Picaud, J; Beaudouin, E; Renaudin, J M; Pirson, F; Metz-Favre, C; Dron-Gonzalvez, M; Moneret-Vautrin, D A
Nine cases of diclofenac hypersensitivity recorded by the Allergy Vigilance Network in France from 2002 to 2012 were studied. Data from history, symptoms, skin tests, basophil activation tests, and oral challenge (OC) were recorded. Grade 3 severe anaphylactic reactions occurred in seven cases of nine. IgE-dependent anaphylaxis was confirmed in six cases: positive intradermal tests (n = 4), a syndromic reaction during skin tests (n = 1), and one case with grade 1 reaction and negative skin tests had an anaphylactic shock to the OC. A nonimmune reaction was suspected in one case. An IgE-dependent mechanism may be the predominant cause of adverse reactions to diclofenac. Allergy skin tests must be carried out sequentially at the recommended concentrations. BATs may be helpful because they can support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Given the risks of a direct challenge to diclofenac, OC to aspirin should be performed first to exclude a nonimmunologic hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Tests for specific IgEs to most frequently used NSAIDs such as diclofenac and ibuprofen are urgently needed.
Dron, P; Lafourcade, M P; Leprince, F; Nonotte-Varly, C; Van Der Brempt, X; Banoun, L; Sullerot, I; This-Vaissette, C; Parisot, L; Moneret-Vautrin, D A
Body piercing and tattooing are increasingly common. As well as the risk of infection and scarring, allergic reactions are also reported. This is the first multi-centre study to assess the frequency of consultations for allergy. Of the 138 allergologists who answered our two questionnaires, 7.9% reported allergic reactions associated with body piercing and 18.9% identified allergies associated with temporary henna-based tattoos. Contact eczema, rhinitis and urticaria were related to nickel allergy. Contact eczema, generalized eczema, pruritus and edema were caused by tattoos. In 20 out of 28 cases, sensitization to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) was observed. The authors review the literature, underscoring the risk of serious allergy to PPD, the need for long-term monitoring of the risk of skin lymphocytoma, the difficulties met during treatment and the necessity of regulating tattooing and body piercing practices.
Roca, Javier; Castro, Cándida; López-Ramón, María Fernanda; Lupiáñez, Juan
Vigilance could be a crucial aspect of attention that may modulate the functioning of the attentional system. Some behavioural tests, such as the Attention Network Test (ANT), have been developed to obtain an individual index of the three attentional networks (alertness, orientation, and executive control). However, alerting network measures are usually inferred using a phasic alertness task, and some indirect indexes of tonic alertness or vigilance have been proposed but not properly evaluated. The general aim for the present study is to provide the ANT with a direct measure of vigilance and then to analyse the relationship between this measure and other alternative indirect indexes. The obtained results suggest that the proposed new test (ANTI-Vigilance or ANTI-V) is useful to achieve a direct measure of vigilance and could be considered as a new tool available in cognitive, clinical or behavioural neurosciences for analysing vigilance in addition to the usual ANT scores. Other alternative indexes (such as global reaction time and global accuracy averaged across conditions) are only moderately correlated to a direct vigilance measure. As a consequence, although they may be to some extent related to the participants' vigilance level, they could not be used isolatedly as appropriate indexes of vigilance. Also, the role played by these global measures in the ANT task, which have been previously associated with some performance measures in applied areas (such as driving performance), is discussed.
Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna
Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…
... use skin and blood tests to diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the substances that cause the reactions. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... clear up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental ...
Osterkamp, W.R.; Emmett, W.W.; Leopold, Luna Bergere
Long-term monitoring of geomorphic, hydrological, and biological characteristics of landscapes provides an effective means of relating observed change to possible causes of the change. Identification of changes in basin characteristics, especially in arid areas where the response to altered climate or land use is generally rapid and readily apparent, might provide the initial direct indications that factors such as global warming and cultural impacts have affected the environment. The Vigil Network provides an opportunity for earth and life scientists to participate in a systematic monitoring effort to detect landscape changes over time, and to relate such changes to possible causes. The Vigil Network is an ever-increasing group of sites and basins used to monitor landscape features with as much as 50 years of documented geomorphic and related observations.
Shen, Hui; Li, Zhenfeng; Qin, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lubin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen
An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have suggested that the fluctuations of low-frequency resting-state functional connectivity (FC) are not noise but are instead linked to the shift between distinct cognitive states. However, there is very limited knowledge about whether and how the fluctuations of FC at rest are influenced by long-term training and experience. Here, we investigated how the dynamics of resting-state FC are linked to driving behavior by comparing 20 licensed taxi drivers with 20 healthy non-drivers using a sliding window approach. We found that the driving experience could be effectively decoded with 90% (p<0.001) accuracy by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in some specific connections, based on a multivariate pattern analysis technique. Interestingly, the majority of these connections fell within a set of distributed regions named "the vigilance network". Moreover, the decreased amplitude of the FC fluctuations within the vigilance network in the drivers was negatively correlated with the number of years that they had driven a taxi. Furthermore, temporally quasi-stable functional connectivity segmentation revealed significant differences between the drivers and non-drivers in the dwell time of specific vigilance-related transient brain states, although the brain's repertoire of functional states was preserved. Overall, these results suggested a significant link between the changes in the time-dependent aspects of resting-state FC within the vigilance network and long-term driving experiences. The results not only improve our understanding of how the brain supports driving behavior but also shed new light on the relationship between the dynamics of functional brain networks and individual behaviors.
... which are white blood cells containing the chemical histamine. As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast cells to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. A stuffy and ...
Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network -- www.allergyasthmanetwork.org American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology -- www. ...
WASHINGTON - Today, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will give remarks at the Allergy and Asthma Network's 30 th Anniversary Awards Ceremony in Washington, D.C. Administrator McCarthy will speak about how climate change can impact respirato
Arns, Martijn; Kenemans, J Leon
In this review article an overview of the history and current status of neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD and insomnia is provided. Recent insights suggest a central role of circadian phase delay, resulting in sleep onset insomnia (SOI) in a sub-group of ADHD patients. Chronobiological treatments, such as melatonin and early morning bright light, affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This nucleus has been shown to project to the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) thereby explaining the vigilance stabilizing effects of such treatments in ADHD. It is hypothesized that both Sensori-Motor Rhythm (SMR) and Slow-Cortical Potential (SCP) neurofeedback impact on the sleep spindle circuitry resulting in increased sleep spindle density, normalization of SOI and thereby affect the noradrenergic LC, resulting in vigilance stabilization. After SOI is normalized, improvements on ADHD symptoms will occur with a delayed onset of effect. Therefore, clinical trials investigating new treatments in ADHD should include assessments at follow-up as their primary endpoint rather than assessments at outtake. Furthermore, an implication requiring further study is that neurofeedback could be stopped when SOI is normalized, which might result in fewer sessions.
... immune response to allergens. Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Latex Allergy Mold Allergy Pet Allergy Pollen ...
Dimov, Ves; Eidelman, Frank
Online social networks are used to connect with friends and family members, and increasingly, to stay up-to-date with the latest news and developments in allergy and immunology. As communication is a central part of healthcare delivery, the utilization of such networking channels in allergy and immunology will continue to grow. There are inherent risks to online social networks related to breaches of patient confidentiality, professionalism and privacy. Malpractice and liability risks should also be considered. There is a paucity of information in the literature on how social network interventions affect patient outcomes. The allergy and immunology community should direct future studies towards investigating how the use of social networks and other technology tools and services can improve patient care.
Moneret-Vautrin, D A
The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental
... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...
... Reduce Mold in Your Whole House: Use an electric dehumidifier to remove moisture and keep humidity in ... Find a Local Support Group Join Our Action Network Kids With Food Allergies AAFA Research Grants Health ...
Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl
Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.
... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...
... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores float ...
Galimberti, M; Cadario, G; Belliero, B; Maspoli, M; Di Pietrantonj, C; Demicheli, V
The Allergology Hospital Network and Regional Register for Severe Allergic Reactions (Regional Observatory) is the Piemonte Health Authority new challenge. It satisfied the need to promote and monitor the best practice among a variegated pool of specialists and to define both state of the art and evolution of efficiency and efficacy of standard working process. Harmonization in clinical daily activities and report of severe allergic reactions notified to Regional Observatory, had been gained by mean of a customized Information Technology (IT) solution. The overall target is to ensure a correct diagnostic treatment to patients with severe allergic reactions preventing possible future reactions. Statistics data as a whole, provide basilar epidemiological information to allocate both economical and human resources and to fulfill the rising of health diseases. Piemonte Allergology Medical Network with the Regional Register are an Italian unique and innovative project. It would represent a benchmark for other medical branches.
Schäfer, T; Borowski, C; Reese, I; Werfel, T; Gieler, U
Allergies are a meaningful public-health problem. Until now no evidence-based recommendations for allergy prevention exist. An evidence based guideline for primary and secondary prevention of allergies was developed in the course of the German Network on Allergy Prevention (Aktionsbündnis Allergiepräven-tion, ABAP) with support of the German Ministry of Health. Results of the systematic evidence search and the consented recommendations are presented here. After an appropriate search strategy was developed, a systematic literature search was performed in electronic databases (Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE). Furthermore four selected journals were hand-searched and reference lists of actual reviews as well as grey literature was screened. Some 3 500 references were retrieved initially and a two-stage filter process on the relevance was applied by screening titles and abstracts and subsequently full-text papers. For the critical methodological appraisal modifications of international checklists were used. A total of 323 studies were included and evaluated. These comprised 3 Cochrane Reviews, 7 meta-analyses, 37 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as well as 102 cohort and 174 case-control-studies. The following levels of evidence were applied: 3x1a, 21x1b, 5x2a, 59x2b, 1x3a, 45x3b, 189x4. These studies were summarized in a form of a systematic review and corresponding recommendations were formulated. The latter were consented by members of the abap steering committee in two consensus meeting where the method of a nominal group process was applied. For the first time recommendations for the prevention of allergies were developed on a high methodological standard. The content and modifications reflect the existing evidence.
... allergy if you have other allergies — such as hay fever or a food allergy — or they're common ... your symptoms? Do you have allergies, such as hay fever or allergies to certain foods? Is there a ...
Gjomarkaj, M; Pace, E; Canonica, G W; Bonini, S; Ricci, G; Burney, P; Zuberbier, T; Van Cauwenberge, P; Bousquet, J
Allergic diseases represent some of the main health problems in Europe. These are increasing in prevalence, seriousness and social cost. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a network of excellence of the 6 degrees management program, was created in the 2005 with the aim to gather the European leader institutions of the research and clinical assistance fields, in order to guarantee the excellence and avoid the fragmentation of the energy spent in fighting allergy diseases in general. The GA(2)LEN has drawn a great advantage from the personal efforts of every single researcher who have proved their strong motivation in carrying on this "pan-European" model of collaboration. The network has been organized in order to increase the team work in scientific research projects in allergic and asthma disease field, making the GA(2)LEN the worldwide leader in this area. On these basis research projects have been carried on about which first data have been already published. The activities of the GA(2)LEN include in general the establishment of a lasting organization of the planning phase, the activity linked to every single project and to the improving on the existing projects, as well as the draft of new guidelines. This review reports the main achieved goals.
Carr, Jeanine M
In this article, the author explores poetic transcription as an experimental form of writing. Her previous ethnographic research, in which she explored the experience of vigilance for family members who stayed at the bedside of hospitalized relatives, provided the qualitative data for the poetic compositions. In this article, she describes the background and rationale for the research, the findings, and her use of the data to transcribe them into poetic expressions of the lived experience of vigilance.
... of other allergies, such as food allergy or hay fever Allergic reaction to another drug A family history ... so, what drug was it? Do you have hay fever, food allergy or other allergies? Is there a ...
Jutel, M; Angier, L; Palkonen, S; Ryan, D; Sheikh, A; Smith, H; Valovirta, E; Yusuf, O; van Wijk, R G; Agache, I
The incidence, prevalence and costs of allergy have increased substantially in recent decades in many parts of Europe. The dominant model of allergy care within Europe is at the moment specialist-based. This model will become unsustainable and undeliverable with increasing disease prevalence. One solution to increase provision of allergy services is to diversify the providers. A new model for the provision of allergy care in the community with the general practitioner at the forefront is proposed. Pre- and postgraduate allergy education and training, implementation of pathways of care, allergy specialization and political will to generate resources and support are essential to achieve this new model. In parallel the holistic view of allergic diseases should be maintained, including assessment of severity and risk, psychological factors and health-care related costs in the context of the patient-centered decision making process.
Taylor, Kelley R.
In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…
... Clinic Staff Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy ... broth and vegetable starch Besides "soy," "soya" and "soybeans," other words on food labels may indicate that ...
Moreno, E; Laffond, E; Muñoz-Bellido, F; Gracia, M T; Macías, E; Moreno, A; Dávila, I
European Network on Drug Allergy (ENDA) has proposed an algorithm for diagnosing immediate beta-lactam (BL) allergy. We evaluated its performance in real life. During 1994-2014, 1779 patients with suspected immediate reactions to BL were evaluated following ENDA's short diagnostic algorithm. Five hundred and nine patients (28.6%) were diagnosed of BL hypersensitivity. Of them, 457 (25.7%) were at first evaluation [403 by skin tests (ST), 12 by positive IgE and 42 by controlled provocation tests (CPT)]. At second evaluation (SE), 52 additional patients (10.2% of allergic patients) were diagnosed, [50 (2.8%) by ST and 2 (0.1%) by CPT]. Time between reaction and study was significantly longer in patients diagnosed at SE (median 5 vs 42 months; IQR 34 vs 170; P < 0.0001). Anaphylaxis was significantly associated with a diagnosis at SE. European Network on Drug Allergy/EAACI protocol was appropriate and safe when evaluating BL immediate reactions. Re-evaluation should be performed, particularly when anaphylaxis and long interval to diagnosis are present.
... that are caused by allergies (such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema) may need other treatments. Medicines that ... shots are most effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used ...
... food allergy syndrome In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and ... if asthma, eczema, hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family. A past food ...
Nickel allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Nickel allergy is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis — an itchy rash that appears where your skin touches a usually harmless substance. Nickel ...
... Create Your Own Events Educational Events Soy Allergy Soybean allergy is one of the more common food ... Always read ingredient labels to identify soy ingredients. Soybeans are a member of the legume family, which ...
... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...
Edwards, I Ralph; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayamani
The world changes continuously and pharmacovigilance as a new discipline also must change. There are new fields opening with novel challenges whilst we are still perfecting ways to manage and improve the basic challenges such as inadequate data for decision making and under-reporting. Traditional medicines, vaccines, poisoning and medication error are all aspects of the safety of medicines that we have monitored for decades, though without perhaps paying enough attention to their special aspects. There are many new stakeholders taking serious interest in pharmacovigilance outside the regulatory sphere and they often focus on improving individual patient care, rather than the more traditional concentration on broad public health. The same stakeholders are also drawing attention to other iatrogenic outcomes that should be recognised, evaluated and their outcomes compared and contrasted with medication, such as harm from medical devices. The vigilance methods used for medication are very much applicable to all these new fields, though more and different expertise will be needed to evaluate outcomes.
Hegewald, Janice; Pfahlberg, Annette; Lessmann, Holger; Schnuch, Axel; Gefeller, Olaf
Purpose To analyse the association between occupation (represented by job title) and contact allergy to thiuram vulcanising agents based on data of a clinical registry (IVDK, www.ivdk.org). Methods Clinical, demographic and allergy patch test data of all patients tested between 1992 and 2006 with the thiuram mix (1% in petrolatum) as part of the baseline series was analysed (n = 121,051). Poisson regression analysis was used to quantify the association between different occupations (and other relevant factors) and a positive patch test reaction to the thiuram mix. Furthermore, the time trend of sensitisation prevalence was analysed in high-risk occupational subgroups identified. Results In comparison to a largely unexposed reference group (office workers and teachers), rubber manufacturers had a significantly elevated risk (prevalence ratio (PR): 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–10.5). However, health care workers such as physicians and dentists (PR: 3.8, 95% CI: 3.0–4.8) or nursing staff (PR: 3.0, 95% CI: 2.5–3.6) as well as meat and fish processors (PR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2–5.3) and cleaners (PR 3.1, 95% CI: 2.5–3.8) were found to have a high sensitisation risk as well. In case of health care workers, a significant downward trend during the study period was observed; while in food processors and cleaners, sensitisation prevalence remained largely stable. Conclusion The adjusted multifactorial analysis identified occupations yet unknown to be associated with elevated thiuram contact allergy risk, e.g., food processors and cleaners. Thus, (i) further in-depth research can be targeted and (ii) efforts to prevent sensitisation to thiurams focussed, e.g., by limiting thiuram concentrations in products to a residual level which is technically inevitable. PMID:20041260
Romeijn, Nico; Van Someren, Eus J W
Skin temperature shows spontaneous ultradian fluctuations during everyday-life wakefulness. Previous work showed that mild manipulations of skin temperature affect human sleep and vigilance, presumably by influencing neuronal systems involved in both thermal sensing and arousal regulation. We therefore examined whether fluctuations in skin temperature are associated with those in vigilance level under conditions similar to everyday-life situations requiring sustained attention. Eight healthy participants (30.1 ± 8.1 years, M ± SD) participated in a 2-day protocol, during which vigilance and skin temperature were assessed 4 times per day in a silent, dimly lit, temperature-controlled room. Vigilance was assessed by measuring reaction speed and lapses on a novel sustained vigilance task specifically designed to increase lapse rate and range of reaction times. Skin temperature was sampled at 30-second intervals from 3 locations: distal, intermediate, and proximal temperatures were obtained from the middle finger (T(finger) ), the wrist (T(wrist)), and the infraclavicular area (T(chest)), respectively. Furthermore, 3 distal to proximal gradients were calculated. Mixed-effect regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the fluctuations in temperatures and gradients and those in response speed and lapse probability. Especially the spontaneous fluctuations in proximal temperature were negatively associated with fluctuations in response speed and positively with lapse rate. If individual T(chest) temperature ranges were classified into 10 deciles, they accounted for 23% of the variance in response speed and 11% of the variance in lapse rate. The findings indicate coupling between the spontaneous fluctuations in skin temperature and vigilance during the day and are compatible with the hypothesis of overlap in brain networks involved in the regulation of temperature and vigilance. From an applied point of view, especially proximal skin temperature
Grief, Samuel N
Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.
... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...
Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...
Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D
Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.
Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.
Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671
... Other conditions resulting from penicillin allergy Less common penicillin allergy reactions occur days or weeks after exposure to the drug and may persist for some time after you stop taking it. These conditions include: Serum sickness, which may cause fever, joint pain, rash, swelling ...
... The same sort of thing happens with any allergy, whether it's a medicine (like penicillin), pollen in the air (from grasses, weeds, and trees), or a food, like peanuts. So the thing itself isn't harmful, but the way your body reacts to it ... a Reaction Like? If a kid with peanut allergy would have eaten that peanut-topped brownie, here's ...
... include: Mold spores Dust mites Animal dander Pollen Insect venom A health care provider gives you the ... that allergies make worse Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis Insect bite sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a ...
... occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ... have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ...
Messmer, E M
Recent developments indicate that ocular allergy is more than an IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. Ocular allergy is a disease affecting the entire ocular surface including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, lacrimal gland and tear film. Besides an IgE-mediated reaction, a complex chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many ocular allergies. According to their pathogenesis and clinical picture, ocular allergies are classified into mild forms, such as seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis as well as giant papillary conjunctivitis, and chronic, potentially blinding forms such as atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. New therapeutics act on the entire inflammatory process or try to modulate the allergic reaction early and specifically. The association with non-ocular allergic symptoms requires an interdisciplinary approach.
... for latex allergy. Health care workers who have hay fever have anespecially high chance of developing a latex ... as 25% of all health careworkers who have hay fever show signs of being sensitive to latex.People ...
... For instance, if you have an allergy to pollen, your immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system ... was introduced. If you are allergic to ragweed pollen but not to cats, only the ragweed allergen ...
... been diagnosed with a shellfish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...
... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...
... see an allergist? Do I need to carry epinephrine in case of anaphylaxis? Do you have brochures ... the-counter allergy drug is appropriate for you. Epinephrine is an emergency treatment for anaphylaxis. If you' ...
... a food allergy, learn how to use injectable epinephrine. You should have it with you at all ... even hives) after eating the food: Inject the epinephrine. Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency ...
... some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food ... are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have more than one food allergy, ...
... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...
... can react to touching shellfish or breathing in vapors from cooking shellfish. Shellfish allergy can develop at ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...
While kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. Isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. Eleven green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as Act d 1 through Act d 11. Bet v 1 homologue (Act d 8) and profilin (Act d 9) are important allergens in polysensitized subjects, whereas actinidin (Act d 1) is important in kiwifruit monosensitized subjects. Differences in allergenicity have been found among kiwifruit cultivars. Allergy sufferers might benefit from the selection and breeding of low-allergenic kiwifruit cultivars.
Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...
... younger brother might develop it, too. He has seasonal allergies and I've heard that allergies can cause ... TOPIC Asthma Center Asthma Basics All About Allergies Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) If My Child Has Asthma, Can ...
Swart, William W.; Safford, Robert R.; Kennedy, David B.; Yadi, Bert A.; Barth, Timothy S.
A pilot experiment was done to determine what factors influence potential performance errors related to vigilance in Orbiter processing activities. The selected activities include post flight inspection for burned gap filler material and pre-rollout inspection for tile processing shim material. It was determined that the primary factors related to performance decrement were the color of the target and the difficulty of the target presentation.
Marotta, Andrea; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Spagna, Alfredo; Bernabei, Laura; Sciarretta, Martina; Roca, Javier; Biondi, Massimo; Casagrande, Maria
Difficulty attending is a common deficit of euthymic bipolar patients. However, it is not known whether this is a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. According to the attention network approach, attention is best understood in terms of three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct networks-alerting, orienting, and executive control. In this study, we explored whether and which of the three attentional networks are altered in euthymic Bipolar Disorder (BD). A sample of euthymic BD patients and age-matched healthy controls completed the Attention Network Test for Interactions and Vigilance (ANTI-V) that provided not only a measure of orienting, executive, and alerting networks, but also an independent measure of vigilance (tonic alerting). Compared to healthy controls, BD patients have impaired executive control (greater interference), reduced vigilance (as indexed by a decrease in the d' sensitivity) as well as slower overall reaction times and poorer accuracy. Our results show that deficits in executive attention and sustained attention often persist in BD patients even after complete remission of affective symptoms, thus suggesting that cognitive enhancing treatments programmed to improve these deficits could contribute to improve their functional recovery.
Teyeb, Ines; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; ben Amar, Chokri
Driving security is an important task for human society. The major challenge in the field of accident avoidance systems is the driver vigilance monitoring. The lack of vigilance can be noticed by various ways, such as, fatigue, drowsiness and distraction. Hence, the need of a reliable driver's vigilance decrease detection system which can alert drivers before a mishap happens. In this paper, we present a novel approach for vigilance estimation based on multilevel system by combining head movement analysis and eyes blinking. We have used Viola and Jones algorithm to analyse head movement and a classification system using wavelet networks for eyelid closure measuring. The contribution of our application is classifiying the vigilance state at multi level. This is different from the binary-class (awakening or hypovigilant state) existing in most popular systems.
Gawchik, Sandra M
Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important clinical condition that occurred after the institution of universal precautions to protect healthcare workers. A rapid increase and production of both examination and surgical gloves resulted in an epidemic of allergy to latex protein. Healthcare workers in both the medical and dental environments, as well as specific groups of individuals including those with spina bifida, myelodysplasia, and food allergies (banana, kiwi, avocado, and others), were at increased risk of sensitization. Clinical symptoms in the latex allergic individual ranged from type I hypersensitivity reaction including rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and systemic reaction to type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which occur from the chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Diagnosis of latex allergy is based on a clinical history that correlates the development of symptoms in relationship to exposure. In the United States there are no skin tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore a combination of clinical judgment and serologic testing such as ImmunoCAP and Immulite is helpful. The primary treatment of latex allergy is avoidance of exposure to the latex protein.
Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Demoly, Pascal
Respiratory allergies represent a global and public health problem, due to their prevalence (still increasing), morbidity, impact on the quality of life and costs for the society. They mainly concern rhinitis (or rhinoconjunctivitis) and asthma. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options that are otherwise not appropriate, such as allergen immunotherapy and allergen avoidance, that are prescribed following a stepwise approach. It has been a century since the first trial in specific immunotherapy was performed and this still remains the only disease modifying treatment for allergic individuals. In terms of route of administration, sublingual immunotherapy represents a good alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy, considering its proven efficacy and better safety profile.
