Science.gov

Sample records for alleviate global energy

  1. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  2. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  3. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2016-07-12

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  4. Global Energy Futures Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard; Baker, Arnold; Beyeler, Walt; Conrad, Stephen; Harris, David; Harris, Paul; Rexroth, Paul; Bixler, and Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data from 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.

  5. Energy and Global Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Author believes that the nuclear fuel cycle is damaging to our health, physical system, ecosystem, and social system. He recommends reversing the trend toward nuclear power and solving the energy crisis by creating a global society able to live in balance with its physical environment. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York…

  6. Energy and globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  7. (Global energy development)

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-11-21

    This is the report of foreign travel by Alvin W. Trivelpiece and William Fulkerson who were part of a US delegation of ten individuals who visited the Soviet Union for two weeks as part of a joint activity between the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Academy of Sciences (AS) of the USSR. Trivelpiece headed the US delegation. The trip was sponsored by the NAS under a grant from the MacArthur Foundation. It consisted of three parts: (1) a tour of energy facilities and laboratories in Siberia, including the cities of Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Nazarovo, Achinsk, Bratsk, and Irkutsk; (2) a joint seminar in Moscow called Global Energy Development and Associated Ecological (Environmental) Impacts''; and (3) a workshop to discuss areas of potential future collaboration and cooperation. A Memorandum of Record was signed on the final day. It recommended that the Presidents of the two Academies establish a joint committee for ...coordinating, recommending, and encouraging activities in accordance with this memorandum.'' Projects for possible collaboration were identified in the areas of energy data and models, global warming, technologies for more efficient use of energy, clean coal, gas turbines, tools for assessing environmental impacts, and analysis of approaches to energy decision making.

  8. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio.

  9. Decarbonizing the global energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.

    1996-09-01

    The study analyzes the long-term decarbonization of the global energy system, i.e., the decrease of the carbon emissions per unit of primary energy. Decarbonization appears as a continuous and persistent trend throughout the world, albeit occurring at very slow rates of approximately 0.3% per year. The study also discusses driving forces of the associated structural changes in energy systems such as technological change. Decarbonization also occurs at the level of energy end use and trends for final energy are shown. The quest for higher flexibility, convenience, and cleanliness of energy services demanded by consumers leads to decarbonization trends in final energy that are more pronounced than that of the upstream energy sector. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications for long-term scenarios of energy-environment interactions suggesting that decarbonization and its driving forces may still be insufficiently captured by most models and scenarios of the long-term evolution of the energy system. 32 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, Debra; Chung, Donald; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret; Engel-Cox, Jill

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  11. Global Effects of Increased Use of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Alvin M.; Hammond, R. Philip

    1972-01-01

    This paper, which speculates on the effects of man's energy releases on world climate, concludes that global upsets are very unlikely if we are able to distribute the energy widely or into the sea. (AL)

  12. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  13. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  14. Method Forecasts Global Energy Substitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes a model developed to forecast energy demands and determine trends in demand for primary fuels. The energy model essentially considers primary energy sources as competing commodities in a market. (MLH)

  15. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  16. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  17. Space and energy: Global viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, D. E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential contributions from space technology to solving the future world energy problem are addressed. The basic problem is created by the depletion of the fossile fuels in the next century. The replacement of oil, gas and coal is only feasible by nuclear power and solar energy. In the first case space technology can contribute to making the terrestrial storage of radioactive waste much less dangerous and more acceptable by expediting the highly radioactive components (only 3%) into space. In the case of solar energy space technology can contribute large solar power stations in space, providing energy via microwaves to special rectenna sites.

  18. The Global Energy Balance of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Smith, Mark A.; Gorius, Nicolas J. P.; Jiang, Xun; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Baines, Kevin H.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; West, Robert A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the global emitted power of Titan. Longterm (2004-2010) observations conducted by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini reveal that the total emitted power by Titan is (2.84 plus or minus 0.01) x 10(exp 8) watts. Together with previous measurements of the global absorbed solar power of Titan, the CIRS measurements indicate that the global energy budget of Titan is in equilibrium within measurement error. The uncertainty in the absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on the energy imbalance of 5.3%.

  19. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  20. Global Λ polarization in high energy collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yilong; Wang, Dujuan; Csernai, László P.

    2017-03-01

    With a Yang-Mills flux-tube initial state and a high-resolution (3+1)D particle-in-cell relativistic (PICR) hydrodynamics simulation, we calculate the Λ polarization for different energies. The origination of polarization in high energy collisions is discussed, and we find linear impact parameter dependence of the global Λ polarization. Furthermore, the global Λ polarization in our model decreases very quickly in the low energy domain, and the decline curve fits well the recent results of Beam Energy Scan (BES) program launched by the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The time evolution of polarization is also discussed.

  1. Global Energy and Aviation Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, Dave; Anast, Peter; Lowery, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are usually diffuse and require large facilities. Biofuels work better, are more economical to produce for ground transportation, but sharply increase competition for food croplands. Noble laureate Richard Smalley (deceased-2005) conceptual 20 TWe power generation covers hundreds x hundreds of miles. Combined with Fuller s superconducting power grid system would enable renewable planetary energy. A solar-wind project in Australia will have a 7km diameter collector interfacing with a 1 km tower to extract 200 MW from wind turbines mounted at the base. GE Energy s 3.5MW Wind Turbine is large and placing this in perspective, it is as if one were rotating a Boeing 747-200; the blade diameter is that large. Wind turbines are rapidly gaining popularity in Europe and photovoltaic (PV) is expected to also expand rapidly. It becomes clear that we need (and still have time) to develop new sources of energy. Hf 178 bombarded by X-rays produces Gamma-rays for heating. The reaction stops when the X-rays stop; the half life is about 30 years and seems manageable vs 30 000 years. Water splitting needs to be perused as do ultra fast ultra intense laser applications in terms of fusion and new materials developments including new ways to strip and re-bind hydrogen into fuels. New methods and tools for development are being found in quantum mechanical applications to macro-systems and need to be developed into a set of new tool boxes for development of these new energy sources.

  2. Low-temperature conditioning alleviates chilling injury in loquat fruit and regulates glycine betaine content and energy status.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Timin; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-04-15

    The influence of low-temperature conditioning (LTC) treatment on chilling injury, glycine betaine content, and energy metabolism in loquat fruit at 1 °C storage was investigated. The results indicated that LTC treatment significantly reduced chilling injury index, ion leakage, and malondialdehyde content in loquat fruit. Betaine aldehyde hydrogenase (BADH) activity and endogenous glycine betaine (GB) content in loquats treated with LTC were significantly higher than those in control fruit. Moreover, LTC treatment induced activities of energy metabolism-associated enzymes, including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase. LTC treatment triggered obviously higher levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and energy charge in loquat fruit. These results showed that LTC possibly alleviated chilling injury and enhanced chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by enhancing endogenous GB content and energy status.

  3. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    SciTech Connect

    Akai, Makoto

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  4. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  5. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  6. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  7. Modeling global and regional energy futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethinaraj, T. S. Gopi

    A rigorous econometric calibration of a model of energy consumption is presented using a comprehensive time series database on energy consumption and other socioeconomic indicators. The future of nuclear power in the evolving distribution of various energy sources is also examined. An important consideration for the long-term future of nuclear power concerns the rate of decline of the fraction of energy that comes from coal, which has historically declined on a global basis about linearly as a function of the cumulative use of coal. The use of fluid fossil fuels is also expected to eventually decline as the more readily extractable deposits are depleted. The investigation here is restricted to examining a comparatively simple model of the dynamics of competition between nuclear and other competing energy sources. Using a defined tropical/temperate disaggregation of the world, region-specific modeling results are presented for population growth, GDP growth, energy use, and carbon use compatible with a gradual transition to energy sustainability. Results for the fractions of energy use from various sources by grouping nine commercial primary energy sources into pairs of competing fuel categories are presented in combination with the idea of experiential learning and resource depletion. Analysis based on this division provides estimates for future evolution of the fractional shares, annual use rates, cumulative use of individual energy sources, and the economic attractiveness of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This unified approach helps to conceptualize and understand the dynamics of evolution of importance of various energy resources over time.

  8. Application of the aerodynamic energy concept to flutter suppression and gust alleviation by use of active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Caspi, A.; Lottati, I.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of active controls on flutter suppression and gust alleviation of the Arava twin turboprop STOL transport and the Westwind twinjet business transport are investigated. The active control surfaces are introduced in pairs which include, in any chosen wing strip, a 20-percent chord leading-edge control and a 20-percent chord trailing-edge control. Each control surface is driven by a combined linear-rotational sensor system located on the activated strip. The control law is based on the concept of aerodynamic energy and utilizes previously optimized control law parameters based on two-dimensional aerodynamic theory. The best locations of the activated system along the span of the wing are determined for bending-moment alleviation, reduction in fuselage accelerations, and flutter suppression. The effectiveness of the activated system over a wide range of maximum control deflections is also determined. Two control laws are investigated. The first control law utilizes both rigid-body and elastic contributions of the motion. The second control law employs primarily the elastic contribution of the wing and leads to large increases in the activated control effectiveness as compared with the basic control law. The results indicate that flutter speed can be significantly increased (over 70 percent increase) and that the bending moment due to gust loading can be almost totally eliminated by a control system of about 10 to 20 percent span with reasonable control-surface rotations.

  9. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...] Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: E-T Global Energy, LLC (E-T Global) has... an application from E-T Global for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  10. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  11. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-07-08

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E{sup 3}) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term ({approximately}2,100) context. The E{sup 3} model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E{sup 3} area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E{sup 3} model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E{sup 3} model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E{sup 3} study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E{sup 3} model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project.

  12. Energy Security: Reducing Vulnerabilities to Global Energy Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    plug-in hybrid vehicles, promote renewable energy sources, invest in low- emission coal plants , advance technologies in bio-fuels, and begin the...Zhongyuan Petroleum Prospecting, a subsidiary of the China Petrochemical Corporation, is the primary oil firm operating in Gambella. Nigeria is the...of the global warming issues and the burning of oil, in particular, is blamed for about 42 percent of the CO2 emissions . 31 Left unchecked, the

  13. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  14. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  15. Renewable: A key component of our global energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.

    1995-12-31

    Inclusion of renewable energy sources in national and international energy strategies is a key component of a viable global energy future. The global energy balance is going to shift radically in the near future brought about by significant increases in population in China and India, and increases in the energy intensity of developing countries. To better understand the consequences of such global shifts in energy requirements and to develop appropriate energy strategies to respond to these shifts, we need to look at the factors driving choices among supply options by geopolitical consumers and the impact these factors can have on the future energy mix.

  16. Platts top 250 global energy company rankings

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    The third annual survey of global energy companies measures companies' financial performance using four metrics: asset worth, revenues, profits and return on invested capital. The following industry segments were analysed: coal and consumable fuel companies; diversified utilities; exploration and production; electric utilities; gas utilities; integrated oil and gas companies; refining and marketing; independent power producers and storage and transfer companies. Integrated oil and gas companies (IOGs) captured nine out of the top ten spots while IPPS struggled in 2005 as the sector on a whole lost money. The exploration and production segment showed financial stability while gas utilities saw their financials climb. The Exxon Mobile Corp. continued its reign of the number one spot.

  17. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  18. Energy, atmospheric chemistry, and global climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global atmospheric changes due to ozone destruction and the greenhouse effect are discussed. The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is reviewed, including its judgements regarding global warming and its recommendations for improving predictive capability. The chemistry of ozone destruction and the global atmospheric budget of nitrous oxide are reviewed, and the global sources of nitrous oxide are described.

  19. A Comprehensive Plan for Global Energy Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blees, T.

    2009-05-01

    There is no dearth of information regarding the grave crises faced by humanity in the 21st century. There is also growing consensus that the wholesale burning of fossil fuels must come to an end, either because of climate change or other still-salient reasons such as air pollution or major conflicts over dwindling reserves of cheaply recoverable oil and gas resources. At the same time, global demographics predict with disquieting certainty a world with up to 9 or 10 billion souls by mid-century. The vast expansion of energy consumption that this population represents, along with further increases in already-unacceptable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, demands that we quickly develop almost limitless sources of clean, economical power. What is sorely lacking in the public debate are realistic solutions. Expanding wind and solar generating capacity is an important near-term goal, but neither of these technologies represents a viable solution for generating base load power at the vast scales that will be required. Energy efficiency measures are likewise well-directed, but the combination of rising population along with increasingly energy-intensive economic activity by the large fraction of Earth's current population residing in developing nations suggests that absolute energy demand will continue to rise even with radically improved energy efficiency. Fortunately we have the technologies available to provide virtually unlimited clean energy, and to utilize and recycle our resources so that everyone can improve their standard of living. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), developed at the Argonne National Laboratory in the 80's and 90's and currently championed by General Electric, is a technology that fills the bill on every count, and then some. IFRs are safe, environmentally clean, economical, and free of conflict over fuel supply. IFRs can safely consume as fuel the nuclear waste from the current installed base of light-water reactors

  20. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  1. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  2. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and...addressing other energy -related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and...comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data

  3. Center Views Energy Problems on Global Basis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The National Center for Energy Management and Power at the University of Pennsylvania is committed to advancing the technology of energy conversion and training people to manage effectively whatever form the energy industry assumes in the future, including measurement of the impact of developments on both producer and consumer. (DF)

  4. Bacterial energy taxis: a global strategy?

    PubMed

    Schweinitzer, Tobias; Josenhans, Christine

    2010-07-01

    A functional energy metabolism is one of the most important requirements for survival of all kinds of organisms including bacteria. Therefore, many bacteria actively seek conditions of optimal metabolic activity, a behaviour which can be termed "energy taxis". Motility, combined with the sensory perception of the internal energetic conditions, is prerequisite for tactic responses to different energy levels and metabolic yields. Diverse mechanisms of energy sensing and tactic response have evolved among various bacteria. Many of the known energy taxis sensors group among the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-like sensors. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of energy taxis and explores the current concept that energy taxis is an important part of the bacterial behavioural repertoire in order to navigate towards more favourable metabolic niches and to survive in a specific habitat.

  5. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  6. Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, K. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

  7. Energy in New England | Energy and Global Climate Change ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA Region 1's Energy and Climate Unit provides information, technical assistance, and training on energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy use and transmission in New England. In addition, the unit works with the New England States to regulate and inventory greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Application of the aerodynamic energy concept to the selection of transfer functions for flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1977-01-01

    Changes are introduced in the aerodynamic energy approach which lead to an increase in the effectiveness of both the trailing-edge (TE) and the leading-edge (LE)-TE control systems. Control laws are determined, using realizable transfer functions, which permit the introduction of aerodynamic damping and stiffness terms in accordance with the requirements of any specific system. It is shown that flutter suppression and gust alleviation problems can successfully be treated either by a TE or by a LE-TE control system. The results obtained are applicable to a very wide class of aircraft operating within the subsonic Mach number range.

  9. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  10. GEWEX: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M.; Vane, D.

    1994-01-01

    GEWEX is one of the world's largest global change research programs. Its purpose is to observe and understand the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at land surfaces and in the upper oceans.

