West for reasons not yet understood. Among young children and infants, egg and cow's milk allergy are the two most common food allergies, with prevalence data comparable to western populations. Differences also exist within Asia. Wheat allergy, though uncommon in most Asian countries, is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in Japan and Korea, and is increasing in Thailand. Current food allergy data from Asia highlights important differences between East and West, and within the Asian region. Further work is needed to provide insight on the environmental risk factors accounting for these differences. PMID:23403837

  10. Natural rubber latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy.

  11. Community opinions regarding oral immunotherapy for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Traister, Russell S; Green, Todd D; Mitchell, Lynda; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2012-11-01

    Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising but still investigational new therapy for food allergy. We sought to investigate beliefs and opinions among OIT participants and nonparticipants to better understand community awareness of this therapy. A 30-question on-line survey was administered to members, website visitors, and social media followers of the Kids with Food Allergy Foundation. Questions inquired about general knowledge and attitudes about OIT, its reported safety and efficacy, complications, insurance coverage, and its Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval status. Among 1,274 survey respondents, 15.9% had discussed OIT as a treatment option with their allergy provider. Five percent (n = 64) of respondents reported that their child was currently participating in OIT, including 73.4% (n = 47) in a private practice setting. Participants reported varying degrees of being informed about OIT safety (85%), efficacy (46.4% told unrestricted ingestion), risks (relapse 53.4%, eosinophilic esophagitis 3.5%, oral allergy syndrome 10.7%, and failure 56.9%). Significantly fewer participants than nonparticipants agreed that OIT's present safety, efficacy, risks, and approval status would dissuade participation. Significantly fewer participants agreed that OIT should not be offered outside the research setting without definitive proof of both its safety and efficacy. In this exploratory study, differences in beliefs and opinions existed between OIT participants and nonparticipants. Among participants, there were also significant differences in beliefs among academic versus nonacademic participants. Accurate and complete information about OIT safety, efficacy, risks, and approval status was not universally conveyed. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Allergy (CUPPA): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Burks, Wesley; Bahna, Sami L; Bielory, Leonard; Boyle, Robert J; Cocco, Renata; Dreborg, Sten; Goodman, Richard; Kuitunen, Mikael; Haahtela, Tari; Heine, Ralf G; Lack, Gideon; Osborn, David A; Sampson, Hugh; Tannock, Gerald W; Lee, Bee Wah

    2012-11-01

    : Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. : A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. : A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. : Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. : Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy medicine. In the future, basic

  13. Wind-Wave-Current Tank Research Facility usage and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliven, L. F.; Long, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    This summary is to provide information as to: (1) research activities, and (2) facilities status of the wind-wave-current tank research facility located at the GSFC/WFF. Research Activities include: (1) Wave-Turbulence Interaction; (2) Velocity Structure Below Waves; (3) Short-Wave Modification by Long-Waves; (4) Wind-Wave Generation Time Scale; (5) Wave-Current Interaction; (6) Rain Effects on Microwave Scattering from the Sea-Surface; and (7) Gas Exchange Rates versus Scatterometer Power.

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium From Basic Science to Public Health: Summary of the Results From a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disesases Technical Consultation and Consensus Recommendations for Future Research Priorities.

    PubMed

    Martin, David H; Manhart, Lisa E; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2017-07-15

    This article lays out the research priorities for Mycoplasma genitalium research agreed upon by the participants in a 2016 National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-funded Technical Consultation focused on this organism. The state of current knowledge concerning the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations of infection, treatment, and public health significance of M. genitalium reviewed at the meeting is described in detail in the individual articles included in this supplemental edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Here we summarize the points made in these articles most relevant to the formulation of the research priorities listed in this article. The most important recommendation resulting from this Technical Consultation is the initiation of clinical trials designed to determine definitively whether screening for and treatment of M. genitalium infections in women and their sexual partners improve reproductive health in women and/or prevent human immunodeficiency virus transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mite allergy and mite exposure in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David

    2011-01-01

    In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area.

  16. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964

  17. Food allergy diagnosis and therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Aleena; Kohli, Arunima; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing worldwide epidemic that adversely effects up to 10% of the population. Causes and risk factors remain unclear and diagnostic methods are imprecise. There is currently no accepted treatment for food allergy. Therefore, there is an imminent need for greater understanding of food allergies, revised diagnostics and development of safe, effective therapies. Oral immunotherapy provides a particularly promising avenue, but is still highly experimental and not ready for clinical use. PMID:23998729

  18. Active management of food allergy: an emerging concept.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Stiefel, Gary; Brough, Helen; du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon; Fox, Adam T

    2015-04-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are common and currently there is no cure. Traditionally, management has relied upon patient education, food avoidance and the provision of an emergency medication plan. Despite this, food allergy can significantly impact on quality of life. Therefore, in recent years, evolving research has explored alternative management strategies. A more active approach to management is being adopted, which includes early introduction of potentially allergenic foods, anticipatory testing, active monitoring, desensitisation to food allergens and active risk management. This review will discuss these areas in turn. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Atopic dermatitis and skin allergies - update and outlook.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, A; Feichtner, K

    2013-12-01

    During the last few years, an impressive amount of experimental studies and clinical trials have dealt with a variety of distinct topics in allergic skin diseases - especially atopic dermatitis. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide relevant insights into clinical and pathophysiological aspects of allergic skin diseases or discuss promising targets and strategies for the future treatment of skin allergy. This includes aspects of barrier malfunction and inflammation as well as the interaction of the cutaneous immune system with the skin microbiome and diagnostic procedures for working up atopic dermatitis patients. Additionally, contact dermatitis, urticaria, and drug reactions are addressed in this review. This update summarizes novel evidence, highlighting current areas of uncertainties and debates that will stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field of atopic dermatitis and skin allergies in the future.

  20. Food allergy and anaphylaxis in pediatrics: update 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2012-12-01

    This review highlights the progress made in food allergy (FA) and anaphylaxis research in pediatrics published in the journal Pediatric Allergy and Immunology since 2010. Putative risk factors for FA are as follows: a family history of allergic disease, particularly in the mother, low birth order, season of birth, and severe atopic eczema. Obstetric practices, antibiotic use, and home environment are factors deserving further research. Diagnostic decision levels and component-specific IgE are useful in the diagnosis of FA; however, oral food challenges remain the gold standard and may also be a means to reduce parental anxiety and to improve education. Oral immunotherapy studies show promise in increasing the threshold of reactivity of allergic patients and therefore improving their quality of life. In single-nut-allergic patients, introduction of other nuts allows broadening the diet and thus reducing the psychological impact of allergen avoidance. Nutritional deficiencies are not uncommon in food-allergic children and should be specifically assessed. The prescription of injectable adrenaline is still insufficient and not consistent among practitioners, requiring improved training and implementation of guidelines. Current research into the epidemiology and immunological mechanisms of FA and tolerance will enable us to devise strategies to both prevent and treat food allergies.

  1. Insulin allergy.

    PubMed

    Ghazavi, Mohammad K; Johnston, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    Insulin reactions occur rarely but are of tremendous clinical importance. The first was reported in 1922 as a callus reaction at the injection site of insufficiently purified bovine insulin. Porcine insulin was subsequently found to be less allergenic than bovine insulin. Increasingly pure insulins have decreased the risk of adverse reactions, and the production of recombinant insulin with the same amino sequence as human insulin saw a large decrease in adverse reactions. Currently, the prevalence of allergic reactions to insulin products appears to be approximately 2%, and less than one-third of these events have been considered related to the insulin itself. Other reactions occur due to the preservatives added to insulin, including zinc, protamine, and meta-cresol. Allergic reactions can be type I or immunoglobulin E-mediated, type III or Arthus, and type IV or delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Type I reactions are the most common and can, rarely, cause anaphylaxis. In contrast, type IV reactions can occur after a delay of several days. Investigations include skin prick testing, patch testing, intradermal testing, and occasionally, skin biopsy.