Araújo, Luis; Demoly, Pascal
Macrolides are characterised by their basic structure which is made up of a lactonic cycle with 2 osidic chains. They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in the cycle : 14 membered macrolides (erythromicin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, clarithromycin), 15 membered (azithromycin) and 16 membered (spiramycin, josamycin, midecamycin) macrolides. Epidemiological studies show that macrolides are amongst the safest antibiotics, but in these series, no drug allergy work up was performed. An immediate IgE dependent hypersensitivity has been shown with erythromycin in some cases. The mechanism is unknown and the skin tests are negative in most other cases. It would appear that the macrolide allergies are unlikely to be class allergies. Eviction is the treatment of choice. Desensitization has been successful in a few cases.
... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...
Calls for vigilance have been a recurrent theme in social justice education. Scholars making this call note that vigilance involves a continuous attentiveness, that it presumes some type of criticality, and that it is transformative. In this essay Barbara Applebaum expands upon some of these attributes and calls attention to three particular…
Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Objective Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology—concurrently and over time. Methods Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N = 1,420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 to 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N = 5,165 pairs of interviews. Results Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Conclusion The unique constellation of adolescents’ increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. PMID:25454290
... a pollen allergy may be noticeable because the allergy is seasonal. For example, you may have more difficulty managing your asthma for a short time during the summer. Dust mite allergy, on the other hand, is due to something ...
... an effective treatment for you. Another form of allergy immunotherapy was recently approved in the United States called sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) allergy tablets . Rather than shots, allergy tablets involve administering ...
... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... Americans suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...
... may order allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Food Allergy Hay Fever Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
... What Happens in the Operating Room? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy ... worse. previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might ...
... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...
... antihistamines, topical nasal steroids, cromolyn sodium, decongestants, or immunotherapy. Read More "Seasonal Allergies" Articles Managing Your Seasonal Allergies / Diagnosis, Treatment & Research ...
Food allergy impairs the health-related quality of life of both the affected children and their families. In particular, parents and children become anxious about the potential risks and consequences of food allergy, including disruptions in families' and children's social activities, the need for constant vigilance, children's safety, and the…
controlled study was undertaken to test whether quercetin aglycone affects mood and vigilance in humans. Block randomization was used to assign 57...2,000 mg quercetin or 2,000 mg placebo 1 hour prior to completing a 45-minute scanning visual vigilance task. Profile of Mood States (POMS... quercetin concentrations were measured in plasma samples collected 2-hours after treatment. The caffeine group significantly outperformed the placebo group
AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2012-0050 Cultural Variation in Vigilance and Precaution Themes Dr. Ernest T. Lawson Queen’s University...Belfast Institute of Cognition and Culture University Road Belfast, United Kingdom BT7 1NN EOARD Grant 09-3105 Report Date...REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 21 July 2009 – 30 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cultural Variation in Vigilance and
Katial, Rohit K
The ubiquitous existence of cockroaches and the large-scale domestic infestation seen in inner cities make cockroach proteins a significant indoor allergen and a risk factor for asthma among inner-city residents. Studies have shown that early exposure to high levels of allergen may lead to the development of asthma in individuals with a genetic predisposition to asthma. Although field trials at cockroach abatement do not yield promising results, integrated pest management still remains the best control strategy. In highly susceptible or symptomatic patients, allergen-specific immunotherapy may be beneficial, although data are limited. As molecular techniques improve and recombinant allergens are developed, a more novel form of T-cell-specific immunotherapy may prove to be efficacious without the anaphylactic side effects seen with traditional allergy vaccines.
Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten
The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible
... Training Home Conditions Allergy Allergy: Overview Allergy: Allergens Mold Allergy Proper Humidifier Care Proper Humidifier Care Make ... neglected humidifier can be a major source of mold and mold spores. Learn how to keep a ...
Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C
Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted.
... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in the South/Southeast areas of ... specialized training and skills to test for stinging insect allergy and develop a plan to manage allergies. ...
... Well, you and your dad might have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: AL-ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...
... Contact Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... Georgeson. How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...
... Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Learning About Allergies Ozone, Air Quality, and ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...
... triggered by an allergy to something (called an allergen ). In these people, the symptoms of asthma like ... breathing are often brought on by being around allergens. Allergies have a lot to do with your ...
... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...
... though, they can have symptoms if mom has dairy products in her diet . A milk allergy is not ... milk allergy, it's important for you to avoid dairy products because the milk protein that causes allergic reactions ...
... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... en español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...
Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.
Rapp, Doris J.
Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)
DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson
Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: ...
... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...
Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community.
Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Broge, Louise; Jacobi, Henrik
Allergic respiratory disease represents a significant and expanding health problem worldwide. Allergic symptoms, such as asthma and hay fever, cause sleep impairment and reduce school and work performance. The cost to society is substantial. Allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy cannot control the disease. Only allergy immunotherapy has disease-modifying potential and should be included in optimal treatment strategies. Allergy immunotherapy was first administered as subcutaneous injections and has been practiced for the past 100 years or so. Recently, tablet-based sublingual allergy immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced with comprehensive clinical documentation. SLIT tablets represent a more patient-friendly concept because they can be used for self-treatment at home.
O O Table 4. Personality Results (asterisk denotes statistical significance at an alpha level of .05) Measure Neuroticism Extraversion Openness...Mcintire et al., 2011). While no definitive explanation can be offered and because people do not typically blink their eyes independently of one...Openness and Neuroticism and lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness were predictive of higher work-related fatigue in non-vigilance
Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector.
Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar
Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy.
Helton, William S; Russell, Paul N
In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory demands on performance of a visuospatial successive target detection task. Three hundred and four participants performed a visuospatial vigilance task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or verbal working memory task that either required a memory load during the vigil or did not require a memory load during the vigil. Perceptual sensitivity A' to vigilance target stimuli was reduced by concurrent memory load, both verbal and visuospatial. The decline in perceptual sensitivity to vigilance targets, the vigilance decrement, was steeper for a visuospatial memory task than a verbal memory task, regardless of concurrent memory load. Memory performance after vigilance detection trials was much lower for visuospatial than verbal items, even though memory performance before vigilance detection trials was higher for visuospatial than verbal items. Together, this indicates increased interference when a visuospatial vigilance task is paired with a visuospatial memory task, than when paired with a verbal memory task. Overall, the visuospatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance target detection, suggesting utilization of common executive resources. There may, however, be domain specific interference, and this may be exacerbated for two visuospatial tasks.
... term treatment for pet allergies. True False False: Allergy shots therapy (immunotherapy) has a proven track record as an effective form of long term treatment. Talk to your allergist / immunologist about whether this treatment approach is right for you. ... Utility navigation Donate ...
... every time after the offending medication is taken. Penicillin and other antibiotics are the medication that most commonly cause allergic reactions. Women appear to have an increased risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...
The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.
Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M
Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.
Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin
Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the α-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.
Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo
IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11 months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.
Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.
Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher
We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance.
The hypothalamus has re-emerged as a key regulator of sleep and wakefulness, shifting the focus away from the brainstem and thalamocortical systems (ascending reticular activating systems). Several new sleep control systems in the hypothalamus and their interaction with the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus have been identified recently. More recently, deficiency of the hypothalamic peptide, hypocretin/orexin, has been found to be the major pathophysiological factor in human narcolepsy-cataplexy, the sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities. The results from a series of experiments suggest that the hypocretin system is involved in the maintenance of wakefulness and stabilizes the vigilance states. The hypocretin system also plays a role in the link between sleep and other fundamental hypothalamic functions, such as the regulation of food intake, metabolism, hormone release, and temperature. Sleep deprivation is known to alter hormone release, increase body temperature, stimulate appetite, and activate the sympathetic nervous system. Sleep control systems within the hypothalamus may therefore be closely integrated with homeostatic systems needed for survival. In this chapter, the role of the hypothalamus in vigilance control is discussed, with a particular emphasis on the hypocretins/orexin system.
Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L
This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.
Kelso, John M
Most children with a history of penicillin allergy are labeled allergic and denied treatment with penicillin and sometimes other beta-lactam antibiotics. Most of these children never were or are no longer allergic to penicillin. Penicillin skin testing and oral challenge can identify patients who are not currently allergic, allowing them to be treated with penicillin. Children with egg allergy are often denied influenza vaccination, because the vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that children with even severe egg allergy can safely receive the vaccine, reducing their risk of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza.
Freeman, Frederick G.
The major focus of the present proposal was to examine psychophysiological variables that are related to hazardous states of awareness induced by monitoring automated systems. With the increased use of automation in today's work environment, people's roles in the work place are being redefined from that of active participant to one of passive monitor. Although the introduction of automated systems has a number of benefits, there are also a number of disadvantages regarding the worker performance. Byrne and Parasuraman (1996) have argued for the use of psychophysiological measures in both the development and the implementation of adaptive automation. While both performance based and model based adaptive automation have been studied, the use of psychophysiological measures, especially EEG, offers the advantage of real time evaluation of the state of the subject. Previous investigations of the closed-loop adaptive automation system in our laboratory, supported by NASA, have employed a compensatory tracking task which involved the use of a joystick to maintain the position of a cursor in the middle of a video screen. This research demonstrated that, in an adaptive automation, closed-loop environment, subjects perform a tracking task better under a negative, compared to a positive, feedback condition. While tracking is comparable to some aspects of flying an airplane, it does not simulate the environment found in the cockpit of modern commercial airplanes. Since a large part of the flying responsibilities in commercial airplanes is automated, the primary responsibility of pilots is to monitor the automation and to respond when the automation fails. Because failures are relatively rare, pilots often suffer from hazardous states of awareness induced by long term vigilance of the automated system. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of the closed-loop, adaptive automation system in a vigilance paradigm. It is also important to note
Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan
Vigilance, sometimes referred to as sustained attention, is an important type of human attention as it is closely associated with cognitive activities required in various daily-life situations. Although many researchers have investigated which brain areas control the maintenance of vigilance, findings have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency might be due to the use of different experimental paradigms in the various studies. We found that most of the previous studies used paradigms that included specific cognitive tasks requiring a high cognitive load, which could complicate identification of brain areas associated only with vigilance. To minimize the influence of cognitive processes other than vigilance on the analysis results, we adopted the d2-test of attention, which is a well-known neuropsychological test of attention that does not require high cognitive load, and searched for brain areas at which EEG source activities were temporally correlated with fluctuation of vigilance over a prolonged period of time. EEG experiments conducted with 31 young adults showed that left prefrontal cortex activity was significantly correlated with vigilance variation in the delta, beta1, beta2, and gamma frequency bands, but not the theta and alpha frequency bands. Our study results suggest that the left prefrontal cortex plays a key role in vigilance modulation, and can therefore be used to monitor individual vigilance changes over time or serve as a potential target of noninvasive brain stimulation.
... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on ... National Allergy Bureau More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...
... to manage symptoms that come with a high pollen count, allergists say To use the sharing features ... seasonal allergies how they prepared for the high pollen counts that come with warmer weather. The survey ...
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... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...
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Axe, Jeremie M; Sinz, Nathan J; Axe, Michael J
When performing an orthopaedic device implantation, it should be routine practice for the surgeon to ask the patient if he or she has a metal allergy, and more specifically a nickel allergy. Ask the patient about costume jewelry or button reactions. If it is an elective surgery, obtain a confirmatory test with the aid of a dermatologist or allergist. It is recommended to use a non-nickel implant if the surgery is urgent, the patient has a confirmed allergy, or the patient does not want to undergo testing, as these implants are readily available in 2015. Finally, if the patient has a painful joint arthroplasty and all other causes have been ruled out, order a metal allergy test to aid in diagnosis.
In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics
Shenassa, M. Medhi
The purpose of this review is to establish a rational approach to the assessment of children with food allergy related to an immunologic state in which alteration of response to antigenic material has developed after repeated exposure. The author offers a practical approach to the problem of food allergy in children, dispels some of the myths surrounding the disorder, and discusses some of the popular but unproven and controversial practices relating to its management. PMID:21253178
Schmidt, Eike A; Schrauf, Michael; Simon, Michael; Fritzsche, Martin; Buchner, Axel; Kincses, Wilhelm E
To investigate the effects of monotonous daytime driving on vigilance state and particularly the ability to judge this state, a real road driving study was conducted. To objectively assess vigilance state, performance (auditory reaction time) and physiological measures (EEG: alpha spindle rate, P3 amplitude; ECG: heart rate) were recorded continuously. Drivers judged sleepiness, attention to the driving task and monotony retrospectively every 20 min. Results showed that prolonged daytime driving under monotonous conditions leads to a continuous reduction in vigilance. Towards the end of the drive, drivers reported a subjectively improved vigilance state, which was contrary to the continued decrease in vigilance as indicated by all performance and physiological measures. These findings indicate a lack of self-assessment abilities after approximately 3h of continuous monotonous daytime driving.
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Van Someren, E J W; Van Der Werf, Y D; Roelfsema, P R; Mansvelder, H D; da Silva, F H Lopes
The most important quest of cognitive neuroscience may be to unravel the mechanisms by which the brain selects, links, consolidates, and integrates new information into its neuronal network, while preventing saturation to occur. During the past decade, neuroscientists working within several disciplines have observed an important involvement of the specific types of brain oscillations that occur during sleep--the cortical slow oscillations; during the resting state--the fMRI resting state networks including the default-mode network (DMN); and during task performance--the performance modulations that link as well to modulations in electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography frequency content. Understanding the role of these slow oscillations thus appears to be essential for our fundamental understanding of brain function. Brain activity is characterized by oscillations occurring in spike frequency, field potentials or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. Environmental stimuli, reaching the brain through our senses, activate or inactivate neuronal populations and modulate ongoing activity. The effect they sort is to a large extent determined by the momentary state of the slow endogenous oscillations of the brain. In the absence of sensory input, as is the case during rest or sleep, brain activity does not cease. Rather, its oscillations continue and change with respect to their dominant frequencies and coupling topography. This chapter briefly introduces the topics that will be addressed in this dedicated volume of Progress in Brain Research on slow oscillations and sets the stage for excellent papers discussing their molecular, cellular, network physiological and cognitive performance aspects. Getting to know about slow oscillations is essential for our understanding of plasticity, memory, brain structure from synapse to DMN, cognition, consciousness, and ultimately for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of
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Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.
Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L
Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.
Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Lahoti, Sejal; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Wetter, David W.; Waters, Andrew J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin
Objectives To examine whether health locus of control mediated relations of self-reported neighborhood vigilance and biochemically verified, continuous short-term smoking abstinence among 200 smokers enrolled in a cohort study. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation. Results Health locus of control-chance mediated relations between neighborhood vigilance and smoking abstinence in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco dependence (p < .05). Greater vigilance was associated with greater attributions that health was affected by chance, which was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking abstinence. Conclusions Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions influence residents’ attributions for health outcomes, which can affect smoking abstinence. PMID:23985180
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.
Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G
Respiratory viral infections have been implicated in the origin of, protection from and exacerbation of allergy-related symptoms in a variety of ways. Viral infections are closely linked to infantile wheezing. Severe bronchiolitis in early infancy may predispose to chronic childhood asthma as well as allergic sensitization; alternatively it could represent a marker of susceptible individuals. In contrast, repeated mild infections in early life may have a protective role in the development of asthma or atopy by driving the immune system towards Th1 responses. However, evidence on this hypothesis is not consistent as far as respiratory viruses are concerned. Several factors, including the presence of an atopic environment, timing of exposure and severity of the infection, interactively contribute to the allergy-infection relationship. In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed.
Baral, V R; Hourihane, J O'B
Food allergy is being increasingly recognised with the highest prevalence being in preschool children. Pathogenesis varies so diagnosis rests on careful history and clinical examination, appropriate use of skin prick and serum-specific IgE testing, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. A double blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard diagnostic test. Avoidance of the allergenic food is the key towards successful management. IgE mediated food allergy may present as a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, and management consists of the appropriate use of adrenaline (epinephrine) and supportive measures. Sensitisation remains a key target for intervention. Disease modifying agents are currently under trial for managing difficult allergies. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and follow up.
Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy
In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.
Mowad, C M
Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a surfactant, and reports of allergic contact dermatitis to this chemical have been reported in the literature. Although most commonly found in rinse-off products, the chemical nonetheless has been shown to induce allergy. The actual component responsible for allergic reaction may be the final compound itself, CAPB, or one of the substances used in its synthesis that may be present as an impurity. Allergy to CAPB is most commonly seen in a head and neck distribution, although other patterns have been identified.
Yorzinski, Jessica L; Hermann, Fredrick S
Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens' perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.
Mandell, Arielle R; Becker, Alexandra; VanAndel, Aaron; Nelson, Andrew; Shaw, Tyler H
Selecting for vigilance assignments remains an important factor in human performance research. The current study revisits the potential relationship between vigilance performance and trait neuroticism, in light of two possible theories. The first theory suggests that neuroticism impairs vigilance performance by competing for available resources. The second theory, attentional control theory, posits that high neuroticism can result in similar or superior performance levels due to the allocation of compensatory effort. In the present study, Transcranial Doppler Sonography was used to investigate the neurophysiological underpinnings of neuroticism during a 12-min abbreviated vigilance task. Performance results were not modified by level of neuroticism, but high neuroticism was associated with higher initial CBFV levels and a greater CBFV decrement over time. These findings indicate that participants higher in neuroticism recruited additional cognitive resources in order to achieve similar performance, suggesting that there is more of an effect on processing efficiency than effectiveness.
Hermann, Fredrick S.
Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens’ perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects. PMID:27703863
Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi
Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658
MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Wojciulik, Ewa; Saron, Clifford D
The ability to remain vigilant over long periods of time is critical for many everyday tasks, but controlled studies of visual sustained attention show that performance declines over time when observers are required to respond to rare stimulus events (targets) occurring in a sequence of standard stimulus events (nontargets). When target discrimination is perceptually difficult, this vigilance decrement manifests as a decline in perceptual sensitivity. We examined whether sudden-onset stimuli could act as exogenous attentional cues to improve sensitivity during a traditional sustained attention task. Sudden-onset cues presented immediately before each stimulus attenuated the sensitivity decrement, but only when stimulus timing (the interstimulus interval [ISI]) was constant. When stimulus timing was variable, exogenous cues increased overall sensitivity but did not prevent performance decline. Finally, independent of the effects of sudden onsets, a constant ISI improved vigilance performance. Our results demonstrate that exogenous attention enhances perceptual sensitivity during vigilance performance, but that this effect is dependent on observers' being able to predict the timing of stimulus events. Such a result indicates a strong interaction between endogenous and exogenous attention during vigilance. We relate our findings to a resource model of vigilance, as well as to theories of endogenous and exogenous attention over short time periods.
Yu, Hongbin; Lu, Hongtao; Ouyang, Tian; Liu, Hongjun; Lu, Bao-Liang
Electroencephalogram (EEG) based vigilance detection of those people who engage in long time attention demanding tasks such as monotonous monitoring or driving is a key field in the research of brain-computer interface (BCI). However, robust detection of human vigilance from EEG is very difficult due to the low SNR nature of EEG signals. Recently, compressive sensing and sparse representation become successful tools in the fields of signal reconstruction and machine learning. In this paper, we propose to use the sparse representation of EEG to the vigilance detection problem. We first use continuous wavelet transform to extract the rhythm features of EEG data, and then employ the sparse representation method to the wavelet transform coefficients. We collect five subjects' EEG recordings in a simulation driving environment and apply the proposed method to detect the vigilance of the subjects. The experimental results show that the algorithm framework proposed in this paper can successfully estimate driver's vigilance with the average accuracy about 94.22 %. We also compare our algorithm framework with other vigilance estimation methods using different feature extraction and classifier selection approaches, the result shows that the proposed method has obvious advantages in the classification accuracy.
Claypoole, Victoria Lynne; Szalma, James L
Vigilance is the ability of an observer to maintain attention for extended periods of time; however, performance tends to decline with time on watch, a pattern referred to as the vigilance decrement. Previous research has focused on factors that attenuate the decrement; however, one factor rarely studied is the effect of social facilitation. The purpose for the present investigation was to determine how different types of social presence affected the performance, workload and stress of vigilance. It was hypothesised that the presence of a supervisory figure would increase overall performance, but may occur at the cost of increased workload and stress. Results indicated that the per cent of false alarm and response times decreased in the presence of a supervisory figure. Using social facilitation in vigilance tasks may thus have positive, as well as, negative effects depending on the dependent measure of interest and the role of the observer. Practitioner Summary: Social facilitation has rarely been examined in the context of vigilance, even though it may improve performance. Vigilance task performance was examined under social presence. The results of the present study indicated that false alarms and response times decreased in the social presence of a supervisory figure, thus improving performance.
Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…
Martin, S F
Contact allergy is a skin disease that is caused by the reaction of the immune system to low molecular weight chemicals. A hallmark of contact allergens is their chemical reactivity, which is not exhibited by toxic irritants. Covalent binding of contact allergens to or complex formation with proteins is essential for the activation of the immune system. As a consequence antigenic epitopes are formed, which are recognized by contact allergen-specific T cells. The generation of effector and memory T cells causes the high antigen specificity and the repeated antigen-specific skin reaction of contact allergy. New findings reveal that the less specific reaction of the innate immune system to contact allergens closely resembles the reaction to an infection. Therefore, contact allergy can be viewed as an immunologic misunderstanding since the skin contact with chemical allergens is interpreted as an infection. The growing understanding of the molecular and cellular pathologic mechanisms of contact allergy can aid the development of specific therapies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens.
Lericollais, Romain; Gauthier, Antoine; Bessot, Nicolas; Zouabi, Amira; Davenne, Damien
The aim of this study was to determine the role played by vigilance on the anaerobic performance recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase (nadir) of the circadian rhythmicity. Twenty active male participants performed a 60-s Wingate test at 6 a.m. during 3 test sessions in counter-balanced order the day after either (i) a normal reference night, (ii) a total sleep deprivation night, or (iii) a total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended simulated driving task from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. During this task, the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILCs) was used to control and quantify the effective decrease in the level of vigilance. The main findings show that (i) vigilance of each participant was significantly altered (i.e., a drastic and progressive increase in ILCs is shown during the 7.5 hours of driving) by the sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; (ii) the subjective evaluation of vigilance performed by self-rated scale revealed an increased impairment of the vigilance level between the normal reference night, the total sleep deprivation night and the total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; and (iii) the morning following this last condition, during the Wingate test, the recorded cycling biomechanical parameters (peak power, mean power and fatigue index values, power decrease, and cycling kinetic and kinematic patterns) were not significantly different from the two other conditions. Consequently, these results show that anaerobic performances recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase of the circadian rhythmicity are not altered by a drastic impairment in vigilance. These findings seem to indicate that vigilance is probably not a factor that contributes to circadian variations in anaerobic performance.
Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P
Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from
Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Bavbek, S; Bircher, A; Bilo, B; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, P; Burbach, G; Calogiuri, G; Caruso, C; Celik, G; Cernadas, J; Chiriac, A; Demoly, P; Oude Elberink, J N G; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Garvey, L H; Gooi, J; Gotua, M; Grosber, M; Kauppi, P; Kvedariene, V; Laguna, J J; Makowska, J S; Mosbech, H; Nakonechna, A; Papadopolous, N G; Ring, J; Romano, A; Rockmann, H; Sargur, R; Sedlackova, L; Sigurdardottir, S; Schnyder, B; Storaas, T; Torres, M; Zidarn, M; Terreehorst, I
The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed to the patient who is advised to carry the documentation at all times especially when away from home. A drug allergy passport should at least contain information on the culprit drug(s) including international nonproprietary name, clinical manifestations including severity, diagnostic measures, potential cross-reactivity, alternative drugs to prescribe, and where more detailed information can be obtained from the issuer. It should be given to patients only after full allergy workup. In the future, electronic prescription systems with alert functions will become more common and should include the same information as in paper-based documentation.
Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.
Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552
Donald, Fiona M
The ability to generalise vigilance research to operational environments has been questioned, largely due to differences between laboratory research and real-world settings. The taxonomy of vigilance tasks proposed by Parasuraman and Davies (1977) represents an attempt to classify vigilance tasks so that tasks with similar information-processing demands can be compared and the ability to generalise results enhanced. Although the taxonomy originally included complexity, the term specifically referred to multiple sources of information. Complexity has been overlooked in much of the traditional vigilance literature, although it is included in more recent studies of jobs such as air traffic control. In this paper, the taxonomy is evaluated in relation to two vigilance intensive jobs - closed circuit television surveillance operators and air traffic controllers. In its present form, the existing taxonomy of experimental settings has limited applicability to these operational settings. Therefore, recommendations for expanding the taxonomy to include more aspects of complexity are made. It is argued that the revised taxonomy be used in conjunction with situation awareness, which makes provision for the cognitive processes involved in these jobs.