  11. Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

  12. Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaling; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H; Davies, Evan; Miralles, Diego G; Teuling, Adriaan J; He, Yujie; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-09-06

    Despite significant effort to quantify the interdependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.7%-2.7% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to fresh surface water, 30% to fresh groundwater, and 12% to nonfresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%), and wastewater treatment (18%). While the United States was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970s until the 2000s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

  13. Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yaling; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.; Davies, Evan; Miralles, Diego G.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; He, Yujie; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-09-06

    Despite significant effort to quantify the inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process, for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 ± 5 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.2–3% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to surface water, 30% to groundwater, and 12% to non-fresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%) and wastewater treatment (18%). While the USA was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970’s until the 2000’s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

  14. Global Auroral Energy Deposition Compared with Magnetic Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittnacher, M. J.; Fillingim, M. O.; Elsen, R.; Parks, G. K.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the global rate of energy deposition in the ionosphere via auroral particle precipitation is one of the primary goals of the Polar UVI program and is an important component of the ISTP program. The instantaneous rate of energy deposition for the entire month of January 1997 has been calculated by applying models to the UVI images and is presented by Fillingim et al. in this session. Magnetic indices, such as Kp, AE, and Dst, which are sensitive to variations in magnetospheric current systems have been constructed from ground magnetometer measurements and employed as measures of activity. The systematic study of global energy deposition raises the possibility of constructing a global magnetospheric activity index explicitly based on particle precipitation to supplement magnetic indices derived from ground magnetometer measurements. The relationship between global magnetic activity as measured by these indices and the rate of total global energy loss due to precipitation is not known at present. We study the correlation of the traditional magnetic index of Kp for the month of January 1997 with the energy deposition derived from the UVI images. We address the question of whether the energy deposition through particle precipitation generally matches the Kp and AE indices, or the more exciting, but distinct, possibility that this particle-derived index may provide an somewhat independent measure of global magnetospheric activity that could supplement traditional magnetically-based activity indices.

  15. Status of global energy confinement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Barnes, C.W. ); DeBoo, J.C.; Waltz, R. ); Greenwald, M.; Sigmar, D. . Plasma Fusion Center); Riedel, K. . Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences); Uckan, N. (Oak Ridge National L

    1990-02-01

    Empirical scaling expressions, reflecting the parametric dependence of the L-mode energy confinement time, have been used not only as benchmarks for tokamak operation and theories of energy transport, but for predicting the performance of proposed tokamak devices. Several scaling expressions based on data from small-and medium-sized devices have done well in predicting performance in larger devices, although great uncertainty exists in extrapolating yet farther, into the ignition regime. Several approaches exist for developing higher confidence scaling expressions. These include reducing the statistical uncertainty by identifying and filling in gaps in the present database, making use of more sophisticated statistical techniques, and developing scalings for confinement regimes within which future devices will operate. Confidence in the scaling expressions will be increased still if the expressions can be more directly tied to transport physics theory. This can be done through the use of dimensionless parameters, better describing the edge and core confinement regimes separately, and by incorporating transport models directly into the scaling expressions. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Najmabadi, F; Schmidt, J; Sheffield, J

    2001-03-07

    Fusion energy is one of only a few truly long-term energy options. Since its inception in the 1950s, the vision of the fusion energy research program has been to develop a viable means of harnessing the virtually unlimited energy stored in the nuclei of light atoms--the primary fuel deuterium is present as one part in 6,500 of all hydrogen. This vision grew out of the recognition that the immense power radiated by the sun is fueled by nuclear fusion in its hot core. Such high temperatures are a prerequisite for driving significant fusion reactions. The fascinating fourth state of matter at high temperatures is known as plasma. It is only in this fourth state of matter that the nuclei of two light atoms can fuse, releasing the excess energy that was needed to separately bind each of the original two nuclei. Because the nuclei of atoms carry a net positive electric charge, they repel each other. Hydrogenic nuclei, such as deuterium and tritium, must be heated to approximately 100 million degrees Celsius to overcome this electric repulsion and fuse. There have been dramatic recent advances in both the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. For this reason, the general thrust of fusion research has focused on configuration improvements leading to an economically competitive product. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities [1]. In this paper we review the tremendous scientific progress in fusion during the last 10 years. We utilize the detailed engineering design activities of burning plasma experiments as well as conceptual fusion power plant studies to describe our visions of attractive fusion power plants. We use these studies to compare technical requirements

  17. Comment on ``Long-Term Global Heating From Energy Use''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, James R.

    2008-12-01

    In a prominent article published in Tellus in 1969, Mikhail I. Budyko, with the Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, Soviet Union, wrote that ``all the energy used by man is transformed into heat, the main portion of this energy being an additional source of heat as compared to the present radiation gain'' [Budyko, 1969, p. 618]. He pointed out that this heating was over and above any climate forcing from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and-since energy use was growing geometrically-it was likely to result in the retreat of the cryosphere, accompanied by excessive and potentially damaging global warming, perhaps in 200 years or less. Eric J. Chaisson, in Eos (``Long-Term Global Heating From Energy Use,'' 89(28), 253-254, 2008), does not acknowledge Budyko's research. Chaisson cites cosmic history and the history of the human species, but he provides no references to the conceptual history of the idea that human energy use could result in global heating. Budyko first published on the Earth's heat budget in 1948 and in 1998 received the Blue Planet Prize, sponsored by the Asahi Glass Foundation, for his lifetime accomplishments in quantitative climatology. His work on the energy budget of the Earth and anthropogenic influences really should have been cited (see a selection of key articles in the online National Science Digital Library, at http://wiki.nsdl.org/index.php/PALE:ClassicArticles/GlobalWarming).

  18. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  19. Eduction and outreach for the global energy challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snieder, R.

    2008-12-01

    Energy is the life-blood of the modern world. According to the Energy Information Administration, global energy consumption is expected to grow by about 70% in the coming 25 years. Much of this growth is driven by developing countries, whose inhabitants seek a standard of living that more closely resembles that of the western world. Petroleum provides about 40% of the world-wide energy demand, and, although estimates vary, oil production is expected to peak in the relatively near-future. The combination of increased energy demand and declining petroleum supply can be a threat to political stability and is likely to lead to a shift towards coal and non-conventional oil. This will further increase CO2 emissions and thus accelerate global warming and life-altering regional climate changes. Many actions can be taken now to begin to reduce energy demand, diversify our energy portfolio, and reduce costs of energy supplies, with lower greenhouse gas emissions. This will not happen, however, without a plan and the willingness to implement such a plan. Public engagement and education in dealing with the pressing challenges and opportunities are the key to getting started now. In order to foster such engagement I have prepared the presentation "The Global Energy Challenge." This Powerpoint presentation is freely available and aims to be appealing and understandable for a broad audience. The comment-boxes in the Powerpoint presentation give ideas for a narrative. The presentation sketches the tension between increased energy demand, peak oil, the associated challenge in curbing climate change, and actions that we can take towards a sustainable energy system. The presentation gives ideas for positive action that teachers, students, businessmen, consumers, and citizens can take, and it conveys that the challenges related to our energy supply come with career opportunities, a point that is especially appealing to a young audience. I invite to help making a difference by

  20. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  1. Topography, energy and the global distribution of bird species richness.

    PubMed

    Davies, Richard G; Orme, C David L; Storch, David; Olson, Valerie A; Thomas, Gavin H; Ross, Simon G; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Bennett, Peter M; Owens, Ian P F; Blackburn, Tim M; Gaston, Kevin J

    2007-05-07

    A major goal of ecology is to determine the causes of the latitudinal gradient in global distribution of species richness. Current evidence points to either energy availability or habitat heterogeneity as the most likely environmental drivers in terrestrial systems, but their relative importance is controversial in the absence of analyses of global (rather than continental or regional) extent. Here we use data on the global distribution of extant continental and continental island bird species to test the explanatory power of energy availability and habitat heterogeneity while simultaneously addressing issues of spatial resolution, spatial autocorrelation, geometric constraints upon species' range dynamics, and the impact of human populations and historical glacial ice-cover. At the finest resolution (1 degree), topographical variability and temperature are identified as the most important global predictors of avian species richness in multi-predictor models. Topographical variability is most important in single-predictor models, followed by productive energy. Adjusting for null expectations based on geometric constraints on species richness improves overall model fit but has negligible impact on tests of environmental predictors. Conclusions concerning the relative importance of environmental predictors of species richness cannot be extrapolated from one biogeographic realm to others or the globe. Rather a global perspective confirms the primary importance of mountain ranges in high-energy areas.

  2. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  3. From Extraction to Renewal: A Global Campaign for Healthy Energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer S; Euripidou, Rico; Armstrong, Fiona; Jensen, Génon K; Karliner, Josh; Guinto, Renzo R; Zhao, Ang; Narayanan, Divya; Orris, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A global movement is emerging in the health sector to engage in discourse and advocacy on the health impacts and health costs of energy choices--specifically the health harms of extractive, climate-disrupting energy sources such as coal and gas. Individuals and organizations in the health sector have begun to address climate and energy issues at multiple levels of engagement, including with others in the health sector, with pollution-affected communities, with policy makers, and with the media. We present recent examples of health sector advocacy and leadership on the health impacts of energy choices and opportunities for broadening and deepening the movement.

  4. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. III. Nonthermal Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Holman, Gordon; O'Flannagain, Aidan; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2016-11-01

    This study entails the third part of a global flare energetics project, in which Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) data of 191 M and X-class flare events from the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission are analyzed. We fit a thermal and a nonthermal component to RHESSI spectra, yielding the temperature of the differential emission measure (DEM) tail, the nonthermal power-law slope and flux, and the thermal/nonthermal cross-over energy e co. From these parameters, we calculate the total nonthermal energy E nt in electrons with two different methods: (1) using the observed cross-over energy e co as low-energy cutoff, and (2) using the low-energy cutoff e wt predicted by the warm thick-target bremsstrahlung model of Kontar et al. Based on a mean temperature of T e = 8.6 MK in active regions, we find low-energy cutoff energies of {e}{wt}=6.2+/- 1.6 {keV} for the warm-target model, which is significantly lower than the cross-over energies {e}{co}=21+/- 6 {keV}. Comparing with the statistics of magnetically dissipated energies E mag and thermal energies E th from the two previous studies, we find the following mean (logarithmic) energy ratios with the warm-target model: {E}{nt}=0.41 {E}{mag}, {E}{th}=0.08 {E}{mag}, and {E}{th}=0.15 {E}{nt}. The total dissipated magnetic energy exceeds the thermal energy in 95% and the nonthermal energy in 71% of the flare events, which confirms that magnetic reconnection processes are sufficient to explain flare energies. The nonthermal energy exceeds the thermal energy in 85% of the events, which largely confirms the warm thick-target model.

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  6. Global energy shifts: Future possibilities in historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Bruce Michael

    2000-11-01

    This study adopts a macro-comparative, world-systems perspective in order to shed light on the dynamics that led to a global shift away from primary reliance on coal and towards over-reliance on petroleum. It is argued that the interaction of three global dynamics, those of geopolitical rivalry, commercial competition, and social unrest, undermined the nineteenth-century international coal system and paved the way for the consolidation of an international petroleum system in the twentieth century. Specifically, the historical analysis presented in this dissertation shows that: (1) intervention by state agents was absolutely crucial in the early development and later expansion of the international petroleum system; (2) private coal companies attempted to prevent the consolidation of an oil-based energy system, but these older companies were out-competed by newer, multinational petroleum corporations; and (3) waves of labor unrest in established coal industries played a key role in prompting a relatively rapid shift away from coal and towards petroleum. Indeed, a key conclusion of this study is that pressures exerted by such social movements as labor unions, nationalist movements, and environmental coalitions have played as important a role in influencing energy trajectories as the more commonly-recognized actions of governmental and corporate actors. By examining contemporary patterns of state and private investments in a cluster of new energy technologies, as well as the growing influence of environmental regulations it is argued that global dynamics are beginning to favor a shift towards new, more environmentally sustainable energy technologies. The fuel cell is highlighted as one new energy technology that is poised to enter into widespread diffusion in the coming decades, though potentials for expansions in wind, solar, small-scale hydro-electric, and modern biomass systems are also examined. Although significant hurdles must be overcome, this study concludes by

  7. Nuclear energy position in industrial and economics global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Permana, Sidik

    2012-06-01

    3E (Energy, Economics and Education) are three concepts of community development, and 3E concepts are interlinked between each other. 3E concept is divided into three levels of regions, remote area or villages, small towns and metropolitan cities, and there are different problems of each region. This paper analyzes the relations between energy, economics and education in the metropolitan and industrial city. Especially the influence of nuclear energy concerning at cost production of the industrial and the contribution of education and research for nuclear energy innovation. This relation can be explained using "S-curve". The results of this study is the comparison between the product involves the use of nuclear energy or not in the production process are explained using "S-curve" and its effect on the global economics.

  8. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    PubMed

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  9. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears

    PubMed Central

    Gormezano, Linda J.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28–48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  10. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage.

  11. Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E F

    1974-02-08

    To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment.

  12. Studies of global energy confinement in TFTR supershots

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.

    1993-08-01

    The global energy confinement time, {tau}{sub E}, from TFTR supershot plasmas has been correlated with the hydrogen recycling and the pressure anisotropy. An expression for the global confinement was obtained that describes its value at the time of peak neutron emission for all TFTR supershots obtained in the 1990 campaign, and simultaneously describes the time evolution of {tau}{sub E} for an extensive subset of the 1990 data. The obtained expression is probably not unique and it can be written with different variables. An analysis of the energy balance for many of these supershots indicates that the primary effect of larger {tau}{sub E} is that the central particle diffusivity is lower.

  13. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  14. Representing Global Reactive Potential Energy Surfaces Using Gaussian Processes.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Brian; Marshall, Paul; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-23

    Representation of multidimensional global potential energy surfaces suitable for spectral and dynamical calculations from high-level ab initio calculations remains a challenge. Here, we present a detailed study on constructing potential energy surfaces using a machine learning method, namely, Gaussian process regression. Tests for the (3)A″ state of SH2, which facilitates the SH + H ↔ S((3)P) + H2 abstraction reaction and the SH + H' ↔ SH' + H exchange reaction, suggest that the Gaussian process is capable of providing a reasonable potential energy surface with a small number (∼1 × 10(2)) of ab initio points, but it needs substantially more points (∼1 × 10(3)) to converge reaction probabilities. The implications of these observations for construction of potential energy surfaces are discussed.

  15. A global and long-range picture of energy developments.

    PubMed

    Häfele, W

    1980-07-04

    Most studies of energy supply and demand ignore either global inter-dependence or the long time spans necessary to adjust to new energy sources. The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis has therefore studied on a global scale, for seven major world regions, the balance between energy supply and demand for the next 50 years. Reported here are the results for two benchmark scenarios. In the "low" scenario world energy consumption increases from today's 8.2 terawatt-year per year to 22 terawatt-year per year in 2030; in the "high" scenario, consumption increases to 35 terawatt-year per year. The study showed that time will be the limiting constraint in adapting the energy supply infrastructure to changing resource availability; resources will be available until the second half of the next century, but a strong shift will be required to low-grade fossil fuels such as shale oil and tar sands. Each scenario studied indicated increased environmental problems associated with increased use of fossil fuels, and potential geopolitical problems associated with the world distribution of resources.

  16. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under

  17. Global warming and least-cost energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption is implicated in the growing emissions of all the major greenhouse gases'': carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and tropospheric ozone. All trap heat emitted from the earth's surface, a phenomenon that could accelerate to destroy the same planetary ecosystems that it has nurtured in the past. Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions are this article's principal concern; increases in such emissions account for about half the projected atmospheric warming, with the increases themselves principally attributable to fossil fuel combustion. The United States is the world's largest emissions source, and while it cannot succeed alone, neither can it abdicate leadership responsibilities without all but ensuring failure. This article contends that US energy policy has been working to increase, rather than forestall, the danger of global warming. In particular, recent trends toward deregulation of the energy sector are grossly insufficient as solutions to the problem, although not necessarily inconsistent with them. The article outlines a way to organize urgent US and international energy policy reforms, drawing on the experience of certain state utility regulators with an approach called least-cost energy planning.'' Least-cost planning recognizes improvements in the efficiency of energy use as a major source of additional energy supplies, and seeks fair competition for energy investment dollars between conservation measures and production facilities.