  2. Prevention of food allergy - Early dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy.

  3. Food allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Elizabeth J; Veling, Maria C; Mims, James W

    2011-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food and is distinct from food intolerance. Clinical manifestations of food allergy are varied and involve many systems including respiratory, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. The double-blinded placebo-controlled oral food challenge remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. Areas of ongoing research include improved understanding of determinants for the development of tolerance versus sensitization for foods, the role of diagnostic testing for specific epitopes for food allergens, and the use of oral immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  5. Medication/Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... every time after the offending medication is taken. Penicillin and other antibiotics are the medication that most commonly cause allergic reactions. Women appear to have an increased risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  6. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... like a restaurant or bar) where lots of peanuts are being cracked from their shells. The person inhales and then swallows the protein, and this can lead to a reaction when the protein gets digested. Although ... and wheat allergies), peanut and tree nut allergies are lifelong in many ...

  7. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  8. Allergy immunotherapy: the future of allergy treatment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Broge, Louise; Jacobi, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Allergic respiratory disease represents a significant and expanding health problem worldwide. Allergic symptoms, such as asthma and hay fever, cause sleep impairment and reduce school and work performance. The cost to society is substantial. Allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy cannot control the disease. Only allergy immunotherapy has disease-modifying potential and should be included in optimal treatment strategies. Allergy immunotherapy was first administered as subcutaneous injections and has been practiced for the past 100 years or so. Recently, tablet-based sublingual allergy immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced with comprehensive clinical documentation. SLIT tablets represent a more patient-friendly concept because they can be used for self-treatment at home. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Blondeel, A

    1983-01-01

    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  10. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  11. Active treatment for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-10-01

    Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Referrals to a regional allergy clinic - an eleven year audit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    younger than those with other allergies, and those allergic to nuts were much younger (26 Vs 38) than those with other food allergies. There was clear evidence for spatial clustering with marked clustering around the referral hospital. However, the geographical distribution varied between allergies; airborne (particularly pollen allergies) clustered in North Dartmoor and Exmoor, food allergies (particularly nut allergies) in the South Hams, and on small numbers, some indication of seafood allergy in the far south west of Cornwall and in the Padstow area. Conclusions This study shows marked geographical differences in allergy referrals which are likely to reflect a combination of environmental factors and GP referral patterns. The data suggest that GPs may benefit from education and ongoing decision support and be supported by public education on the nature of allergy. It suggests further research into what happens to patients with allergy where there has been low use of tertiary services and further research into cross-reactivity and co-occurrence, and spatial distribution of allergy. PMID:21190546

  13. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  14. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  15. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA): results with the European baseline series, 2013/14.

    PubMed

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A; Ballmer-Weber, B; Bauer, A; Belloni Fortina, A; Bircher, A; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Czarnecka-Operacz, M; Dugonik, A; Gallo, R; Giménez-Arnau, A; Johansen, J D; John, S M; Kieć-Świerczyńska, M; Kmecl, T; Kręcisz, B; Larese Filon, F; Mahler, V; Pesonen, M; Rustemeyer, T; Sadowska-Przytocka, A; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Schliemann, S; Schuttelaar, M L; Simon, D; Spiewak, R; Valiukevičienė, S; Weisshaar, E; White, I R; Wilkinson, S M

    2017-09-01

    Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes. To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy to the metals nickel, cobalt and chromium remained largely stable, at 18.1%, 5.9% and 3.2%, respectively, similar to mostly unchanged prevalence with fragrance mix I, II and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) at 7.3%, 3.8% and 5.3%, respectively. In the subgroup of departments diagnosing (mainly) patients with occupational contact dermatitis, the prevalence of work-related contact allergies such as epoxy resin or rubber additives was found to be increased, compared to general dermatology departments. Continuous surveillance of contact allergy based on network data offers the identification of time trends or persisting problems, and thus enables focussing in-depth research (subgroup analyses, exposure analysis) on areas where it is needed. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Validation of the Paediatric Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (PFA-QL).

    PubMed

    Knibb, Rebecca C; Ibrahim, Nur F; Petley, Rachel; Cummings, Amanda J; King, Rosemary M; Roberts, Graham; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Lucas, Jane S A

    2013-05-01

    The Paediatric Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (PFA-QL) was the first tool to be developed for assessing health-related quality of life (QoL) in children with food allergy. It has been used in a number of published studies, but has not been validated. The aim of the current study was to validate child (PFA-QL) and parent-proxy (PFA-QL-PF) versions of the scale in a specialist allergy clinic and in parents of children with food allergy. For the clinic sample, a generic QoL scale (PedsQL) and the PFA-QL were completed by 103 children (age 6-16 yrs) with peanut or tree nut allergy; test-retest reliability of the PFA-QL was tested in 50 stable patients. For the non-clinical sample, 756 parents of food allergic children completed the PFA-QL-PF, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50), Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB) and a Food Allergy Impact Measure. The PFA-QL and PFA-QL-PF had good internal consistency (α's of 0.77-0.82), and there was moderate-to-good agreement between the generic- and disease-specific questionnaires. The PFA-QL was stable over time in the clinic sample, and in both samples, girls were reported to have poorer QoL than boys. The PFA-QL and PFA-QL-PF are reliable and valid scales for use in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Unlike other available tools, they were developed and validated in the UK and thus provide a culture-specific choice for research, clinical trials and clinical practice in the UK. Validation in other countries is now needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  18. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  19. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  20. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-05-12

    ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  2. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  3. 77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeting Inflammation and Immune Activations in... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September 24, 2012. David Clary...

  4. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 76 FR 9030 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 76 FR 56206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 77 FR 8269 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 77 FR 2986 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-01-20

    ..., Bethdesda, MD 20892-7616, (301) 451-2584, bburgess@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  10. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; TB Immunology and Drug Discovery. Date: June 2... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...

  11. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. 76 FR 56207 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date..., zhuqing.li@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology...

  13. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  14. Chinese Herbal Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122

  15. Treatments for food allergy: how close are we?

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy continues to be a challenging health problem, with prevalence continuing to increase and anaphylaxis still an unpredictable possibility. While improvements in diagnosis are more accurately identifying affected individuals, treatment options remain limited. The cornerstone of treatment relies on strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding management of allergic reactions. Despite vigilance in avoidance, accidental ingestions and reactions continue to occur. With recent advances in the understanding of humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy and mechanisms of tolerance, several therapeutic strategies for food allergies are currently being investigated with the hopes of providing a cure or long-term remission from food allergy.

  16. [Allergic disease--pollen allergy and climate change].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Janne; Plaschke, Peter; Poulsen, Lars K

    2009-10-26

    Pollen allergy currently affects a fifth of the population. A warmer climate will lead to a longer pollen season and more days with high pollen counts. In addition, a warmer climate increases the risk of proliferation of new plants with well-known allergenic pollens like ragweed, plane tree and wall pellitory, which have not previously caused allergy in Denmark. The consequences will be more people with hay fever and pollen asthma, longer allergy seasons and an increase in the severity of symptoms, disease-related costs and demands on health care for diagnosis and treatment of more complex allergies.