Judelson, Daniel A; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kellogg, Mark D; Lieberman, Harris R
Like caffeine, theobromine crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to adenosine receptors, suggesting it might share caffeine's beneficial effects on mood and vigilance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of theobromine doses commonly found in foods on mood and vigilance parameters sensitive to caffeine. Caffeine was tested as a positive control. Twenty-four men (age, 23  years) completed 6 double-blind trials during which they consumed experimental beverages, assessed their mood using standardized self-report questionnaires, and completed a 2-hour visual vigilance task. Three experimental doses (100, 200, and 400 mg theobromine) were delivered in a cocoa-based beverage; 3 matched control treatments (0 mg theobromine, 400 mg theobromine, and 100 mg caffeine) were delivered in a non-cocoa beverage. Mean salivary concentrations of theobromine exhibited significant dose-dependent differences (400 mg trials > 200 mg trial > 100 mg trial > 0 mg trials; P < 0.005). At every dose tested, theobromine failed to consistently affect mood state or vigilance (P > 0.05), but 100-mg caffeine significantly decreased lethargy/fatigue and increased vigor (P = 0.006 and 0.011, respectively). These findings indicate theobromine does not influence mood and vigilance when administered in nutritionally relevant doses, despite sharing many of caffeine's structural characteristics.
Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C
Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.
Lavaud, F; Fore, M; Fontaine, J-F; Pérotin, J M; de Blay, F
In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.
Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J
Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.
Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J
Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:20543886
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Heine, Ralf G
Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.
Helm, R M; Burks, A W
The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in 'westernized' societies; it has been linked to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and allergenicity are current topics of controversy.
Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana
Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.
Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi
The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.
Coop, Christopher A
The objective of this article is to review the available studies regarding mold immunotherapy. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE to identify peer-reviewed articles related to mold immunotherapy using the following keywords: mold, allergy, asthma, and immunotherapy. In addition, references cited within these articles were also reviewed. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Allergic responses to inhaled mold antigens are a recognized factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are significant problems with respect to the production of relevant allergen material for the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergy with immunotherapy. Mold allergens contain proteases and should not be mixed with other allergens for immunotherapy. Most of the immunotherapy studies focus on two molds, Alternaria and Cladosporium. There is a lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials when evaluating the efficacy of mold immunotherapy with trials only focusing on immunotherapy to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Additional studies are needed regarding mold allergy and immunotherapy focusing on which molds are important for causing allergic disease.
Niggemann, B; Breiteneder, H
Natural rubber is a component of the latex of the tropical Hevea brasiliensis tree which is widely used in the manufacturing of medical devices and a large variety of articles for everyday use. Over a dozen allergens have been identified in the latex of H. brasiliensis. The allergens Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 6, and Hev b 7 are proteins that are involved in the biosynthesis of rubber or the coagulation of latex. Allergens that are part of the plant's defense system are represented by Hev b 2 and class I endochitinases. The allergens Hev b 4, Hev b 5, and Hev b 8-10 were classified as either structural or housekeeping proteins. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proteins present in Hevea latex were first described in 1927. Since then, natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy has become an important medical problem for an increasing number of individuals. Sensitization mainly occurs by wound or mucosal contact with NRL devices during surgery or by inhalation of airborne allergens released from powdered latex gloves. The number of surgical interventions and an atopic disposition are the most important risk factors for developing latex allergy, especially in children with spina bifida. Exposure to NRL products should be carefully avoided for individuals who belong to high-risk groups. Initial studies on establishing a latex-free environment for surgery in all spina bifida patients have reported on a decrease in sensitization and allergy to NRL.
Inaba, Yasuko; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko
The patient was a 23-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. In her fourth year of primary school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral discomfort and generalized uticaria. In her second year of junior high school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral and pharyngeal discomfort, followed by generalized uticaria and dyspnea. At the age of 20 years, she also developed oral discomfort after eating vegetables in a Chinese dish containing macadamia nuts and visited our department for close examination. A scratch test of extract oil (concentration, as is) was positive, and a diagnosis of immediate allergy due to macadamia nuts was made. Thereafter, she avoided macadamia nuts completely and had no further recurrence. This patient developed oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating macadamia nuts. However, she was negative for Bet v1 and Bet v2 as allergens in white birch pollinosis, in which OAS has been most frequently reported. She had Japanese cedar pollinosis, but its onset was when she was in her second year of high school. Therefore, it is unlikely that Japanese cedar pollen is a sensitization antigen for macadamia nut allergy.
Chang, Christopher; Mahmood, Mubashar M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric
Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. However, most patients who report a positive history of a prior reaction to penicillin are not found to be allergic to penicillin upon skin testing. Often, this history is vague or based on a parent's recollection of an event that occurred in the distant past. Avoidance of penicillin based on self-reported allergic history alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. Patients with a negative skin test to both major and minor determinants may generally be given penicillin, with a statistical risk of developing an allergic reaction similar to that observed in the general population. A more cautious approach in these cases where the degree of suspicion is low, an allergic etiology is unproven, or there is a negative skin test, is to do a graded challenge. If the skin test is positive, an alternate antibiotic should be used. If, however, an alternate antibiotic is not available, then desensitization may be performed, but there are limitations to desensitization as well, and tolerance is not permanent. Avoidance of cephalosporins may be recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, but newer generation cephalosporins have demonstrate less cross-reactivity to penicillin than earlier generation ones. Desensitization protocols for cephalosporins are available but not standardized. The mechanisms of antibiotic sensitization are not clearly understood.
Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.
Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Harshberger, Lorri A
Latex allergy affects millions of people in the general population and a higher percentage of health care workers. Nursing students with a latex sensitivity pose a unique challenge for the nurse educator. Students may enter the program with pre-existing latex allergy or develop the allergy during the educational process. This manuscript explores the implications of latex allergies exhibited by the nursing student. It addresses the responsibilities of the educator in the skills or simulation laboratory and during clinical learning experiences. It also offers suggestions for ensuring the safety of the student while reducing the legal liabilities of the educational program. The article addresses possible policy ramifications for nursing schools.
Meade, B Jean; Weissman, David N; Beezhold, Donald H
Although latex products have been in use for over a century, allergic responses to latex proteins have only been recognized as a serious health problem for the past 15 years. Latex allergy particularly affects two groups, health care workers (HCW) and children with spina bifida (SB). This manuscript provides a brief history of latex allergy, and a review of the following: the manufacturing process for dipped latex products, the 11 latex allergens that have been characterized and received allergen designations by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the methods used in exposure assessment, the epidemiology and clinical management of latex allergy, and the use of animal models in investigating mechanisms underlying latex allergy.
Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi
Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.
Shi, Li-Chen; Jiao, Ying-Ying; Lu, Bao-Liang
This paper proposes a novel feature called differential entropy for EEG-based vigilance estimation. By mathematical derivation, we find an interesting relationship between the proposed differential entropy and the existing logarithm energy spectrum. We present a physical interpretation of the logarithm energy spectrum which is widely used in EEG signal analysis. To evaluate the performance of the proposed differential entropy feature for vigilance estimation, we compare it with four existing features on an EEG data set of twenty-three subjects. All of the features are projected to the same dimension by principal component analysis algorithm. Experiment results show that differential entropy is the most accurate and stable EEG feature to reflect the vigilance changes.
Saigo, Tatsuo; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Tayama, Jun; Bernick, Peter J; Schmidt, Norman B; Shirabe, Susumu; Sakano, Yuji
The Body Vigilance Scale is a self-report measure of attention to bodily sensations. The measure was translated into Japanese and its reliability, validity, and factor structure were verified. Participants comprised 286 university students (age: 19 ± 1 years). All participants were administered the scale, along with several indices of anxiety (i.e., Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Short Health Anxiety Inventory Illness Likelihood Scale, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The Japanese version of the Body Vigilance Scale exhibited a unidimensional factor structure and strong internal consistency. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the above measures. Results suggest that the Japanese version of the scale is a reliable, valid tool for measuring body vigilance in Japanese university students.
Till) method of Ehrlen (1948) and Lund (1949, 1950). Unfor tunate ly , assays based on the THI method had not been sensi- tive enough to measure the...had to abandon hope of measuring the lower concen- trations of (A) in plasma or he had to collect a very large quantity of plasma for a single...performance and this measure might be a valuable index of vigilance ; and 4. Circulating (A) is related to vigilance as predicted. 4 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. O’Hanlon
Bodala, Indu P.; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V.; Al-Nashash, Hasan
Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using “challenge integration,” a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p < 0.05 in each case). Relative delta band power of EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p < 0.05). Saccade amplitude, saccade velocity and blink rate obtained from eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p < 0.05 in each case). From the correlation analysis between the statistically significant measures of eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean
Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana
In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in
Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos
The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are three main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies. PMID:24416032
Favreau, François-René; Goldizen, Anne W.; Pays, Olivier
Group size is known to affect both the amount of time that prey animals spend in vigilance and the degree to which the vigilance of group members is synchronized. However, the variation in group-size effects reported in the literature is not yet understood. Prey animals exhibit vigilance both to protect themselves against predators and to monitor other group members, and both forms of vigilance presumably influence group-size effects on vigilance. However, our understanding of the patterns of individual investment underlying the time sharing between anti-predator and social vigilance is still limited. We studied patterns of variation in individual vigilance and the synchronization of vigilance with group size in a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) subject to predation, in particular focusing on peripheral females because we expected that they would exhibit both social and anti-predator vigilance. There was no global effect of group size on individual vigilance. The lack of group-size effect was the result of two compensating effects. The proportion of time individuals spent looking at other group members increased, whereas the proportion of time they spent scanning the environment decreased with group size; as a result, overall vigilance levels did not change with group size. Moreover, a degree of synchrony of vigilance occurred within groups and that degree increased with the proportion of vigilance time peripheral females spent in anti-predator vigilance. Our results highlight the crucial roles of both social and anti-predator components of vigilance in the understanding of the relationship between group size and vigilance, as well as in the synchronization of vigilance among group members. PMID:20219737
Wright, Benjamin L.; Walkner, Madeline; Vickery, Brian P.; Gupta, Ruchi S.
Synopsis Food allergies have become a growing public health concern. Currently the standard of care focuses on avoidance of trigger foods, education, and treatment of symptoms following accidental ingestions. Here we provide a framework for primary care physicians and allergists for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric food allergy. PMID:26456440
Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.
Bhatia, M S
Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.
Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J
It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases.
The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…
West, C E
Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.
The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.
or attention to a monotonous task. This theory hypothesizes that vigilance task participants’ minds would wander , leading them to think thoughts...task participants’ minds would wander , leading them to think thoughts unrelated to the task causing distraction, which eventually would lead to
Ning, T K; Bronzino, J D
Bispectra were computed to detect phase coupling in the cortical and hippocampal EEG of the rat during various vigilance states. For EEG's recorded from the hippocampus, significant phase coupling was obtained during REM sleep between the frequency components (6-8 Hz) associated with theta rhythm.
Williams, Edgar M
Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), with their long neck and legs, are unique amongst mammals. How these features evolved is a matter of conjecture. The two leading ideas are the high browse and the sexual-selection hypotheses. While both explain many of the characteristics and the behaviour of giraffe, neither is fully supported by the available evidence. The extended viewing horizon afforded by increased height and a need to maintain horizon vigilance, as a mechanism favouring the evolution of increased height is reviewed. In giraffe, vigilance of predators whilst feeding and drinking are important survival factors, as is the ability to interact with immediate herd members, young and male suitors. The evidence regarding giraffe vigilance behaviour is sparse and suggests that over-vigilance has a negative cost, serving as a distraction to feeding. In woodland savannah, increased height allows giraffe to see further, allowing each giraffe to increase the distance between its neighbours while browsing. Increased height allows the giraffe to see the early approach of predators, as well as bull males. It is postulated that the wider panorama afforded by an increase in height and longer neck has improved survival via allowing giraffe to browse safely over wider areas, decreasing competition within groups and with other herbivores.
Williams, Edgar M.
Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), with their long neck and legs, are unique amongst mammals. How these features evolved is a matter of conjecture. The two leading ideas are the high browse and the sexual-selection hypotheses. While both explain many of the characteristics and the behaviour of giraffe, neither is fully supported by the available evidence. The extended viewing horizon afforded by increased height and a need to maintain horizon vigilance, as a mechanism favouring the evolution of increased height is reviewed. In giraffe, vigilance of predators whilst feeding and drinking are important survival factors, as is the ability to interact with immediate herd members, young and male suitors. The evidence regarding giraffe vigilance behaviour is sparse and suggests that over-vigilance has a negative cost, serving as a distraction to feeding. In woodland savannah, increased height allows giraffe to see further, allowing each giraffe to increase the distance between its neighbours while browsing. Increased height allows the giraffe to see the early approach of predators, as well as bull males. It is postulated that the wider panorama afforded by an increase in height and longer neck has improved survival via allowing giraffe to browse safely over wider areas, decreasing competition within groups and with other herbivores. PMID:27626454
Harris, Christopher S.
The semester-long activity described herein uses an integrated instructional approach to media studies to introduce students to the research method of qualitative content analysis and help them become more critically vigilant media consumers. The goal is to increase students' media literacy by guiding them in the design of an exploratory…
the log likelihood ratio (log(p); Green & Swets, 1966; Macmillan & Creelman , 1990), was also derived from hit and false-alarm probabilities...vigilance task. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 19, 104-110. Macmillan, N.E., & Creelman , C.D. (1990). Response bias: Characteristics of detection
Heintz, Christophe; Karabegovic, Mia; Molnar, Andras
We hypothesize that when honesty is not motivated by selfish goals, it reveals social preferences that have evolved for convincing strategically vigilant partners that one is a person worth cooperating with. In particular, we explain how the patterns of dishonest behavior observed in recent experiments can be motivated by preferences for social and self-esteem. These preferences have evolved because they are adaptive in an environment where it is advantageous to be selected as a partner by others and where these others are strategically vigilant: they efficiently evaluate the expected benefit of cooperating with specific partners and attend to their intentions. We specify the adaptive value of strategic vigilance and preferences for social and self-esteem. We argue that evolved preferences for social and self-esteem are satisfied by applying mechanisms of strategic vigilance to one's own behavior. We further argue that such cognitive processes obviate the need for the evolution of preferences for fairness and social norm compliance. PMID:27790162
Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S
Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.
Fadok, Valerie A
Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.
Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"
Kerner, J A
There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.
Richerson, H B
Immune reactions, presumably developed to rid organisms of troublesome invaders, are rather frequently associated with responses that result in injury to host tissue. Such responses are manifestations of allergy or hypersensitivity, and involve antibodies of certain immunoglobulin classes, complement components, mast cells and basophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and various pharmacologic mediators and other soluble substances in an exuberant array of possible combinations. An understanding of clinical hypersensitivity diseases is aided by classifying basic allergic mechanisms into four main types: anaphylactic (Type I), cytotoxic (Type II), complex-mediated (Type III), and cell-mediated (Type IV), which may participate in various combinations in disease states.
Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz
Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899
McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael
This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…
Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Celay, E; López, R; de Esteban, B; Gómez, B
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a widely grown vegetable; together with garlic, the onion and the leek, it belongs to the Liliaceae family. Both delayed cell-mediated reactions and IgE-mediated reactions secondary to asparagus have been described. While the former (allergic contact dermatitis) are a fairly common cause of occupational disease, only a few case-reports of IgE-mediated reactions have been published. IgE-mediated reactions can be further grouped into food allergy and reactions due to cutaneous or respiratory exposure, which is often occupational. Anaphylaxis is the most common clinical picture of food allergy, while contact urticaria, rhinitis and asthma, appearing either isolated or associated, are clinical pictures of the latter. Sensitization to different allergens is the likely cause of the different clinical pictures due to asparagus. Their detection and early diagnosis is of prime importance due to the different prognosis and treatment. In the present article we resume our experience over the last 5 years.
Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: Consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.
Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter
Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. To address this unmet need, an international task force involving experts from different organizations (including the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) met several times between 2010 and 2014 to discuss the classification and criteria for diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. This article provides the major outcomes of these meetings and a proposal for a revised definition and criteria. In particular, we recommend that the typical maculopapular cutaneous lesions (urticaria pigmentosa) should be subdivided into 2 variants, namely a monomorphic variant with small maculopapular lesions, which is typically seen in adult patients, and a polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, which is typically seen in pediatric patients. Clinical observations suggest that the monomorphic variant, if it develops in children, often persists into adulthood, whereas the polymorphic variant may resolve around puberty. This delineation might have important prognostic implications, and its implementation in diagnostic algorithms and future mastocytosis classifications is recommended. Refinements are also suggested for the diagnostic criteria of CM, removal of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans from the current classification of CM, and removal of the adjunct solitary from the term solitary mastocytoma.
Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) have expanded the treatment options for patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Efficacy is established in adults and children for two different commercially available grass AITs. The ALK grass AIT has an efficacy comparable to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), with a proven disease-modifying effect after treatment completion. Safety profiles favour AIT over SCIT. Studies suggest that tablets in all aspects are superior to sublingual drops. AITs for other allergies including house dust mite and birch and ragweed pollen are in development.
Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B
The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas
Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.
Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT.
Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H
When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of
Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruëff, Franziska
Systemic IgE-mediated immediate type reactions (anaphylaxis) due to honeybee or vespid stings are potentially life-threatening; they are reported in up to 5% of the general population. Insect venom allergy is diagnosed by history, skin testing and measurement of insect venom-specific serum IgE; sometimes additional tests are needed. The diagnosis is based on the history of a systemic allergic immediate type sting reaction, without such a medical history any other "positive" test results are irrelevant. Nearly always, patients with systemic allergic sting reactions can be protected from further episodes of anaphylaxis by a carefully performed hyposensitization (specific immunotherapy). If therapeutic efficacy has been proven by tolerance of a re-sting, hyposensitization can be frequently stopped after 3 to 5 years. Patients with a particular risk of frequent re-stings or of very severe sting reactions may have to be treated for a longer time, some of them even life-long.
Vaswani, Ravi; Kim, Soon Ja; Sanchez, Adrian; Vaswani, Surender
Contact allergy to methacrylates is uncommon. We present a 55-year-old woman with a 10-year history of persistent pruritus and burning sensation of the gums every time she wore her dentures. Initially she developed swelling and erythema of the face soon after the dentures were placed on the gums. These symptoms abated after a barrier liner was applied between her gums and the dentures. However, the burning sensation and pruritus of the gums progressively worsened and she started to develop blisters on the gums. The skin allergen patch test was 3+ positive with erythema, edema, papules, ulceration, and pruritus for the denture component dimethacrylate. The diagnosis was supported by the patient's medical history, notably positive patch test, and complete amelioration of the symptoms upon cessation of dimethacrylate denture usage.
Allergic diseases in children have increased significantly in recent years and now affect up to 35% of children. They are a major cause of morbidity in children. Although there is a genetic predisposition, it is the exposure to environmental allergens, irritants and infections that will determine the sensitization to different dietary and inhalant allergens. As the genetic and environmental factors that act on an immature cellular immune system are better elucidated and their roles established, the implementation of more enduring preventive efforts will be developed. However, at present, the best approach to the child at high risk for the development of allergies is to institute dietary and environmental control measures early to decrease sensitization, and to recognize and appropriately treat the evolving signs and symptoms of allergic disease. PMID:20084126
Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M. Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T.; Morina, Daniel L.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.
Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090
Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T; Morina, Daniel L; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S
Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer.
See, Judi E.
Vigilance, or sustained attention, involves the ability to maintain focus and remain alert for prolonged periods of time. Problems associated with the ability to sustain attention were first identified in real-world combat situations during World War II, and they continue to abound and evolve as new and different types of situations requiring vigilance arise. This paper provides a review of the vigilance literature that describes the primary psychophysical, task, environmental, pharmacological, and individual factors that impact vigilance performance. The paper also describes how seminal findings from vigilance research apply specifically to the task of sentry duty. The strengths and weaknesses of a human sentry and options to integrate human and automated functions for vigilance tasks are discussed. Finally, techniques that may improve vigilance performance for sentry duty tasks are identified.
Hartley, L R; Arnold, P K; Kobryn, H; Macleod, C
In a fragile agricultural environment, such as Western Australia (WA), introduced exotic plant species present a serious environmental and economic threat. Skeleton weed, centaurea juncea, a Mediterranean daisy, was accidentally introduced into WA in 1963. It competes with cash crops such as wheat. When observed in the fields, farms are quarantined and mechanised teams search for the infestations in order to destroy them. Since the search process requires attention, visual search and vigilance, the present investigators conducted a number of controlled field trials to identify the importance of these factors in detection of the weed. The paper describes the basic hit rate, vigilance decrement, effect of search party size, effect of target size, and some data on the effect of solar illumination of the target. Several recommendations have been made and incorporated in the search programme and some laboratory studies undertaken to answer questions arising.
Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P
The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.
... LAK-sis). Without immediate treatment—an injection of epinephrine and expert care in a hospital—anaphylaxis can ... with food allergy should always carry auto-injectable epinephrine to be used in the event of an ...
... first course of action is to avoid the allergen if possible. Medications such as antihistamines are then ... or "allergy shots", is occasionally recommended if the allergen cannot be avoided. It includes regular injections of ...
... chemicals added to latex during harvesting, processing, or manufacturing. These chemicals can cause a skin rash similar ... allergy. However, they may reduce reactions to chemical additives in the latex (allergic contact dermatitis). Use appropriate ...
Rapp, Doris J.
Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)
... Valentine’s Day Kids Teens Teen Advisory Group College Students Adults Talking to Your Children About Your Allergies ... the Program College Survey Committees Summits Lesley University Student Groups Food Manufacturers Restaurants Emergency and Disaster Preparedness ...
... pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into ... happen. For example, in the mid-Atlantic states, tree pollination begins in February and lasts through May, ...
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Allergies and Hyperactivity Page Content Article Body Parents often blame candies ... children get unruly. Some insist that sugar triggers hyperactivity . However, when put to the test, the sugar- ...
Bousquet, P-J; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Aberer, W; Bircher, A; Blanca, M; Brockow, K; Pichler, W; Torres, M J; Terreehorst, I; Arnoux, B; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Barbaud, A; Bijl, A; Bonadonna, P; Burney, P G; Caimmi, S; Canonica, G W; Cernadas, J; Dahlen, B; Daures, J-P; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Gueant, J-L; Kowalski, M L; Kvedariene, V; Mertes, P-M; Martins, P; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Ponvert, C; Pirmohamed, M; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Sanz, M L; Szczeklik, A; Van Ganse, E; De Weck, A L; Zuberbier, T; Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Sidoroff, A
Nonallergic hypersensitivity and allergic reactions are part of the many different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Databases exist for the collection of ADRs. Spontaneous reporting makes up the core data-generating system of pharmacovigilance, but there is a large under-estimation of allergy/hypersensitivity drug reactions. A specific database is therefore required for drug allergy and hypersensitivity using standard operating procedures (SOPs), as the diagnosis of drug allergy/hypersensitivity is difficult and current pharmacovigilance algorithms are insufficient. Although difficult, the diagnosis of drug allergy/hypersensitivity has been standardized by the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) under the aegis of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology and SOPs have been published. Based on ENDA and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN, EU Framework Programme 6) SOPs, a Drug Allergy and Hypersensitivity Database (DAHD((R))) has been established under FileMaker((R)) Pro 9. It is already available online in many different languages and can be accessed using a personal login. GA(2)LEN is a European network of 27 partners (16 countries) and 59 collaborating centres (26 countries), which can coordinate and implement the DAHD across Europe. The GA(2)LEN-ENDA-DAHD platform interacting with a pharmacovigilance network appears to be of great interest for the reporting of allergy/hypersensitivity ADRs in conjunction with other pharmacovigilance instruments.
Let Zylon be a company that is providing Acme with contractual consulting services on the same temporary project that John is assigned to. Moreover...suppose that Alice and Mary are employees of Zylon and are to report to John in McLean for the duration of the project. Furthermore, assume that...no additional overhead or maintenance. In Vigil, Alice and Mary will continue to use their Zylon issued Id’s once John validates them, by asserting
Kramper, M A
Latex allergy emerged in the 1990's as a significant and challenging public health concern for patients as well as healthcare workers. This article provides a review of this complex health care challenge. Understanding latex allergy production and sources of exposure will provide a background to explore the immunological implications of this exposure risk. Diagnostic and treatment measures are reviewed. The focus of this article is to increase awareness and encourage prevention of this growing health concern.
de Groot, A C; van der Walle, H B; Weyland, J W
Cocamidopropyl betaine is an amphoteric surfactant used increasingly in cosmetic products. We describe 20 cases of cosmetic allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine; all were caused by shampoo or shower gel. 8 patients were hairdressers, who had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from shampoos. We recommend patch testing cocamidopropyl betaine 1% aq. routinely in hairdressers with dermatitis of the hands, and in all patients suspected of suffering from cosmetic allergy.
Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Vásquez, Rodrigo A
Coordination can greatly improve the efficiency of anti-predatory vigilance scans by increasing predator detection for a constant proportion of time spent vigilant. However, it has been rarely found in nature and most studies have detected or assumed independent scanning by group members. In this study, we analysed the functional consequences of the coordinated alternation of vigilance scanning by group foragers. We introduce coordination by assuming that interscan intervals (ISIs) follow a modified gamma distribution. Depending on the parameters of the distribution, successive scans can be evenly spaced (coordinated scanning) or may present a high overlap (uncoordinated scanning). Comparing evolutionarily stable strategies for animals that do not coordinate their scanning with animals that do coordinate their anti-predator behaviour shows that coordination has a marked effect on survival probability. Moreover, the coordinating strategy is quite robust against mutants that scan independently with exponential distributions of ISIs. However, coordination breaks down when animals can continuously adjust their level of coordination by deciding the proportion of time they spend monitoring the behaviour of other group members. In this case, coordination is only evolutionarily stable if it can be very easily achieved. PMID:12350268
... allergy was common, with 24% of the asthmatic students having food allergy, and 12% having multiple food allergies. The ... burden in these inner-city school children. Specifically, students with food allergies and asthma reported more asthma symptoms, were ...
Murray, A B
In addition to the potential dangers of feeding cow's milk to the newborn which you list in your editorial on infant feeding (January 2, p.30), other hazards have been proposed. 1 apparent consequence, reported by Johnston and Dutton, is an increased prevalence of allergy later in childhood. We examined this thesis in the course of a study on hearing loss in Vancouver primary school children. A trained interviewer put precoded questions to the children's mothers, 1 of which was whether the child had received any food other than breastmilk in the 1st month of the child's life. Another was whether she or the father or any of the child's siblings had ever had asthma, eczema, or hay fever, i.e., whether there was an immediate family history of allergy. A smear of the child's nasal secretions was made and was subsequently examined for eosinophils by a technician. If there were 10 eosinophils/highpower field in any 2 highpower fields, the child was said to have a nasal secretion eosinophilia. This appears to be a useful sign of allergic rhinitis. In the group with an immediate family history of allergy, the association between early introduction of foreign food and the presence of nasal secretion eosinophilia was significantly positive at the 5% level by the chi square test of association. For those children who received supplemental foods in the 1st month, 22 (32%) showed evidence of nasal secretion eosinophilia; 46 (68%) did not. Only 2 (11%) of those on breastmilk alone displayed this sign and 16 (89%) did not. In the remaining 233 children who did not have an immediate family history of allergy the association was not significantly positive. The sequence of events leading to respiratory allergy may be as follows: a neonate not only drinks his weight in cow's milk in a week, but also absorbs a disproportionately large amount of immunologically intact protein. Thus it would not be surprising to find a relatively high incidence of cow's milk allergy in genetically
Sun, Ping; Yu, Hong-Hao; Zhao, Xin-Quan; Wang, De-Hua
Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) are an endemic and endangered species of the Tibetan Plateau. Ex situ conservation may represent an important way to protect Tibetan antelope; however, this process may influence aspects of their behavior. To investigate the ability of these antelopes to adapt to new environments, a study on the vigilance behavior of captive antelope in different seasons was conducted. Using instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling, and all-occurrence recording methods, the vigilance rate and vigilance time of captive male and female Tibetan antelope during cold and warm seasons were recorded and analyzed. Very significant sex differences in vigilance behavior were observed during the warm season, but were not observed in the cold season. Interestingly, vigilance behavior showed seasonal variation as there were significant differences in vigilance time and vigilance rate between cold and warm seasons in both males and females. Specifically, males and females showed more vigilance during the cold than warm season. No interaction between season and sex was found in the vigilance behavior of antelope. Comparing vigilance behavioral characteristic with the Kekexili Tibetan antelope indicated that captive antelope could adapt to a new environment.
Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra
IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669
Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G
The authors review several of the most important aspects of latex allergy, an increasing problem in Public Health, which should be understood by all health professionals. After briefly presenting the history of the origin latex, from Hevea brasiliensis the authors describe the antigens of latex: Hev b1 to Hev b8, major allergens. They also note the crossed reactivity not only with foods, exotic fruits, but also with pneumoallergens and in particular the pollens. The groups at risk are essentially workers in the latex industry, health professionals and finally infants with spina bifida or other severe urological anomaly. The clinical signs are reactions of type 1 hypersensitivity, to urticaria and/or angio-oedema and anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is based on a search for specific serum IgE, skin tests and provocation tests. Prophylaxis depends on removal of all substances that are based on latex, especially replacement of gloves with vinyl, but also on a food diet that excludes all foods that have a cross-reactivity with latex.
Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra
IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.
Seward, J P
This chapter reviews the epidemiology, manifestations, etiologic agents, and exposure controls related to occupational allergies from animals and insects, including both respiratory and dermatologic responses. The overall prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in exposed workers is about 23% 4-9% of exposed individuals develop asthma. Symptom development is related to duration and intensity of exposure. The most prevalent dermatologic findings are contact urticaria and eczematous dermatitis. While a history of atopy is associated with the risk of symptom development, this factor has poor predictive value for any given individual. Similarly, skin testing and RAST testing are not sufficiently predictive to be recommended as screening tools, although they may identify individuals at some increased risk. The specific tissue sources of the major allergens are reviewed; for laboratory rats and mice, a urinary protein complex has been implicated. Environmental control of antigens is key in the prevention of allergic disease. Task-specific engineering controls, general environmental hygiene, training, and medical surveillance of workers are important elements of the prevention program.
Woodfolk, Judith A.
Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) and onychomycosis (infection of the toenails) caused by the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton are highly prevalent in adults. Several Trichophyton allergens have been identified based on elicitation of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immediate-hypersensitivity (IH) responses. Evidence of an etiologic role for Trichophyton in asthma in some subjects with IH and chronic dermatophytosis is provided by bronchial reactivity to Trichophyton. Improvement of asthma after systemic antifungal treatment corroborates this link. A unique feature of Trichophyton allergens is the ability of the same antigen to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in individuals who lack IH reactivity. Delayed responses appear to confer protection, while IH responses do not, based on the association with acute versus chronic skin infection. The amino acid sequence identity of Trichophyton allergens with diverse enzyme families supports a dual role for these proteins in fungal pathogenesis and allergic disease. Characterizing the immunologic properties of Trichophyton allergens and defining immune mechanisms which drive dichotomous responses are pivotal to understanding the dermatophyte-allergy relationship. Recent studies have identified DTH-associated major T-cell epitopes which could facilitate the development of peptide vaccines. Characterization of additional molecular targets by using new techniques may aid not only in the eradication of infection but also in the resolution of allergic symptoms. PMID:15653817
Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to
Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to
... March 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you have seasonal allergies, the arrival of spring on Monday is probably ... passages stay clear. Consider asthma. Many people with seasonal allergies also have asthma, making springtime doubly difficult. If ...
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Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi
Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.
Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors, such as dietary factors and microbiota, in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and the microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy.
Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.
Yang, Jianping; Zhang, Deqian; Lu, Jingxiang; Shuai, Xiaoyong
It is an important means to study the electrical activity of the brain's nerve cells by exploring physiological information of the EEGs from the frequency domain. The gravity frequency is one of the global parameters with using this method. We used the multitaper spectrum method (MTM) spectrum estimation method of good performance to calculate the EEG spectrum and its gravity frequency of subjects under vigilance and vigilance decrement state. The results showed that the gravity frequency of vigilance state was higher than that of vigilance decrement state, the gravity frequency became smaller along with the vigilance decrement, and the location of the gravity frequency shifted to the left in the spectrum. Finally, the monitoring curve of the gravity frequency was acquired by designing an algorithm, and it was used to online monitoring vigilance operators.
Shimshoni, Yaara; Farah, Haneen; Lotan, Tsippy; Grimberg, Einat; Dritter, Oren; Musicant, Oren; Toledo, Tomer; Omer, Haim
Vigilant care aims at reducing adolescent risk behaviors while matching parental involvement to the level of alarm signs. This study examined the effect of parent training in vigilant care and technological feedback on driving risk of novice male drivers. A sample of 217 Israeli families was divided into four conditions: a) no-feedback, b) individual feedback, c) family feedback, and d) family feedback plus parent training in vigilant care. Feedback and risk assessment were conducted through in-vehicle data recorders. A significant difference was found in favor of the vigilant care group compared to the no feedback group. When only the drivers in the high risk percentiles were considered, the vigilant care group was found superior to the family feedback group. The findings suggest that parental training in vigilant care may help reduce driving risk.
Stollery, B T
Seventy six male volunteers were studied in a crossover trial to assess the effect on the central nervous system of 50 Hz electric currents. Currents totalling 500 microamperes were passed through electrodes attached to the head, upper arms, and feet, simulating exposure to a vertical electric field of about 36 kV/m. Exposure and sham exposure sessions were assigned using double blind techniques and current passed for about 5.5 hours during the exposure session. A series of psychological tests comprising self reports of mood and performance tests of memory, attention, and verbal skills were administered. The present paper discusses the effects of those currents on vigilance and sustained concentration and examines the hypothesis that electric fields act as stressors. The results indicate that vigilance and concentration were not influenced by exposure, nor do they support the hypothesis of a stress reaction. Although brief reports of sensations at electrode sites compromised the double blind conditions to some extent, the performance changes associated with these reports were independent of exposure per se. Within the vigilance task there were two possible exposure effects on the time taken to identify non-target numbers. Firstly, the non-targets were identified more slowly during the first hour of exposure. Secondly, for subjects not reporting sensations, non-target latencies on the second day were slower in the exposed group--there were no corresponding differences on the first day. The interpretation of this effect is complicated by its apparent restriction to the second day and may indicate some kind of state dependent transfer phenomenon. PMID:3814542
Transpersonal Psychology , 3, 125-134. Wallace, R. K. (1970). Physiological effects of transcendental meditation. Science, 167, 1751-1754. ’S 9" w 989 Ware, J...34,", ".,," ,’ . -- " "A-" . -""-" "’"-. THE EFFECTS OF MEDITATION TRAINING ON VIGILANCE PERFORMANCE A THESIS Presented to The Department of Psychology California State... Psychology Lyle . Creamer, Ph.D. Psychology Rod Ph.D. Psychology ACCEPTED AND APPROVED ON BEHALF OF THE UNIVERSITY
About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…
Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...
Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…
Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle
School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…
Dhar, Sandipan; Srinivas, Sahana M
Food allergy in atopic dermatitis (AD) is debatable from decades. Role of diet in the cause and treatment of AD is controversial and is not well-defined. Allergists and pediatricians are convinced about the food allergy in AD whereas many dermatologists are contrary for this. However, there are studies in the Indian and western literature supporting the evidence that elimination diet may improve the severe type of AD. There is increasing awareness and lot of misconception among caregivers about food allergy and hence careful understanding about this concept is necessary to counsel parents. Recent evidence-based literature suggests avoidance of proven food allergens in AD could be beneficial in moderate to severe type of AD. PMID:27904183
Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley
Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization.
Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D
In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and, in 2005, it was permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up until then MI had been used only in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI, e.g. in painters, are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products, and analysed the concentration of MI by high-performance-liquid-chromatography the ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. The use concentration ranged between 2 and 100 ppm. Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics. The recent cases and prevalence studies on MI contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000 ppm.
Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz
Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.
Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael
Laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.
A plethora of drugs is available for the treatment of ocular allergy. Traditional treatment includes antihistamine and antihistamine/vasoconstrictor combination eyedrops. These drugs are useful, safe, and readily available. Mast cell stabilizers are safe, effective, and an important component of antiallergic therapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also have antiallergic effects. In recent years, drugs with multiple mechanisms of action have proven to be effective antiallergics. These drugs often have mast cell stabilizing, antihistaminic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Corticosteroids are considered to be more potent than other antiallergic drugs, and modifications in their molecular structures have made certain corticosteroids suitable for the treatment of ocular allergy.
McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley
Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy. PMID:22894951
Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R
When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.
Kraus, Michael W; Horberg, E J; Goetz, Jennifer L; Keltner, Dacher
Lower-class individuals, because of their lower rank in society, are theorized to be more vigilant to social threats relative to their high-ranking upper-class counterparts. This class-related vigilance to threat, the authors predicted, would shape the emotional content of social interactions in systematic ways. In Study 1, participants engaged in a teasing interaction with a close friend. Lower-class participants--measured in terms of social class rank in society and within the friendship--more accurately tracked the hostile emotions of their friend. As a result, lower-class individuals experienced more hostile emotion contagion relative to upper-class participants. In Study 2, lower-class participants manipulated to experience lower subjective socioeconomic rank showed more hostile reactivity to ambiguous social scenarios relative to upper-class participants and to lower-class participants experiencing elevated socioeconomic rank. The results suggest that class affects expectations, perception, and experience of hostile emotion, particularly in situations in which lower-class individuals perceive their subordinate rank.
Taraborelli, Paula; Gregorio, Pablo; Moreno, Pablo; Novaro, Andrés; Carmanchahi, Pablo
The concept of sociality has been associated with the effectiveness of antipredator mechanisms, like cooperative vigilance and the dilution effect. Lama guanicoe (guanaco) is a social native herbivore in South America and a social species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antipredator responses of different-sized groups of guanacos in areas with varying predation risks and to determine antipredator mechanisms in guanacos. For this, we measured different antipredator responses to a potential predator (human subjects). Detection of predator and flight distances from predator both increased with a greater number of guanacos per group and with greater distances among guanacos within the social group. Both buffer distance and flight time decreased with a greater number of guanacos per group, but increased with greater distances among guanacos inside the social group. Solitary adult males moved shorter distance and mixed groups moved greater distances. Flight distances were greater in areas with tall and dense vegetation than in areas with low vegetation. Buffer distance and flight time were shorter in undulating land than on flat lands, and groups were usually observed on hill slopes. Our results suggest that the benefit of social grouping in guanacos is the increased probability of avoiding predator with cooperative vigilance and not with the dilution effect. This means that a predator could be detected earlier when approaching a guanaco group than when approaching a solitary individuals and could thus be avoided.
Scriba, M F; Rattenborg, N C; Dreiss, A N; Vyssotski, A L; Roulin, A
Understanding the function of variation in sleep requires studies in the natural ecological conditions in which sleep evolved. Sleep has an impact on individual performance and hence may integrate the costs and benefits of investing in processes that are sensitive to sleep, such as immunity or coping with stress. Because dark and pale melanic animals differentially regulate energy homeostasis, immunity and stress hormone levels, the amount and/or organization of sleep may covary with melanin-based colour. We show here that wild, cross-fostered nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) born from mothers displaying more black spots had shorter non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep bouts, a shorter latency until the occurrence of REM sleep after a bout of wakefulness and more wakefulness bouts. In male nestlings, the same sleep traits also correlated with their own level of spotting. Because heavily spotted male nestlings and the offspring of heavily spotted biological mothers switched sleep-wakefulness states more frequently, we propose the hypothesis that they could be also behaviourally more vigilant. Accordingly, nestlings from mothers displaying many black spots looked more often towards the nest entrance where their parents bring food and towards their sibling against whom they compete. Owlets from heavily spotted mothers might invest more in vigilance, thereby possibly increasing associated costs due to sleep fragmentation. We conclude that different strategies of the regulation of brain activity have evolved and are correlated with melanin-based coloration.
Robinson, Joanne M; Ficca, Michelle
School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting. Effective communication between families, health care providers, faculty, staff, and students, is of utmost importance when developing a plan of care to ensure the safety of the student with food allergies. Using an interdisciplinary approach to case management, the school nurse can develop comprehensive individualized health care plans for all students with food allergies.
It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information. The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems. In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases. PMID:23282447
Harwood, Amanda E.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Shaw, Tyler H.
Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18–24) and healthy older (aged 66–77) adults. To measure temporal changes in cerebral blood flow, participants underwent functional transcranial doppler (fTCD) recording during a 1 h vigilance task. Based on research showing a compensatory effect of increased left hemisphere activation during vigilance in young adults and the “hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults” (HAROLD) model, we predicted that during vigilance our older adults would show greater left hemisphere activation but perform at a similar level compared to young adults. While cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) declined over time in both groups, only young adults showed the typical right-lateralized CBFV pattern. Older adults showed greater left hemisphere activation consistent with the HAROLD model. However, the increased left hemisphere activation did not appear to be compensatory as the older adults performed at a significantly lower level compared to young adults over the vigil. Findings are discussed in terms of the HAROLD model of healthy aging and the resource theory of vigilance. PMID:28228722
Li, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhigang; Li, Linlin; Li, Zhongqiu; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Beauchamp, Guy
Background Quantifying vigilance and exploring the underlying mechanisms has been the subject of numerous studies. Less attention has focused on the complex interplay between contributing factors such as reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size. Reproductive status and social rank are of particular interest due to their association with mating behavior. Mating activities in rutting season may interfere with typical patterns of vigilance and possibly interact with social rank. In addition, balancing the tradeoff between vigilance and life maintenance may represent a challenge for gregarious ungulate species rutting under harsh winter conditions. We studied vigilance patterns in the endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) during both the rutting and non-rutting seasons to examine these issues. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations were carried out with focal sampling during rutting and non-rutting season in 2008–2009. Results indicated a complex interplay between reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size in determining vigilance in this species. Vigilance decreased with group size in female but not in male gazelles. Males scanned more frequently and thus spent more time vigilant than females. Compared to non-rutting season, gazelles increased time spent scanning at the expense of bedding in rutting season. During the rutting season, territorial males spent a large proportion of time on rutting activities and were less vigilant than non-territorial males. Although territorial males may share collective risk detection with harem females, we suggest that they are probably more vulnerable to predation because they seemed reluctant to leave rut stands under threats. Conclusions/Significance Vigilance behavior in Przewalski's gazelle was significantly affected by reproductive status, social rank, sex, group size and their complex interactions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying vigilance patterns and
Assa'ad, Amal H
GI symptoms are a common manifestation of food allergy and intolerance. The primary physician is the first to evaluate these symptoms. A systematic evaluation using an accurate and detailed history, tests to identify the offending food(s), and procedures that may identify underlying pathologic disorders of the GI tract would lead to an accurate diagnosis and better targeted therapeutic interventions.
The concept of molds as causative agents for allergy/asthma is not new. In fact many fungal genera have been associated with allergic lung disease, but only a few fungi are well studied and even fewer fungal allergens well characterized. The complexity and variety of fungal pro...
Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao
Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients
Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Suganuma, Narufumi; Nagasawa, Sumio; Deguchi, Yoji
Allergic diseases have increased in many developed countries including Japan. Doctors are also at risk for allergic diseases from exposure to allergens in working conditions and hospital environments. We investigated the factors relating to occupational allergy in doctors. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all doctors (n=895) who had previously graduated from School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University. Data from 307 responders (response rate: 34.3%, male 241, female 66, mean age +/- S.D., 30.8 +/- 4.2) were analyzed. Eighty-nine doctors stated that they had occupational allergy including contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Fifty-four had contact dermatitis caused by surgical gloves; 77 had contact dermatitis from disinfectants, e.g. 23 from chlorhexidine gluconate; 21 from povidone iodine; and 15 from ethanol. Fifteen doctors experienced allergic rhinitis and/or asthma caused by handling laboratory animals. Univariate analysis showed that profession (surgical doctors) and past histories of allergic diseases (rhinitis, sinusitis, or atopic dermatitis) were significantly related to occupational allergy in doctors, but that gender, smoking or physical exercise were not significantly related to it. A logistic regression analysis showed that past histories of allergic diseases and the profession of surgical doctors were significantly related to occupational allergy, but that gender, age or smoking were not significantly related to it. The results of the present study suggest that past history of allergic diseases is a factor predisposing to occupational allergy in doctors. It is necessary and possible to extend more prophylactic measures for doctors, especially for surgeons, because exposure to responsible agents and materials for them can be more frequent.
Hall, Lucas K; Day, Casey C; Westover, Matthew D; Edgel, Robert J; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; McMillan, Brock R
Animals that are potential prey do not respond equally to direct and indirect cues related to risk of predation. Based on differential responses to cues, three hypotheses have been proposed to explain spatial variation in vigilance behavior. The predator-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey increase vigilance where there is evidence of predators. The visibility-vigilance hypothesis suggests that prey increase vigilance where visibility is obstructed. Alternatively, the refuge-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey may perceive areas with low visibility (greater cover) as refuges and decrease vigilance. We evaluated support for these hypotheses using the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), a solitary carnivore subject to intraguild predation, as a model. From 2010 to 2012, we used infrared-triggered cameras to record video of kit fox behavior at water sources in Utah, USA. The refuge-vigilance hypothesis explained more variation in vigilance behavior of kit foxes than the other two hypotheses (AICc model weight=0.37). Kit foxes were less vigilant at water sources with low overhead cover (refuge) obstructing visibility. Based on our results, the predator-vigilance and visibility-vigilance hypotheses may not be applicable to all species of prey. Solitary prey, unlike gregarious prey, may use areas with concealing cover to maximize resource acquisition and minimize vigilance.
Brackup, Ellen S.; Knopf, Irwin J.
Investigates whether noninstructional speech distracts normal school children from a vigilance task and examines the role played by meaningfulness and schedule of presentation in producing speech's effects. A total of 60 first grade males performed a 30-minute visual vigilance task under five conditions of auditory background stimulation.…
Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Souvignet, Julien
Quality management information systems for safety as a whole or for specific vigilances share the same information types but are not interoperable. An international initiative tries to develop an integrated information model for patient safety and vigilance reporting to support a global approach of heath care quality.
Ralph, Brandon C W; Onderwater, Kris; Thomson, David R; Smilek, Daniel
In the experiments presented here, we examined the impact of intervening tasks on the vigilance decrement. In Experiment 1 participants either (a) continuously performed a visuospatial vigilance task, (b) received a rest break, or (c) temporarily performed a different, demanding visuospatial task in the middle of the vigil. Both taking a rest break and performing the intervening task were found to alleviate the vigilance decrement in response times. Target detection accuracy was equivalent across groups. In Experiment 2 we obtained subjective ratings of task demand, boredom, motivation, and mind wandering for both the vigilance task and intervening task administered in Experiment 1. The intervening task was rated as more demanding in terms of mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, own performance, effort, and frustration. In addition, participants also reported being more bored, less motivated, and reported mind wandering more frequently when completing the vigil. Disruptions to task monotony (even if cognitively demanding), can alleviate the vigilance decrement. The implications of this finding with respect to current theoretical accounts of the vigilance decrement are discussed.
In-Albon, Tina; Kossowsky, Joe; Schneider, Silvia
The "vigilance-avoidance" attention pattern is found in anxious adults, who initially gaze more at threatening pictures than nonanxious adults (vigilance), but subsequently gaze less at them than nonanxious adults (avoidance). The present research, using eye tracking methodology, tested whether anxious children show the same pattern. Children with…
Hancock, P. A.
To what extent are identified psychological processes created in laboratories? The present work addresses this issue with reference to one particular realm of behavior: vigilance. Specifically, I argue that the classic vigilance decrement function can be viewed more realistically and advantageously as an "invigilant" increment function. Rather…
Llinás, Rodolfo R; Steriade, Mircea
This article addresses the functional significance of the electrophysiological properties of thalamic neurons. We propose that thalamocortical activity, is the product of the intrinsic electrical properties of the thalamocortical (TC) neurons and the connectivity their axons weave. We begin with an overview of the electrophysiological properties of single neurons in different functional states, followed by a review of the phylogeny of the electrical properties of thalamic neurons, in several vertebrate species. The similarity in electrophysiological properties unambiguously indicates that the thalamocortical system must be as ancient as the vertebrate branch itself. We address the view that rather than simply relays, thalamic neurons have sui generis intrinsic electrical properties that govern their specific functional dynamics and regulate natural functional states such as sleep and vigilance. In addition, thalamocortical activity has been shown to be involved in the genesis of several neuropsychiatric conditions collectively described as thalamocortical dysrhythmia syndrome.
Doukidis, G; Pallikarakis, N; Pangalos, G; Vassilacopoulos, G; Pramataris, K
EDI is expected to be the dominant form of business communication between organizations moving to the Electronic Commerce era of 2000. The healthcare sector is already using EDI in the hospital supply function as well as in the clinical area and the reimbursement process. In this paper, we examine the use of EDI in the healthcare administration sector and more specifically its application to the Medical Device Vigilance System. Firstly, the potential of this approach is examined, followed by the definition of the EDI System Reference Model and the specification of the required system architecture. Each of the architecture's components are then explained in more detail, followed by the most important implementation options relating to them.