  18. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. Part III; Nonthermal Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Holman, Gordon; O'Flannagain, Aidan; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the third part of a global flare energetics project, in which Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) data of 191 M and X-class flare events from the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission are analyzed. We fit a thermal and a nonthermal component to RHESSI spectra, yielding the temperature of the differential emission measure (DEM) tail, the nonthermal power-law slope and flux, and the thermal nonthermal cross-over energy eco. From these parameters, we calculate the total nonthermal energy E(sub nt) in electrons with two different methods: (1) using the observed cross-over energy e(sub co) as low-energy cutoff, and (2) using the low-energy cut off e(sub wt) predicted by the warm thick-target bremsstrahlung model of Kontar et al. Based on a mean temperature of T(sub e) = 8.6 MK in active regions, we find low-energy cutoff energies of e(sub wt) = 6.2 +/-1.6 keV for the warm-target model, which is significantly lower than the cross-over energies e(sub co) = 21 +/- 6 keV. Comparing with the statistics of magnetically dissipated energies E(sub mag) and thermal energies E(sub th) from the two previous studies, we find the following mean (logarithmic) energy ratios with the warm-target model: E(sub nt) = 0.41E(sub mag), E(sub th) = 0.08 E(sub mag), and E(sub th) = 0.15 E(sub nt). The total dissipated magnetic energy exceeds the thermal energy in 95% and the nonthermal energy in 71% of the flare events, which confirms that magnetic reconnection processes are sufficient to explain flare energies. The nonthermal energy exceeds the thermal energy in 85% of the events, which largely confirms the warm thick-target model.

  19. Interannual variability of the global net radiation balance and its consequence on global energy transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Sohn, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Global cloudiness and radiation budget data from Nimbus 6 and 7 are used to investigate the role of cloud and surface radiative forcing and elements of the earth's general circulation. Although globally integrated cloud forcing is nearly zero, there are large regional imbalances and well regulated processes in the shortwave and longwave spectrum that control the meridional gradient structure of the net radiation balance and the factors modulating the east-west oriented North Africa-western Pacific energy transport dipole. The analysis demonstrates that clouds play a dual role in both the shortwave and longwave spectra in terms of tropical and midlatitude east-west gradients. The key result is that cloud forcing, although not always the principle regulator of interannual variability of the global climate, serves to reinforce the basic three-cell meridional circulation.

  20. Alleviation of neuronal energy deficiency by mTOR inhibition as a treatment for mitochondria-related neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Boyer, Leah; Jin, Mingji; Kim, Yongsung; Fan, Weiwei; Bardy, Cedric; Berggren, Travis; Evans, Ronald M; Gage, Fred H; Hunter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    mTOR inhibition is beneficial in neurodegenerative disease models and its effects are often attributable to the modulation of autophagy and anti-apoptosis. Here, we report a neglected but important bioenergetic effect of mTOR inhibition in neurons. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin significantly preserves neuronal ATP levels, particularly when oxidative phosphorylation is impaired, such as in neurons treated with mitochondrial inhibitors, or in neurons derived from maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (MILS) patient iPS cells with ATP synthase deficiency. Rapamycin treatment significantly improves the resistance of MILS neurons to glutamate toxicity. Surprisingly, in mitochondrially defective neurons, but not neuroprogenitor cells, ribosomal S6 and S6 kinase phosphorylation increased over time, despite activation of AMPK, which is often linked to mTOR inhibition. A rapamycin-induced decrease in protein synthesis, a major energy-consuming process, may account for its ATP-saving effect. We propose that a mild reduction in protein synthesis may have the potential to treat mitochondria-related neurodegeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13378.001 PMID:27008180

  1. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  2. Global energy and water balances in the latest reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Suchul; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2015-11-01

    The recently released Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA- 55) data are evaluated and compared with three other global reanalyses, namely Interim version of the next European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim), Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), in terms of global energy and water balances. All four reanalyses show an energy imbalance at TOA and surface. Especially, clouds in JRA-55 are optically weaker than those in the three other reanalyses, leading to excessive outgoing longwave radiation, which in turn causes negative net energy flux at TOA. Moreover, JRA-55 has a negative imbalance at surface and at TOA, which is attributed to systematic positive biases in latent heat flux over the ocean. As for the global water balance, all reanalyses present a similar spatial pattern of the difference between evaporation and precipitation (E-P). However, JRA-55 has a relatively strong negative (positive) E-P in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and South Pacific Convergence Zone (extratropical regions) due to overestimated precipitation (evaporation), in spite of the global net being close to zero. In time series analysis, especially in E-P, significant stepwise changes occur in MERRA, CFSR and ERA-Interim due to the changes in the satellite observing system used in the data assimilation. Both MERRA and CFSR show a strong downward E-P shift in 1998, simultaneously with the start of the assimilation of AMSU-A sounding radiances. ERA-Interim exhibits an upward E-P shift in 1992 due to changes in observations from the SSM/I of new DMSP satellites. On the contrary, JRA-55 exhibits less trends and remains stable over time, which may be caused by newly available, homogenized observations and advances in data assimilation technique.

  3. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  4. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time.

  5. Global Energy and Water Balances in the Latest Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Kang, Suchul; Park, Hye-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The recently released Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) data are evaluated and compared with three other global reanalyses, namely Interim version of the next European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERRA-Interim), Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), in terms of global energy and water balances. All four reanalyses show an energy imbalance at TOA and surface. Especially, clouds in JRA-55 are optically weaker than those in the three other reanalyses, leading to excessive outgoing longwave radiation, which in turn causes negative net energy flux at TOA. Moreover, JRA-55 has a negative imbalance at surface and at TOA, which is attributed to systematic positive biases in latent heat flux over the ocean. As for the global water balance, all reanalyses present a similar spatial pattern of the difference between evaporation and precipitation (E-P). However, JRA-55 has a relatively strong negative (positive) E-P in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and South Pacific Convergence Zone (extratropical regions) due to overestimated precipitation (evaporation), in spite of the global net being close to zero. In time series analysis, especially in E-P, significant stepwise changes occur in MERRA, CFSR and ERA-Interim due to the changes occur in MERRA, CFRS and ERA-Interim due to the changes in the satellite observing system used in the data assimilation. Both MERRA and CFSR show a strong downward E-P shift in 1998, simultaneously with the start of the assimilation of AMSU-A sounding radiances. ERA-Interim exhibits an upward E-P shift in 1992 due to changes in observations from the SSM/I of new DMSP satellites. On the contrary, JRA-55 exhibits less trends and remains stable over time, which may be caused by newly available, homogenized observations and advances in data assimilation technique. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological

  6. Global warming: Energy efficiency is key to reduce dangerous threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    A consensus is growing among scientists, policymakers and citizens that human activity is altering the Earth's climate. Humans are loading carbon dioxide, methane and other pollutants into the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. The result, scientists say: pollutants are accelerating the greenhouse effect which is raising the average global temperature. A few degree temperature increase is projected to make major changes in agriculture and many other things. A growing number of scientists believe if these pollutants are not reduced, global warming could destroy the Earth's climatic balance on which our civilization rests, causing disruptions such as heat waves, droughts, coastal flooding and a rise in sea level. Clearly, all the facts about global warming, its exact causes and repercussions on the earth's climate, are not yet in. However, one thing is certain: We are not helpless and we can act now to reduce greenhouse gases through energy efficiency and halting deforestation. While energy efficiency, itself, is not a panacea, it is both an economic opportunity and environmental necessity for out nation, and for our earth.

  7. Tropospheric energy cascades in a global circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sebastian; Becker, Erich

    2010-05-01

    The global horizontal kinetic energy (KE) spectrum and its budget are analyzed using results from a mechanistic GCM. The model has a standard spectral dynamical core with very high vertikal resolution up to the middle stratosphere (T330/L100). As a turbulence model we combine the Smagorinsky scheme with an energy conserving hyperdiffusion that is applied for the very smallest resolved scales. The simulation confirms a slope of the KE spectrum close to -3 in the synoptic regime where the KE is dominated by vortical modes. Towards the mesoscales the spectrum flattens and assumes a slope close to -5/3. Here divergent modes become increasingly important and even dominate the KE. Our complete analysis of the sinks and sources in the spectral KE budget reveals the overall energy fluxes through the spectrum. For the upper troposphere, the change of KE due to horizontal advection is negative for large synoptic scales. It is positive for the planetary scale, as expected, and for the mesoscales as well. This implies that the mesoscales, which include the dynamical sources of tropospheric gravity waves, are in fact sustained by the energy injection at the baroclinic scale (forward energy cascade). We find an enstrophy cascade in accordance with 2D turbulence, but zero downscaling of energy due to the vortical modes alone. In other words, the forward energy cascade in the synoptic and mesoscale regime is solely due to the divergent modes and their nonlinear interaction with the vortical modes. This picture, derived form a mechanistic model, not only lends further evidence for a generally forward energy cascade in the upper tropospheric away from the baroclinic scale. It also extends the picture proposed earlier by Tung and Orlando: The transition from a -3 to a -5/3 slope in the tropospheric macroturbulence spectrum reflects the fact, that the energy cascade due to the horizontally divergent (3D) modes is hidden behind the (2D) enstrophy cascade in the synoptic regime but

  8. KEYNOTE: Simulation, computation, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Victor, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Victor Reis delivered the keynote talk at the closing session of the conference. The talk was forward looking and focused on the importance of advanced computing for large-scale nuclear energy goals such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Dr. Reis discussed the important connections of GNEP to the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the SciDAC research portfolio. In the context of GNEP, Dr. Reis talked about possible fuel leasing configurations, strategies for their implementation, and typical fuel cycle flow sheets. A major portion of the talk addressed lessons learnt from ‘Science Based Stockpile Stewardship’ and the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) initiative and how they can provide guidance for advancing GNEP and SciDAC goals. Dr. Reis’s colorful and informative presentation included international proverbs, quotes and comments, in tune with the international flavor that is part of the GNEP philosophy and plan. He concluded with a positive and motivating outlook for peaceful nuclear energy and its potential to solve global problems. An interview with Dr. Reis, addressing some of the above issues, is the cover story of Issue 2 of the SciDAC Review and available at http://www.scidacreview.org This summary of Dr. Reis’s PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Institute of Physics Publishing, the complete PowerPoint version of Dr. Reis’s talk at SciDAC 2006 is given as a multimedia attachment to this summary.

  9. Long-Term Global Heating From Energy Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisson, Eric J.

    2008-07-01

    Even if civilization on Earth stops polluting the biosphere with greenhouse gases, humanity could eventually be awash in too much heat, namely, the dissipated heat by-product generated by any nonrenewable energy source. Apart from the Sun's natural aging-which causes an approximately 1% luminosity rise for each 108 years and thus about 1°C increase in Earth's surface temperature-well within 1000 years our technological society could find itself up against a fundamental limit to growth: an unavoidable global heating of roughly 3°C dictated solely by the second law of thermodynamics, a biogeophysical effect often ignored when estimating future planetary warming scenarios.

  10. Review of global energy and carbon dioxide projections

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, B.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) in the Earth's atmosphere has risen steadily over the last century, giving rise to the widely publicized ''greenhouse effect,'' believed to be responsible for a gradual warming trend in the Earth's climate. In addition to CO/sub 2/, recent studies have revealed increasing atmospheric concentrations of other ''greenhouse'' gases (e.g. methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons) that may well exacerbate this warming trend considerably. While the sources of these latest gases have not yet been clearly identified, emissions of CO/sub 2/ into the atmosphere are known to come from anthropogenic sources, primarily the combustion of fossil fuels. Thus an important component in the investigation of future global warming is an understanding of future carbon emissions, which in turn requires a study of future energy developments, particularly fossil fuel consumption. Various attempts have recently been made to project the global energy future and corresponding CO/sub 2/ emissions several decades ahead. This paper provides a critical review of some of these efforts.

  11. Modelling of the Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, C.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    Lateral density and topography variations yield in and important contribution to the lithospheric stress field. The leading quantity is the Geopotential Energy, the integrated lithostatic pressure in a rock column. The horizontal gradient of this quantity is related to horizontal stresses through the Equations of equilibrium of stresses. The Geopotential Energy furthermore can be linearly related to the Geoid under assumption of local isostasy. Satellite Geoid measurements contain, however, also non-isostatic deeper mantle responses of long wavelength. Unfortunately, high-pass filtering of the Geoid does not suppress only the deeper sources. The age-dependent signal of the oceanic lithosphere, for instance, is of long wave length and a prominent representative of in-plane stress, derived from the horizontal gradient of isostatic Geoid anomalies and responsible for the ridge push effect. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is required in order to isolate the shallow Geoid signal and calculate the stress pattern from isostatically compensated lithospheric sources. We use a linearized inverse method to fit a lithospheric reference model to observations such as topography and surface heat flow in the presence of local isostasy and a steady state geotherm. Subsequently we use a FEM code to solve the Equations of equilibrium of stresses for a three dimensional elastic shell. The modelled results are shown and compared with the global stress field and other publications.

  12. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  13. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  14. ISTP Global Geospace Science. Energy transfer in geospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Solar-terrestrial physics concerns the study of the generation, flow, and dissipation of mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. Mass, momentum, and energy are carried by charged particles that compose the solar wind. When the solar wind reaches the Earth, some solar-wind particles enter the magnetosphere; this coupling between the solar wind and the Earth means that the solar wind can influence the Earth's upper atmosphere. As the first step in addressing the behavior of this solar-terrestrial system, the Global Geospace Science (GGS) Initiative will use the Wind and Polar satellites, provided by NASA, and the Geotail satellite provided by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), to perform simultaneous and closely coordinated measurements of the key geospace regions and will add data from equatorial missions. Magnetic field and particle changes that occur when particles are energized during auroral events will be monitored. The intention behind the GGS Initiative is to understand the physical mechanisms and various regions controlling the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in geospace. A summary of the GGS Initiative is presented.