  17. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy.

  18. Current Research on the Relative Effectiveness of Selected Media Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    The literature of research and theory on media, the psychology of learning, and the technology of instruction is reviewed. The focus is on discovering what is currently known about the intersection of these fields. Current thoughts and discoveries about brain structure and processing are discussed. The management of learning as a system is another…

  19. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  20. Infant feeding and the development of food allergies and atopic eczema: An update.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Allen, Katrina J; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness of food allergies in the community. Dermatologists frequently see patients with atopic eczema, where parents are extremely concerned about the role of food allergy. Advice given to parents regarding the timing of introduction of solid foods has changed markedly over the past decade. Whereas previous advice advocated delaying the introduction of solid foods until the infant's gastrointestinal system had matured, recent studies suggest that the introduction of solids from around 4 to 6 months may actually prevent the development of allergies. Studies on maternal dietary restrictions during pregnancy and lactation have led researchers to believe that antigen avoidance does not play a significant role in the prevention of atopic disease. Breastfeeding exclusively for 4 to 6 months has multiple benefits for mother and child, however, it does not convincingly prevent food allergies or decrease atopic eczema. New evidence suggests that the use of hydrolysed formulas does not delay or prevent atopic eczema or food allergy. This article aims to highlight current evidence and provide an update for dermatologists on the role of food exposure in the development of atopic disease, namely atopic eczema.

  1. Oral desensitization for immunoglobulin E-mediated milk and egg allergies.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Caminiti, Lucia; Pajno, Giovanni B

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent disease in western countries, but an effective form of therapy has not yet been found. A specific active treatment for immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy is currently under study in human clinical trials. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy. Currently, reports on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been more extensive than reports on other routes such as sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and epicutaneous patch. The aim of OIT using foods, especially milk and egg--the cause of most common allergies in infants and young children in Europe--is the achievement of desensitization or tolerance by patients suffering from food allergy. Treatment protocols have been initiated in highly supervised research settings with the goal of finding an active treatment against IgE-mediated food allergy. The preliminary data on OIT are encouraging, and among the plethora of novel approaches the strategies most likely to advance into clinical practice include both OIT and SLIT. It is still unclear whether oral desensitization is only the first step toward permanent desensitization or whether it induces only a transient tolerance. Longer duration of desensitization may result in permanent tolerance. The occurrence of adverse events or reactions during OIT is quite frequent and has been reported in all published studies. Therefore, before this treatment can be used in clinical practice additional studies are needed. Currently, immunotherapy for cow's milk or egg allergies is a novel approach that expands the possibility of an active treatment to improve the quality of life of patients and their families.

  2. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  3. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  4. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  5. The psychosocial impact of food allergy and food hypersensitivity in children, adolescents and their families: a review.

    PubMed

    Cummings, A J; Knibb, R C; King, R M; Lucas, J S

    2010-08-01

    Food allergy affects 6% of children but there is no cure, and strict avoidance of index allergens along with immediate access to rescue medication is the current best management. With specialist care, morbidity from food allergy in children is generally low, and mortality is very rare. However, there is strong evidence that food allergy and food hypersensitivity has an impact on psychological distress and on the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents, as well as their families. Until recently, the measurement of QoL in allergic children has proved difficult because of the lack of investigative tools available. New instruments for assessing QoL in food allergic children have recently been developed and validated, which should provide further insights into the problems these children encounter and will enable us to measure the effects of interventions in patients. This review examines the published impact of food allergy on affected children, adolescents and their families. It considers influences such as gender, age, disease severity, co-existing allergies and external influences, and examines how these may impact on allergy-related QoL and psychological distress including anxiety and depression. Implications of the impact are considered alongside avenues for future research.

  6. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Roberts, G; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Cardona, V; Dubois, A; duToit, G; Eigenmann, P; Fernandez Rivas, M; Halken, S; Hickstein, L; Høst, A; Knol, E; Lack, G; Marchisotto, M J; Niggemann, B; Nwaru, B I; Papadopoulos, N G; Poulsen, L K; Santos, A F; Skypala, I; Schoepfer, A; Van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Vlieg-Boerstra, B; Panesar, S; de Silva, D; Soares-Weiser, K; Sheikh, A; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Nilsson, C; de Jong, N W; Akdis, C A

    2014-08-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management of patients of all ages with food allergy is presented. The acute management of non-life-threatening reactions is covered in these guidelines, but for guidance on the emergency management of anaphylaxis, readers are referred to the related EAACI Anaphylaxis Guidelines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  8. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    PubMed

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Recent advancements in the therapeutics of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Kriti; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-12-01

    Food allergy is a health complication induced by certain food in the susceptible individuals. Due to lack of permanent cure and the global prevalence, the preventive approach is highly required for food allergy. Recently published patents have shown significant improvements in the food allergy research. In this review, an attempt has been done to highlight the recently developed patents related to the detection of allergens in food mixture. Also, patents regarding treatment options like use of herbal therapy, antihistamines, pre-, pro and synbiotics, nanocarriers, hypoallergens and several immune molecules towards amelioration of food allergy have been reviewed in this article.

  11. The 1981 current research on aviation weather (bibliography)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, J.; Frost, W.

    1982-01-01

    Current and ongoing research programs related to various areas of aviation meteorology are presented. Literature searches of major abstract publications, were conducted. Research project managers of various government agencies involved in aviation meteorology research provided a list of current research project titles and managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, the principal investigators, and the objectives. These are tabulated under the headings of advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning and atmospheric electricity; fog, visibility, and ceilings; low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, turbulence, winds, and ozone and other meteorological parameters. This information was reviewed and assembled into a bibliography providing a current readily useable source of information in the area of aviation meteorology.

  12. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  13. [Amalgam allergy and amalgam controversy].

    PubMed

    Lübbe, J; Wüthrich, B

    1996-04-20

    Safety concerns regarding dental amalgam have been voiced ever since its introduction 150 years ago. As most people have amalgam fillings, the issue has received extensive coverage in the lay as well as the medical medical media. This has led to confusion about the terms amalgam allergy, mercury burden and intoxication, and amalgam disease, an understanding of which is crucial in consideration of this controversy. Allergy to amalgam is rare and should be investigated by a specialist, as diagnosis may result in a decision to remove dental amalgam. Dental amalgam is the most important source of mercury burden in the general population. Occupational exposure to mercury within established exposure limits reaches levels much higher without evidence of intoxication. However, mercury released from dental amalgam induces measurable organ effects. Amalgam disease has been introduced as a term to identify patients who typically ascribe a variety of symptoms to their amalgam fillings. Current literature lacks sound evidence of a role for amalgam in human disease other than allergy.

  14. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  15. Probiotics: use in allergic disorders: a Nutrition, Allergy, Mucosal Immunology, and Intestinal Microbiota (NAMI) Research Group Report.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2008-07-01

    supplementation would suffice to counter the plethora of allergic disease. First, it needs to be acknowledged that a more profound understanding of the complex nature of allergic disorders is needed, as it is likely that there are distinct etiologic factors and pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous manifestations. Second, host-related factors influence the probiotic effects; the distinction in the antiallergic potential of probiotics can be explained by the age of the host and the habitual diet with other potentially active compounds and their conceivable joint probiotic effects. Therefore, research activities are currently focusing on identification of specific strains with immunomodulatory potential, and on the question how the food matrix and dietary content interact with the most efficacious probiotic strains or specific strain combinations.