Fuchs, Inbal; Tarabin, Salman; Kafka, Michael
Three cases of relapsing fever from southern Israel were diagnosed promptly thanks to vigilance of the hematology laboratory technicians. In this region of Israel, patients presenting with prolonged fever and leukopenia without localizing symptoms are generally suspected of having brucellosis or a rickettsial disease. Pediatric patients with prolonged fever, cytopenias, and negative aforementioned serologies are often hospitalized for further work-up. Because of the policy of performing a manual blood smear when results of the automated blood count demonstrate severe anemia and abnormal platelet and/or white blood cell counts, a diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever was confirmed and promptly relayed to the physician. This routine prevented unnecessary examinations and hospitalization days and provided important information to regional epidemiology and public health authorities.
Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert
On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care.
Micallef, Joëlle; Frauger, Elisabeth; Palmaro, Aurore; Boucherie, Quentin; Lapeyre Mestre, Maryse
Abuse of and addiction to medication are a major public health issue which is evolving fast, in particular in countries like France, one of the largest consumers of medication in Europe. As a single source of information is not generally sufficient to measure a phenomenon as difficult to apprehend as medication-related addiction, as can be seen in the case of methylphenidate, it is essential to mobilise all the tools available, here surveillance programmes developed by the French CEIP Addiction vigilance network, such as suspicious prescriptions indicating possible abuse data (OSIAP) or observatory of illegal or misused psychoactive medications (OPPIDUM), as well as the health insurance databases, and health professional sentinel networks. The latest data available on methylphenidate abuse in France suggests a stabilisation of the phenomenon, which emerged in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) region in southern France. It also evidences its diffusion to other regions, so that the information needs to be widely relayed, and suggests that health professionals should exercise the greatest caution in the use of this substance, and should look for early signs of its misuse.
Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter
Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright
Numerous genes are involved in innate and adaptive immunity and these have been modified over millions of years. During this evolution, the mucosal immune system has developed two anti-inflammatory strategies: immune exclusion by the use of secretory antibodies to control epithelial colonization of microorganisms and to inhibit the penetration of potentially harmful agents; and immunosuppression to counteract local and peripheral hypersensitivity against innocuous antigens, such as food proteins. The latter strategy is called oral tolerance when induced via the gut. Homeostatic mechanisms also dampen immune responses to commensal bacteria. The mucosal epithelial barrier and immunoregulatory network are poorly developed in newborns. The perinatal period is, therefore, critical with regard to the induction of food allergy. The development of immune homeostasis depends on windows of opportunity during which innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by antigen-presenting cells. The function of these cells is not only orchestrated by microbial products but also by dietary constituents, including vitamin A and lipids, such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. These factors may in various ways exert beneficial effects on the immunophenotype of the infant. The same is true for breast milk, which provides immune-inducing factors and secretory immunoglobulin A, which reinforces the gut epithelial barrier. It is not easy to dissect the immunoregulatory network and identify variables that lead to food allergy. This Review discusses efforts to this end and outlines the scientific basis for future food allergy prevention.
Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli, and with active participation of the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis, MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socioeconomic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the epidemic of allergies and chronic airways diseases. Participants underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient empowerment, and cost-effective treatment strategies.
Ganbo, T.; Nakazawa, T.; Nakajima, T.; Ko, J.; Goto, R.; Murakami, Y.; Misui, K.
Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by radio-immunoassay to evaluate TNF-α in nasal allergy. There was no significant difference either between the mean concentrations of TNF-α in nasal secretions from the patients with perennial nasal allergy and those of normal subjects, or between the TNF-α and ECP concentrations. However, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed a specific increase of TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA in allergic nasal mucosa after allergen challenge in vitro. These findings suggest a possibility that T cell-derived IFN-γ up-regulates macrophages to elaborate TNF-α, which may play a role in amplifying allergic inflammation in the nose through the cytokine network. PMID:18475667
Ariga, Atsunori; Lleras, Alejandro
We newly propose that the vigilance decrement occurs because the cognitive control system fails to maintain active the goal of the vigilance task over prolonged periods of time (goal habituation). Further, we hypothesized that momentarily deactivating this goal (via a switch in tasks) would prevent the activation level of the vigilance goal from…
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...
Eosinophilic Esophagitis, a non-IgE mediated disease . This work has examined the genetics of food allergy looking at both IgE and non-IgE mediated...atopic dermatitis to another. The understanding that genetics play a role in allergic disease and asthma has been recognized for more than 100... disease as compared with controls4, 5. Follow-up studies have shown that if one parent has allergies, a child has a 33% chance of developing allergies
Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen
Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…
Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki
Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.
de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H
We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.
Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.
Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P=0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P=0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS.
Chaudhry, Rabia Quddus; Oppenheimer, John J
Though much has been studied and written about food allergy, the majority of the available literature focuses on food allergies in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, it is likely that in regard to food allergies, adults are not just big children, and extrapolating findings from pediatric to adult patient populations might lead to erroneous assumptions. Thus, it is important to validate the correlation between pediatric and adult data, gather data regarding adult food allergy and understand the specific nuances of subsets of adults to better treat their food allergy. This review was conducted by identifying potentially relevant studies regarding food allergies in adults through electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The search terms included "allergy", "food" and "adults". Parameters of 19+ years of age were added to search terms and all journals were written in or translated to English. From these search results, focus was placed on studies from 2010 to 2012. This systematic update on food allergy in adults found that the evidence regarding prevalence, diagnosis and management of food allergies is very limited, with the majority of data derived from children and young adults.
Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi
A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.
Food allergy poses a significant burden on patients, families, health care providers, and the medical system. The increased prevalence of food allergy has brought about investigation as to its cause and new treatments. Currently, the only treatment available is to avoid the food and symptomatically treat any reactions. There are multiple clinical and murine models of food allergy treatment that use allergen specific and nonspecific pathways. Allergen specific treatments use mucosal antigen exposure as a method of inducing desensitization and tolerance. Allergen nonspecific methods act via a more global TH2 suppressive mechanism and may be useful for those patients with multiple food allergies. PMID:23282314
van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W
Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.
Zheng, Wei-Long; Lu, Bao-Liang
Objective. Covert aspects of ongoing user mental states provide key context information for user-aware human computer interactions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of estimating the vigilance of users using EEG and EOG signals. Approach. The PERCLOS index as vigilance annotation is obtained from eye tracking glasses. To improve the feasibility and wearability of vigilance estimation devices for real-world applications, we adopt a novel electrode placement for forehead EOG and extract various eye movement features, which contain the principal information of traditional EOG. We explore the effects of EEG from different brain areas and combine EEG and forehead EOG to leverage their complementary characteristics for vigilance estimation. Considering that the vigilance of users is a dynamic changing process because the intrinsic mental states of users involve temporal evolution, we introduce continuous conditional neural field and continuous conditional random field models to capture dynamic temporal dependency. Main results. We propose a multimodal approach to estimating vigilance by combining EEG and forehead EOG and incorporating the temporal dependency of vigilance into model training. The experimental results demonstrate that modality fusion can improve the performance compared with a single modality, EOG and EEG contain complementary information for vigilance estimation, and the temporal dependency-based models can enhance the performance of vigilance estimation. From the experimental results, we observe that theta and alpha frequency activities are increased, while gamma frequency activities are decreased in drowsy states in contrast to awake states. Significance. The forehead setup allows for the simultaneous collection of EEG and EOG and achieves comparative performance using only four shared electrodes in comparison with the temporal and posterior sites.
Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick
In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing
Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick
In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing
Radke, Taylor J.; Brown, Laura G.; Hoover, E. Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V.; Reimann, David; Wong, Melissa R.; Nicholas, David; Barkley, Jonathan; Ripley, Danny
Dining outside of the home can be difficult for persons with food allergies who must rely on restaurant staff to properly prepare allergen-free meals. The purpose of this study was to understand and identify factors associated with food allergy knowledge and attitudes among restaurant managers, food workers, and servers. This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal, state, and local environmental health specialists working to understand the environmental factors associated with food safety issues. EHS-Net personnel collected data from 278 randomly selected restaurants through interviews with restaurant managers, food workers, and servers. Results indicated that managers, food workers, and servers were generally knowledgeable and had positive attitudes about accommodating customers’ food allergies. However, we identified important gaps, such as more than 10% of managers and staff believed that a person with a food allergy can safely consume a small amount of that allergen. Managers and staff also had lower confidence in their restaurant’s ability to properly respond to a food allergy emergency. The knowledge and attitudes of all groups were higher at restaurants that had a specific person to answer food allergy questions and requests or a plan for answering questions from food allergic customers. However, food allergy training was not associated with knowledge in any of the groups but was associated with manager and server attitudes. Based on these findings, we encourage restaurants to be proactive by training staff about food allergies and creating plans and procedures to reduce the risk of a customer having a food allergic reaction. PMID:28221943
Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher
The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.
Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W
On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control the epidemic of Allergy and Asthma in Europe. The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. Despite the fact that 30% of the total European population is nowadays suffering from allergies and asthma, more than half of these patients are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach in medicine, embracing 4 key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and taking into account predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the Epidemic of Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases. This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The
History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the World Allergy Organization traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the World Allergy Organization Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series." Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007) World Allergy Organization PMID:23282543
Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D; Gleich, Gerald J; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A K; Naisbitt, Dean J; Ostrov, David A; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Pichler, Werner J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Trepanier, Lauren A
Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein.
Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A.K.; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Ostrov, David A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Pichler, Werner J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Trepanier, Lauren A.
Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several NIH Institutes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053
Man-Portable Air Defense Systems, or MANPADS, have arisen as a major threat to commercial and military air traffic. While no MANPADS attacks have yet occurred within the United States, the risk posed by these weapons is undeniable. MANPADS were originally developed by the Soviet Union and the United States for tactical air defense, but since then these weapons have proliferated around the world. Two major approaches to countering these weapons have arisen: aircraft based and ground based. Aircraft-based systems typically use either flares or lasers to either confuse or blind the oncoming missile, thus driving it off target. These systems have been in use for many years on military aircraft and have been proven effective. However, when one considers the commercial air travel industry, the cost of providing a countermeasure system on every plane becomes prohibitive. A ground-based system by contrast protects every aircraft arriving or departing from an airport. By deploying a ground-based system at high-traffic and hub airports, a large percentage of the flying public can be protected affordably. Vigilant Eagle is such a ground based system which uses High Power Microwaves (HPM) to accomplish this mission.
Miele, David B; Molden, Daniel C; Gardner, Wendi L
The more accurately people assess their comprehension, the more likely they are to engage in study behaviors that precisely target gaps in their learning. However, comprehension regulation involves more than knowing when to implement a new study strategy; it also involves deciding which strategy will most effectively resolve one's confusion. In two experiments, we explored how people's motivational orientations influence which study strategies they select to regulate their comprehension. In Experiment 1, people who were motivated to vigilantly protect against potential mistakes (i.e., prevention-focused individuals) were more likely to adopt a rereading strategy than people who were motivated to eagerly pursue new learning opportunities (i.e., promotion-focused individuals). In Experiment 2, this difference in strategy use emerged specifically in response to confusing sentences that had been inserted into the text. Furthermore, by using rereading strategies to resolve their confusion, prevention-focused individuals performed better than promotion-focused individuals on a comprehension test and a transfer task.
Gupta, Pooja; Janodia, Manthan D; Jagadish, Puralea C; Udupa, Nayanabhirama
The term medical device includes a wide category of products ranging from therapeutic medical devices exerting their effects locally such as tissue cutting, wound covering or propping open clogged arteries, to highly sophisticated computerized medical equipment and diagnostic medical devices. To achieve uniformity among the national medical device regulatory systems and increase the access to safe, effective, and clinically beneficial medical technologies, the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) was conceived in 1992 by five members: European Union, United States, Australia, Japan, and Canada. All regulated countries have clearly defined medical devices, as has the GHTF. Although GHTF has tried to achieve harmonization with respect to medical devices, some differences still exist in the national laws of the countries of GHTF. Further, regulated countries have classified medical devices on the basis of their associated risk. In the Indian regulatory system, medical devices are still considered as drugs. In 2006, the Medical Device Regulation Bill was recommended to consolidate laws for medical devices and to establish the Medical Device Regulatory Authority of India. In addition, medical devices are not classified by any Indian regulatory authority. Although India has moved towards harmonizing its medical device regulations with those of regulated countries, this study aims to identify whether India should have a vigilance system in harmony with those of GHTF or develop its own system for medical devices.
Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.
This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…
Arora, Deepa; Kumar, M
Food allergy being a common health problem needs attention. The experience of Ayurveda can be utilized to accelerate our understanding and management of food allergies and related phenomenon like allergic tension fatigue syndrome, intolerance and indigestion associated with certain foods. Prevention of food allergies by carefully selecting the foods in accordance with the individual's body constitution and seasonal alterations, is considered as the best strategy in Ayurveda. If possible, the concept of prakriti and properties of food as described in Ayurveda, should be interpreted in modern terminology. Moreover, to scientifically validate them, an appropriate correlation with modern concepts is required along with scientific studies on modern parameters. Rasayanas may also prove helpful in the management of food allergies. It is obvious that there, is an urgent need for multidimensional and planned investigations of these Ayurvedic rasayanas in management of food allergies. The clinical acceptability of rasayanas for the treatment of food allergies entirely rests on such studies. Food intolerance and allergies are common health problems which are difficult to diagnose and still more difficult to treat. This problem is well addressed in Ayurveda and guidelines are available for their management. This paper aims to present the Ayurvedic concepts in the management of food intolerance/ allergies and its correlation with the evidences available from modem scientific laboratories. The understanding of this ancient wisdom may prove to be of immense importance in patient care.
... children who do not have asthma, but have seasonal allergies and receive subcutaneous immunotherapy, are far less likely to develop asthma over ... the duration of treatment compared to standard allergen immunotherapy. The ... seasonal allergies is still uncertain. Have there been changes in ...
de Groot, A C; Meijer, P; van Joost, T; Hausen, B M
We report 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to Alstroemeria cultivars. Four of them presented with the clinical picture of 'tulip fingers'. They all reacted to parts of fresh plants and to tuliposide A. The literature on Alstroemeria allergy is reviewed.
Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Clarke, Ann
This review summarizes studies discussing temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy as well as potential factors associated with the development of food allergy. In addition, we will address the potential hypotheses accounting for the apparent increase in food allergy prevalence. Studies suggest increased prevalence of food allergy. However, relatively little is known about its pathogenesis. This review aims to assess temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy and discuss potential genetic, environmental, and demographic determinants. The search strategy examined the medical literature database MEDLINE (using PubMed) for the time period of January 1, 2002 to January 31, 2012. In recent decades, the prevalence of food allergy in general has increased by 0.60 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.59 %-0.61 %] and the prevalence of peanut allergy by 0.027 % (95 % CI, 0.026 %-0.028 %), but it has now likely stabilized in developed countries. Genes, the environment, and demographic characteristics play a role in the pathogenesis of food allergy. Numerous environmental and demographic factors as well as gene-environment interactions may account for this increase in prevalence, but further studies are required to tease out their relative contribution.
Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia
Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.
Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S
The abbreviated vigilance task can quickly generate vigilance decrements, which has been argued is due to depletion of cognitive resources needed to sustain performance. Researchers suggest inclusion of rest breaks within vigilance tasks improve overall performance (Helton & Russell, 2015; Ross, Russell, & Helton, 2014), while different types of breaks demonstrate different effects. Some literature suggests exposure to natural movements/stimuli helps restore attention (Herzog, Black, Fountaine, & Knotts, 1997; Kaplan, 1995). Participants were randomly assigned to one experimental condition: dog video breaks, robot video breaks, countdown breaks or continuous vigilance. We assessed task performance and subjective reports of stress/workload. The continuous group displayed worst performance, suggesting breaks help restore attention. The dog videos did not affect performance, however, decreased reports of distress. These results support the importance of rest breaks and acknowledge the benefit of natural stimuli for promoting wellbeing/stress relief, overall suggesting performance and wellbeing may be independent, which warrants future studies.
Warm, J. S.; Kanfer, F. H.; Kuwada, S.; Clark, J. L.
Vigilance experiments have been performed to study the relative efficiency of feedback operations in enhancing vigilance performance. Two feedback operations were compared - i.e., experimenter-controlled feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR) regarding response times to signal detections, and subject-controlled feedback in the form of self-evaluation (SE) of response times to signal detections. The subjects responded to the aperiodic offset of a visual signal during a 1-hr vigil. Both feedback operations were found to enhance performance efficiency: subjects in the KR and SE conditions had faster response times than controls receiving no evaluative feedback. Moreover, the data of the KR and SE groups did not differ significantly from each other. The results are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that self-evaluation is a critical factor underlying the incentive value of KR in vigilance tasks.
Lyall, Aditya; Ghosh, Supradip; Mishra, Kirtee
Training in echocardiography is essential for an intensivist. We present a rapidly fatal case of obstructive shock where a vigilant intensivist could diagnose left atrial mass obstructing the mitral inflow as the etiology of shock. PMID:27688631
Reactions to Hymenoptera stings may appear as local or systemic responses. According to European data, the incidence of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in the general population is 0.3-7.5%, with the value being 0.3-0.8% in children and 14-43% in beekeepers. The most common systemic allergic (anaphylactic) reactions are caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera), and certain species of wasps in the family Vespidae. Severe generalized immediate-type allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to insect stings are of the highest clinical importance. They affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular system. The classification of severity of anaphylactic reaction following insect stings is based on the 4-grade Mueller scale. Crucial in patomechanism of anaphylaxis are specific IgE antibodies directed against the components of the venom, which mediate the activation of mast cells, the main effector cells of anaphylaxis. Therapeutic management in insect venom allergy should be considered in the context of prophylaxis, intervention in case symptoms develop, prevention in the form of venom specific immunotherapy (VIT). There are two steps of VIT 1. Initial dose venom immunotherapy (given according to four protocols which differ the time to reach the maintenance dose) 2. Maintenance dose VIT, usually equal 100 µg. Standard treatment time should span 3-5 years. The main mechanisms of immune tolerance that are initiated by VIT are associated with: 1. a decreased reactivity of effector cells, 2. expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes with IL-10 expression. Therapeutic effectiveness amounts to 90-100% in wasp venom allergy and approximately 80% in bee venom allergy.
Urticaria is a common skin disease that may affect 20 % of the general population. Most of the time, urticaria is an acute disorder that rarely can be chronic. The difficulty in urticaria is not the clinical diagnosis because the rash is characteristic, but the underlying causes and treatment that result. Urticaria is a benign disease when chronic and potentially dangerous when acute and associated with allergy. This allergy risk, needs an allergy exploration, based on skin tests and / or specific IgE assays. Because allergy is unusual in chronic urticaria, no allergy tests should be performed. By contrast, these tests must be undertaken in case of acute urticaria with a strong suspicion of IgE-mediated reaction because of the risk of severe anaphylaxis in case of allergenic re-exposure.
Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M
The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.
Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C
Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.
Michel, O; Doyen, V
The prevalence of food allergies is more than 5 %, rising currently. The clinical presentations are polymorphic and involve the skin, respiratory, vascular and gut systems. The diagnosis is based on the consistancy between the allergic history and the results of the specific IgE investigations. When the relationship between the history and the IgE sensitization is not significant, an oral challenge test with food is indicated under supervision of a reference center. New approach, based on dosage of specific IgE to different constituent (recombinant protein) of each allergen, can predict the severity of the reaction and the cross reactivity between allergens, in some patients.
Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A
BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry. REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis. CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological
Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Harsay, Helga A.; Wetter, Thomas C.; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.; Drummond, Sean P. A.
Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation (SD) are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of SD have not been able to separate the effects of reduced arousal from the effects of SD on cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to study the effects of 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high (SDalert) or reduced (SDsleepy) vigilance. In the SDalert condition, oddball task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. In the SDsleepy condition, oddball task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict negative correlation between oddball task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance during task performance can affects either task-related or task-negative activity, depending on the exact vigilance level. PMID:22557992
Descovich, Kristin A; Lisle, Allan T; Johnston, Stephen; Phillips, Clive J C
Prey species that congregate gain protection against predatory attacks and this advantage is often reflected by a reduction in vigilance behaviour by individuals in larger groups. Comparatively few studies have investigated vigilance in solitary animals, but those that have, found that vigilance increases as group size increases because of the threat posed by conspecifics and/or competition for resources. The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is a large fossorial, nocturnal marsupial that is neither strictly solitary nor gregarious, sharing warren systems with multiple conspecifics. We investigated the effects of conspecific presence on vigilance behaviour in this semi-solitary species. We observed wild-born, adult L. latifrons wombats in three group sizes (Large (1♂, 3♀), Medium (1♂, 2♀) and Small (1♂, 1♀)) in a captive, naturalistic environment that allowed above-ground and den behaviour monitoring. Vigilance behaviours were performed less frequently by wombats in large groups (e.g. scanning, counts/day, Large: 55, Medium: 69, Small: 115, P=0.002) and more frequently as the distance from their nearest conspecific increased (r64=0.30, P= 0.016). Vigilance within burrows was also affected by social influences, with solitary wombats significantly more vigilant than those denning with a conspecific (e.g. scanning: conspecific absent: 0.13/5min, present: 0.03/5min, P<0.0001). It is concluded that the presence of conspecifics reduces vigilance in L. latifrons wombats, even within burrows, and this may partially explain the occurrence of warren sharing in the wild.
Beijamini, F; Silva, A G T; Peixoto, C A T; Louzada, F M
During adolescence, the sleep phase delay associated with early school times increases daytime sleepiness and reduces psychomotor performance. Some studies have shown an effect of gender on psychomotor performance in adults and children. Males present faster reaction times (RT) compared with females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gender on Palm psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance in adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents (19 girls, 13 to 16 years old) attending morning school classes of a public school in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, participated in the study. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy and sleepiness data were accessed with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). KSS and PVT measurements were collected at two times in the morning (8:00 and 11:00 h). The data were compared using one-way ANOVA, considering gender as a factor. ANOVA indicated that gender did not affect sleep patterns and subjective somnolence; however, a statistically significant effect of gender was detected for PVT performance. Boys presented faster RT (RT-PVT1: 345.51 ms, F = 6.08, P < 0.05; RT-PVT2: 343.30 ms, F = 6.35, P < 0.05) and fewer lapses (lapses-PVT1: 8.71, F = 4.45, P < 0.05; lapses-PVT2: 7.82, F = 7.06, P < 0.05) compared with girls (RT-PVT1: 402.96; RT-PVT2: 415.70; lapses-PVT1: 16.33; lapses-PVT2: 17.80). These results showed that this effect of gender, already reported in adults and children, is also observed in adolescents. The influence of gender should be taken into account in studies that use Palm PVT to evaluate psychomotor performance in this age range.
Sherman, Paul W; Holland, Erica; Sherman, Janet Shellman
The nature of the biological relationships between cancers and allergies has intrigued researchers and health care providers for five decades. Three hypotheses have been proposed: antigenic stimulation predicts positive associations between cancers and allergies (i.e., allergy sufferers are more likely to get cancer), whereas immunosurveillance and prophylaxis predict inverse associations (i.e., allergy sufferers are less likely to get cancer). Immunosurveillance predicts inverse associations for cancers of all tissues and organ systems, and prophylaxis predicts inverse associations specifically for cancers of tissues and organ systems that interface with the external environment. To comparatively evaluate these hypotheses, we comprehensively reviewed the literature on cancer and allergies. We located 148 papers published from 1955 through 2006 that reported results of 463 studies of relationships between patients' histories of 11 specific allergies and cancers of 19 tissues and organ systems, and 183 studies of patients' histories of multiple allergies in relation to various types/sites of cancers. Analyses of these studies revealed that (1) frequencies of positive, inverse, and null allergy-cancer associations differed considerably among cancers of different tissues and organ systems; (2) more than twice as many studies reported inverse allergy-cancer associations as reported positive associations; (3) inverse associations were particularly common for cancers of the mouth and throat, brain glia, colon and rectum, pancreas, skin, and cervix but (4) particularly rare for cancers of the breast, prostate, and brain meninges, and for myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and myelocytic leukemia; (5) lung cancer was positively associated with asthma but inversely associated with other allergies; (6) inverse associations with allergies were more than twice as common for cancers of nine tissues and organ systems that interface with the external environment compared to cancers
Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes
Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans.