  15. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  16. Global scale energy budget contrast between warm and cold years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Lionello, Piero

    2014-05-01

    This contribution analyses changes to the energy budget of the troposphere associated to global warm anomalies of the Earth surface temperature. This is important for understanding the dynamics of climate change. A phenomenological approach is adopted, comparing coldest and warmest years over the last century. Data are provided by the results of 10 simulations carried out within the ERA-20CM experiment and covering the period 1900-2010. This ensemble is forced by 10 perturbed realizations of SST fields and greenhouse gases concentration time series. Analysis considers the annual mean meridional distribution of zonal mean tropospheric and surface temperature, net downward solar radiation at top of atmosphere and Earth surface, surface heat flux (SHF), consisting of net longwave upward radiation, latent heat and sensible heat vertical fluxes, and outgoing longwave radiation at top of atmosphere (OLR). Differences of these variables between the warmest and coldest years are computed, in order to analyze how the energy budget of the atmosphere is associated to the warming the Earth surface. During warm years, it is observed that tropospheric warming occurs at all latitudes, decreasing at its top, being rather uniform but larger/smaller around the North/South Pole than at the tropics. This is consistent with the overall increase of OLR at all latitudes. Shortwave absorption in the troposphere increases, with a peak around 30 degrees north, as a result of increased net downward solar radiation at the top. The warming of the surface is associated with reduced SHF almost everywhere, particularly at higher latitudes. This combined effect might be interpreted as a reduction of solar reflection by cloud cover and an increased moisture in the lower troposphere, inhibiting evaporation and heat fluxes from the surface, and increasing downward flow of longwave radiation to the surface. Finally, the meridional distribution of residual net energy budget in the troposphere suggests

  17. Modeling global macroclimatic constraints on ectotherm energy budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, B.W.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-12-31

    The authors describe a mechanistic individual-based model of how global macroclimatic constraints affect the energy budgets of ectothermic animals. The model uses macroclimatic and biophysical characters of the habitat and organism and tenets of heat transfer theory to calculate hourly temperature availabilities over a year. Data on the temperature dependence of activity rate, metabolism, food consumption and food processing capacity are used to estimate the net rate of resource assimilation which is then integrated over time. They present a new test of this model in which they show that the predicted energy budget sizes for 11 populations of the lizard Sceloporus undulates are in close agreement with observed results from previous field studies. This demonstrates that model tests rae feasible and the results are reasonable. Further, since the model represents an upper bound to the size of the energy budget, observed residual deviations form explicit predictions about the effects of environmental constraints on the bioenergetics of the study lizards within each site that may be tested by future field and laboratory studies. Three major new improvements to the modeling are discussed. They present a means to estimate microclimate thermal heterogeneity more realistically and include its effects on field rates of individual activity and food consumption. Second, they describe an improved model of digestive function involving batch processing of consumed food. Third, they show how optimality methods (specifically the methods of stochastic dynamic programming) may be included to model the fitness consequences of energy allocation decisions subject to food consumption and processing constraints which are predicted from the microclimate and physiological modeling.

  18. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  19. Targeted disruption of G0/G1 switch gene 2 enhances adipose lipolysis, alters hepatic energy balance, and alleviates high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Xie, Xitao; Heckmann, Bradlee L; Saarinen, Alicia M; Czyzyk, Traci A; Liu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Recent biochemical and cell-based studies identified G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key mediator of intracellular triacylglycerol (TG) mobilization. Here, we show that upon fasting, G0S2 protein expression exhibits an increase in liver and a decrease in adipose tissue. Global knockout of G0S2 in mice enhanced adipose lipolysis and attenuated gain of body weight and adiposity. More strikingly, G0S2 knockout mice displayed a drastic decrease in hepatic TG content and were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced liver steatosis, both of which were reproduced by liver-specific G0S2 knockdown. Mice with hepatic G0S2 knockdown also showed increased ketogenesis, accelerated gluconeogenesis, and decelerated glycogenolysis. Conversely, overexpression of G0S2 inhibited fatty acid oxidation in mouse primary hepatocytes and caused sustained steatosis in liver accompanied by deficient TG clearance during the fasting-refeeding transition. In response to HFD, there was a profound increase in hepatic G0S2 expression in the fed state. Global and hepatic ablation of G0S2 both led to improved insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. Our findings implicate a physiological role for G0S2 in the control of adaptive energy response to fasting and as a contributor to obesity-associated liver steatosis.

  20. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2010-03-01

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO 2 as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  1. Covariant energy density functionals: The assessment of global performance across the nuclear landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.

    2015-10-15

    The assessment of the global performance of the state-of-the-art covariant energy density functionals and related theoretical uncertainties in the description of ground state observables has recently been performed. Based on these results, the correlations between global description of binding energies and nuclear matter properties of covariant energy density functionals have been studied in this contribution.

  2. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p < 0.001). Results suggested that caution should be exercised when using commercial GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training.

  3. Global stabilization of high-energy response of a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kato, S.; Masuda, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a resonance-type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency band. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the maximum performance of the power generation and its bandwidth are in a relation of trade-off. Introducing a Duffing-type nonlinearity can expand the resonance frequency band and enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator may have coexisting multiple steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to give global stability to the high-energy orbit by destabilizing other unexpected low-energy orbits by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. In this paper, an improved control law that switches the load resistance according to a frequency-dependent threshold is proposed to ensure the oscillator to respond in the high-energy orbit without ineffective power consumption. Numerical study shows that the steady-state responses of the harvester with the proposed control low are successfully kept on the high-energy orbit without repeating activation of the excitationmode.

  4. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth

  5. The global land and ocean mean energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2016-04-01

    land, and 16 and 100 Wm-2 over oceans, for sensible and latent heat fluxes, respectively. Estimated uncertainties are on the order of 10 and 5 Wm-2 for most surface and TOA fluxes, respectively. Combining these surface budgets with satellite-determined TOA budgets (CERES-EBAF) results in an atmospheric solar absorption of 77 and 82 Wm-2 and a net atmospheric thermal emission of -165 and -190 Wm-2 over land and oceans, respectively. We further revisit the global mean energy balance by combining the area weighed land and ocean mean budgets. This study is published in: Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M., Schär, C., Seneviratne, S.I., Kato, S., Rutan, D., Ammann, C., Wood, E.F., and König-Langlo, G., 2015: The energy balance over land and oceans: An assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Clim. Dyn., Dyn., 44, 3393-3429, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z.

  6. A Global Perspective: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Whitlock, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project, initiated under the NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Science Energy Management Program, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale that are invaluable to the renewable energy industries, especially to the solar and wind energy sectors. The POWER project derives its data primarily from NASA's World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Version 2.9) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (Version 4). The latest development of the NASA POWER Project and its plans for the future are presented in this paper.

  7. Energy in an Interdependent World: A Global Development Studies Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Anne B.

    Part of the Global Development Studies Institute series of model curricula, the teacher guide presents strategies for teaching about energy as a global issue. The unit, intended for students in grades 11-14, is designed for one semester. The overall objective is to promote awareness of and responsibility toward the global community through an…

  8. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-04-06

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: - Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.- Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.- Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  9. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project

    PubMed Central

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L.; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-01-01

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: — Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.— Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.— Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  10. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  11. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era. PMID:28117324

  12. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2017-01-24

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  13. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  14. Global potential energy hypersurface for dynamical studies of energy transfer in HF--HF collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Redmon, M.J.; Binkley, J.S.

    1987-07-15

    The interaction energy of two HF molecules at 1332 individual points has been calculated with Moeller--Plesset (many--body) perturbation theory at the MP4-SDTQ level using a 6-311G** basis set. 293 of the points correspond to stretching of one HF molecule from its equilibrium geometry. No attempt was made to use a sufficiently fine grid to accurately describe the well region corresponding to hydrogen bonding. However, the location and minimum energy are consistent with experiment and other accurate theoretical results. An extensive global fit (rms error of 1 kcal/mol) is reported of 1319 points (below 10 eV of potential energy) using a modified London potential with corrections obtained using polynomials through four-body interactions. A model electrostatic potential represents the long-range interaction. In addition, the use of an expansion in products of three Legendre functions is discussed. It is shown that the latter approach, although accurately fitting the ab initio data, has difficulties interpolating in regions of the surface exhibiting diverse magnitudes of potential energy, and therefore must be used with caution. This surface should be useful for studies of T--V--R processes in this system.

  15. Global energy regulation in the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, T.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic concepts which are essential in the understanding of global energy regulation in the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system are introduced. The importance of line-tying concept is particularly emphasized in connection with the solar wind energy, energy release in the magnetosphere and energy dissipation in the ionosphere.

  16. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  17. Two global scenarios: The evolution of energy use and the economy to 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chant, V. G.

    1981-11-01

    Energy in a Finite World: A Global Systems Analysis (Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 181, 880 pages) documents the seven-year study of the future balance of energy supply and demand made by the IIASA Energy Systems Program. Part IV of this book, Balancing Supply and Demand: The Quantitative Analysis, presents results based on two scenarios of global and regional development. Based on the data available when the work was done, these scenarios specify population growth, aggregate economic development in five sectors, and detailed energy use and supply for seven global regions. The scenarios specify energy requirements for households, transportation, and economic activity, and estimate energy supply regionally and globally. These scenario projections are described and analyzed within the economic framework, including aggregate economic models, that was used in deriving the projections. To understand the context of this report and to appreciate the full range of its findings, one must read it in conjunction with the book cited above.

  18. Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-06-01

    Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Usage rises as population and affluence increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity or natural areas. To avoid a business-as-usual dependence on coal, oil, and gas over the coming decades, society must map out a future energy mix that incorporates alternative sources. This exercise can lead to radically different opinions on what a sustainable energy portfolio might entail, so an objective assessment of the relative costs and benefits of different energy sources is required. We evaluated the land use, emissions, climate, and cost implications of 3 published but divergent storylines for future energy production, none of which was optimal for all environmental and economic indicators. Using multicriteria decision-making analysis, we ranked 7 major electricity-generation sources (coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, hydro, wind, and solar) based on costs and benefits and tested the sensitivity of the rankings to biases stemming from contrasting philosophical ideals. Irrespective of weightings, nuclear and wind energy had the highest benefit-to-cost ratio. Although the environmental movement has historically rejected the nuclear energy option, new-generation reactor technologies that fully recycle waste and incorporate passive safety systems might resolve their concerns and ought to be more widely understood. Because there is no perfect energy source however, conservation professionals ultimately need to take an evidence-based approach to consider carefully the integrated effects of energy mixes on biodiversity conservation. Trade-offs and compromises are inevitable and require advocating energy mixes that minimize net environmental damage. Society cannot afford to risk wholesale failure to address energy-related biodiversity impacts because of preconceived notions and ideals.

  19. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-12-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets ('technical potential'). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160-270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization ('cascade utilization') of biomass flows.

  20. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets (‘technical potential’). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160–270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization (‘cascade utilization’) of biomass flows. PMID:24069093

  1. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of secondary energy failure and protects brain in neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Charlagorla, Pradeep; Matsukevich, Dzmitry A; Sosunov, Sergey A; Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Ratner, Veniamin I; Polin, Richard A; Starkov, Anatoly A; Ten, Vadim S

    2012-02-01

    Reperfusion triggers an oxidative stress. We hypothesized that mild hypoxemia in reperfusion attenuates oxidative brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In neonatal HI-mice, the reperfusion was initiated by reoxygenation with room air (RA) followed by the exposure to 100%, 21%, 18%, 15% oxygen for 60 minutes. Systemic oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain mitochondrial respiration and permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, markers of oxidative injury, and cerebral infarcts were assessed. Compared with RA-littermates, HI-mice exposed to 18% oxygen exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume, oxidative injury in the brain mitochondria and tissue. This was coupled with improved mitochondrial tolerance to mPTP opening. Oxygen saturation maintained during reperfusion at 85% to 95% was associated (r=0.57) with the best neurologic outcome. Exposure to 100% or 15% oxygen significantly exacerbated brain injury and oxidative stress. Compared with RA-mice, hyperoxia dramatically increased reperfusion CBF, but exposure to 15% oxygen significantly reduced CBF to values observed during the HI-insult. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of HI-brain injury by limiting the reperfusion-driven oxidative stress to the mitochondria and mPTP opening. This suggests that at the initial stage of reperfusion, a slightly decreased systemic oxygenation (SaO(2) 85% to 95%) may be beneficial for infants with birth asphyxia.

  2. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of secondary energy failure and protects brain in neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Charlagorla, Pradeep; Matsukevich, Dzmitry A; Sosunov, Sergey A; Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Ratner, Veniamin I; Polin, Richard A; Starkov, Anatoly A; Ten, Vadim S

    2012-01-01

    Reperfusion triggers an oxidative stress. We hypothesized that mild hypoxemia in reperfusion attenuates oxidative brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In neonatal HI-mice, the reperfusion was initiated by reoxygenation with room air (RA) followed by the exposure to 100%, 21%, 18%, 15% oxygen for 60 minutes. Systemic oxygen saturation (SaO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain mitochondrial respiration and permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, markers of oxidative injury, and cerebral infarcts were assessed. Compared with RA-littermates, HI-mice exposed to 18% oxygen exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume, oxidative injury in the brain mitochondria and tissue. This was coupled with improved mitochondrial tolerance to mPTP opening. Oxygen saturation maintained during reperfusion at 85% to 95% was associated (r=0.57) with the best neurologic outcome. Exposure to 100% or 15% oxygen significantly exacerbated brain injury and oxidative stress. Compared with RA-mice, hyperoxia dramatically increased reperfusion CBF, but exposure to 15% oxygen significantly reduced CBF to values observed during the HI-insult. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of HI-brain injury by limiting the reperfusion-driven oxidative stress to the mitochondria and mPTP opening. This suggests that at the initial stage of reperfusion, a slightly decreased systemic oxygenation (SaO2 85% to 95%) may be beneficial for infants with birth asphyxia. PMID:22108720

  3. Climate Change in New England | Energy and Global Climate ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA Region 1's Energy and Climate Unit and Oceans and Coastal Unit provide information and technical assistance on climate change impacts and adaptation, resilience and preparedness to climate disruptions

  4. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Give Keynote Address at Columbia Universitys Global Energy Summit in NYC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will give keynote remarks at Columbia University's Global Energy Summit in New York City. Administrator McCarthy will speak about the agency's actions to protect public health while encouragin

  5. TODAY: EPA Administrator to Give Keynote Address at Columbia Universitys Global Energy Summit in NYC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will give keynote remarks at Columbia University's Global Energy Summit in New York City. Administrator McCarthy will speak about the agency's actions to protect public health while encouraging eco

  6. Global Auroral Energy Deposition during Substorm Onset Compared with Local Time and Solar Wind IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M.; Fillingim, M. O.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The global images made by the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) aboard the IASTP/Polar Satellite are used to derive the global auroral energy deposited in the ionosphere resulting from electron precipitation. During a substorm onset, the energy deposited and its location in local time are compared to the solar wind IMF conditions. Previously, insitu measurements of low orbiting satellites have made precipitating particle measurements along the spacecraft track and global images of the auroral zone, without the ability to quantify energy parameters, have been available. However, usage of the high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution of consecutive UVI images enables quantitative measurement of the energy deposited in the ionosphere not previously available on a global scale. Data over an extended period beginning in January 1997 will be presented.

  7. Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.

    1980-04-11

    The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

  8. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  9. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally About Food, Population and Energy Issues. Seventh Grade Interdisciplinary Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara, Ed.

    This social studies unit suggests activities and teaching methods for use by seventh grade social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on global food, population, and energy problems. Objectives are to help students become aware of global interdependence, identify roles of various nations in causing and…

  10. Global expression for representing cohesive-energy curves. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1993-01-01

    Schlosser et al. (1991) showed that the R dependence of the cohesive energy of partially ionic solids may be characterized by a two-term energy relationship consisting of a Coulomb term arising from the charge transfer, delta-Z, and a scaled universal energy function, E*(a *), which accounts for the partially covalent character of the bond and for repulsion between the atomic cores for small R; a* is a scaled length. In the paper by Schlosser et al., the normalized cohesive-energy curves of NaCl-structure alkali-halide crystals were generated with this expression. In this paper we generate the cohesive-energy curves of several families of partially ionic solids with different crystal structures and differing degrees of ionicity. These include the CsCl-structure Cs halides, and the Tl and Ag halides, which have weaker ionic bonding than the alkali halides, and which have the CsCl and NaCl structures, respectively. The cohesive-energy-curve parameters are then used to generate theoretical isothermal compression curves for the Li, Na, K, Cs, and Ag halides. We find good agreement with the available experimental compression data.