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  18. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  19. Food allergies: the basics.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.

  20. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  1. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  2. Current Postvention Research and Priorities for the Future.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl; Castelli Dransart, Dolores Angela; Cerel, Julie; Maple, Myfanwy

    2017-05-01

    Suicide can have a lasting impact on the social life as well as the physical and mental health of the bereaved. Targeted research is needed to better understand the nature of suicide bereavement and the effectiveness of support. To take stock of ongoing studies, and to inquire about future research priorities regarding suicide bereavement and postvention. In March 2015, an online survey was widely disseminated in the suicidology community. The questionnaire was accessed 77 times, and 22 records were included in the analysis. The respondents provided valuable information regarding current research projects and recommendations for the future. Bearing in mind the modest number of replies, all from respondents in Westernized countries, it is not known how representative the findings are. The survey generated three strategies for future postvention research: increase intercultural collaboration, increase theory-driven research, and build bonds between research and practice. Future surveys should include experiences with obtaining research grants and ethical approval for postvention studies.

  3. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on ... National Allergy Bureau More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  4. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... mite allergy symptoms caused by inflammation of nasal passages include: Sneezing Runny nose Itchy, red or watery ... system produces an inflammatory response in your nasal passages or lungs. Prolonged or regular exposure to the ...

  5. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  6. Allergies and Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flowering plants rarely cause allergy symptoms. Often fragrant flowers are blamed for the uncomfortable symptoms, yet they ... you should talk to your ENT doctor to make sure they are safe. Some patients do better ...

  7. Ready for Spring Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to manage symptoms that come with a high pollen count, allergists say To use the sharing features ... seasonal allergies how they prepared for the high pollen counts that come with warmer weather. The survey ...

  8. Fire Ant Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serious Reaction For people with fire ant allergy, stings may cause a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis ( ... Fire ants bite with their jaws while they sting. This allows them to pull the stinger out, ...

  9. NICKEL ALLERGY: Surgeons Beware.

    PubMed

    Axe, Jeremie M; Sinz, Nathan J; Axe, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    When performing an orthopaedic device implantation, it should be routine practice for the surgeon to ask the patient if he or she has a metal allergy, and more specifically a nickel allergy. Ask the patient about costume jewelry or button reactions. If it is an elective surgery, obtain a confirmatory test with the aid of a dermatologist or allergist. It is recommended to use a non-nickel implant if the surgery is urgent, the patient has a confirmed allergy, or the patient does not want to undergo testing, as these implants are readily available in 2015. Finally, if the patient has a painful joint arthroplasty and all other causes have been ruled out, order a metal allergy test to aid in diagnosis.

  10. Epidemiological link between wheat allergy and exposure to hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Y; Taniguchi, M; Nakamura, H; Akiyama, K

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of extra-intestinal routes of sensitization to food-related allergens as the cause of epidemics of food allergy. Instances of Japanese women developing food allergy to wheat after exposure to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP) present in facial soap have been reported. However, the epidemiologic impact of these ingredients as a cause of food allergy has not been well studied. To clarify the epidemiological relationship between food allergy to wheat and contact exposure to HWP, a case-control study of Japanese women aged 20-54 years with self-reported wheat allergy (WA) (cases, n = 157) and age-matched control subjects without WA (controls, n = 449) was performed using a large-scale Web-based research panel. Subjects answered a Web-based questionnaire regarding the use of skin and hair care products, as well as other possible risk factors. Current use of an HWP-containing facial soap (Cha no Shizuku; Yuka) was significantly associated with an increased risk of WA (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.7; frequencies of current use in cases and controls; 11% and 6%, respectively). Use of Cha no Shizuku was more common in subjects with more recent-onset WA, implying that this soap may have contributed to the recent epidemic of WA. An epidemiological relationship between WA and contact exposure to HWP has been documented. This study implicates a possible role of contact exposure to food-derived protein hydrolysates as a risk factor for the development of food allergy manifesting itself as anaphylaxis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Latest discoveries in allergy and clinical immunology.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Elisa; Godoy, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Among all the international societies of allergy (AAAAI, EAACI, WAO, etc.), the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum (CIA) remains a selected and reduced group of about 200 of the most relevant investigators in the field of allergy and clinical immunology who come together to discuss current issues in allergy. The society holds a symposium every 2 years. This year, the 27th Symposium of the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum took place in Curaçao. This report contains a selection of some of the more currently relevant work presented, namely on basophils and mast cells, infection and asthma exacerbation, genes, pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches. Specific information about CIA can be found at http://www.ciaweb.org.

  12. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy: A Spanish Guideline. Immunotherapy Egg and Milk Spanish Guide (ITEMS Guide). Part I: Cow Milk and Egg Oral Immunotherapy: Introduction, Methodology, Rationale, Current State, Indications, Contraindications, and Oral Immunotherapy Build-up Phase.

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; Alonso, E; Echeverría, L; Escudero, C; García-Rodríguez, R; Blasco, C; Bone, J; Borja-Segade, J; Bracamonte, T; Claver, A; Corzo, J L; De la Hoz, B; Del Olmo, R; Dominguez, O; Fuentes-Aparicio, V; Guallar, I; Larramona, H; Martín-Muñoz, F; Matheu, V; Michavila, A; Ojeda, I; Ojeda, P; Piquer, M; Poza, P; Reche, M; Rodríguez Del Río, P; Rodríguez, M; Ruano, F; Sánchez-García, S; Terrados, S; Valdesoiro, L; Vazquez-Ortiz, M

    Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg.

  13. Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenassa, M. Medhi

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to establish a rational approach to the assessment of children with food allergy related to an immunologic state in which alteration of response to antigenic material has developed after repeated exposure. The author offers a practical approach to the problem of food allergy in children, dispels some of the myths surrounding the disorder, and discusses some of the popular but unproven and controversial practices relating to its management. PMID:21253178

  14. Research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada: current status.

    PubMed

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-11-01

    To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents' final work. The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs.

  15. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  16. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-09-01

    Food allergies continue to be an increasingly common disorder, however, no treatment strategies are currently approved for the routine management of individuals with food allergies. Encouraging results from early open-label studies have sparked great interest in oral and sublingual immunotherapy, and thus several randomized controlled trials have recently been conducted to establish the safety and efficacy of these treatment strategies. The aim of this review is to examine the recent studies for peanut, milk and egg allergies. Open-label and randomized control trials are discussed. Studies focusing on peanut, milk and egg allergies are included. Current evidence indicates that desensitization is possible for the majority of subjects who undergo oral immunotherapy. Clinical improvement has been associated with favorable immunologic changes, including smaller skin prick test wheal sizes and increased allergen-specific IgG4 levels. Adverse reactions are common, however, and thus safety concerns remain. Sublingual immunotherapy thus far has not proven to be as effective as oral immune-therapy. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy are promising treatments for food allergy. Optimization and standardization of protocols, along with additional assessments of safety are still needed.