Natural rubber latex (NRL), is a resin sap produced in the cells of caoutchouc plants. It is a water dispersion of cis-1,4-polisopren (caoutchouc)--35%, stabilized with little amounts of proteins, sugar, alcohol, fatty acids and salts. The concentration of all solid substances is about 40%, the rest is water. Immunogenicity of latex depends on the proteins it contains. For many years we read in medical papers about the cases of contact urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis after contacting with latex products. It turns out that medical staff is the group of high occupational risk, because of exposure to gloves and other latex products. It is connected with the fact of high gloves usage caused by the danger of virus infections: HIV, HBV, HCV. Latex allergy is one of the reasons of dramatic complications after surgical operations. People who are allergic to latex may have cross reactions to allergens not connected with occupational environment. These are: food and houseplants (Ficus benjamina). The frequency of latex allergy is about 0.1% of the population. In the groups of high risk the frequency rises sharply. It is 17% among medical staff and it reaches 60% among children with spina bifida.
Lucarelli, S; Frediani, T; Zingoni, A M; Ferruzzi, F; Giardini, O; Quintieri, F; Barbato, M; D'Eufemia, P; Cardi, E
The etiopathogenesis of infantile autism is still unknown. Recently some authors have suggested that food peptides might be able to determine toxic effects at the level of the central nervous system by interacting with neurotransmitters. In fact a worsening of neurological symptoms has been reported in autistic patients after the consumption of milk and wheat. The aim of the present study has been to verify the efficacy of a cow's milk free diet (or other foods which gave a positive result after a skin test) in 36 autistic patients. We also looked for immunological signs of food allergy in autistic patients on a free choice diet. We noticed a marked improvement in the behavioural symptoms of patients after a period of 8 weeks on an elimination diet and we found high levels of IgA antigen specific antibodies for casein, lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin and IgG and IgM for casein. The levels of these antibodies were significantly higher than those of a control group which consisted of 20 healthy children. Our results lead us to hypothesise a relationship between food allergy and infantile autism as has already been suggested for other disturbances of the central nervous system.
Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Quirce, Santiago
Shellfish allergy is of increasing concern, as its prevalence has risen in recent years. Many advances have been made in allergen characterization. B cell epitopes in the major allergen tropomyosin have been characterized. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and myosin light chain have recently been reported in shellfish. All are proteins that play a role in muscular contraction. Additional allergens such as hemocyanin have also been described. The effect of processing methods on these allergens has been studied, revealing thermal stability and resistance to peptic digestion in some cases. Modifications after Maillard reactions have also been addressed, although in some cases with conflicting results. In recent years, new hypoallergenic molecules have been developed, which constitute a new therapeutic approach to allergic disorders. A recombinant hypoallergenic tropomyosin has been developed, which opens a new avenue in the treatment of shellfish allergy. Cross-reactivity with species that are not closely related is common in shellfish-allergic patients, as many of shellfish allergens are widely distributed panallergens in invertebrates. Cross-reactivity with house dust mites is well known, but other species can also be involved in this phenomenon.
Goetz, David W
Beginning in 1916 Harmonia axyridis, an orange/red lady beetle with variable black spotting, was imported into the United States from Asia. This agricultural pest-control predator established independent feral populations in North America by 1988. Subsequently, Harmonia axyridis has become a pest to homeowners and various horticultural enterprises. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms invade human homes/habitats primarily in the fall. With increased Harmonia axyridis exposures, human ladybug allergy was first reported in 1998. Ladybug-specific IgE hypersensitivity has been reported in all ages (1-78 years old) and both sexes. Clinical ladybug allergy manifests variously as rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, and angioedema. A majority, but not all, allergic individuals are primarily exposed at home. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug hemolymph is a primary source of allergen. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. Ladybug allergy prevalence in one endemic area was reported as 10%. Self-report of ladybug pests at home did not predict ladybug allergy, suggesting other exposures are important also. Some individuals have no history of atopy before manifestation of ladybug allergy. Ladybug, cat, cockroach, and house-dust mites are the most likely allergens to present as isolated single positive skin tests in an allergist's office. Ladybug should be a standard skin test allergen for all allergy patients tested in endemic areas. Avoidance of ladybug exposure is paramount to treatment.
James, John M
Food allergy offers numerous opportunities and challenges for the allergy and clinical immunology specialist. Physicians with board certification in allergy and clinical immunology should be the main source of reliable clinical information to educate patients with food-related disorders. There has been a wealth of reliable information published related to food allergy that can be utilized by health care providers in clinical practice. This includes information about the cross-reactivity of food allergens, the evaluation of potential new therapies, and the practical application of new diagnostic methods and management strategies. This article addresses some of the new developments in food allergy, with an emphasis on cross-reactvity of food allergens, recombinant food allergens, and potential future therapies for food allergy.
Reisacher, William; Damask, Cecelia; Calhoun, Karen; Veling, Maria
In the past several years, food allergies have taken center stage in the media and have become a topic of great concern for our patients and their families. Whether or not this is due to a rise in the prevalence of food allergies or just a heightened awareness, it is our responsibility as clinicians and scientists to critically analyze the current evidence available concerning the epidemiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and management of this disease. In 2010, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) published guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of food allergies. Since 2009, the Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery has sponsored a miniseminar titled, "Food Allergy: State of the Science." This commentary focuses on the highlights from the 2010 meeting and provides some thoughts on what this latest publication means to otolaryngologists.
Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J
Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety.
Eigenmann, Philippe A
Primary care physicians will conduct allergy diagnosis based on the history provided by the patient. In case of a possible IgE type allergy, investigations will be made by skin tests or measurement of specific IgE antibodies in the serum. Interpretation of positive tests will have to consider possible sensitizations in absence of allergic symptoms that should not lead to inadequate therapeutic measures or diet. This review will provide to primary care physicians guidance to choose the best method in the appropriate situations for allergy diagnosis.
Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K
In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001-2003 (N = 3105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens.
Rieucau, Guillaume; Blanchard, Pierrick; Martin, Julien G. A.; Favreau, François-René; Goldizen, Anne W.; Pays, Olivier
Aggregation is thought to enhance an animal’s security through effective predator detection and the dilution of risk. A decline in individual vigilance as group size increases is commonly reported in the literature and called the group size effect. However, to date, most of the research has only been directed toward examining whether this effect occurs at the population level. Few studies have explored the specific contributions of predator detection and risk dilution and the basis of individual differences in the use of vigilance tactics. We tested whether male and female (non-reproductive or with young) eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) adopted different vigilance tactics when in mixed-sex groups and varied in their reliance on predator detection and/or risk dilution as group size changed. This species exhibits pronounced sexual dimorphism with females being much smaller than males, making them differentially vulnerable toward predators. We combined field observations with vigilance models describing the effects of detection and dilution on scanning rates as group size increased. We found that females with and without juveniles relied on predator detection and risk dilution, but the latter adjusted their vigilance to the proportion of females with juveniles within their group. Two models appeared to equally support the data for males suggesting that males, similarly to females, relied on predator detection and risk dilution but may also have adjusted their vigilance according to the proportion of mothers within their group. Differential vulnerability may cause sex differences in vigilance tactic use in this species. The presence of males within a group that do not, or only partially, contribute to predator detection and are less at risk may cause additional security costs to females. Our results call for reexamination of the classical view of the safety advantages of grouping to provide a more detailed functional interpretation of gregariousness. PMID
... cause allergic reactions. Chemicals. Some cosmetics or laundry detergents can make people break out in hives. Usually, ... high. Switching to perfume-free and dye-free detergents, cosmetics, and beauty products (you may see non- ...
... cause allergic reactions — such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens .) In an attempt to protect the body, the immune system produces IgE antibodies to that allergen. Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body to release chemicals into the ...
Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D
By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.
Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi
Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.
Hellings, Peter W; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P
Besides the anatomic continuity of the upper and lower airways, inflammation in one part of the airway influences the homeostasis of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction have been studied primarily in allergic disease, showing systemic immune activation, induction of inflammation at a distance, and a negative impact of nasal inflammation on bronchial homeostasis. In addition to allergy, other inflammatory conditions of the upper airways are associated with lower airway disease. Rhinosinusitis is frequently associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The impairment of purification, humidification, and warming up of the inspired air by the nose in rhinosinusitis may be responsible in part for bronchial pathology. The resolution of sinonasal inflammation via medical and/or surgical treatment is responsible for the beneficial effect of the treatment on bronchial disease. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of upper and lower airway communication beyond allergic disease.
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... occur together. The same substances that trigger your hay fever symptoms, such as pollen, dust mites and pet ... a major risk factor for allergic asthma. Having hay fever or other allergies yourself also increases your risk ...
... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... aged 18 years and over) Number with diagnosed hay fever in the past 12 months: 20.0 million ...
... dust mites, for example—it produces chemicals called histamines. Histamines cause the tissue in your nose to swell ( ... containing antihistamines, drugs which counteract the effect of histamines, can help relieve many different types of allergies, ...
... name and type of allergies, consider including that epinephrine should be given in case of a severe ... is a severe allergic reaction, they should give epinephrine immediately, then call 911. Make plans for different ...
Hasegawa, D; Kawashima, H; Oana, S; Motobe, M; Iiyama, M; Kashiwagi, Y; Numabe, H; Takekuma, K; Hoshika, A
Casein a component of milk is used for food additives, industrial materials and drugs. However casein is known to be a main allergen in milk allergy. Recently several cases of anaphylaxis to antibiotics including casein have been reported. In this study we investigated casein allergy in milk allergy. 6 out of 8 patients who were positive for milk RAST were also positive for casein RAST. In these positive cases only 3 out of 6 patients had some allergic symptoms after taking antibiotics. In 3 patients DLST was also positive to casein. There was one patient who was positive in DLST without any symptoms after taking the same antibiotics. It is needed to pay attention to casein allergy when giving the medication which includes casein.
Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy.
... sulfa allergy. Do I need to avoid certain medications? Answers from James T C Li, M.D., ... drugs: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Septra, Bactrim) Erythromycin-sulfisoxazole Other medications that may cause a reaction Other types of ...
... Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 12, 2017 Location: San Antonio ( ... Service can automatically email you daily pollen and mold reports. Click here sign up! Return to Map ...
... Early Allergies -- Payback for a Mild Winter? Early blooms may start you sneezing and sniffling ahead of ... dormant, Caudle said. Also, trees are starting to bloom in many parts of the United States, in ...
Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan
Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail.
... skin layers that sometimes occurs with hives. Angioedema ap- pears on the eyelids, lips, tongue, hands and ... common in infants and those who have a history of allergies or asthma. Older children and adults ...
Arsen'ev, G N; Tkachenko, O N; Ukraintseva, Iu V; Dorokhov, V B
A psychomotor test for induction of the state of monotony and visuomotor coordination analysis has been developed. The subject had to follow a small cicle slowly moving in circular orbit on a screen with a "mouse" cursor. When an additional target unexpectedly appeared, he had to catch it with a cursor and click a "mouse" button when the cursor was on it. Eye movements were recorded with an eyetracker. The experts marked the episodes of declined vigilance based on EEG and video of a subject. Analysis of parameters of visuomotor coordination demonstrated their high sensitivity to the vigilance decline. We have found the increase of variability in pursuit eye movements and "mouse" cursor movements during the episodes of lowered vigilance before the appearance of the additional target and also a growing latency of saccadic eye movements, cursor movements and "mouse" button presses when the cursor contacted the additional target. For latency of saccadic eye movements, cursor movements and mouse button presses significant increase was found 2-3 min before experts can detect vigilance decline too. The ability by visuomotor coordination parameters to predict the moments of critical vigilance decline is discussed.
Barba, Antonio; Padilla, Francisca
Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task—SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants’ behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Then we compared the effects of a blue-enriched vs. dim light at nighttime on the performance of the auditory SART, by controlling for individual differences in basal arousal. The results replicated the alerting effects of blue-enriched light, as indexed by lower values of both proximal temperature and distal-proximal gradient. The main finding was that lighting effects on SART performance were highly variable across individuals and depended on their prior state of vigilance. Specifically, participants with higher levels of basal vigilance before light exposure benefited most from blue-enriched lighting, responding faster in the SART. These results highlight the importance of considering basal vigilance to define the boundary conditions of light effects on cognitive performance. Our study adds to current research delineating the complex and reciprocal interactions between lighting effects, arousal, cognitive task demands and behavioural performance. PMID:27820822
Klumpp, Heide; Amir, Nader
Selective attention for threat faces in social anxiety is commonly measured with a probe detection task. Various studies that have used this task show socially anxious individuals exhibit selective attention for threat faces (Mogg & Bradley, 2002; Mogg, Philippot, & Bradley, 2004b; Pishyar, Harris, & Menzies, 2004). Selective attention for threat when measured with a probe detection task is interpreted as an attentional shift toward threat ("vigilance"). Yet, there is data that show socially anxious individuals may have difficulty in shifting their attention away from threat ("disengagement"; Amir, Elias, Klumpp, & Przeworski, 2003). A step toward clarifying the extent to which selective attention for threat comprises vigilance or disengagement effects is described by Koster, Crombez, Verschuere, and de Houwer (2004). We adapted their modified probe detection task to examine vigilance and disengagement effects for threat and happy faces in individuals with and without social anxiety. The results indicate that socially anxious individuals exhibit vigilance for threat faces, but not for happy faces, compared to individuals without social anxiety. Our study is consistent with cognitive theories of anxiety that propose vigilance for threat may contribute to the maintenance of anxiety disorders.
Correa, Ángel; Barba, Antonio; Padilla, Francisca
Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task-SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants' behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Then we compared the effects of a blue-enriched vs. dim light at nighttime on the performance of the auditory SART, by controlling for individual differences in basal arousal. The results replicated the alerting effects of blue-enriched light, as indexed by lower values of both proximal temperature and distal-proximal gradient. The main finding was that lighting effects on SART performance were highly variable across individuals and depended on their prior state of vigilance. Specifically, participants with higher levels of basal vigilance before light exposure benefited most from blue-enriched lighting, responding faster in the SART. These results highlight the importance of considering basal vigilance to define the boundary conditions of light effects on cognitive performance. Our study adds to current research delineating the complex and reciprocal interactions between lighting effects, arousal, cognitive task demands and behavioural performance.
Latex allergy in midwifery and women's health care is not a new concept, with numerous case reports documenting adverse reactions in pregnant women to natural rubber latex in the birthing room. The practising midwife, nurse and sonographer need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of latex allergy and the implications of a severe reaction to latex not only to the woman but also the unborn child.
Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis
The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and
Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A
Objective Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Methods Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File–Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Results Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. Conclusions The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage. PMID:23396542
Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I
The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy.
Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.
Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964
Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jae Ho
Food allergies are classified as IgE-mediated and non-IgE mediated type. The number of successful reports of immunotherapy, namely tolerance induction for food allergy (TIFA) are increasing, bringing hope for meaningful positive and radical treatment of food allergy. Therapeutic characteristics of the clinical course in TIFA for NFA are different from TIFA for IFA. Cytokines including IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ and regulatory cells such as Treg and Breg, are involved in immune tolerance. IFN-γ has been used for tolerance induction of food allergy as an immunomodulatory biologics. A definitive distinction between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies is absolutely essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Original SOTI using IFN-γ is more effective then conventional SOTI without IFN-γ. Especially, IFN-γ is absolutely necessary for the tolerance induction of NFA. This review highlights and updates the advances in the conceptual immunological background and the clinical characteristics of oral tolerance induction for food allergy.
Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos
After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.
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Bonnefond, Anne; Rogé, Joceline; Muzet, Alain
The frequency of some behaviour (such as self-centred gestures) increases during a task that leads to the occurrence of low-vigilance episodes. These gestures can be useful in stimulating oneself. A study carried out in 20 adults has enabled us to state that motor activity (recorded with an actimeter) increases with the duration of a monotonous driving task and sleep deprivation. The analysis of the scores recorded using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale has shown that drivers can assess the deterioration of their state of vigilance according to the actual sleep preceding the driving test. Finally, the joint analysis of the subjective and objective data revealed a co-variation of these two types of indices. We discuss the stimulatory function of the motor activity in a task leading to the occurrence of low-vigilance episodes by investigating, among other things, the use, conscious or not, of this type of activity.
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Berger, Anja; Felber, Juliane
Repression and sensitization as situational modes of coping with anxiety were examined as predictors of trait measures of cognitive avoidance and vigilance. In this study, 303 undergraduates saw a violent film clip to elicit anxiety. Increases in skin conductance level (SCL) and state anxiety (STA) from baseline were measured to identify repressors (high SCL, low STA) and contrast them with sensitizers (low SCL, high STA) and genuinely low anxious individuals (low SCL, low STA). State anger was also recorded. Trait measures of vigilance and cognitive avoidance were collected 2 weeks earlier. Significant SCL × STA interactions indicated that repressors scored higher on cognitive avoidance and lower on vigilance compared to sensitizers and low anxious participants. Repressors were less likely than sensitizers to report gaze avoidance during the clip. The anger by SCL interaction was nonsignificant, suggesting that repressors and sensitizers differ specifically in the processing of anxiety rather than negative affect in general.
Manifesto on small airway involvement and management in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an Interasma (Global Asthma Association - GAA) and World Allergy Organization (WAO) document endorsed by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN).
Braido, F; Scichilone, N; Lavorini, F; Usmani, O S; Dubuske, L; Boulet, L P; Mosges, R; Nunes, C; Sanchez-Borges, M; Ansotegui, I J; Ebisawa, M; Levi-Schaffer, F; Rosenwasser, L J; Bousquet, J; Zuberbier, T; Canonica, G Walter; Cruz, A; Yanez, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Deleanu, D; Rodrigo, G; Berstein, J; Ohta, K; Vichyanond, P; Pawankar, R; Gonzalez-Diaz, S N; Nakajima, S; Slavyanskaya, T; Fink-Wagner, A; Loyola, C Baez; Ryan, D; Passalacqua, G; Celedon, J; Ivancevich, J C; Dobashi, K; Zernotti, M; Akdis, M; Benjaponpitak, S; Bonini, S; Burks, W; Caraballo, L; El-Sayed, Z Awad; Fineman, S; Greenberger, P; Hossny, E; Ortega-Martell, J A; Saito, H; Tang, M; Zhang, L
the physician's considerations of disease features, phenotype, and response to previous therapy. This article is being co-published in Asthma Research and Practice and the World Allergy Organization Journal.
Ewart, Craig K; Jorgensen, Randall S; Schroder, Kerstin E; Suchday, Sonia; Sherwood, Andrew
We report the first systematic study of hemodynamic responses to the Social Competence Interview, using the original Ewart protocol, which focuses attention on a persisting personal threat. Physiologic changes in 212 African American and Caucasian urban adolescents during the Social Competence Interview, mirror tracing, and reaction time tasks showed that the Social Competence Interview elicits a pronounced vasoconstrictive response pattern, with diminished cardiac activity, that is more typical of alert mental vigilance than of active coping. This pattern was observed in all race and gender subgroups. Results suggest that the Social Competence Interview may be a broadly useful procedure for investigating the role of threat-induced vigilance in cardiovascular and other diseases.
Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915
Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer
Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.
The early induction of allergy is a complex process involving protective and destructive gene variants, environmental and nutritional co-factors as well as allergen exposure. Although critical doses, interactions and susceptible time frames have not been identified so far, late gestation and early childhood seem to be important time periods for allergic sensitization. At least three risk factors can be distinguished based on altered early Th1 lymphocyte development. First, the number of children with an inborn maturation defect may have increased since the beginning of the last century, when this condition would otherwise have had a lethal outcome without antibiotics and other modern health care (survival hypothesis). Second, another group of children in industrialized countries may have a deficit of environmental Th1 triggers during early life (hygiene hypothesis). A third factor may also be found predominantly in western societies. The prophylaxis of rickets with vitamin D has the apparent side effect of suppressing Th1 development (vitamin hypothesis). Experimental as well as epidemiological studies now provide evidence for the vitamin hypothesis, which is examined in this paper by a time-course analysis of vitamin D application in Germany. Also paper studies in Swedish anthroposophic school children, the Tristan da Cunha islanders, and Swiss, Austrian and Bavarian farmers may be linked to either excessive or absent early vitamin D exposure. PMID:15330454
Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947
Zacharisen, Michael C; Elms, Nancy P; Kurup, Viswanath P
Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to report two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato and characterize the responsible allergen. We reviewed the history and documentation of tomato-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) of two patients with adverse symptoms after ingesting tomato. Fresh tomato extracts prepared from the skin, seeds, and flesh of red, ripe tomatoes were evaluated for total protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize the tomato protein. IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the patients' serum against the various tomato extracts was accomplished and IgE immunoblot was performed. Percutaneous skin tests or radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) were positive to tomato in both patients. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. Similar total protein contents were found in each of the tomato extracts and gel electrophoresis revealed similar protein profile for skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. The two cases show that severe allergic reactions to tomato occur in adults and one is associated with IgE binding to a 43-kDa protein.
Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang
Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called “the many-eyes effect”, together with the “encounter dilution effect”, is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups’ disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection. PMID:26756993
Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang
Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.
Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi
The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune
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Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty
Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)
Topical corticosteroids and sunscreens are extensively used formulations, both as over-the-counter products and as prescription medicines. Topical corticosteroids are increasingly being recognized as causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Because of their anti-inflammatory property, contact allergy to these agents may be difficult to suspect and prove. With corticosteroid allergy, there are special issues in patch testing that need to be considered: Screening tests need to be done with budesonide and tixocortol pivalate, and delayed readings are essential to pick up all positive cases. Preventive advice needs to be tailored according to the structural and chemical peculiarities of a particular molecule. Sunscreen allergy is a significant part of cosmetic allergy; especially in cases of photoallergic reactions. Each passing decade is bringing forth new allergens in this class. In many countries, benzophenones have recently been replaced by octocrylene as the leading causes of contact dermatitis to sunscreens. This article provides a broad overview of corticosteroid and sunscreen allergy so that the readers are aware of these important emerging classes of allergens.
Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G
Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary.
Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J
A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations.
Helm, Ricki M; Ermel, Richard W; Frick, Oscar L
Food allergy can present as immediate hypersensitivity [manifestations mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig)E], delayed-type hypersensitivity (reactions associated with specific T lymphocytes), and inflammatory reactions caused by immune complexes. For reasons of ethics and efficacy, investigations in humans to determine sensitization and allergic responses of IgE production to innocuous food proteins are not feasible. Therefore, animal models are used a) to bypass the innate tendency to develop tolerance to food proteins and induce specific IgE antibody of sufficient avidity/affinity to cause sensitization and upon reexposure to induce an allergic response, b) to predict allergenicity of novel proteins using characteristics of known food allergens, and c) to treat food allergy by using immunotherapeutic strategies to alleviate life-threatening reactions. The predominant hypothesis for IgE-mediated food allergy is that there is an adverse reaction to exogenous food proteins or food protein fragments, which escape lumen hydrolysis, and in a polarized helper T cell subset 2 (Th2) environment, immunoglobulin class switching to allergen-specific IgE is generated in the immune system of the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissues. Traditionally, the immunologic characterization and toxicologic studies of small laboratory animals have provided the basis for development of animal models of food allergy; however, the natural allergic response in large animals, which closely mimic allergic diseases in humans, can also be useful as models for investigations involving food allergy.
Martinolli, Francesco; Carraro, Silvia; Berardi, Mariangela; Ferraro, Valentina; Baraldi, Eugenio; Zanconato, Stefania
Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem all over the world and especially in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. During childhood natural tolerance development is frequent, but some children with cow's milk or hen's egg allergy and the majority of children with peanut allergy will remain allergic until adulthood, limiting not only the diet of patients but also their quality of life. Within the last several years, the usefulness of immunotherapy for food allergies has been investigated in food allergic patients. Several food immunotherapies are being developed; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. The approach generally follows the same principles as immunotherapy of other allergic disorders and involves administering small increasing doses of food during an induction phase followed by a maintenance phase with regular intake of a maximum tolerated amount of food. Oral immunotherapy seems to be a promising approach for food allergic patients based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation for cow's milk and egg allergic subjects. However, oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. Additional bigger, multicentric and hopefully randomized-controlled studies must answer multiple questions including optimal dose, ideal duration of immunotherapy, degree of protection, efficacy for different ages, severity and type of food allergy responsive to treatment.
Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S
The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.
Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael
Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use of recombinant allergens allows full validation of identity, quantity, homogeneity, structure, aggregation, solubility, stability, IgE-binding and the biologic potency of the products. In contrast, such parameters are extremely difficult to assay and standardize for extract-based products. In addition to the possibility of bulk production of wild type molecules for diagnostic purposes, recombinant technology opened the possibility of developing safer and more efficacious products for allergy therapy. A number of molecule-based hypoallergenic preparations have already been successfully evaluated in clinical trials, bringing forward the next generation of allergy vaccines. In this contribution, we review the latest developments in allergen characterization, molecule-based allergy diagnosis, and the application of recombinant allergens in therapeutic setups. A comprehensive overview of clinical trials using recombinant allergens as well as synthetic peptides is presented. PMID:24954310
Bousquet, J; Heinzerling, L; Bachert, C; Papadopoulos, N G; Bousquet, P J; Burney, P G; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Cox, L; Haahtela, T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Price, D; Samolinski, B; Simons, F E R; Wickman, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Bergmann, K C; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Casale, T B; Chiriac, A; Cruz, A A; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Fokkens, W J; Gerth-van-Wijk, R; Kalayci, O; Kowalski, M L; Mari, A; Mullol, J; Nazamova-Baranova, L; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Panzner, P; Passalacqua, G; Ring, J; Rogala, B; Romano, A; Ryan, D; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Todo-Bom, A; Valenta, R; Woehrl, S; Yusuf, O M; Zuberbier, T; Demoly, P
This pocket guide is the result of a consensus reached between members of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN) and Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). The aim of the current pocket guide is to offer a comprehensive set of recommendations on the use of skin prick tests in allergic rhinitis-conjunctivitis and asthma in daily practice. This pocket guide is meant to give simple answers to the most frequent questions raised by practitioners in Europe, including 'practicing allergists', general practitioners and any other physicians with special interest in the management of allergic diseases. It is not a long or detailed scientific review of the topic. However, the recommendations in this pocket guide were compiled following an in-depth review of existing guidelines and publications, including the 1993 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology position paper, the 2001 ARIA document and the ARIA update 2008 (prepared in collaboration with GA(2) LEN). The recommendations cover skin test methodology and interpretation, allergen extracts to be used, as well as indications in a variety of settings including paediatrics and developing countries.
Olson, Craig A; Thornton, Jennifer A; Adam, Gina E; Lieberman, Harris R
Quercetin, a phenolic flavonoid found in small quantities in some fruits and vegetables, is an adenosine receptor antagonist in vitro marketed as a dietary supplement for purported caffeine-like effects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects study was conducted to compare the behavioral effects of quercetin to a central adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine. Fifty-seven volunteers received either 2000 mg of quercetin dihydrate (a dose estimated based on in vitro receptor binding to be equivalent in potency to 200 mg of caffeine), placebo, or 200 mg of caffeine. One hour later, a 45-minute visual vigilance task was administered. The Profile of Mood States questionnaire was completed before treatment and immediately after vigilance testing. On the vigilance task, caffeine increased the number of stimuli detected (P < 0.02) and decreased the reaction time (P = 0.001). Caffeine increased self-reported vigor and reduced fatigue and total mood disturbance Profile of Mood States scores compared with placebo. Quercetin did not significantly alter any parameter, but values were typically intermediate between caffeine and placebo on those tests affected by caffeine. Quercetin is unlikely to have any effects when consumed by humans in quantities present in the diet or in dietary supplements. Caffeine (200 mg) administration resulted in the expected effects on vigilance and mood.
This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road…
Cowlishaw, Guy; Lawes, Michael J.; Lightbody, Margaret; Martin, Alison; Pettifor, Richard; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus
It is commonly assumed that anti-predator vigilance by foraging animals is costly because it interrupts food searching and handling time, leading to a reduction in feeding rate. When food handling does not require visual attention, however, a forager may handle food while simultaneously searching for the next food item or scanning for predators. We present a simple model of this process, showing that when the length of such compatible handling time Hc is long relative to search time S, specifically Hc/S > 1, it is possible to perform vigilance without a reduction in feeding rate. We test three predictions of this model regarding the relationships between feeding rate, vigilance and the Hc/S ratio, with data collected from a wild population of social foragers (samango monkeys, Cercopithecus mitis erythrarchus). These analyses consistently support our model, including our key prediction: as Hc/S increases, the negative relationship between feeding rate and the proportion of time spent scanning becomes progressively shallower. This pattern is more strongly driven by changes in median scan duration than scan frequency. Our study thus provides a simple rule that describes the extent to which vigilance can be expected to incur a feeding rate cost. PMID:15002768
Cowlishaw, Guy; Lawes, Michael J; Lightbody, Margaret; Martin, Alison; Pettifor, Richard; Rowcliffe, J Marcus
It is commonly assumed that anti-predator vigilance by foraging animals is costly because it interrupts food searching and handling time, leading to a reduction in feeding rate. When food handling does not require visual attention, however, a forager may handle food while simultaneously searching for the next food item or scanning for predators. We present a simple model of this process, showing that when the length of such compatible handling time Hc is long relative to search time S, specifically Hc/S > 1, it is possible to perform vigilance without a reduction in feeding rate. We test three predictions of this model regarding the relationships between feeding rate, vigilance and the Hc/S ratio, with data collected from a wild population of social foragers (samango monkeys, Cercopithecus mitis erythrarchus). These analyses consistently support our model, including our key prediction: as Hc/S increases, the negative relationship between feeding rate and the proportion of time spent scanning becomes progressively shallower. This pattern is more strongly driven by changes in median scan duration than scan frequency. Our study thus provides a simple rule that describes the extent to which vigilance can be expected to incur a feeding rate cost.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...
Almenoff, June; Tonning, Joseph M; Gould, A Lawrence; Szarfman, Ana; Hauben, Manfred; Ouellet-Hellstrom, Rita; Ball, Robert; Hornbuckle, Ken; Walsh, Louisa; Yee, Chuen; Sacks, Susan T; Yuen, Nancy; Patadia, Vaishali; Blum, Michael; Johnston, Mike; Gerrits, Charles; Seifert, Harry; Lacroix, Karol
In the last 5 years, regulatory agencies and drug monitoring centres have been developing computerised data-mining methods to better identify reporting relationships in spontaneous reporting databases that could signal possible adverse drug reactions. At present, there are no guidelines or standards for the use of these methods in routine pharmaco-vigilance. In 2003, a group of statisticians, pharmaco-epidemiologists and pharmaco-vigilance professionals from the pharmaceutical industry and the US FDA formed the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America-FDA Collaborative Working Group on Safety Evaluation Tools to review best practices for the use of these methods.In this paper, we provide an overview of: (i) the statistical and operational attributes of several currently used methods and their strengths and limitations; (ii) information about the characteristics of various postmarketing safety databases with which these tools can be deployed; (iii) analytical considerations for using safety data-mining methods and interpreting the results; and (iv) points to consider in integration of safety data mining with traditional pharmaco-vigilance methods. Perspectives from both the FDA and the industry are provided. Data mining is a potentially useful adjunct to traditional pharmaco-vigilance methods. The results of data mining should be viewed as hypothesis generating and should be evaluated in the context of other relevant data. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database, which is updated on a frequent basis, would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues.
The extent to which the medical device manufacturers are responsible for actively monitoring the performance of their products after they have successfully passed the rigorous pre-market approval process has always been a matter of diverse opinion. Within Europe, the law is unhelpfully vague on this point. While there are some comparatively clear obligations for reporting incidents to the authorities (known as the 'vigilance system'), little detail is given on how diligently the manufacturer should try to find out about such incidents. In the early stages of the European Community Directives covering medical devices, there was much emphasis upon formulating guidance to help interpret the vigilance reporting requirements. It is, however, only recently that attention has turned to attempting to clarify what is expected from post-marketing surveillance (PMS) in its broader sense. This article discuses both the vigilance and PMS processes and outlines the currently available European, and particularly UK, guidance documents which are aimed at promoting a more level playing field across industry where these activities are concerned. In particular, it explains the principle differences between vigilance and post-marketing surveillance: the former being the reporting of adverse incidents by manufacturers to the regulatory authorities and their subsequent sharing of key incident data between each other; the latter being the process by which information on overall devise performance is captured, analysed and acted upon. Nevertheless, it is still a struggle to gain widespread appreciation that these two activities are not in fact one and the same.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. 26.50 Section 26.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL...
Shi, Li-Chen; Duan, Ruo-Nan; Lu, Bao-Liang
Feature dimensionality reduction methods with robustness have a great significance for making better use of EEG data, since EEG features are usually high-dimensional and contain a lot of noise. In this paper, a robust principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm is introduced to reduce the dimension of EEG features for vigilance estimation. The performance is compared with that of standard PCA, L1-norm PCA, sparse PCA, and robust PCA in feature dimension reduction on an EEG data set of twenty-three subjects. To evaluate the performance of these algorithms, smoothed differential entropy features are used as the vigilance related EEG features. Experimental results demonstrate that the robustness and performance of robust PCA are better than other algorithms for both off-line and on-line vigilance estimation. The average RMSE (root mean square errors) of vigilance estimation was 0.158 when robust PCA was applied to reduce the dimensionality of features, while the average RMSE was 0.172 when standard PCA was used in the same task.
Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Valentiner, David P.
The Body Vigilance Scale (BVS) is a measure developed to assess one's conscious attendance to internal cues. The present report investigated the structure, correlates, and predictive utility of the BVS in nonclinical (N=442) and anxiety (N=135) disorder samples. The findings of Study 1 suggest that the BVS is 1-dimensional in a nonclinical sample,…
In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…
Legatzki, Antje; Rösler, Barbara; von Mutius, Erika
The prevalence of asthma and allergy has been constantly increasing in Westernized countries in the last decades. Asthma and allergies are complex diseases with a local tissue inflammation that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Because the commensal microflora is crucial to maintain inflammatory homeostasis and to induce immune regulation, the microbiome may play an important role for the development of allergic conditions. New techniques such as next-generation sequencing methods give the opportunity to explore the microbial community structure of the human body comprehensively. In this review, we will discuss the available literature concerning the human microbiota and asthma and allergy development and occurrence. The focus is on studies of the local microbiome of the place of inflammation, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and the influence of intrinsic factors relating to the host and extrinsic factors relating to the external environment on the microbiome.
Ferrer, Elisa; Godoy, Laura
Among all the international societies of allergy (AAAAI, EAACI, WAO, etc.), the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum (CIA) remains a selected and reduced group of about 200 of the most relevant investigators in the field of allergy and clinical immunology who come together to discuss current issues in allergy. The society holds a symposium every 2 years. This year, the 27th Symposium of the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum took place in Curaçao. This report contains a selection of some of the more currently relevant work presented, namely on basophils and mast cells, infection and asthma exacerbation, genes, pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches. Specific information about CIA can be found at http://www.ciaweb.org.
Kumagai, Yutaro; Akira, Shizuo
Allergy is an immune disease including asthma. Activation of Th2 response, such as production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from CD4+ T cells and IgG1 or IgE from B cells is responsible for allergy. Activation of acquired immune system requires preceding activation of innate immunity, therefore innate immunity may control Th2 response and allergy. Recent studies revealed that dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and basophils play central roles in the initiation of Th2 response. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding on the control of Th2 and allergic responses by innate immune system, and discuss recent findings on house dust mite-induced allergic response based on these understandings.
Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management.
Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J.; Krueger, James M.; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.
Study Objectives: The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. Design: The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Participants: Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Interventions: Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. Conclusions: The rat psychomotor vigilance task manifests similarities to the human psychomotor vigilance task in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. Citation: Oonk M, Davis CJ, Krueger JM, Wisor JP, Van Dongen HPA. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task. SLEEP 2015;38(3):445–451. PMID:25515099
Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A
The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.
Holloway, Edward; Fox, Adam; Fitzsimons, Roisin
The prevalence of food allergy in children in the UK is now around 5%. The number of children put on restricted diets by their parents because of presumed allergy is likely to be much higher. Accurate diagnosis of food allergy is essential in order to ensure that the correct foods are carefully avoided while safe foods are not excluded unnecessarily. IgE-mediated (immediate type) reactions are the result of mast cell degranulation leading to histamine release. The typical signs of lip swelling, urticaria and possible progression to respiratory compromise (anaphylaxis) are usually clearly described, occurring within minutes of exposure to the food. Non IgE-mediated (delayed type) responses tend to start 2-6 hours, occasionally longer, after exposure and cause less specific signs/symptoms, less obviously allergic in origin. Where an immediate type allergic reaction is suspected on clinical history, allergy testing should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. This could involve either skin prick testing or specific IgE blood tests. Results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. The mainstay of management is allergen avoidance. The child and carers also need to know how to recognise and treat any future allergic reactions. There should be a written emergency plan in place. The plan should include advice to take a fast-acting antihistamine if any accidental exposure and reactions occur. Where there is a history of anaphylactic reaction or ongoing asthma, adrenaline auto-injectors should be prescribed as these are the major risk factors for future severe reactions. Non IgE-mediated food allergy is most common in early infancy. The diagnosis of non IgE-mediated food allergy relies on a two-stage process: strict exclusion of suspected allergen(s), only one at a time; re-challenge with suspected allergen(s), one at a time, to see if symptoms recur.
Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L
Global increased demand for seafood and its products has been associated with a concomitant rise in fishing, aquaculture, and processing activities. This increased harvesting of seafood is associated with more frequent reporting of allergic health problems among seafood processors. This review outlines the high-risk working populations, work processes, as well as host and environmental exposure risk factors for occupational respiratory and skin allergies. It also provides insights into the major and minor allergens as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated. Diagnostic and preventive approaches are outlined in managing work-related allergy associated with seafood processing.
May, K L; Hofman, T
Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.
Guenthner, T; Stork, C M; Cantor, R M
We describe the case of gold allergy after ingestion of GOLDSCHLAGER, a gold-containing liquor, in a patient with a previous allergy to gold jewelry. The patient was not aware that genuine gold particles were contained in the schnapps liquor and that ingestion could result in a reaction similar to that experienced by individuals sensitive to gold jewelry. Clinicians should be familiar with the presence of gold particles in GOLDSCHLAGER liquor and the potential for allergic reactions to occur in those so predisposed.
Desai, Shalin V
Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is a significant clinical problem with potentially life-threatening complications. Oral health care professionals must be able to screen for NRL allergy and refer patients or staff to a specialist for definitive diagnosis. Protocol for its management must be developed and incorporated into daily practice. Practitioners must be able to recognize and treat NRL exposure emergencies. Knowledge of the availability of substitute products and an adequate fresh stock of such products in dental practice can minimise the risk of adverse NRL sensitivity.
Sánchez, J; Sánchez, A
Food allergy is growing worldwide at an alarming rate. A group of eight foods account for over 90% of the reactions in Europe and the United States. However, little is known about the frequency of sensitization to these foods in Latin American, and if other native foods from this region are an important source of sensitization. The objective of this review was to analyse the epidemiological studies in Latin America about food allergy and to compare them with the studies in the United States and Europe.
Moingeon, Philippe; Lombardi, Vincent; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Tourdot, Sophie; Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent
Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a curative treatment of type I allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is conducted with allergens adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate particles, whereas sublingual immunotherapy relies on high doses of soluble allergen without any immunopotentiator. There is a potential benefit of adjuvants enhancing regulatory and Th1 CD4+T cell responses during specific immunotherapy. Molecules affecting dendritic cells favor the induction of T regulatory cell and Th1 responses and represent valid candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Furthermore, the interest in viruslike particles and mucoadhesive particulate vector systems, which may better address the allergen(s) to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is documented.
Rittmeyer, Delia; Lorentz, Axel
Allergic diseases and malignancies cause a lot of morbidity, mortality and high costs for healthcare systems. An inverse association between allergy and cancer has been suspected for a long time, but even despite extensive research no general relationship has been determined. This review comprises 32 epidemiological studies published between 1960 and 2011 and draws conclusions regarding relationships between specific types of cancer and allergic diseases. On the one hand, inflammatory reactions in the course of allergy can support carcinogenesis but are limited to specific areas, whereas on the other hand systemic effects in terms of enhanced immunosurveillance can prevent cancer.
Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Radojicic, Cristine
Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy in the United States. However, after undergoing a complete evaluation by a board-certified allergist, including skin testing, 90% of patients labeled as 'penicillin-allergic' are able to tolerate penicillin. Clinical presentation is key in classifying reactions as either mediated by or not mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE), and in determining which patients may benefit from penicillin skin testing, graded-dose challenge, or desensitization. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and other beta-lactams is less common than previously thought.
Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita; Kunze, Michael
The first Austrian Allergy Report is a compilation of all available epidemiological data relating to allergies in Austria. According to this report the cumulative prevalence of allergies in the Viennese population is 27.6% for men and 32.2% for women and the period prevalence in the year before questioning 19.6% and 22.4% respectively. 20.8% of men and 23.1% of women reported about allergies at health examinations. However, an allergy sensitivity to at least one inhalation allergen, verifiable by means of a prick test, is detectable in 50.8% of the general population and in 39.3% of those free from ailments. Analysis of the hospital discharge statistics of all Austrian hospitals shows that around 12,000 people per year were admitted on grounds of an allergy. In accordance with international studies some population sub groups are more often affected than others. Women suffer from allergies somewhat more frequently than men, although the sex difference is reversed among children. Allergies occur in all age groups, with most studies showing that people in their twenties are most frequently affected. People with higher levels of education, in more highly qualified jobs and living in urban areas are more commonly affected by allergies than people from lower socio-economic levels and rural communities. The internationally identified increase in trend can also be identified in Austria with a 2fold, 3.6fold, and 4.6fold increase in the prevalence of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema respectively, determined from the military health examinations of all recruits for national service between 1986 and 2003/04, although a clear decline in allergy prevalence was registered between 2003/04 and 2005. Health reports like the first Austrian Allergy Report provide the basis for international comparison of basic data. These data also enable the evaluation of the impact of different diseases on the health system as well as the development of public health strategies.
Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P < 0.001). All respondents reported that all six items (bold font, font color, box frame, warning statement, front label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy.
Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.
Muraro, A; Lemanske, R F; Castells, M; Torres, M J; Khan, D; Simon, H-U; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Poulsen, L K; Sampson, H A; Worm, M; Nadeau, K C
This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers are needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease.
As computer networks become an integral part of the radiology practice, it is appropriate to raise concerns regarding their security. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of computer network security risks and preventive strategies as they pertain to the radiology enterprise. A number of technologies are available that provide strong deterrence against attacks on networks and networked computer systems in the radiology enterprise. While effective, these technologies must be supplemented with vigilant user and system management.
Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N
Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.
Food allergies are adverse responses to components (usually proteins) within the foods we eat, which result in a self-damaging response from our immune system. A myriad of cellular and molecular components are involved in the decision to tolerate or respond to foreign molecules that pass through the...
Ezkovich, Jan, Comp.
This guide is intended for those who wish to review the literature in the related fields of allergy and asthma. Included is material appropriate for both the lay reader and the professional interested in recent research into causes and treatments. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, the guide is designed to specifically target resource…
Swierczyńiska-Machura, Dominika; Krakowiak, Anna; Pałczyński, Cezary
The problem of allergy to decorative plants is still poorly known. Reports on occupational allergy to flowers are scarce and usually concern gardeners, greenhouse workers and florists. The handling, smelling and caring of flowers may cause rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria and also contact dermatitis. Plants of the Compositae family that includes many different species have been frequently described. Chrysanthemum flowers, the strongest sensitizer among ornamental Compositae plants, especially contribute to the development of contact dermatitis. Allergy to Liliaceae, mostly to tulips, hyacinths, lilies and crocuses has quite often been reported as well as sensitization to rose pollen in rose planters. Occupational sensitization to flowers of other families, among which spathe flowers, primulas, weeping fig or Stephanotis floribunda should be mentioned, is less frequent. Exposure to ornamental flowers is common in the general population. Persons occupationally involved in cultivation of flowers and who demonstrate allergic symptoms are often forced to change their jobs. Candidates to these occupations with diagnosed atopy should be informed about the risk of developing allergy to flowers, which could make them unable to perform the job.
Malinovsky, Jean-Marc; Chiriac, Anca M; Tacquard, Charles; Mertes, Paul Michel; Demoly, Pascal
The incidence of allergic reactions to local anesthetics is low. Most cases involve a psychogenic reaction rather than an allergic reaction. Additives and preservatives added to local anesthetics may cause allergic reactions. Vascular resorption of epinephrine-containing local anesthetics may produce cardiovascular signs similar to an allergic reaction. Diagnosis of allergy to local anesthetics must be established by skin testing and provocative challenge.
Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert
This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Food Allergy: A practice parameter update-2014." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing one, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, ACAAI, and JCAAI. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.
Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine
Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.
del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Leonardi, Salvatore; Maiello, Nunzia; Brunese, Francesco Paolo
Food allergy is a frequent problem in childhood and its prevalence is increasing. In most cases food allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that cause skin reactions as urticaria. Subacute or chronic disorders have generally a not IgE mediated mechanism. Milk is the most common food allergen in USA and UK followed by egg, peanut and walnuts. Sensitization to milk or egg in infancy is associated with an increased risk to develop house dust mite sensitization and asthma later in childhood. Commensal gut flora play a role in induction of oral tolerance and the importance of the intestinal microbiota in the development of food allergy is essential in early ages, when the mucosal barrier and immune system are still immature. Probiotics interact with the mucosal immune system by the same pathways as commensal bacteria. Recent study show that probiotic bacteria induced in vivo increased plasma levels IL-10 and total IgA in children with allergic predisposition. Many clinical studies reporting significant benefits by probiotics supplementation in food allergy prevention and management but not everyone agree on their effectiveness. These differences are probably related to differences in selected populations and in probiotic strains used.
Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.
Purpose of the review Recent investigation has resulted in significant advances toward definitive therapeutic options for food allergy. In this review, we will explore novel immunotherapeutic interventions for the active treatment of food allergy. Recent findings Because the injection route for allergen immunotherapy to foods has been associated with an unacceptable risk of severe anaphylactic reactions, use of mucosally targeted therapeutic strategies is of significant interest for food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches such as oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and peptide immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in increasing threshold dose and inducing immunologic changes associated with both desensitization and oral tolerance in animal and human trials. More global immunomodulatory strategies, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine and anti-IgE therapy have been shown to effectively target the allergic response, and clinical trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy and safety in human food allergy. Summary The advent of therapies that target the mucosal immune response to promote oral tolerance have shown great promise in the treatment of food hypersensitivity. However, there is still significant risk of adverse reactions associated with these therapeutic strategies and further study is needed to carefully advance these therapeutic modalities toward general clinical implementation. PMID:20856110
Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)
... 850. Sinus rinsing and neti pots. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/naegleria/sinus-rinsing.html. Accessed Nov. 26, 2014. Jan. 14, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/allergy-medications/ ...
Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher
Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.
Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P
Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness.
Levy, F; Horn, K; Dalglish, R
The relationship between DSM-III Axis I diagnoses 'attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity' (ADDH), 'conduct disorder' (CD) and 'anxiety disorder' (AD) and measures of attention and reading were studied in 158 children. Children diagnosed as having severe or moderate ADDH were found to be younger at referral and to have a lower IQ than were children with CD and AD. When age, IQ, social class and sex were controlled, children with severe ADDH were found to perform significantly worse than other diagnostic groups on some tests of vigilance and reading age. The data suggest that children with severe ADDH form a distinct group, and those with mild ADDH overlap symptomatically and on tests of vigilance with children with CD.
task demand (Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2010), and several studies outside the vigilance area have used perceived duration as a workload index. These...studies have shown that verbal estimates of perceived task duration vary inversely with task demand (Block et al., 2010; Carswell, Clarke, & Seales...2005; Hart, 1975; Fortin & Rousseau, 1987; Zakay & Shub, 1998). To date, perceived duration has not been examined in regard to the workload of
Mascaro, Olivier; Sperber, Dan
Vigilance towards deception is investigated in 3- to-5-year-old children: (i) In Study 1, children as young as 3 years of age prefer the testimony of a benevolent rather than of a malevolent communicator. (ii) In Study 2, only at the age of four do children show understanding of the falsity of a lie uttered by a communicator described as a liar.…
Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Vaden, Kenneth I.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Humes, Larry E.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.
Background/Study Context Vigilance refers to the ability to sustain and adapt attentional focus in response to changing task demands. For older adults with hearing loss, vigilant listening may be particularly effortful and variable across individuals. This study examined the extent to which neural responses to sudden, unexpected changes in task structure (e.g., from rest to speech recognition epochs) were related to pupillometry measures of listening effort. Methods Individual differences in the task-evoked pupil response during word recognition were used to predict functional MRI estimates of neural responses to salient transitions between quiet rest, noisy rest, and word recognition in unintelligible, fluctuating background noise. Participants included 29 older adults (M = 70.2 years old) with hearing loss (pure tone average across all frequencies = 36.1 dB HL, SD = 6.7). Results Individuals with a greater average pupil response exhibited a more vigilant pattern of responding on a standardized continuous performance test (response time variability across varying inter-stimulus intervals r(27) = .38, p = .04). Across participants there was widespread neural engagement of attention and sensory-related cortices in response to transitions between blocks of rest and word recognition conditions. Individuals who exhibited larger task-evoked pupil dilation also showed even greater activity in the right primary auditory cortex in response to changes in task structure. Conclusion Pupillometric estimates of speech recognition effort predicted variation in activity within cortical regions that were responsive to salient changes in the environment for older adults with hearing loss. The current study suggests that maintaining vigilant attention may come at the cost of increased listening effort. PMID:26683041
Peterson; Owens; Tetlock; Fan; Martorana
This study explored the heuristic value of Janis' (1982) groupthink and vigilant decision making models as explanations of failure and success in top management team decision making using the Organizational Group Dynamics Q-sort (GDQ). Top management teams of seven Fortune 500 companies were examined at two historical junctures-one when the team was successful (defined as satisfying strategic constituencies) and one when the team was unsuccessful. Results strongly supported the notion that a group' decision making process is systematically related to the outcomes experienced by the team. Ideal-type Q-sorts organized around Janis' analysis of groupthink and vigilance were substantially correlated with Q-sorts of failing and successful groups, respectively. The fit was, however, far from perfect. Ideal-type Q-sorts derived from other frameworks correlated better with the failure-success classification than did the Janis-derived ideal types. Successful groups showed some indicators of groupthink (e.g., risk-taking, cohesion, and strong, opinionated leaders), whereas unsuccessful groups showed signs of vigilance (e.g., internal debate to the point of factionalism). The results illustrate the usefulness of the GDQ for developing and empirically testing theory in organizational behavior from historical cases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.