  11. Geothermal energy and the environment - The global experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualetti, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discusses the impact of environmental problems on the world's geothermal generating stations. The significant impacts include conflicts in land use, air pollution, subsidence, water pollution, induced seismicity, blowouts, and noise. Development of geothermal resources has been slowed down in some countries: in U.S., the emission of hydrogen sulfide produced a problem; in Japan, land use in national parks and waste-water disposal resulted in difficulties; and in El Salvador, waste-water disposal presented a difficulty. Geothermal development faces many regulations and difficulties, particularly in U.S., a country which could stimulate a global acceleration in this field with appropriately relaxed controls.

  12. GEWEX - The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.

    1992-01-01

    GEWEX, which is part of the World Climate Research Program, has as its goal an order-of-magnitude improvement in the ability to model global precipitation and evaporation and furnish an accurate assessment of the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation and clouds. Attention will also be given to the response of the hydrological cycle and water resources to climate change. GEWEX employs a single program to coordinate all aspects of climatology from model development to the deployment and operation of observational systems. GEWEX will operate over the next two decades.

  13. THE HUNDRED BILLION DOLLAR BONUS: Global Energy Efficiency Lessons from India

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Seema; Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-03-01

    At a time when India and other nations are grappling with myriad energy-related challenges, including unstable, costly power sources and growing greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency offers an alternative at a fraction of the cost of other new sources of energy. A consortium of leading Indian regulators, nongovernmental organizations, and international experts has recognized this opportunity and is working to develop effective policies that will bring significant domestic benefits to India while accelerating the global transition to energy efficiency.

  14. ENERGY INVESTMENTS UNDER CLIMATE POLICY: A COMPARISON OF GLOBAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, David; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Marangoni, Giacomo; Calvin, Katherine V.; Pietzcker, Robert; Van Vliet, Jasper; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2013-11-01

    The levels of investment needed to mobilize an energy system transformation and mitigate climate change are not known with certainty. This paper aims to inform the ongoing dialogue and in so doing to guide public policy and strategic corporate decision making. Within the framework of the LIMITS integrated assessment model comparison exercise, we analyze a multi-IAM ensemble of long-term energy and greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Our study provides insight into several critical but uncertain areas related to the future investment environment, for example in terms of where capital expenditures may need to flow regionally, into which sectors they might be concentrated, and what policies could be helpful in spurring these financial resources. We find that stringent climate policies consistent with a 2°C climate change target would require a considerable upscaling of investments into low-carbon energy and energy efficiency, reaching approximately $45 trillion (range: $30–$75 trillion) cumulative between 2010 and 2050, or about $1.1 trillion annually. This represents an increase of some $30 trillion ($10–$55 trillion), or $0.8 trillion per year, beyond what investments might otherwise be in a reference scenario that assumes the continuation of present and planned emissions-reducing policies throughout the world. In other words, a substantial "clean-energy investment gap" of some $800 billion/yr exists — notably on the same order of magnitude as present-day subsidies for fossil energy and electricity worldwide ($523 billion). Unless the gap is filled rather quickly, the 2°C target could potentially become out of reach.

  15. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  16. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  17. Global energy issues affecting aeronautics: a reasoned conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a reasoned conjecture of the future up to 2050 AD including estimates of energy supply and consumption, transport system developments and corresponding pollution effects. Results of the logistic substitution methods (Volterra-Lotka) are used in forecasting trends in innovation, transport and energy. Later work on normative forecasts is also included. The future of aeronautics cannot be isolated from events in other transport modes which together create the major problem of crude oil replacement during the next century. Natural gas will be the dominant energy source for the next 80 years and a major question is how best to use it for aviation. The work on which this paper is based was started in 1992 to answer the following questions: Is the future oil shortfall sufficient to restrict aviation traffic and growth in the next 50 years? If so, what is its substitute? Can a substitute be obtained cheaply enough to free aviation from future kerosine shortages? Is it paramount to change to liquid hydrogen fuel to avoid future fuel shortage in aeronautics, incidentally conferring possible environmental advantages? There was no adequate evidence available to answer these questions, hence a method was devised to bring together several sets of partial data that contributed to the solution. The essence is to use the mean annual growth rate of traffic or energy over a future period as a pseudo-independent variable. This allows the inclusion of alternative high and low estimates of all the important quantities involved.

  18. Estimates of the Global Indirect Energy-Use Emission Impacts of USA Biofuel Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the indirect energy-use emission implications of increases in the use of biofuels in the USA between 2001 and 2010 as mandates within a dynamic global computable general equilibrium model. The study incorporates explicit markets for biofuels, petroleum and other fossil fuels, and accounts for interactions among all sectors of an 18-region global economy. It considers bilateral trade, as well as the dynamics of capital allocation and investment. Simulation results show that the biofuel mandates in the USA generate an overall reduction in global energy use and emissions over the simulation period from 2001 to 2030. Consequently, the indirect energy-use emission change or emission leakage under the mandate is negative. That is, global emission reductions are larger than the direct emission savings from replacing petroleum with biofuels under the USA RFS2 over the last decade. Under our principal scenario this enhanced the direct emission reduction from biofuels by about 66%. The global change in lifecycle energy-use emissions for this scenario was estimated to be about 93 million tons of CO2e in 2010, 45 million tons of CO2e in 2020, and an increase of 5 million tons of CO2e in 2030, relative to the baseline scenario. Sensitivity results of six alternative scenarios provided additional insights into the pattern of the regional and global effects of biofuel mandates on energy-use emissions.

  19. Optofluidic opportunities in global health, food, water and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yih-Fan; JiangLj, Mm, Aj,; Vo Contributed Equally To This Paper., Li; Mancuso, Matthew; Jain, Aadhar; Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2012-07-01

    Optofluidics is a rapidly advancing field that utilizes the integration of optics and microfluidics to provide a number of novel functionalities in microsystems. In this review, we discuss how this approach can potentially be applied to address some of the greatest challenges facing both the developing and developed world, including healthcare, food shortages, malnutrition, water purification, and energy. While medical diagnostics has received most of the attention to date, here we show that some other areas can also potentially benefit from optofluidic technology. Whenever possible we briefly describe how microsystems are currently used to address these problems and then explain why and how optofluidics can provide better solutions. The focus of the article is on the applications of optofluidic techniques in low-resource settings, but we also emphasize that some of these techniques, such as those related to food production, food safety assessment, nutrition monitoring, and energy production, could be very useful in well-developed areas as well.

  20. Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard P.; Berrisford, Paul; Mayer, Michael; Hyder, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Smith, Doug; Vidale, Pier-Luigi; Edwards, John M.

    2015-09-01

    Two methods are developed to estimate net surface energy fluxes based upon satellite-derived reconstructions of radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Method 1 applies the mass-adjusted energy divergence from ERA-Interim, while method 2 estimates energy divergence based upon the net energy difference at the top of atmosphere and the surface from ERA-Interim. To optimize the surface flux and its variability over ocean, the divergences over land are constrained to match the monthly area mean surface net energy flux variability derived from a simple relationship between the surface net energy flux and the surface temperature change. The energy divergences over the oceans are then adjusted to remove an unphysical residual global mean atmospheric energy divergence. The estimated net surface energy fluxes are compared with other data sets from reanalysis and atmospheric model simulations. The spatial correlation coefficients of multiannual means between the estimations made here and other data sets are all around 0.9. There are good agreements in area mean anomaly variability over the global ocean, but discrepancies in the trend over the eastern Pacific are apparent.

  1. System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets - Vol. I, Model Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of projections for the International Energy Outlook. The first volume of this report describes the System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets (SAGE) methodology and provides an in-depth explanation of the equations of the model.

  2. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    reduce fuel consumption by 25–50% for vessels at a sailing speed of 6 knots. The fuel savings are greater for a lower sailing speed than for a higher... consumption by 25???50% for vessels at a sailing speed of 6 knots. The fuel savings are greater for a lower sailing speed than for a higher sailing...result in 19% reduction of engine power and 27% reduction of energy consumption and therefore reduction inCO2 emissions (IMO, 2010). Weather routing is

  3. A global potential energy surface for ArH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.

  4. A global potential energy surface for ArH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.

  5. 75 FR 70742 - E-T Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission E-T Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of E-T Global Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  6. Progress and challenges in the estimation of the global energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin

    2017-02-01

    While enormous progress in the determination of the global energy fluxes in and out of the climate system was made in the past decades due to the installation of sophisticated space-born observation systems, substantial discrepancies remained in the estimated and simulated surface energy budgets, as they cannot be directly measured from space. The increasing availability of accurate surface observations, improvements in the satellite retrievals of surface fluxes and model advancement, however, lead to a recent convergence of independent estimates on some of the global mean surface energy balance components to within a few Wm-2. This suggests that we are approaching a stage where we are not only confident in the magnitudes of the global annual mean energy balance components at the TOA, but increasingly also at the surface. Consensus emerges on a global mean surface downward shortwave flux near 185 Wm-2, as well as global mean surface downward and upward longwave fluxes slightly above 340 Wm-2 and below 400 Wm-2, respectively. Taking into account remaining uncertainties in the surface albedo, this implies a surface absorbed shortwave radiation near or somewhat above 160 Wm-2, which leaves an atmospheric shortwave absorption of nearly 80 Wm-2, considering a total shortwave absorption of 240 Wm-2 in the global climate system. Thus, 2/3 of the absorption of shortwave radiation in the climate system takes place at the surface, 1/3 in the atmosphere. Given the above estimates, the global mean surface net radiation (surface radiation balance) appears to be around 105 Wm-2. The partitioning of this radiative energy at the Earth's surface into sensible and latent heat is only weekly constrained by direct observations and is still afflicted with considerable uncertainties. The best estimate of global mean surface net radiation near 105 Wm-2 promoted here should, however, enable a consistent representation of the magnitudes of the global energy and water cycles within their

  7. Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

    2012-10-01

    According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy.

  9. Surviving Global Energy Challenges In Uncertain Times: The Case For Renewables And Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J. P.

    2003-02-25

    This paper provides a brief summary of the role that energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can serve in strengthening our energy infrastructure. These technologies are commercially available today and are already deployed in many thousands of applications.

  10. Framework for Understanding Global Versus Local Energy Deposition into the Ionosphere and Thermosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-24

    wind density enhancement, followed by solar wind dynamic pressure pulses that trigger excess low- energy particle flux to the upper atmosphere; (2...state and input solar and auroral activity. Our results suggest that GLOWfast may be even more appropriate for low characteristic energy auroral...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0247 Framework for Understanding Global Versus Local Energy Deposition into the Ionosphere and Thermosphere Joachim Raeder

  11. Global Expression for Representing Diatomic Potential-Energy Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Schlosser, Herbert; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A three-parameter expression that gives an accurate fit to diatomic potential curves over the entire range of separation for charge transfers between 0 and 1. It is based on a generalization of the universal binding-energy relation of Smith et al. (1989) with a modification that describes the crossover from a partially ionic state to the neutral state at large separations. The expression is tested by comparison with first-principles calculations of the potential curves ranging from covalently bonded to ionically bonded. The expression is also used to calculate spectroscopic constants form a curve fit to the first-principles curves. A comparison is made with experimental values of the spectroscopic constants.

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  13. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  14. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  15. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A.; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M.; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well-being—energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  16. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  17. Nuclear energy density functionals: What we can learn about/from their global performance?

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Agbemava, S. E.; Ray, D.; Ring, P.

    2014-10-15

    A short review of recent results on the global performance of covariant energy density functionals is presented. It is focused on an analysis of the accuracy of the description of physical observables of ground and excited states as well as to related theoretical uncertainties. In addition, a global analysis of pairing properties is presented and the impact of pairing on the position of two-neutron drip line is discussed.

  18. An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm-2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation -- that is, in the form of latent heat flux -- and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface.

  19. On global minimizers of repulsive–attractive power-law interaction energies

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Chipot, Michel; Huang, Yanghong

    2014-01-01

    We consider the minimization of the repulsive–attractive power-law interaction energies that occur in many biological and physical situations. We show the existence of global minimizers in the discrete setting and obtain bounds for their supports independently of the number of Dirac deltas in a certain range of exponents. These global discrete minimizers correspond to the stable spatial profiles of flock patterns in swarming models. Global minimizers of the continuum problem are obtained by compactness. We also illustrate our results through numerical simulations. PMID:25288810

  20. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  1. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  2. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  3. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  4. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy-in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources-is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world's natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources.

  5. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  6. 76 FR 70439 - Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Global Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or...

  7. Quantum Dynamics of Vinylidene Photodetachment on an Accurate Global Acetylene-Vinylidene Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifen; Han, Huixian; Ma, Jianyi; Guo, Hua

    2015-08-06

    Vinylidene is a high-energy isomer of acetylene, and the rearrangement of bonds in the two species serves as a prototype for isomerization reactions. Here, a full-dimensional quantum mechanical study of the vinylidene vibration is carried out on a recently developed global acetylene-vinylidene potential energy surface by simulating the photodetachment dynamics of the vinylidene anion. Several low-lying vibrational levels of the anion were first determined on a new ab initio based potential energy surface, and their photoelectron spectra were obtained within the Condon approximation. The vibrational features of the vinylidene isomer are found to agree well with the experiment in both positions and intensities, validating the global acetylene-vinylidene potential energy surface.

  8. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts regulates global energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qianqian; Yu, Caixia; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Keqin; Guo, Jun; Song, Lige

    2017-04-01

    Obesity, diabetes and osteoporosis have become a major public heath burden, and understanding the underlying mechanisms of these pathophysiological process will benefit their treatment. Osteoblast lineage cells in charge of the bone formation have been showed to participate in the whole-body energy metabolism. In this study, we identify that wnt/β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts could regulate global energy metabolism, including glucose homeostasis, fat accumulation and energy expenditure. Mice lacking β-catenin specifically in osteoblasts postnatally exhibit decreased bone mass, increased glucose level, decreased insulin production, decreased fat accumulation and increased energy expenditure. Osteocalcin supplement can rescue the impaired glucose balance by improving insulin production but cannot influence the abnormal fat accumulation and energy expenditure. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) overexpression exclusively in osteoblasts in β-catenin deletion mice can normalize not only the decreased bone mass but also the decreased fat accumulation and increased energy expenditure. The effect of β-catenin deletion and OPG overexpression in osteoblasts on global energy metabolism had no relation with inguinal fat browning. These results suggest that the regulation of bone on energy metabolism and fat accumulation is not mediated exclusively by osteocalcin. Our findings may provide a new insight into the regulation of bone on fat accumulation and energy metabolism.

  9. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  10. Global exploration of the energy landscape of solids on the ab initio level.

    PubMed

    Doll, K; Schön, J C; Jansen, M

    2007-12-14

    Predicting which crystalline modifications can be present in a chemical system requires the global exploration of its energy landscape. Due to the large computational effort involved, in the past this search for sufficiently stable minima has been performed employing a variety of empirical potentials and cost functions followed by a local optimization on the ab initio level. However, this entails the risk of overlooking important modifications that are not modeled accurately using empirical potentials. In order to overcome this critical limitation, we develop an approach to employ ab initio energy functions during the global optimization phase of the structure prediction. As an example, we perform a global exploration of the landscape of LiF on the ab initio level and show that the relevant crystalline modifications are found during the search.

  11. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming.

    PubMed

    Reiner, D M; Curry, T E; De Figueiredo, M A; Herzog, H J; Ansolabehere, S D; Itaoka, K; Johnsson, F; Odenberger, M

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that "global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary". There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (< 10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming.

  13. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  14. 78 FR 73915 - Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc... concerning the securities of Community Alliance, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  15. Assessing the global potential and regional implications of promoting bio-energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials from bio-based feedstocks environmentally, and socially, preferable?” Bioenergy as an alternative energy source might be effective in reducing fossil fuel use, slowing global warming effects, and providing increased revenue...