  17. The Impact of Bisphenol A and Phthalates on Allergy, Asthma, and Immune Function: A Review of Latest Findings

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lacey; Miller, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the impact of environmental exposure to chemicals and their immunological effects, including the development of allergy, has been a topic of great interest. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals produced in high volumes, including bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, are ubiquitous. The links between their exposure and the development of allergy, asthma and immune dysfunction have been studied in vitro, in vivo and through human cohort studies. The purpose of this review is to examine the current body of research and to highlight deficits and strengths of current findings. Emerging science indicates that deleterious immunologic changes, including increased propensity to develop wheeze, allergy and asthma after dietary and inhalation exposure to these chemicals, may be occurring. PMID:26337065

  18. Epidemiology: allergy history, IgE, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C

    2012-09-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated potential associations between allergy history and cancer risk with strong inverse associations reported in studies of pancreatic cancer, glioma, and childhood leukemia. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion of the epidemiological literature both of studies evaluating self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk and of studies evaluating biological indicators of allergy history and immune function including levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E. However, there are several potential methodological limitations associated with prior studies, and further research is required to clarify associations observed. This paper summarizes the recent epidemiological literature examining associations between allergy history and cancer risk. From 2008, a total of 55 epidemiological studies were identified that examined some aspect of the association between allergy and cancer. Although the majority of studies examined self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk, there were also studies examining allergy diagnoses or discharges as captured in existing administrative databases, levels of IgE, polymorphisms of allergy, inflammatory- or allergy-related cytokine genes, and concentrations of immune regulatory proteins. The most frequently studied cancer sites included brain and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Potential methodological sources of bias are discussed as well as recommendations for future work.

  19. 78 FR 75357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  20. 76 FR 371 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... ] evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  1. 77 FR 45644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation (U01..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  2. 76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  3. 75 FR 57972 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31, Room 4A30, Bethesda,...

  4. 75 FR 21005 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

  5. 76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeted Clinical Research to...

  6. New perspectives for use of native and engineered recombinant food proteins in treatment of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Food allergy has emerged as an important target for research on curative treatment and prevention, with most efforts focusing on peanut, cow's milk, and egg allergy. This article reviews the recent developments in the potential treatments for IgE-mediated food allergy using native and engineered recombinant food proteins.

  7. [Clinical research training in dentistry: analysis of the current status].

    PubMed

    Sosa Martínez, J; Deister Mateos, E

    1990-06-01

    The collegiate and university realms--which include lectures, students, clinical and scientific sessions--is open to growth. Furthermore, it has opened gates for new currents of thought and planted hopes for the growth and development of professors who, apart from mastering their specialty, may be familiar with didactics and directly or indirectly engage in full-time research, so that their lecturing and promotions may partially depend on the number and quality of their published works, preferably on scientific research.

  8. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  9. How common are long-lasting, intensely itching vaccination granulomas and contact allergy to aluminium induced by currently used pediatric vaccines? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergfors, Elisabet; Hermansson, Göran; Nyström Kronander, Ulla; Falk, Lars; Valter, Lars; Trollfors, Birger

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of long-lasting, intensely itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium (Al)-adsorbed vaccines (vaccination granulomas) was investigated in a prospective cohort study comprising 4,758 children who received either a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Infanrix®, Pentavac®) alone or concomitant with a pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar). Both vaccines were adsorbed to an Al adjuvant. Altogether 38 children (0.83 %) with itching granulomas were identified, epicutaneously tested for Al sensitisation and followed yearly. Contact allergy to Al was verified in 85 %. The median duration of symptoms was 22 months in those hitherto recovered. The frequency of granulomas induced by Infanrix® was >0.66 % and by Prevenar >0.35 %. The risk for granulomas increased from 0.63 to 1.18 % when a second Al-adsorbed vaccine was added to the schedule. Long-lasting itching vaccination granulomas are poorly understood but more frequent than previously known after infant vaccination with commonly used diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The risk increases with the number of vaccines given. Most children with itching granulomas become contact allergic to aluminium. Itching vaccination granulomas are benign but may be troublesome and should be recognised early in primary health care to avoid unnecessary investigations, anxiety and mistrust.

  10. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  12. Laboratory animal allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K; Stave, Gregg M

    2003-01-01

    Allergic reactions are among the most common conditions affecting the health of workers involved in the care and use of research animals. Between 11 and 44% of the individuals working with laboratory animals report work-related allergic symptoms. Of those who become symptomatic, 4 to 22% may eventually develop occupational asthma that can persist even after exposure ceases. Allergic symptoms consist of rashes where animals are in contact with the skin, nasal congestion and sneezing, itchy eyes, and asthma (cough, wheezing, and chest tightness). The generation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies is a prerequisite for the production of allergic symptoms. The mechanism by which IgE antibodies develop is becoming clearer. The propensity to produce IgE is genetically determined, and pre-existing allergy may be a risk factor for the development of laboratory animal allergy (LAA). However, exposure to animal allergens is the major risk factor for the development of LAA. Techniques to measure the airborne concentration of laboratory animal allergens have been developed. Research on animal allergens themselves indicates that many of the mouse and rat urinary proteins belong to a family of proteins called lipocalins, which share sequence homology with antigens of the parasitic agent that causes schistosomiasis. The fact that parasite infections also trigger IgE antibody responses may account for the development of LAA in persons who have never had any previous allergy. The prevention of LAA should be a major goal of an effective health and safety program in the animal research facility, and it can be accomplished by education and training of employees, reduction of exposure (including the use of personal protective gear), and changes in facility design. Medical surveillance programs can also play a role in improving health of individuals working with laboratory research animals. Early recognition of symptoms and evidence of sensitization can lead to interventions to reduce

  13. Kiwi fruit allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S A; Lewis, Stella A; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2003-12-01

    Allergy to kiwi fruit was first described in 1981, and there have since been reports of the allergy presenting with a wide range of symptoms from localized oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The article reviews the available information concerning the clinical features of kiwi fruit allergy and the role of clinical investigations for diagnosis. Work identifying the major allergens in kiwi fruit has resulted in conflicting results, the possible reasons for which are discussed. The clinical associations of kiwi fruit allergy with allergies to pollens or latex are reviewed.

  14. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fry, C; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Design: Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Setting: Australia. Participants: Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Main measurements: Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Results: Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Conclusions: Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings. PMID:16131558

  15. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  16. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  17. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  18. A Synthesis of Current Research in Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnur, James O.

    Purposes of this document are to present a broad view of migrant education which would inform educators of the current practices and procedures being employed and to provide impetus for more and better migrant education programs. The scope of this research synthesis encompasses the age range of the migrant (and his education) from cradle to…

  19. Current and Future Trends in Adult Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Mary Jane

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews and discusses results of current adult education research in the areas of cognitive styles, learning strategies, adult learning, hemispheres of the brain, adult development stages, open learning systems, nontraditional forms of learning, social action, nature of adult participation, and other concepts. (MF)

  20. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  1. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  2. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  3. Elementary School Mathematics: A Guide to Current Research. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Vincent J.; Callahan, Leroy G.

    Studies concerning the curriculum, the child, the learning environment, and teaching methods are covered in the four parts of this guide to current research in the elementary school mathematics. Subjects of the first part include the sources of the curriculum, the relationship of Piaget's work in child development to achievement in mathematics,…

  4. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  5. Vortex lift research: Early contributions and some current challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The trend towards slender wing aircraft for supersonic cruise and the early chronology of research directed towards their vortex-lift characteristics are briefly reviewed. An overview of the development of vortex-lift theoretical methods is presented, and some current computational and experimental challenges related to the viscous flow aspects of this vortex flow are discussed.

  6. [The diagnosis of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Michel, O; Doyen, V

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of food allergies is more than 5 %, rising currently. The clinical presentations are polymorphic and involve the skin, respiratory, vascular and gut systems. The diagnosis is based on the consistancy between the allergic history and the results of the specific IgE investigations. When the relationship between the history and the IgE sensitization is not significant, an oral challenge test with food is indicated under supervision of a reference center. New approach, based on dosage of specific IgE to different constituent (recombinant protein) of each allergen, can predict the severity of the reaction and the cross reactivity between allergens, in some patients.