In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170
Brandl, Simon J.; Bellwood, David R.
Reciprocity is frequently assumed to require complex cognitive abilities. Therefore, it has been argued that reciprocity may be restricted to animals that can meet these demands. Here, we provide evidence for the potential presence of direct reciprocity in teleost fishes. We demonstrate that in pairs of coral reef rabbitfishes (f. Siganidae), one fish frequently assumes an upright vigilance position in the water column, while the partner forages in small crevices in the reef substratum. Both behaviours are strongly coordinated and partners regularly alternate their positions, resulting in a balanced distribution of foraging activity. Compared to solitary individuals, fishes in pairs exhibit longer vigilance bouts, suggesting that the help provided to the partner is costly. In turn, fishes in pairs take more consecutive bites and penetrate deeper into crevices than solitary individuals, suggesting that the safety provided by a vigilant partner may outweigh initial costs by increasing foraging efficiency. Thus, the described system appears to meet all of the requirements for direct reciprocity. We argue that the nature of rabbitfish pairs provides favourable conditions for the establishment of direct reciprocity, as continuous interaction with the same partner, simultaneous needs, interdependence, and communication relax the cognitive demands of reciprocal cooperation. PMID:26403250
Shaw, Tyler H; Nguyen, Cynthia; Satterfield, Kelly; Ramirez, Raul; McKnight, Patrick E
Extraversion--one of the Big 5 personality factors--correlates negatively with vigilance, but most studies focus on performance outcomes and not the performance process. Previous research has shown that transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), which measures cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), can be used to examine resource allocation strategies during vigilance performance. Hence, this study was designed to assess the attentional resource allocation strategies of introverts and extraverts using the CBFV measure. Twelve extroverts and 13 introverts monitored a 60-min vigilance task for a critical signal--the absence of a line on a five-circle array. The results revealed an overall performance decrement that was not modulated by extraversion. We observed an interaction between extraversion and time; CBFV declined in the introversion group, but not in the extraversion group. Additionally, an interaction between cerebral hemisphere and personality revealed that extraverts were recruiting resources from both the left and right cerebral hemispheres, while introverts only recruited resources from the right hemisphere. The results suggest that extraverts can allocate compensatory effort to mask performance differences. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and offer future research directions that may help us understand these effects.
Background Nurse anaesthetists in the US have faced continued, repeated challenges to their profession. Regardless, they have met these challenges and have established themselves as major anaesthesia care providers. In this paper we address the research question: How do certified registered nurse anaesthetists (CRNAs) manage the socio-political context in which they provide care for their patients? Methods Grounded theory was used to explore how nurse anaesthetists protect and promote their profession. Purposive, snowball, and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected through participant observation and interviews conducted at a conference of the professional association, an educational program, by telephone, email exchanges, and time spent in operating rooms and an outpatient surgical clinic. Analysis included coding at increasingly abstract levels and constant comparison. Results The basic social process identified was Keeping Vigil Over the Profession, which explains how nurse anaesthetists protect and promote their profession. It is comprised of three contextual categories: Establishing Public Credibility through regulatory and educational standards, Political Vigilance and taking action in governmental and policy arenas, and Tending the Flock through a continuous information loop between local and administrative/political levels. Conclusions From our study of the context of nurse anaesthesia practice, it is clear that CRNAs are dedicated to protecting their ability to provide high quality patient care by maintaining constant vigilance over their profession. PMID:20633286
Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H
In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.
Mandalaywala, Tara M.; Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario
Both human and nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive bias to social threat, but little is known about how this bias develops. We investigated the development of threat bias in free-ranging infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at 3 (N = 45) and 9 (N = 46) months of age. Three-month-old infant monkeys did not display bias, but 9-month-olds exhibited increased maintenance of attention to threatening social stimuli (vigilance for threat). To examine whether the social environment affected vigilance for threat, behavioral data on maternal rank and protectiveness were collected across the first 12 weeks of life for infants tested at 9 months. Nine-month-old infants of high-ranking mothers and more protective mothers displayed greater vigilance for threat than infants of lower-ranking and less protective mothers. These results demonstrate that infant social cognition is malleable and shaped by mothers both directly (protectiveness) and indirectly (rank), as maternal characteristics affect infants’ social experiences. PMID:25125426
Correa, Angel; Molina, Enrique; Sanabria, Daniel
The current study tested for the first time the effect of individual differences in circadian rhythmicity (chronotype) on both driving performance and its evolution along time on task. Morning-type and evening-type female participants were tested in morning (8 am) and evening (8 pm) sessions, in which we controlled for prior sleep duration and prior wake. Measures of body temperature, subjective activation and affect, reaction times (RT) in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), behavioral performance (error position) and EEG alpha power during simulated driving were collected. The main result showed strong linear increments of mean and standard deviation of error position along time on task (vigilance decrement) when evening-type participants drove at their non-optimal time of day, that is, during the morning session. In contrast, driving performance in the morning-type group remained stable over time on task and was not affected by time of day. This finding can be due to differences in personality traits (e.g., conscientiousness, sensation seeking) and task appraisal associated to extreme chronotypes. The consideration of chronotype in vigilance and driving tasks can enhance safety and human performance by promoting work schedules and countermeasures to prevent failures in the accomplishment of tasks under non-optimal circadian conditions.
Lassale, B; Ragni, J; Besse-Moreau, M
Health care vigilance committees appeared with time in France. Some vigilance entities are present at a regional level, but all are found at the National Drugs and Health Care Products Safety Agency. Along with health care centers' certification, vigilance committees' coordination has evolved: whereas its presence was optional in the first version of certification, it has now imposed itself within health care centers with the more recent versions of certification, detailing the actions it must undertake. In parallel, a lot of attention is put on health care-related risk management with a health care center. Vigilances' coordination can thus take advantage of this in sharing an incident declaration system common with that of health care-related risks management. This collaboration will enable the generation of a priori risks' maps, help analyze adverse events and use the notion of criticality within a global safe care policy in each health care facility.
Yilmaz, Aygen; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sekerel, Bülent E; Adalioğlu, Gönül; Saraçlar, Yildiz
Exposure to cockroach may lead to exacerbations of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in sensitized patients. Although there is a widespread belief that cockroach allergy is a common problem in patients with respiratory allergies, little is known in Turkish children. In order to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cockroach allergy in respiratory allergic children, we performed a study in newly referred children with respiratory allergies. All patients underwent questionnaire-interview and skin prick tested with common inhalant allergens in addition to two cockroach allergens: Blatella germanica (Bg) and Periplaneta americana (Pa). A subgroup of patients was also serologically investigated for specific IgE against Bg and house dust mite. Three hundred- and thirty-seven children aged 2-16 years were recruited for the study and 77.7% of these were atopic, with the most common indoor and outdoor allergens of house dust mite (47.5%) and grass pollens (45.1%), respectively. According to the prick test results, allergies to Bg and Pa were 11.9% and 7.4%, respectively, and there was a weak correlation between size of the prick test and specific IgE levels for Bg allergen. Almost 30% of the cockroach-sensitive patients were allergic to both cockroach antigens. Seventy percent of cockroach-sensitive patients were also sensitive to house dust mite, and only 1% were monosensitive. Dwellings in the Middle Anatolia and Black Sea regions were less commonly infested by cockroach compared to the dwellings in other regions. In conclusion, our preliminary study showed that cockroach sensitization is common among children with respiratory allergies irrespective of infestation history, suggesting that addition of cockroach allergen to the routine allergy screening panel is critical.
Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A E J; Du Toit, G; Eigenmann, P A; Grimshaw, K E C; Hoest, A; Lack, G; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Panesar, S; Prescott, S; Roberts, G; de Silva, D; Venter, C; Verhasselt, V; Akdis, A C; Sheikh, A
Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers includes a normal diet without restrictions during pregnancy and lactation. For all infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 4-6 months of life. If breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible, infants at high-risk can be recommended a hypoallergenic formula with a documented preventive effect for the first 4 months. There is no need to avoid introducing complementary foods beyond 4 months, and currently, the evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic foods after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. There is no evidence to support the use of prebiotics or probiotics for food allergy prevention.
Juvenile thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, are less vigilant (i.e. they spend less time visually scanning the environment) than adults. To determine whether nutritional need was a potential cause of this difference, we supplemented two groups of free-ranging juveniles during the predispersal stage, while juveniles were still near and around the natal burrows. The high-energy food group (HEF: 11 squirrels) received peanut butter and oats while the low-energy food group (LEF: seven squirrels) received lettuce. Adults (14 squirrels) were also supplemented, but due to their greater home range sizes, it was not feasible to classify them as either HEF or LEF. To evaluate the effect of supplementation on antipredator vigilance, the behavioural act of visually scanning for predators, we videotaped individuals while they were foraging above ground during 5-min observation periods. Each squirrel was observed and weighed during three time periods over 23 days. From the videotape, we extracted measures of time spent vigilant, locomoting and foraging. All three categories of squirrels gained mass over the study period, but the HEF juveniles rapidly exceeded that of the LEF juveniles. Early in the study, LEF and HEF juveniles did not significantly differ in either body mass or time budgets, and, initially, both juvenile groups were similar to adults in the amount of time devoted to vigilance. Later in the study, the behaviour of HEF juveniles closely resembled that of adults (increased time devoted to vigilance and decreased time devoted to foraging), while LEF juveniles decreased vigilance and increased their foraging time. This study indicates that for thirteen-lined ground squirrels the lower vigilance of juveniles is due, at least in part, to the greater nutritional needs of young animals with consequent increases in foraging, which is largely incompatible with vigilance. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Olbrich, Sebastian; Fischer, Marie M; Sander, Christian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Wirtz, Hubert; Bosse-Henck, Andrea
The regulation of wakefulness is important for high-order organisms. Its dysregulation is involved in the pathomechanism of several psychiatric disorders. Thus, a tool for its objective but little time-consuming assessment would be of importance. The Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig allows the objective measurement of sleep propensity, based on a single resting state electroencephalogram. To compare the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig with the standard for objective assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness, a four-trial Multiple Sleep Latency Test in 25 healthy subjects was conducted. Between the first two trials, a 15-min, 25-channel resting electroencephalogram was recorded, and Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig was used to classify the sleep propensity (i.e., type of vigilance regulation) of each subject. The results of both methods showed significant correlations with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ρ = -0.70; ρ = 0.45, respectively) and correlated with each other (ρ = -0.54). Subjects with a stable electroencephalogram-vigilance regulation yielded significant increased sleep latencies compared with an unstable regulation (multiple sleep latency 898.5 s versus 549.9 s; P = 0.03). Further, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig classifications allowed the identification of subjects with average sleep latencies <6 min with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 77%. Thus, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig provides similar information on wakefulness regulation in comparison to the much more cost- and time-consuming Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity for large sleep propensity, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig could be an effective and reliable alternative to the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, for example for screening purposes in large cohorts, where objective information about wakefulness regulation is needed.
Pets particularly dog and cat are the men's best friend. In the daily practice respiratory allergy to animal proteins are not uncommon and in some areas the frequency is even higher than allergy to house dust mites. In Switzerland nearly half of the households keeps some kind of a domestic animal with cats followed by dogs as the principal pets. Because the exposure to domestic animals is perennial, allergic symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma usually are less acute than due to pollen or an occupational allergen. The best and most effective management of a domestic animal allergy is to avoid having contact with the relevant pet. Because of personal and emotional conflicts other strategies are employed to reduce allergen levels of the pet such as by washing or by restriction of the territory. For many years, fungal spores have been recognized as potential causes of respiratory allergies. Besides the more community recognized microfungi or molds such as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cladosporium herbarum the class of basidiomycetes--physically the largest and morphologically the most complex fungi--are known to produce allergic symptoms. This class consists of about 14,000 species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs, toad stools and jelly fungi, as well as the plant-pathogenic rusts and smuts. Clinically, symptoms due to fungal allergens are not distinguishable from those due to pollen, however, in recent years asthma attacks particularly in young people have been associated with high spore counts in the air. Upon contact fungal components may cause eczema or trigger inflammatory skin eruptions in a subgroup of patients with atopic eczema. Though food allergies to mushrooms are largely anecdotal, a few well documented cases mainly due to Boletus edulis (king bolete or cepe) have been published recently. Since fungal spores are ubiquitous atmospheric components avoidance measures are often not achievable. Nevertheless, some
Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne
In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into
Li, Chunlin; Zhou, Lizhi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Niannian; Beauchamp, Guy
Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012–13 and 2013–14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR), China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and, generally, for the vast numbers of migratory waterbirds wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain. PMID:25768111
McGaughy, J; Sarter, M
An operant task for the measurement of sustained attention or vigilance in rats was characterized. The task requires the animals to respond to the presentation of visual signals (presented for 25, 50, or 500 ms) by operating one lever ("hits") and to the absence of a signal by operating the opposite lever ("correct rejection"). Incorrect responses ("misses" and "false alarms", respectively) were not rewarded. Performance in this task is a function of signal length, i.e., the shorter the signals the higher the number of misses. An increase in "background noise" by flashing the chamber houselight (at 0.5 Hz) impaired the animals' ability to discriminate between signal and non-signal events. Also flashing the houselight augmented the vigilance decrement observed for shortest signals. An increase in the event-rate also resulted in a vigilance decrement. Finally, the inability of the animals to time signals was examined by testing the effects of an increase in event asynchrony. In a second experiment, the performance of differently aged rats (6- and 20 month-old male BNNia/F344 rats) was studied. Compared to young animals, 20-month-old rats showed a decrease in their ability to discriminate between shortest signals (25 ms) and non-signal events but did not differ in their ability to correctly reject non-signal trials. Administration of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonist chlordiazepoxide (CDP; 3, 5, 8 mg/kg) resulted in an impairment of the animals' ability to discriminate between signal and non-signal events and, similar to the effects of age, this effect was exclusively due to an increase in the number of misses. CDP generally produced potent effects while affecting the aged animals to a greater degree. BZR-ligands with weak or "selective" inverse agonist properties (ZK 93426; beta-CCtB) did not affect vigilance performance. The BZR partial inverse agonist RU 33965 (0.1, 0.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently impaired vigilance performance. The administration of
Lee, James; Manousakis, Jessica; Fielding, Joanne; Anderson, Clare
Study Objectives: Alcohol and sleep loss are leading causes of motor vehicle crashes, whereby attention failure is a core causal factor. Despite a plethora of data describing the effect of alcohol and sleep loss on vigilant attention, little is known about their effect on voluntary and involuntary visual attention processes. Design: Repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. Setting: Controlled laboratory setting. Participants: Sixteen young (18–27 y; M = 21.90 ± 0.60 y) healthy males. Interventions: Participants completed an attention test battery during the afternoon (13:00–14:00) under four counterbalanced conditions: (1) baseline; (2) alcohol (0.05% breath alcohol concentration); (3) sleep restriction (02:00–07:00); and (4) alcohol/sleep restriction combined. This test battery included a Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) as a measure of vigilant attention, and two ocular motor tasks—visually guided and antisaccade—to measure the involuntary and voluntary allocation of visual attention. Measurements and Results: Only the combined condition led to reductions in vigilant attention characterized by slower mean reaction time, fastest 10% responses, and increased number of lapses (P < 0.05) on the PVT. In addition, the combined condition led to a slowing in the voluntary allocation of attention as reflected by increased antisaccade latencies (P < 0.05). Sleep restriction alone however increased both antisaccade inhibitory errors [45.8% errors versus < 28.4% all others; P < 0.001] and the involuntary allocation of attention, as reflected by faster visually guided latencies (177.7 msec versus > 185.0 msec all others) to a peripheral target (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our data reveal specific signatures for sleep related attention failure: the voluntary allocation of attention is impaired, whereas the involuntary allocation of attention is enhanced. This provides key evidence for the role of distraction in attention failure during sleep loss. Citation: Lee J
Background Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy
In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) patients’ organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels. Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into more coherent, uniform
Williams, P; Önell, A; Baldracchini, F; Hui, V; Jolles, S; El-Shanawany, T
Microarray platforms, enabling simultaneous measurement of many allergens with a small serum sample, are potentially powerful tools in allergy diagnostics. We report here the first study comparing a fully automated microarray system, the Microtest allergy system, with a manual microarray platform, Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC), and two well-established singleplex allergy tests, skin prick test (SPT) and ImmunoCAP, all tested on the same patients. One hundred and three adult allergic patients attending the allergy clinic were included into the study. All patients were tested with four allergy test methods (SPT, ImmunoCAP, Microtest and ISAC 112) and a total of 3485 pairwise test results were analysed and compared. The four methods showed comparable results with a positive/negative agreement of 81-88% for any pair of test methods compared, which is in line with data in the literature. The most prevalent allergens (cat, dog, mite, timothy, birch and peanut) and their individual allergen components revealed an agreement between methods with correlation coefficients between 0·73 and 0·95. All four methods revealed deviating individual patient results for a minority of patients. These results indicate that microarray platforms are efficient and useful tools to characterize the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E profile of allergic patients using a small volume of serum sample. The results produced by the Microtest system were in agreement with diagnostic tests in current use. Further data collection and evaluation are needed for other populations, geographical regions and allergens.
Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C
Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.
Baczkowski, Blazej M; Johnstone, Tom; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Veer, Ilya M
We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time. Amygdala FC was calculated for each of these windows. Simultaneously acquired SCL time series were averaged over time frames that corresponded to the sliding-window FC analysis, which were subsequently associated with the whole-brain seed-based amygdala sliding-window FC using the GLM. Surrogate time series were generated to test whether connectivity dynamics could have occurred by chance. In addition, results were contrasted against static amygdala FC and sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, which was chosen as a control seed, while a physio-physiological interaction (PPI) was performed as cross-validation. During periods of increased SCL, the left amygdala became more strongly coupled with the bilateral insula and medial prefrontal cortex, core areas of the salience network. The sliding-window analysis yielded a connectivity pattern that was unlikely to have occurred by chance, was spatially distinct from static amygdala FC and from sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, but was highly comparable to that of the PPI analysis. We conclude that sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant fluctuations in connectivity in the context of an externally cued task.
Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062
Nettleton, Sarah; Woods, Brian; Burrows, Roger; Kerr, Anne
This article asks what sociological insights an analysis of food allergy and food intolerance might afford. We outline the parameters of debates around food allergy and food intolerance in the immunological, clinical and epidemiological literatures in order to identify analytic strands which might illuminate our sociological understanding of the supposed increase in both. Food allergy and food intolerance are contested and contingent terms and it is salient that the term true food allergy is replete throughout medico-scientific, epidemiological and popular discourses in order to rebuff spurious or 'nonallergic' claims of food-related symptoms. Complexity theory is introduced as a means of gaining analytic purchase on the food allergy debate. The article concludes that the use of this perspective provides a contemporary example of the 'double hermeneutic', in that the meanings and interpretations of contemporary explanations of food allergy are both permeated by, and can be made sense of, through recourse to complexity thinking.
Given the unique nature of pregnancy with respect to obtaining safety data regarding medication exposures, developing comprehensive information on the wide variety of medications that might be of clinical benefit during pregnancy is a challenging and on-going task. For many of the most commonly used asthma and allergy medications that were covered in this article, there is at least limited human data are available. Even for relatively well-studied medications, there are many unanswered questions, and few studies exist that are large enough to rule out at least a doubling of risk for specific outcomes, particularly congenital anomalies. This challenge becomes even more daunting when evaluating risks of individual products is considered the optimal goal, as opposed to "lumping" all medication exposures within a class. All of these issues call for more human pregnancy data that are collected more efficiently so that the answers that clinicians and pregnant women need are available more readily. In the meantime, health care providers and pregnant women must work with the information that is available to evaluate the risks and benefits of a particular medication and alternative choices for treatment of asthma or allergy during pregnancy, while considering the potential for adverse effects if the woman with severe or uncontrolled asthma is under-treated. To assist in making a risk/benefit assessment, the clinician can draw on existing resources that provide systematic periodic review of new data on medications in pregnancy as it becomes available, and synthesize the entire body of data on a particular drug into concise summary statements. Two such resources are TERIS (TeratogenInformation System)  and Reprotox ; both on-line services are managed by experts in the field of teratology. An additional resource for clinicians and pregnant women is the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists , a network of risk-assessment counselors in the United States
Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don
Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)
Sussman, G L; Davis, K; Kohler, P F
Although penicillin is nontoxic, it is highly immunogenic and is the most common drug that causes allergic reactions. A previous reaction to penicillin has been shown to be unreliable in predicting sensitivity in 75% to 90% of patients. To more accurately test for penicillin allergy, diagnostic skin test reagents have been developed; these include the major determinant (benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine) and the minor determinant mixture (penicillin G potassium, benzylpenicilloate sodium and benzylpenicilloyl-N-propylamine). Penicillin skin testing has been shown to be safe and useful in predicting immediate IgE-mediated reactions (overall predictive value 99%). Reactions that occur when patients are challenged with penicillin are mild or accelerated urticarial reactions. We outline a practical and rational therapeutic approach based on the current understanding of penicillin allergy. PMID:3518897
Ciprandi, G; Caimmi, D; Raschetti, R; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, C; Caimmi, S; Castellazzi, A M
Both allergic disorders and obesity keep increasing in industrialized countries. Even though a strong association between obesity and allergy- related diseases has been reported in several studies, no published data show a scientific and firm link in-between the two conditions. In general, obesity and weight gain have been associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and obesity have a common inflammatory pattern that could therefore justify their association. In fact, the chronic inflammation that characterizes the increase in white adipose tissue typically pushes the immune system toward a Th2 pattern. Such a polarization might, consequentially, worsen a pre-existing allergic disease or even stimulate the evolution from a sensitization to a respiratory form of allergy. Several studies have been published on the role of different adipokines on allergic diseases. We focus our review on the role of adipokines on asthma and allergic rhinitis.
Gern, James E.
Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children has led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products may be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility and potential impact for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases, and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984
Bridts, Chris H; Sabato, Vito; Mertens, Christel; Hagendorens, Margo M; De Clerck, Luc S; Ebo, Didier G
The basis of flow cytometric allergy diagnosis is quantification of changes in expression of basophilic surface membrane markers (Ebo et al., Clin Exp Allergy 34: 332-339, 2004). Upon encountering specific allergens recognized by surface receptor FcεRI-bound IgE, basophils not only secrete and generate quantifiable bioactive mediators but also up-regulate the expression of different markers (e.g., CD63, CD203c) which can be detected by multicolor flow cytometry using specific monoclonal antibodies (Ebo et al., Cytometry B Clin Cytom 74: 201-210, 2008). Here, we describe two flow cytometry-based protocols which allow detection of surface marker activation (Method 1) and changes in intragranular histamine (Method 2), both reflecting different facets of basophil activation.
Skripak, Justin M.; Sampson, Hugh A.
Summary of recent advances Over the past two decades, food allergies have become both more prevalent and long-lasting. This burgeoning problem has not been met with any therapeutic options to date, and patients must attempt to avoid known allergenic foods and treat any allergic reactions with “as-needed” medications. There are a number of promising emerging therapeutic modalities for food allergy, including allergen-specific and allergen non-specific immunotherapeutic approaches. Although the allergen-specific approaches have some distinct differences, they all attempt to induce tolerance by exposing the patient to an allergen via the mucosal route (oral tolerance induction). Allergen non-specific approaches include biologics to suppress free total IgE levels (e.g. anti-IgE antibody) or to induce more general immune suppression (Chinese Herbal medication). PMID:18848884
Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam
The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.
... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy : What’s in It for Patients? Food Allergy Food Allergy Why Food ... allergic. Anaphylaxis and foods most likely to cause it Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is ...
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