  16. System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets - Vol. II, Model Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The second volume provides a data implementation guide that lists all naming conventions and model constraints. In addition, Volume 1 has two appendixes that provide a schematic of the System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets (SAGE) structure and a listing of the source code, respectively.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Global Change Fellowships, 1991-2006: Participant Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-09-01

    This report provides information on the impact of two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs supporting graduate study related to global change. The information was obtained from former fellows in the two programs, and the report examines their subsequent careers and the benefits of program participation.

  18. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  19. Energy and the Confused Student IV: A Global Approach to Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. In the first three articles in this series we discussed several issues related to the teaching of energy concepts. We have saved a major single issue for this…

  20. Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet.

    PubMed

    Hoffert, Martin I; Caldeira, Ken; Benford, Gregory; Criswell, David R; Green, Christopher; Herzog, Howard; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Lackner, Klaus S; Lewis, John S; Lightfoot, H Douglas; Manheimer, Wallace; Mankins, John C; Mauel, Michael E; Perkins, L John; Schlesinger, Michael E; Volk, Tyler; Wigley, Tom M L

    2002-11-01

    Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (approximately 10(13) watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  1. Progressive Mid-latitude Afforestation: Impacts on Clouds, Circulation, and the Global Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, M.; Swann, A. L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation influences the atmosphere in complex and non-linear ways. Large-scale changes in vegetation can drive changes in climate on both local and global scales. Interactions between the land and atmosphere are controlled by shifts between terms controlling the surface energy budget. Depending on the magnitude and location of land surface changes, imbalances in energy at large spatial scales can be introduced which shift atmospheric circulation on a global scale. Various studies have explored the impacts of large area changes in vegetation, but how the climate response scales with the area of vegetation change has not been demonstrated. Here, we systematically evaluate the response of climate to linearly increasing the area of forest cover over the northern mid-latitudes. We show that global circulation changes the atmospheric cross-equatorial energy transport in a linear fashion with respect to the area of afforestation (a relationship which has not previously been demonstrated). We also identify how vegetation-induced changes in cloud cover further feedback on changes in the global energy balance - a concept that has been largely ignored in most large-scale vegetation manipulation experiments. The changes in atmospheric energy transport induced by vegetation changes result in remote shifts in precipitation; the relationship between the change in energy transport and the shift in tropical precipitation is shown to be model dependent. Our results highlight the importance of considering both local and remote effects of large-scale vegetation change, and explore how the effects of vegetation change on climate scale with the area of land surface changed. We demonstrate how vegetation changes can modify the surface energy budget both directly and through impacts on cloud cover through land-atmosphere interactions.

  2. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  3. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  4. Analysing global food waste problem: pinpointing the facts and estimating the energy content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikoglu, Mehmet; Lin, Carol; Webb, Colin

    2013-06-01

    Food waste is a global problem. Each year food worth billions of dollars is wasted by the developed economies of the world. When food is wasted, the problem does not end at that point. More than 95% of the food waste ends at landfill sites, where converted into methane, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses by anaerobic digestion. The impact of food waste to climate change is catastrophic. Food waste problem tends to increase in next 25 years due to economic and population growth mainly in Asian countries. In addition, when food wastes buried at landfill sites their energy content is lost. Although food waste is a huge problem, its global size and extent has recently become a hot topic in the academic community. This paper summarises the size of the global food waste problem together with the estimation of the amount of energy lost when food wastes dumped at landfill sites. Calculations in this study also revealed that energy lost at landfill sites equals to 43% of the delivered energy used for the preparation of foods in the US, 37% of the hydroelectric power generation of Japan, and more than 100% of the current annual renewable energy demand of UK industries.

  5. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  6. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  7. Biofuels in the long-run global energy supply mix for transportation.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Govinda R

    2014-01-13

    Various policy instruments along with increasing oil prices have contributed to a sixfold increase in global biofuels production over the last decade (2000-2010). This rapid growth has proved controversial, however, and has raised concerns over potential conflicts with global food security and climate change mitigation. To address these concerns, policy support is now focused on advanced or second-generation biofuels instead of crop-based first-generation biofuels. This policy shift, together with the global financial crisis, has slowed the growth of biofuels production, which has remained stagnant since 2010. Based upon a review of the literature, this paper examines the potential long-run contribution of biofuels to the global energy mix, particularly for transportation. We find that the contribution of biofuels to global transportation fuel demand is likely to be limited to around 5% over the next 10-15 years. However, a number of studies suggest that biofuels could contribute up to a quarter of global transportation fuel demand by 2050, provided technological breakthroughs reduce the costs of sustainably produced advanced biofuels to a level where they can compete with petroleum fuels.

  8. Peasant agriculture and global change: A maya response to energy development in southeastern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, G.A. ); Mountjoy, D.C. ); Nigh, R.B. )

    1994-06-01

    This article combines data and perspectives from anthropology, agricultural economics, and landscape ecology to study how peasant activity mediates the influence of global economic driving forces on land-use patterns. Southeastern Mexico underwent rapid energy development during the 1960's and 1970's. The state used oil revenues to complete projects such as two major new hydroelectric power projects. As energy development went into high gear, the southeastern region, which had been primarily agrarian, began to supply Mexico with 50% of its energy and much of its export oil and the agricultural base declined. Discussed in this article are the following related areas: sectoral changes under the energy development boom; landscape dynamics; off-farm activities of peasants during the energy boom; Ainacanteco agriculture transformed after 1982; off-farm peasant production and agrarian transformation; peasant versatility and environmental policy. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy: Meeting US global climate change action plan commitments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The subject describes how the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy will help meet the US goal of returning US greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. On October 19, 1993, President Clinton and Vice President Gore announced the publication of the Climate Change Action Plan. The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has a major role in implementing many of the initiatives contained in the Plan. The paper will outline the initiatives current programs, and demonstrate how once implemented, the strategy will help to stem US greenhouse gas emissions. The paper will also discuss how DOE in implementing it`s Climate Change Action Plan strategy, will work with the EPA to achieve a cost-effective strategy that will stem greenhouse gas emissions through public/private partnerships. Although the focus of this paper will be the connection between current programs and Clinton Administration`s year 2000 goal, it will also discuss a longer-term vision for reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases beyond the year 2000.

  10. Separating the nature and nurture of the allocation of energy in response to global change.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Scott L; Pan, T-C Francis; Hedgecock, Dennis; Manahan, Donal T

    2014-07-01

    Understanding and predicting biological stability and change in the face of rapid anthropogenic modifications of ecosystems and geosystems are grand challenges facing environmental and life scientists. Physiologically, organisms withstand environmental stress through changes in biochemical regulation that maintain homeostasis, which necessarily demands tradeoffs in the use of metabolic energy. Evolutionarily, in response to environmentally forced energetic tradeoffs, populations adapt based on standing genetic variation in the ability of individual organisms to reallocate metabolic energy. Combined study of physiology and genetics, separating "Nature and Nurture," is, thus, the key to understanding the potential for evolutionary adaptation to future global change. To understand biological responses to global change, we need experimentally tractable model species that have the well-developed physiological, genetic, and genomic resources necessary for partitioning variance in the allocation of metabolic energy into its causal components. Model species allow for discovery and for experimental manipulation of relevant phenotypic contrasts and enable a systems-biology approach that integrates multiple levels of analyses to map genotypic-to-phenotypic variation. Here, we illustrate how combined physiological and genetic studies that focus on energy metabolism in developmental stages of a model marine organism contribute to an understanding of the potential to adapt to environmental change. This integrative research program provides insights that can be readily incorporated into individual-based ecological models of population persistence under global change.

  11. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  12. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  13. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  14. Benefit and cost competitiveness analysis of wind and solar power inter-continent transmission under global energy interconnection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the global energy Interconnection, considering the energy implementation, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, This research gives the global energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic and the Equation as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model and equator interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And take two continents connection as the prediction example, estimate these two continents cost benefit and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that under the global energy interconnection mode, the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and the landing cost is good to be used, can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  15. Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D; Umali, Elaine; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective We investigated associations between changes in national food energy supply and in average population body weight. Methods We collected data from 24 high-, 27 middle- and 18 low-income countries on the average measured body weight from global databases, national health and nutrition survey reports and peer-reviewed papers. Changes in average body weight were derived from study pairs that were at least four years apart (various years, 1971–2010). Selected study pairs were considered to be representative of an adolescent or adult population, at national or subnational scale. Food energy supply data were retrieved from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations food balance sheets. We estimated the population energy requirements at survey time points using Institute of Medicine equations. Finally, we estimated the change in energy intake that could theoretically account for the observed change in average body weight using an experimentally-validated model. Findings In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight. In 45 countries, the increase in food energy supply was higher than the model-predicted increase in energy intake. The association between change in food energy supply and change in body weight was statistically significant overall and for high-income countries (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings suggest that increases in food energy supply are sufficient to explain increases in average population body weight, especially in high-income countries. Policy efforts are needed to improve the healthiness of food systems and environments to reduce global obesity. PMID:26170502

  16. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050.

    PubMed

    Güneralp, Burak; Zhou, Yuyu; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Gupta, Mukesh; Yu, Sha; Patel, Pralit L; Fragkias, Michail; Li, Xiaoma; Seto, Karen C

    2017-01-09

    Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use for heating and cooling by the middle of the century will be between 45 and 59 exajoules per year (corresponding to an increase of 7-40% since 2010). Most of this variability is due to the uncertainty in future urban densities of rapidly growing cities in Asia and particularly China. Dense urban development leads to less urban energy use overall. Waiting to retrofit the existing built environment until markets are ready in about 5 years to widely deploy the most advanced renovation technologies leads to more savings in building energy use. Potential for savings in energy use is greatest in China when coupled with efficiency gains. Advanced efficiency makes the least difference compared with the business-as-usual scenario in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa but significantly contributes to energy savings in North America and Europe. Systemic efforts that focus on both urban form, of which urban density is an indicator, and energy-efficient technologies, but that also account for potential co-benefits and trade-offs with human well-being can contribute to both local and global sustainability. Particularly in growing cities in the developing world, such efforts can improve the well-being of billions of urban residents and contribute to mitigating climate change by reducing energy use in urban areas.

  17. Generation of available potential energy and the energy cycle during the global weather experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, D. A.; Rosen, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two parallel sets of analyses, which in one case included and in the other omitted data observed by satellite based and other FGGE special observing systems are examined. The results of our previous work is extended in two separate, but not unrelated, ways. First, from these two parallel analyses, which are labeled FGGE (full FGGE system) and NOSAT (satellite omitted), it was discovered that the two sets of fields were quite close over much of the globe. Locally the influence of satellite based systems led to some differences, particularly over the Southern Hemisphere Oceans. The diabatic heating fields generated by the GLA FGGE analysis was also examined. From these fields, one can ascertain the role of total diabatic heating and of the various diabatic heating components in the atmospheric energy cycle, in particular in the generation of available potential energy.

  18. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  19. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-10-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  20. Generation of available potential energy and the energy cycle during the global weather experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, D. A.; Rosen, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two major themes were pursued during this research period. The first of these involved examining the impacts of satellite-based data and the forecast model used by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) on general circulation statistics. For the other major topic, the diabatic heating fields produced by GLA were examined for one month during the FGGE First Special Observing Period. As part of that effort, the three-dimensional distribution of the four component heating fields were studied, namely those due to shortwave radiation, Q sub SW, longwave radiation, Q sub LW, sensible heating, Q sub S, and latent heating, Q sub L. These components were calculated as part of the GLA analysis/forecast system and archived every quarter day; from these archives cross products with temperature were computed to enable the direct calculation of certain terms of the large-scale atmospheric energy cycle, namely those involving the generation of available potential energy (APE). The decision to archive the diabatic heating components separately has enabled researchers to study the role of the various processes that drive the energy cycle of the atmosphere.

  1. Power and uneven globalization: Coalitions and energy trade dependence in the newly independent states of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Corina Herron

    2000-10-01

    The economies of the European former Soviet Union were dependent upon energy subsidies in the form of virtually free oil and natural gas imports from Russia, the loss of which implied dramatic shocks to domestic production structures, and the maintenance of which implied continued policy concessions to Russia. Yet some of these states actively pursued integration into the global economy while others sought to maintain the shelter of domestic markets and Russian energy subsidies. While the economic costs of openness and restructuring would be high in all cases in the short term, it is the political costs of openness and restructuring that determine the policy of the state. Where the high costs of restructuring are borne by a politically disenfranchised group, a consensus coalition can emerge in favor of rapid restructuring and energy reorientation. Where the benefits of the status quo accrue to a well-organized coalition closely allied with the state, a consensus coalition emerges in favor of maintenance of energy subsidies from and political relationship with Russia. Where the costs of restructuring are borne broadly or by a well-organized minority group, power oscillation and fragmentation will lead to inconsistent policy and slow progress toward energy reorientation and reform. Integrating a state-in-society approach to coalition formation within the field of international political economy, the author argues that states dominated by globalist-liberalizing-nationalist coalitions were able to implement energy trade reorientation by politically disenfranchising the ethnic minorities who populated the sector most vulnerable to energy contraction, heavy industry. These "globalizers," Estonia and Latvia, bore the high costs of restructuring industries and importing energy at world prices. Belarus, dominated by pro-Moscow-statist-leftist coalitions, sought to preserve energy subsidies through political and economic reintegration with Russia. States ruled by divided

  2. The PyPES library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sibaev, Marat; Crittenden, Deborah L

    2015-11-05

    In this article, we present a Python-based library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules with up to six atoms. We anticipate that these surfaces will find widespread application in the testing of new potential energy surface construction algorithms and nuclear ro-vibrational structure theories. To this end, we provide the ability to generate the energy derivatives required for Taylor series expansions to sixth order about any point on the potential energy surface in a range of common coordinate systems, including curvilinear internal, Cartesian, and normal mode coordinates. The PyPES package, along with FORTRAN, C, MATLAB and Mathematica wrappers, is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pypes-lib.

  3. On global existence, energy decay and blow-up criteria for the Hall-MHD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Renhui; Zhou, Yong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we obtain global existence and energy decay for 3D Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (Hall-MHD) system with - Δu and - ΔB. Besides the classical energy method and Besov space techniques, the interpolating inequalities are crucial in the proof of decay estimates. Then two Osgood type blow-up criteria are established. Our results improve the corresponding theorems in [3] and [4]. In addition, we establish two Beale-Kato-Majda blow-up criterion for the generalized version of Hall-MHD with - Δu and (- Δ) β B, β > 1.

  4. Global Impact Estimation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System for Industrial and Service Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Therkelsen, Peter L.; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee T.

    2016-08-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the impacts of ISO 50001 Energy Management System (EnMS) at a region or country level. The impacts of ISO 50001 EnMS include energy, CO2 emissions, and cost savings. This internationally recognized and transparent methodology has been embodied in a user friendly Microsoft Excel® based tool called ISO 50001 Impact Estimator Tool (IET 50001). However, the tool inputs are critical in order to get accurate and defensible results. This report is intended to document the data sources used and assumptions made to calculate the global impact of ISO 50001 EnMS.

  5. On increasing network lifetime in body area networks using global routing with energy consumption balancing.

    PubMed

    Tsouri, Gill R; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil

    2012-09-26

    Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity.

  6. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships.

  7. ADVANCED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE: AN ANALYSIS USING THE GLOBAL CHANGE ASSESSMENT MODEL (GCAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J. A.; Wise, M. A.; MacCracken, C. N.