  7. Research natural areas in Oregon and Washington: past and current research and related literature.

    Treesearch

    S.E. Greene; T. Blinn; J.F. Franklin

    1986-01-01

    This publication lists all completed and current research projects in research natural areas in Oregon and Washington and in those few research natural areas in Idaho that are administered by National Forests in Oregon. The list includes project title, status, source of funding, and principal investigator and address. A list of publications pertaining to research...

  8. 76 FR 8753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated Preclinical... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  9. 76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  10. 78 FR 17218 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Panel, ``Limited Competition: Collaborative Partnership to Advance Global Biomedical Research Programs..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  12. 77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  13. Crohn's disease: a review of treatment options and current research.

    PubMed

    Bandzar, Sean; Gupta, Shabnam; Platt, Manu O

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects nearly 1.4 million Americans. The etiology of Crohn's disease is not completely understood, however, research has suggested a genetic link. There is currently no known cure for Crohn's disease and, as a result, most government-funded research is being conducted to increase the quality of life of afflicted patients (i.e. reducing chronic inflammation and alleviating growth impairment in pediatric patients). A number of treatment options are available including an alpha-4 integrin inhibitor and several TNF-alpha inhibitors. Furthermore, research is being conducted on several alternative treatment options to help understand exactly which cellular mechanisms (i.e. inducing apoptosis in leukocytes) are required for clinical efficacy. This review seeks to chronicle the current available treatment options for patients affected by Crohn's disease to aid in understanding potential cellular mechanistic requirements for an efficacious drug, and shed light on potential options for future treatment.

  14. Animal models of frailty: current applications in clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Mach, John; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The ethical, logistical, and biological complications of working with an older population of people inherently limits clinical studies of frailty. The recent development of animal models of frailty, and tools for assessing frailty in animal models provides an invaluable opportunity for frailty research. This review summarizes currently published animal models of frailty including the interleukin-10 knock-out mouse, the mouse frailty phenotype assessment tool, and the mouse clinical frailty index. It discusses both current and potential roles of these models in research into mechanisms of frailty, interventions to prevent/delay frailty, and the effect of frailty on outcomes. Finally, this review discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of translating research findings from animals to humans. PMID:27822024

  15. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    PubMed

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-07-27

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal models of frailty: current applications in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Mach, John; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The ethical, logistical, and biological complications of working with an older population of people inherently limits clinical studies of frailty. The recent development of animal models of frailty, and tools for assessing frailty in animal models provides an invaluable opportunity for frailty research. This review summarizes currently published animal models of frailty including the interleukin-10 knock-out mouse, the mouse frailty phenotype assessment tool, and the mouse clinical frailty index. It discusses both current and potential roles of these models in research into mechanisms of frailty, interventions to prevent/delay frailty, and the effect of frailty on outcomes. Finally, this review discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of translating research findings from animals to humans.

  17. Infant food allergy: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Joneja, Janice M

    2012-01-01

    For many years, the prevailing maxim for prevention of food allergy in at-risk infants was to reduce allergic sensitization by avoiding exposure to highly allergenic foods until the baby's immune and digestive systems were sufficiently developed to cope with the allergen. Current thinking is completely different: exposure to food in the early stages of development may be the way to induce tolerance. Exclusive breastfeeding until 4-6 months, followed by introduction of complementary foods individually, is recommended. Any restrictions on mother's diet, other than avoidance of her own allergens during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are contraindicated. If a baby at high risk for allergy (defined as having 1 first-degree relative with diagnosed allergy) cannot be exclusively breastfed to 4-6 months of age, the preferred method of feeding for the prevention of atopic disease is an extensively hydrolyzed formula. There appears to be no value in delaying the introduction of any food beyond 6 months of age. Most food allergy is outgrown in childhood, but allergy to some foods tends to persist. Induction of tolerance to foods to which a child is allergic may be achieved by low-dose exposure in a process known as specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI). Early results indicate that some probiotic strains of bacteria, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or Lactobacillus F19, may reduce allergic sensitization.

  18. [Regulation of allergy by innate immune system].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yutaro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-11-01

    Allergy is an immune disease including asthma. Activation of Th2 response, such as production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from CD4+ T cells and IgG1 or IgE from B cells is responsible for allergy. Activation of acquired immune system requires preceding activation of innate immunity, therefore innate immunity may control Th2 response and allergy. Recent studies revealed that dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and basophils play central roles in the initiation of Th2 response. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding on the control of Th2 and allergic responses by innate immune system, and discuss recent findings on house dust mite-induced allergic response based on these understandings.

  19. Component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera allergy.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, D; Ruiz-León, B; Boni, E; Alfaya-Arias, T; Álvarez-Mon, M; Barbarroja-Escudero, J; González-de-Olano, D; Moreno-Aguilar, C; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M; Sánchez-González, M J; Sánchez-Morillas, L; Vega-Castro, A

    2017-07-21

    Component-resolved diagnosis based on the use of well-defined, properly characterised and purified natural and recombinant allergens constitutes a new approach in the diagnosis of venom allergy. Prospective readers may benefit from an up-to-date review on the allergens. The best characterised venom is that of Apis mellifera, whose main allergens are phospholipase A2 (Api m1), hyaluronidase (Api m2) and melittin (Api m4). Additionally, in recent years, new allergens of Vespula vulgaris have been identified and include phospholipase A1 (Ves v1), hyaluronidase (Ves v2) and antigen 5 (Ves v5). Polistes species are becoming an increasing cause of allergy in Europe, although only few allergens have been identified in this venom. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge about molecular diagnosis in hymenoptera venom allergy. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  1. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  3. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    MedlinePlus

    ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions ... Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > ADHD > Allergies and Hyperactivity Health Issues Listen Español Text ...

  4. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  5. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  6. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  7. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    PubMed

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations.

  8. Low-carbohydrate diets: an update on current research.

    PubMed

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Davis, Nichola J

    2009-10-01

    The diabetes and obesity epidemics have stimulated research to assess the benefits and potential risks of low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrate comprises less than 45% of calories in carbohydrate-restricted diets, but very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets may restrict carbohydrate to 20 g initially with variability in the carbohydrate level subsequently. Some research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may achieve better early weight loss than comparison diets higher in carbohydrate. Studies of up to 1 year suggest that weight loss on low-carbohydrate diet is comparable with fat-restricted diets with higher carbohydrate content. Limited research has been conducted to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets in managing type 2 diabetes. Although science continues to advance in this field, current research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets can be a viable option for achieving weight loss and may have beneficial effects on glycemic control, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in some patients.

  9. Complex Systems Thinking and Current Impasses in Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems approaches have received increasing attention in public health because reductionist approaches yield limited insights in the context of dynamic systems. Most discussions have been highly abstract. There is a need to consider the application of complex systems approaches to specific research questions. I review the features of population health problems for which complex systems approaches are most likely to yield new insights, and discuss possible applications of complex systems to health disparities research. I provide illustrative examples of how complex systems approaches may help address unanswered and persistent questions regarding genetic factors, life course processes, place effects, and the impact of upstream policies. The concepts and methods of complex systems may help researchers move beyond current impasse points in health disparities research. PMID:21778505

  10. Food specific oral immunotherapy: a potential treatment for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Burks, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition affecting up to 8% of children and up to 2% of adults in westernized countries. There are currently no approved treatments for food allergy apart from avoidance. The apparent increase in incidence of food allergies over the past few decades calls attention to the need for effective, disease-modifying therapies for food allergies. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising experimental treatment in which food allergic patients consume increasing quantities of food in attempt to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. Studies are ongoing to determine whether OIT is capable of safely inducing not only desensitization but also tolerance to the allergenic foods. This article focuses on recent relevant studies of OIT for the treatment of common food allergies.

  11. Diagnosis, Management, and Investigational Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods—2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:25633563

  12. Diagnosis, management, and investigational therapies for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies.

  13. [Main characteristics of current biomedical research, in Chile].

    PubMed

    Valdés S, Gloria; Armas M, Rodolfo; Reyes B, Humberto

    2012-04-01

    Biomedical research is a fundamental tool for the development of a country, requiring human and financial resources. To define some current characteristics of biomedical research, in Chile. Data on entities funding bio-medical research, participant institutions, and the number of active investigators for the period 2007-2009 were obtained from institutional sources; publications indexed in PubMed for 2008-2009 were analysed. Most financial resources invested in biomedical research projects (approximately US$ 19 million per year) came from the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica" (CONICYT), a state institution with 3 independent Funds administering competitive grant applications open annually to institutional or independent investigators in Chile. Other sources and universities raised the total amount to US$ 26 million. Since 2007 to 2009, 408 investigators participated in projects funded by CONICYT. The main participant institutions were Universidad de Chile and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, both adding up to 84% of all funded projects. Independently, in 2009,160 research projects -mainly multi centric clinical trials- received approximately US$ 24 million from foreign pharmaceutical companies. Publications listed in PubMed were classified as "clinical research" (n = 879, including public health) or "basic biomedical research" (n = 312). Biomedical research in Chile is mainly supported by state funds and university resources, but clinical trials also obtained an almost equivalent amount from foreign resources. Investigators are predominantly located in two universities. A small number of MD-PhD programs are aimed to train and incorporate new scientists. Only a few new Medical Schools participate in biomedical research. A National Registry of biomedical research projects, including the clinical trials, is required among other initiatives to stimulate research in biomedical sciences in Chile.

  14. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  15. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  16. Relationship between allergy and cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rittmeyer, Delia; Lorentz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Allergic diseases and malignancies cause a lot of morbidity, mortality and high costs for healthcare systems. An inverse association between allergy and cancer has been suspected for a long time, but even despite extensive research no general relationship has been determined. This review comprises 32 epidemiological studies published between 1960 and 2011 and draws conclusions regarding relationships between specific types of cancer and allergic diseases. On the one hand, inflammatory reactions in the course of allergy can support carcinogenesis but are limited to specific areas, whereas on the other hand systemic effects in terms of enhanced immunosurveillance can prevent cancer.

  17. Allergy and pulmonary impairment in Iowa veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Will, L A; Nassif, E G; Engen, R L; Patterson, R A; Zimmerman, D

    1987-01-01

    If small animal practice exposure, including the laboratory animal situations encountered in academic and other research pursuits, is more detrimental to veterinarians than large animal practice exposure for induction of allergic respiratory disease, then preventive measures such as increased ventilation, use of high efficiency particulate filters, and wearing of masks should be encouraged to reduce allergen exposures. Migration from large animal practice, likewise, should be discouraged. Failure to migrate to low occupational allergy risk situations early enough in a veterinary career can have severe and even fatal results. If the observed respiratory disease in veterinarians is in fact due to exposure, then unfortunately, it may in some cases be progressive and not just chronic. Data which could provide criteria for predicting occupational allergy and possible related respiratory disease outcome is scant at this time and career counselling is difficult. If the veterinary occupational animal allergy data should be proven correct such results can be used to help others.

  18. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seta, S

    1996-06-28

    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  19. [Current Status of Translational Research on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In

    2016-09-25

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the incidence of some of its complications have risen strikingly over the last few decades. With the increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of GERD along with the development of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD have changed dramatically over the past decade. However, GERD still poses a problem to many clinicians since the spectrum of the disease has evolved to encompass more challenging presentations such as refractory GERD and extra-esophageal manifestations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of available current translational research on GERD. This review includes acid pocket, ambulatory pH monitoring, impedance pH monitoring, mucosa impedance, and high resolution manometry. This article discusses current translational research on GERD.

  20. Peanut allergy and anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, Fred D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Peanuts are a frequent cause of food allergy and the most common cause of fatal food-induced anaphylaxis in the U.S. Advances during the past two years have promoted our understanding of peanut allergens and peanut allergy prevalence, etiology, diagnosis and therapy. The advances highlighted in this review include evidence that the peanut allergens most important in disease differ in different parts of the world, that early oral exposure to peanuts may decrease the frequency of peanut allergy, while early non-oral exposure may have the opposite effect, that complement activation by peanut constituents appears to promote peanut-induced anaphylaxis and that oral immunotherapy, anti-IgE antibody and an herbal formulation are promising approaches for treatment of this disorder. PMID:21051210

  1. Determinants of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Much has been learned by identifying the molecules that can be recognized by IgE from patients with allergies. Increasingly, by correlating patterns of sensitization with clinical features, it has become possible to distinguish molecules responsible for primary sensitization (complete allergens) from those that are more likely cross-reactive targets. In the case of animal allergens, evolutionary distance seems to be an important factor in determining allergenicity. However, until more is understood regarding the mechanistic details of primary sensitization, including the participation of molecules that stimulate innate immune responses and the repertoire of T-cell antigens, molecules that may or may not themselves be important B-cell antigens, we will not be able to explain fundamental questions, such as why peanut allergy is more severe than soy allergy or why tick exposure is associated with clinically relevant sensitization to a carbohydrate epitope. PMID:22244230

  2. Viral infections and allergies.

    PubMed

    Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections have been implicated in the origin of, protection from and exacerbation of allergy-related symptoms in a variety of ways. Viral infections are closely linked to infantile wheezing. Severe bronchiolitis in early infancy may predispose to chronic childhood asthma as well as allergic sensitization; alternatively it could represent a marker of susceptible individuals. In contrast, repeated mild infections in early life may have a protective role in the development of asthma or atopy by driving the immune system towards Th1 responses. However, evidence on this hypothesis is not consistent as far as respiratory viruses are concerned. Several factors, including the presence of an atopic environment, timing of exposure and severity of the infection, interactively contribute to the allergy-infection relationship. In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed.