    1994-05-01

    We report results from a "top down" energy-economy model employing "bottom up" assumptions embedded in an integrated assessment framework, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The analys~s shows that from the perspective of long-term energy system development, differences. in results from the "top down" and "bottom up" research communities would appear to be more closely linked to differences in assumptions regarding the economic cost associated with advanced technologies than to differences In modeling approach. The adoption of assumptions regarding advanced energy technologies were shown to have a profound effect on the future rate of anthropogenic climate change. The cumulative effect of the five sets of advanced energy technologies is to reduce annual emissions from fossil fuel use to levels which stabilize atmospheric concentrations below 550 ppmv, the point at which atmospheric concentrations are double those that existed in the m~ddleo f the eighteenth century. While all energy technologies play roles in reducing future fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, the introduction of advanced biomass energy production technology plays a particularly important role. If biomass energy can be made available at $2.40/GJ or less in quantities sufficient to make it the core energy supply technology in the middle of the next century, then emissions can be cut dramatically relative to the reference case. The problem of emiss~ons reduction becomes one of technology development and deployment in this case, and not one of fiscal and regulatory intervention.

  8. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  9. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. V. Energy Closure in Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Caspi, Amir; Cohen, Christina M. S.; Holman, Gordon; Jing, Ju; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Kontar, Eduard P.; McTiernan, James M.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; O’Flannagain, Aidan; Richardson, Ian G.; Ryan, Daniel; Warren, Harry P.; Xu, Yan

    2017-02-01

    In this study we synthesize the results of four previous studies on the global energetics of solar flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which include magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies in 399 solar M- and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 yr of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. Our findings are as follows. (1) The sum of the mean nonthermal energy of flare-accelerated particles ({E}{nt}), the energy of direct heating ({E}{dir}), and the energy in CMEs ({E}{CME}), which are the primary energy dissipation processes in a flare, is found to have a ratio of ({E}{nt}+{E}{dir}+{E}{CME})/{E}{mag}=0.87+/- 0.18, compared with the dissipated magnetic free energy {E}{mag}, which confirms energy closure within the measurement uncertainties and corroborates the magnetic origin of flares and CMEs. (2) The energy partition of the dissipated magnetic free energy is: 0.51 ± 0.17 in nonthermal energy of ≥slant 6 {keV} electrons, 0.17 ± 0.17 in nonthermal ≥slant 1 {MeV} ions, 0.07 ± 0.14 in CMEs, and 0.07 ± 0.17 in direct heating. (3) The thermal energy is almost always less than the nonthermal energy, which is consistent with the thick-target model. (4) The bolometric luminosity in white-light flares is comparable to the thermal energy in soft X-rays (SXR). (5) Solar energetic particle events carry a fraction ≈ 0.03 of the CME energy, which is consistent with CME-driven shock acceleration. (6) The warm-target model predicts a lower limit of the low-energy cutoff at {e}c≈ 6 {keV}, based on the mean peak temperature of the differential emission measure of T e = 8.6 MK during flares. This work represents the first statistical study that establishes energy closure in solar flare/CME events.

  10. Global energy transports and the influence of clouds on transport requirements - a satellite analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, ByungJu; Smith, E.A. )

    1992-07-01

    The impact of differential net radiative heating on two-dimensional energy transports within the atmospheric-ocean system and the role of clouds on this process is examined. Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget data show basic energy surpluses over the tropical oceans and relative or absolute energy deficits over low-latitude continental regions. The two-dimensional mean energy transports exhibit an east-west coupled dipole structure in which the west Pacific acts as a major energy source and North Africa as the major energy sink. The dipole is embedded in the secondary energy transports arising mainly from the differential heating between land and oceans in the tropics in which the tropical east-west (zonal) transports are up to 30% of the tropical north-south (meridonal) transports. Any perturbations to this dipole on an interannual basis give rise to low-latitude energy transport variations. In turn, the tropical variations lead to extratropical responses through alternations of requirements on both zonal and meridional transports at all positions on the globe. Cloud-induced transports indicate that year-to-year cloud amount changes are contributing to fluctuations of the global climate system through these mechanisms. Increased cloudiness increases zonal available potential energy, thus increasing the intensity of the north-south transports while slightly weakening the dipole intensity. The basic role of cloudiness appears to be to diminish the role of differential heating between continents and oceans and force the globe toward a more meridionally distributed energy imbalance. This implies the radiative feedback effects of clouds, regardless of factors determining cloud amount variability, reduce the radiative decoupling of land and ocean.

  11. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hannam, Phil; Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents modeling of geothermal energy in GCAM 1.0 (formerly MiniCAM) from FY2008 to FY2009, from the inputs to the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program report (Clarke et al., 2008a) to the present representation, which will be used in future work. To demonstrate the newest representation, we describe the procedure and outcome of six model runs that illustrate the potential role of geothermal energy in the U.S. and global regions through different futures climate policy, development and deployment of engineered, or enhanced, geothermal systems (EGS), and availability of other low-cost, low-carbon electricity generation technologies such as nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS).

  12. Distinct energy budgets for anthropogenic and natural changes during global warming hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Okumura, Yuko M.

    2016-01-01

    The Earth's energy budget for the past four decades can now be closed, and it supports anthropogenic greenhouse forcing as the cause for climate warming. However, closure depends on invoking an unrealistically large increase in aerosol cooling during the so-called global warming hiatus since the late 1990s (refs ,) that was due partly to tropical Pacific Ocean cooling. The difficulty with this closure lies in the assumption that the same climate feedback applies to both anthropogenic warming and natural cooling. Here we analyse climate model simulations with and without anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gas concentrations, and show that top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and global mean surface temperature are much less tightly coupled for natural decadal variability than for the greenhouse-gas-induced response, implying distinct climate feedback between anthropogenic warming and natural variability. In addition, we identify a phase difference between top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and global mean surface temperature such that ocean heat uptake tends to slow down during the surface warming hiatus. This result deviates from existing energy theory but we find that it is broadly consistent with observations. Our study highlights the importance of developing metrics that distinguish anthropogenic change from natural variations to attribute climate variability and to estimate climate sensitivity from observations.

  13. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, GlobalWarming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water andWaste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  14. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  15. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Caleb; Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Arthur, Rob; Heath, Richard; Rono, James; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  16. Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge

    PubMed Central

    Creutzig, Felix; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Bierkandt, Robert; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Seto, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregate potential for urban mitigation of global climate change is insufficiently understood. Our analysis, using a dataset of 274 cities representing all city sizes and regions worldwide, demonstrates that economic activity, transport costs, geographic factors, and urban form explain 37% of urban direct energy use and 88% of urban transport energy use. If current trends in urban expansion continue, urban energy use will increase more than threefold, from 240 EJ in 2005 to 730 EJ in 2050. Our model shows that urban planning and transport policies can limit the future increase in urban energy use to 540 EJ in 2050 and contribute to mitigating climate change. However, effective policies for reducing urban greenhouse gas emissions differ with city type. The results show that, for affluent and mature cities, higher gasoline prices combined with compact urban form can result in savings in both residential and transport energy use. In contrast, for developing-country cities with emerging or nascent infrastructures, compact urban form, and transport planning can encourage higher population densities and subsequently avoid lock-in of high carbon emission patterns for travel. The results underscore a significant potential urbanization wedge for reducing energy use in rapidly urbanizing Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. PMID:25583508

  17. Global Remote Sensing of Precipitating Electron Energies: A Comparison of Substorms and Pressure Pulse Related Intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) observes aurora responses to incident solar wind pressure pulses and interplanetary shocks such its those associated with coronal mass ejections. Previous observations have demonstrated that the arrival of it pressure pulse at the front of the magnetosphere results in highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions and a substantial increase in both dayside and nightside aurora precipitations. Our observations show it simultaneous brightening over bread areas of the dayside and nightside auroral in response to a pressure pulse, indicating that more magnetospheric regions participate as sources for auroral precipitation than during isolate substorm. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated event to those during isolated substorms. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated events to those during isolated auroral substorms. Electron precipitation during substorms has characteristic energies greater than 10 KeV and is structured both in local time and in magnetic latitude. For auroral intensifications following the arrival of'a pressure pulse or interplanetary shock. Electron precipitation is less spatially structured and has greater flux of lower characteristic energy electrons (Echar less than 7 KeV) than during isolated substorm onsets. These observations quantify the differences between global and local auroral precipitation processes and will provide a valuable experimental check for models of sudden storm commencements and magnetospheric response to perturbations in the solar wind.

  18. Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge.

    PubMed

    Creutzig, Felix; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Bierkandt, Robert; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Seto, Karen C

    2015-05-19

    The aggregate potential for urban mitigation of global climate change is insufficiently understood. Our analysis, using a dataset of 274 cities representing all city sizes and regions worldwide, demonstrates that economic activity, transport costs, geographic factors, and urban form explain 37% of urban direct energy use and 88% of urban transport energy use. If current trends in urban expansion continue, urban energy use will increase more than threefold, from 240 EJ in 2005 to 730 EJ in 2050. Our model shows that urban planning and transport policies can limit the future increase in urban energy use to 540 EJ in 2050 and contribute to mitigating climate change. However, effective policies for reducing urban greenhouse gas emissions differ with city type. The results show that, for affluent and mature cities, higher gasoline prices combined with compact urban form can result in savings in both residential and transport energy use. In contrast, for developing-country cities with emerging or nascent infrastructures, compact urban form, and transport planning can encourage higher population densities and subsequently avoid lock-in of high carbon emission patterns for travel. The results underscore a significant potential urbanization wedge for reducing energy use in rapidly urbanizing Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.

  19. NASA Contributions to Improve Understanding of Extreme Events in the Global Energy and Water Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has established the water cycle goals of the Nation's climate change program. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability. through integration of all necessary observations and research tools, To this end, in conjunction with NASA's Earth science research strategy, the overarching long-term NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) grand challenge can he summarized as documenting and enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. This challenge requires documenting and predicting trends in the rate of the Earth's water and energy cycling that corresponds to climate change and changes in the frequency and intensity of naturally occurring related meteorological and hydrologic events, which may vary as climate may vary in the future. The cycling of water and energy has obvious and significant implications for the health and prosperity of our society. The importance of documenting and predicting water and energy cycle variations and extremes is necessary to accomplish this benefit to society.

  20. Interpreting global energy and emission scenarios: Methods for understanding and communicating policy insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Leslie

    Energy scenarios for the 21st century powerfully inform perceptions and expectations in the minds of energy investors, consumers, and policy-makers. Scenarios that stabilize global warming call for large-scale energy technology transitions, fueling debates about the relative roles for a range of technologies including nuclear power, carbon sequestration, biofuels, solar power, and efficient end-use devices. In the last decade, hundreds of scenarios have been published by more than a dozen research teams using different models, baselines and mitigation targets. Despite the efforts to summarize findings in a few major assessments, a gap in understanding remains at a critical science-policy juncture between scenario analysts and the audiences their work is designed to serve. Addressing the issue requires an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates knowledge and methods from the fields of energy engineering, economics, climate science, and policy analysis. This research applies two analytical techniques to investigate the effects of an imposed climate policy on the underlying energy system. The first disentangles the effect of a policy intervention on key demographic and technology drivers of fossil fuel use, and the second decomposes reductions in emissions by specific energy technology types. Because the techniques may be applied to any energy scenario with technology detail, this study demonstrates their application to ten sample stabilization scenarios from three leading models. Revealing the importance of data and assumptions overlooked or not well disclosed in the past, the results highlight an implausibly high pressure on energy supply innovations while the potential for energy efficiency improvements is systematically underestimated. The findings are significant to both scenario analysts and the decision-makers in public policy and private investment who are influenced by their work.

  1. Control concepts for the alleviation of windshears and gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynaski, E. G.; Govindaraj, K. S.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic control system design methods for gust and shear alleviation were studied. It is shown that automatic gust/shear alleviation systems can be quite effective if both throttle and elevator are used in harmony to produce the forces and moments required to counter the effects of the windshear. Regulation with respect to ground speed or airspeed results in very similar system designs. The application of the NASA total energy probe in the detection of windshear and criteria for alleviation is considered. The theory and application of robust output observers is extended. Design examples show how implementation of the control laws can be accomplished using observers, and thereby resulting in less complex control system configurations.

  2. Accelerating the search for global minima on potential energy surfaces using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, S. F.; Garnett, R.; Lo, C. S.

    2016-10-01

    Controlling molecule-surface interactions is key for chemical applications ranging from catalysis to gas sensing. We present a framework for accelerating the search for the global minimum on potential surfaces, corresponding to stable adsorbate-surface structures. We present a technique using Bayesian inference that enables us to predict converged density functional theory potential energies with fewer self-consistent field iterations. We then discuss how this technique fits in with the Bayesian Active Site Calculator, which applies Bayesian optimization to the problem. We demonstrate the performance of our framework using a hematite (Fe2O3) surface and present the adsorption sites found by our global optimization method for various simple hydrocarbons on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface.

  3. Mechanism and Experimental Observability of Global Switching Between Reactive and Nonreactive Coordinates at High Total Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramoto, Hiroshi; Toda, Mikito; Takahashi, Masahiko; Kono, Hirohiko; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-08-01

    We present a mechanism of global reaction coordinate switching, namely, a phenomenon in which the reaction coordinate dynamically switches to another coordinate as the total energy of the system increases. The mechanism is based on global changes in the underlying phase space geometry caused by a switching of dominant unstable modes from the original reactive mode to another nonreactive mode in systems with more than 2 degrees of freedom. We demonstrate an experimental observability to detect a reaction coordinate switching in an ionization reaction of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields. For this reaction, the reaction coordinate is a coordinate along which electrons escape and its switching changes the escaping direction from the direction of the electric field to that of the magnetic field and, thus, the switching can be detected experimentally by measuring the angle-resolved momentum distribution of escaping electrons.

  4. Climate change from the perspective of the surface energy balance and global hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Ming, Y.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Major changes have occurred in the radiative drive of the surface since preindustrial times owing to both changes in the emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols. These are to be contrasted with the drive at the top-of-the-atmosphere. Using global climate models and multiple observations of the surface fluxes from various platforms, we discuss how the energy balance has evolved with time and the manner in which this has affected the hydrologic cycle, including an account of the critical uncertainties. We make use of the simulations performed with global climate models and used in the IPCC assessments to diagnose the factors that are principally responsible for the changes, the contrasting atmospheric mechanisms exerted by greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the relative roles of the atmospheric constituents.