  3. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  4. [Contact allergy to preservatives contained in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assay the type of allergy to preservatives contained in cosmetics and to assess the usefulness of the composition of allergens included in a standard series for the diagnosis of occupational contact allergy used to date. The frequency of contact allergy to the standard series of preservatives (thimerosal, Euxyl K 400, formaldehyde, Kathon CG, Quaternium 15, parabens) was assayed in a group of 1937 subsequent patients referred to the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in L6di and examined in the years 2000-2005. The frequency and type of allergy to preservatives of a cosmetic series in a group of 113 patients with poor tolerance of cosmetics were also investigated. Allergy to thimerosal was found in 11.8% of patients tested with a standard series; to formaldehyde in 4.9%; and to Euxyl K 400 in 3.7%. Quaternium and parabens were less allergenic (0.8 and 0.3%, respectively). In the group of 113 patients subjected to patch test with a cosmetic series, allergy, i.e. at least one positive patch test, was observed in 49 (43.4%) patients. Of the 27 preservatives contained in cosmetics, 16 induced positive reaction to chemical compounds. Euxyl K 400 proved to be the basic allergenic preservative of this series, and induced allergy in 21 (18.6%) patients, whereas 17.7% of patients reacted to thimerosal. Only allergy to thimerosal applied to 8 persons, and 7 of them showed inflammatory lesions only on the face. Less allergic biocides were cocamidopropyl betaine (7.1%), Kathon CG (7.1%), Bronopol (5.3%), Germall II (4.4%), triethanolamine (3.5%), Germall 115 (2.6%), DMDM hydantoin (2.6%), Grotan BK (1.8%), sodium-2-pyridinethiol-1-oxide (1.8%), clioquinol (0.9%), Quaternium 15 (0.9%), and dimethylaminopropylamine (0.9%). The results of our study confirmed observations of other authors that allergy to preservatives present in numerous industrial products, especially Euxyl K 400, is still a growing problem. Like many other researchers, we are

  5. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old All About Allergies KidsHealth > For Parents > All About Allergies A A A What's in this ... children might have allergies doesn't mean that all of your kids will definitely get them, too. ...

  6. Physician Requirements-1990. For Allergy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorner, Robert N.; Rudzinski, Karen

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in allergy were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for allergy, an allergy Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 21 conditions that affect the ambulatory care…

  7. The pathophysiology of otosclerosis: Review of current research.

    PubMed

    Rudic, M; Keogh, I; Wagner, R; Wilkinson, E; Kiros, N; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O; Bozorg Grayeli, A; Zarkovic, K; Zarkovic, N

    2015-12-01

    Otosclerosis is a complex disease of the human otic capsule with highest incidence in adult Caucasians. So far, many possible etiological factors like genetics, HLA, autoimmunity, viruses, inflammation, and hormones have been investigated but still the development of the disease remains unclear. Currently, the surgical replacement of stapes (stapedotomy) remains the best possible treatment option. In this review, we analyze different etiological factors studied so far in otosclerosis pathophysiology and discuss most recent findings and possible new research pathways.

  8. NASA Airframe Icing Research Overview Past and Current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the past and current research that NASA has done in the area of airframe icing. Both the history experimental efforts and model development to understand the process and problem of ice formation are reviewed. This has resulted in the development of new experimental methods, advanced icing simulation software, flight dynamics and experimental databases that have an impact on design, testing, construction and certification and qualification of the aircraft and its sub-systems.

  9. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  10. Current research on pharmacologic and regenerative therapies for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Ouyang, Hongwei; Dass, Crispin R; Xu, Jiake

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder commonly encountered in clinical practice, and is the leading cause of disability in elderly people. Due to the poor self-healing capacity of articular cartilage and lack of specific diagnostic biomarkers, OA is a challenging disease with limited treatment options. Traditional pharmacologic therapies such as acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids are effective in relieving pain but are incapable of reversing cartilage damage and are frequently associated with adverse events. Current research focuses on the development of new OA drugs (such as sprifermin/recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-18, tanezumab/monoclonal antibody against β-nerve growth factor), which aims for more effectiveness and less incidence of adverse effects than the traditional ones. Furthermore, regenerative therapies (such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), new generation of matrix-induced ACI, cell-free scaffolds, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells or iPSCs), and endogenous cell homing) are also emerging as promising alternatives as they have potential to enhance cartilage repair, and ultimately restore healthy tissue. However, despite currently available therapies and research advances, there remain unmet medical needs in the treatment of OA. This review highlights current research progress on pharmacologic and regenerative therapies for OA including key advances and potential limitations. PMID:26962464

  11. Research on scheme of applying ASON to current networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y. F.; Li, J. R.; Deng, L. J.

    2008-10-01

    Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) is currently a new and hot research subject in the world. It can provide high bandwidth, high assembly flexibility, high network security and reliability, but with a low management cost. It is presented to meet the requirements for high-throughput optical access with stringent Quality of Service (QoS). But as a brand new technology, ASON can not be supported by the traditional protocol software and network equipments. And the approach to build a new ASON network on the basis of completely abandoning the traditional optical network facilities is not desirable, because it costs too much and wastes a lot of network resources can also be used. So how to apply ASON to the current networks and realize the smooth transition between the existing network and ASON has been a serious problem to many network operators. In this research, the status in quo of ASON is introduced first and then the key problems should be considered when applying ASON to current networks are discussed. Based on this, the strategies should be complied with to overcome these key problems are listed. At last, the approach to apply ASON to the current optical networks is proposed and analyzed.

  12. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  13. [About animal allergy].

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari

    2016-01-01

    Although the opinions about animals and animal allergies may be extreme, animals can even be indispensable for the well-being of humans. The immune tolerance of many modern city dwellers is insufficiently developed, predisposing the skin and mucous membranes to allergic inflammation. There is no need in infancy to avoid animals, and animal contacts in early childhood rather protect from the development of allergies. Pet allergens are present in small amounts everywhere, not only in places where they live. General instructions on avoidance do not exist. New forms of desensitization therapy may in the future bring relief for those having strong symptoms.

  14. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  15. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  16. Allergy and Asthma. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezkovich, Jan, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to review the literature in the related fields of allergy and asthma. Included is material appropriate for both the lay reader and the professional interested in recent research into causes and treatments. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, the guide is designed to specifically target resource…

  17. Clinical Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Allergy (cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy

  18. [On the 100th anniversary of Clemens von Pirquet "Allergie", Muenchener medizinische Wochenschrift; 53, 1457-1458].

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2006-05-01

    One hundred years ago Clemens von Pirquet's paper Allergie was published in Muencher medizinische Wochenschrift (vol. 53, 1457-1458). It was the first attempt ever made to define the term "allergy", currently considered a mile-stone in the development of contemporary allergology. The following paper presents the historical background of the event, including earlier descriptions of the diseases that later became considered allergic, as well as not-always-successful, sometimes naive, attempts to explain their causes. It also shows von Pirquet's profile, his scientific and medical achievements, especially the results of the research on reactions to second injections of antiserums and vaccines, which became the base for the presented conception of allergy, understood as body's changed reactivity. The paper describes the further evolution of this concept as well as the arisen controversy, which led to the contemporary way of understanding of this term.

  19. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Dano, D; Remington, B C; Astier, C; Baumert, J L; Kruizinga, A G; Bihain, B E; Taylor, S L; Kanny, G

    2015-09-01

    Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge method for future studies. Records of patients at University Hospital in Nancy (France) with objective symptoms to sesame challenges were collected and combined with previously published data. An estimation of the sesame allergy population threshold was calculated based on individual NOAELs and LOAELs. Clinical dosing schemes at Nancy were investigated to see if the optimal protocol for sesame is currently used. Fourteen patients (10 M/4 F, 22 ± 14.85 years old) with objective symptoms were added to previously published data making a total of 35 sesame allergic patients. The most sensitive patient reacted to the first dose at challenge of 1.02 mg sesame protein. The ED05 ranges between 1.2 and 4.0 mg of sesame protein (Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull models) and the ED10 between 4.2 and 6.2 mg. The optimal food challenge dosing scheme for sesame follows semi-log dose increases from 0.3 to 3000 mg protein. This article provides a valuable update to the existing clinical literature regarding sesame NOAELs and LOAELs. Establishment of a population threshold for sesame could help in increasing the credibility of precautionary labelling and decrease the costs associated with unexpected allergic reactions. Also, the use of an optimal dosing scheme would decrease time spent on diagnostic and thereafter on the economic burden of sesame allergy diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.