  5. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  6. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  7. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  8. A thirst for power: A global analysis of water consumption for energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Edward

    Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of freshwater. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on regional water resources. A number of reports exist that specify water consumption by discrete energy production technologies. This research synthesizes and expands this previous work by examining the global distribution of water consumption intensity of national-level energy portfolios. By defining and calculating indicators to quantify the relative water use intensity of national energy systems, it was possible to highlight potentially problematic areas of high water use intensity while also providing examples of water-efficient energy production. The results of the research show a high variability in the national water consumption of energy production (WCEP) for the 158 countries that were assessed. However, looking across the indicators for WCEP internationally, the countries that were heavily producing fossil fuel or biofuels demonstrated the greatest intensity of energy-based water consumption. The economic imperative to develop fossil fuels drives high water consumption in countries that already lack sufficient water supplies. Meanwhile, biofuels require so much water over their lifecycle per unit of produced energy that any modest commitment to producing biofuels has significant water consumption ramifications for the country. While these results are based on a comprehensive review of available data, future research in this area could be significantly enhanced through better data and widespread adoption of consistent reporting mechanisms. Additional opportunities to expand the field include increasing the resolution of the study regions, tracking these indicators over time, and exploring innovative policy approaches to managing national WCEP effectively. For nations facing the greatest limitations in the availability of local water and energy

  9. Revisit of the Global Surface Energy Balance Using the MEP Model of Surface Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Wang, J.; Park, T. W.; Ming, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The recently proposed model of surface heat fluxes, based on the theory of maximum entropy production (MEP), was used to estimate the global evapotranspiration (ET) and heat fluxes. Compared to bulk transfer models, the MEP model has several remote-sensing-friendly features including fewer input variables, automatic closure of surface energy budget, being independent of bulk gradients of temperature and water vapor, not using wind speed and surface roughness as model parameters, and being less sensitive to uncertainties of input variables and model parameters. The MEP model is formulated for the entire range of soil moisture from dryness to saturation over the land surfaces and has even more advantages over water-snow-ice surfaces compared to traditional methods due to its independence of surface humidity data. The MEP model provides the first global maps of water heat fluxes at ocean surfaces as well as conductive heat fluxes at snow/ice covered polar regions. Ten years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) earth surface radiation fluxes, surface temperature data products supplemented (when needed) by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) surface specific humidity data are used to test the MEP model by comparing the MEP based global annual ET and heat fluxes with existing products. The MEP based fluxes over land surfaces agree closely with previous studies. Over the oceans, the MEP modeled ET tends to be lower than previous estimates while those of sensible heat fluxes are in close agreement with previous studies. A counterpart, "off-line" analysis is also carried out using the NOAA GFDL climate model output from a control experiment and a "warming" experiment. Substantial differences in the warming-related changes of ET and Bowen ratio are found over regions such as North Africa and the southwestern U.S. The implications of these differences for understanding trends and variability in regional energy and

  10. A Global Analytical Representation of the Potential Energy Surface of the FHF(-) Anion.

    PubMed

    Cornaton, Yann; Marquardt, Roberto

    2016-08-04

    A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1.5 cm(-1) deviation from experimental values.

  11. Global existence and energy decay rates for a Kirchhoff-type wave equation with nonlinear dissipation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daewook; Kim, Dojin; Hong, Keum-Shik; Jung, Il Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to prove the existence and uniqueness of global solutions for a Kirchhoff-type wave equation with nonlinear dissipation of the form Ku'' + M(|A (1/2) u|(2))Au + g(u') = 0 under suitable assumptions on K, A, M(·), and g(·). Next, we derive decay estimates of the energy under some growth conditions on the nonlinear dissipation g. Lastly, numerical simulations in order to verify the analytical results are given.

  12. Global Existence and Energy Decay Rates for a Kirchhoff-Type Wave Equation with Nonlinear Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dojin; Hong, Keum-Shik; Jung, Il Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to prove the existence and uniqueness of global solutions for a Kirchhoff-type wave equation with nonlinear dissipation of the form Ku′′ + M(|A1/2u|2)Au + g(u′) = 0 under suitable assumptions on K, A, M(·), and g(·). Next, we derive decay estimates of the energy under some growth conditions on the nonlinear dissipation g. Lastly, numerical simulations in order to verify the analytical results are given. PMID:24977217

  13. Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of global hydrologic cycles, carbon cycles and climate change are greatly facilitated when global estimates of evapotranspiration (E) are available. We have developed an air-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balance, and e...

  14. Global Stress Classification System for Materials Used in Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamova, Karolina; Schill, Christian; Herrmann, Jan; Datta, Pawan; Chih Wang, Chien

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the geographical location, the individual or combined impact of environmental stress factors and corresponding performance losses for solar applications varies significantly. Therefore, as a strategy to reduce investment risks and operating and maintenance costs, it is necessary to adapt the materials and components of solar energy systems specifically to regional environmental conditions. The project «GloBe Solar» supports this strategy by focusing on the development of a global stress classification system for materials in solar energy applications. The aim of this classification system is to assist in the identification of the individual stress conditions for every location on the earth's surface. The stress classification system could serve as a decision support tool for the industry (manufacturers, investors, lenders and project developers) and help to improve knowledge and services that can provide higher confidence to solar power systems.

  15. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JongHyup; Pak, Dohyun

    2016-01-01

    For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN), WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections. PMID:27589743

  16. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, JongHyup; Pak, Dohyun

    2016-08-29

    For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN), WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections.

  17. On global energy scenario, dye-sensitized solar cells and the promise of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Govardhan; Deepak, T G; Anjusree, G S; Thomas, Sara; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Subramanian, K R V; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2014-04-21

    One of the major problems that humanity has to face in the next 50 years is the energy crisis. The rising population, rapidly changing life styles of people, heavy industrialization and changing landscape of cities have increased energy demands, enormously. The present annual worldwide electricity consumption is 12 TW and is expected to become 24 TW by 2050, leaving a challenging deficit of 12 TW. The present energy scenario of using fossil fuels to meet the energy demand is unable to meet the increase in demand effectively, as these fossil fuel resources are non-renewable and limited. Also, they cause significant environmental hazards, like global warming and the associated climatic issues. Hence, there is an urgent necessity to adopt renewable sources of energy, which are eco-friendly and not extinguishable. Of the various renewable sources available, such as wind, tidal, geothermal, biomass, solar, etc., solar serves as the most dependable option. Solar energy is freely and abundantly available. Once installed, the maintenance cost is very low. It is eco-friendly, safely fitting into our society without any disturbance. Producing electricity from the Sun requires the installation of solar panels, which incurs a huge initial cost and requires large areas of lands for installation. This is where nanotechnology comes into the picture and serves the purpose of increasing the efficiency to higher levels, thus bringing down the overall cost for energy production. Also, emerging low-cost solar cell technologies, e.g. thin film technologies and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) help to replace the use of silicon, which is expensive. Again, nanotechnological implications can be applied in these solar cells, to achieve higher efficiencies. This paper vividly deals with the various available solar cells, choosing DSCs as the most appropriate ones. The nanotechnological implications which help to improve their performance are dealt with, in detail. Additionally, the

  18. Enduse Global Emissions Mitigation Scenarios (EGEMS): A New Generation of Energy Efficiency Policy Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McMahon, James E.

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents efforts to date and prospective goals towards development of a modelling and analysis framework which is comprehensive enough to address the global climate crisis, and detailed enough to provide policymakers with concrete targets and achievable outcomes. In terms of energy efficiency policy, this requires coverage of the entire world, with emphasis on countries and regions with large and/or rapidly growing energy-related emissions, and analysis at the 'technology' level-building end use, transport mode or industrial process. These elements have not been fully addressed by existing modelling efforts, which usually take either a top-down approach, or concentrate on a few fully industrialized countries where energy demand is well-understood. Inclusion of details such as appliance ownership rates, use patterns and efficiency levels throughout the world allows for a deeper understanding of the demand for energy today and, more importantly, over the coming decades. This is a necessary next step for energy analysts and policy makers in assessment of mitigation potentials. The modelling system developed at LBNL over the past 3 years takes advantage of experience in end use demand and in forecasting markets for energy-consuming equipment, in combination with known technology-based efficiency opportunities and policy types. A particular emphasis has been placed on modelling energy growth in developing countries. Experiences to date include analyses covering individual countries (China and India), end uses (refrigerators and air conditioners) and policy types (standards and labelling). Each of these studies required a particular effort in data collection and model refinement--they share, however, a consistent approach and framework which allows comparison, and forms the foundation of a comprehensive analysis system leading to a roadmap to address the greenhouse gas mitigation targetslikely to be set in the coming years.

  19. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  20. Global stability of protein folding from an empirical free energy function.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Paz, Waldo; García, Yamila; Salgado, Jesús

    2013-03-21

    The principles governing protein folding stand as one of the biggest challenges of Biophysics. Modeling the global stability of proteins and predicting their tertiary structure are hard tasks, due in part to the variety and large number of forces involved and the difficulties to describe them with sufficient accuracy. We have developed a fast, physics-based empirical potential, intended to be used in global structure prediction methods. This model considers four main contributions: Two entropic factors, the hydrophobic effect and configurational entropy, and two terms resulting from a decomposition of close-packing interactions, namely the balance of the dispersive interactions of folded and unfolded states and electrostatic interactions between residues. The parameters of the model were fixed from a protein data set whose unfolding free energy has been measured at the "standard" experimental conditions proposed by Maxwell et al. (2005) and a large data set of 1151 monomeric proteins obtained from the PDB. A blind test with proteins taken from ProTherm database, at similar experimental conditions, was carried out. We found a good correlation with the test data set, proving the effectiveness of our model for predicting protein folding free energies in considered standard conditions. Such a prediction compares favorably against estimations made with FoldX's function and the force field GROMOS96. This model constitutes a valuable tool for the fast evaluation of protein structure stability in 3D structure prediction methods.

  1. Network Computing Infrastructure to Share Tools and Data in Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Guehee; Suzuki, Yoshio; Teshima, Naoya

    CCSE/JAEA (Center for Computational Science and e-Systems/Japan Atomic Energy Agency) integrated a prototype system of a network computing infrastructure for sharing tools and data to support the U.S. and Japan collaboration in GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership). We focused on three technical issues to apply our information process infrastructure, which are accessibility, security, and usability. In designing the prototype system, we integrated and improved both network and Web technologies. For the accessibility issue, we adopted SSL-VPN (Security Socket Layer-Virtual Private Network) technology for the access beyond firewalls. For the security issue, we developed an authentication gateway based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authentication mechanism to strengthen the security. Also, we set fine access control policy to shared tools and data and used shared key based encryption method to protect tools and data against leakage to third parties. For the usability issue, we chose Web browsers as user interface and developed Web application to provide functions to support sharing tools and data. By using WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) function, users can manipulate shared tools and data through the Windows-like folder environment. We implemented the prototype system in Grid infrastructure for atomic energy research: AEGIS (Atomic Energy Grid Infrastructure) developed by CCSE/JAEA. The prototype system was applied for the trial use in the first period of GNEP.

  2. Protein structure prediction and potential energy landscape analysis using continuous global minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, K.A.; Phillips, A.T.; Rosen, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    Proteins require specific three-dimensional conformations to function properly. These {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} conformations result primarily from intramolecular interactions between the atoms in the macromolecule, and also intermolecular interactions between the macromolecule and the surrounding solvent. Although the folding process can be quite complex, the instructions guiding this process are specified by the one-dimensional primary sequence of the protein or nucleic acid: external factors, such as helper (chaperone) proteins, present at the time of folding have no effect on the final state of the protein. Many denatured proteins spontaneously refold into functional conformations once denaturing conditions are removed. Indeed, the existence of a unique native conformation, in which residues distant in sequence but close in proximity exhibit a densely packed hydrophobic core, suggests that this three-dimensional structure is largely encoded within the sequential arrangement of these specific amino acids. In any case, the native structure is often the conformation at the global minimum energy. In addition to the unique native (minimum energy) structure, other less stable structures exist as well, each with a corresponding potential energy. These structures, in conjunction with the native structure, make up an energy landscape that can be used to characterize various aspects of the protein structure. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  4. Global Scale Observation of Scattered Energy from the Core: Seismic Constraints on the F-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; Adam, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPdf phase arrivals in the distance range 149-178 degrees. Within this collection, we have identified an energy packet that arrives 5-20 seconds after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a coda that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. The origin of this scattered energy is unclear and may provide valuable information about structure in the core. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of theses scatterers and try and locate them. Our results show that the scattered energy originates along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameter. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, in particular the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for these scatterers, we show that their origin is most likely at the base of the outer-core, in the F-layer. To assess our interpretation, we model synthetic seismograms and test velocity profiles in the F-layer. We suggest that such a layer may be responsible for the scattering in the PKP coda as observed in the data. The detection and observation of this scattered energy enables us to constrain physical properties of the F-layer that play an important role in the investigation of the geodynamo modelisation and core evolution.

  5. Toward spectroscopically accurate global ab initio potential energy surface for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Huixian; Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua

    2014-12-28

    A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S{sub 0}) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ∼37 000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm{sup −1}. The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies up to 12 700 cm{sup −1} above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction.

  6. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  7. An accurate global potential energy surface, dipole moment surface, and rovibrational frequencies for NH(3).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Lee, Timothy J

    2008-12-07

    A global potential energy surface (PES) that includes short and long range terms has been determined for the NH(3) molecule. The singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations and the internally contracted averaged coupled-pair functional electronic structure methods have been used in conjunction with very large correlation-consistent basis sets, including diffuse functions. Extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit was performed and core correlation and scalar relativistic contributions were included directly, while the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction was added. Our best purely ab initio PES, denoted "mixed," is constructed from two PESs which differ in whether the ic-ACPF higher-order correlation correction was added or not. Rovibrational transition energies computed from the mixed PES agree well with experiment and the best previous theoretical studies, but most importantly the quality does not deteriorate even up to 10 300 cm(-1) above the zero-point energy (ZPE). The mixed PES was improved further by empirical refinement using the most reliable J=0-2 rovibrational transitions in the HITRAN 2004 database. Agreement between high-resolution experiment and rovibrational transition energies computed from our refined PES for J=0-6 is excellent. Indeed, the root mean square (rms) error for 13 HITRAN 2004 bands for J=0-2 is 0.023 cm(-1) and that for each band is always energies computed with our refined PES should be useful in the assignment of new high-resolution NH(3) spectra and in correcting mistakes in previous assignments. Ideas for further improvements to our refined PES and for extension to other isotopolog are discussed.

  8. Global existence and decay of energy to systems of wave equations with damping and supercritical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanqiu; Rammaha, Mohammad A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with a system of nonlinear wave equations with supercritical interior and boundary sources and subject to interior and boundary damping terms. It is well-known that the presence of a nonlinear boundary source causes significant difficulties since the linear Neumann problem for the single wave equation is not, in general, well-posed in the finite-energy space H 1(Ω) × L 2(∂Ω) with boundary data from L 2(∂Ω) (due to the failure of the uniform Lopatinskii condition). Additional challenges stem from the fact that the sources considered in this article are non-dissipative and are not locally Lipschitz from H 1(Ω) into L 2(Ω) or L 2(∂Ω). With some restrictions on the parameters in the system and with careful analysis involving the Nehari Manifold, we obtain global existence of a unique weak solution and establish (depending on the behavior of the dissipation in the system) exponential and algebraic uniform decay rates of energy. Moreover, we prove a blow-up result for weak solutions with nonnegative initial energy.

  9. Communication: An accurate global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Richard E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Lolur, Phalgun; Li, Anyang; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu

    2013-11-28

    We report a new full-dimensional and global potential energy surface (PES) for the O + O{sub 2} → O{sub 3} ozone forming reaction based on explicitly correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) data. It extends our previous [R. Dawes, P. Lolur, J. Ma, and H. Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 081102 (2011)] dynamically weighted multistate MRCI calculations of the asymptotic region which showed the widely found submerged reef along the minimum energy path to be the spurious result of an avoided crossing with an excited state. A spin-orbit correction was added and the PES tends asymptotically to the recently developed long-range electrostatic model of Lepers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234305 (2012)]. This PES features: (1) excellent equilibrium structural parameters, (2) good agreement with experimental vibrational levels, (3) accurate dissociation energy, and (4) most-notably, a transition region without a spurious reef. The new PES is expected to allow insight into the still unresolved issues surrounding the kinetics, dynamics, and isotope signature of ozone.

  10. The H(3) (+) rovibrational spectrum revisited with a global electronic potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Velilla, Luis; Lepetit, Bruno; Aguado, Alfredo; Beswick, J Alberto; Paniagua, Miguel

    2008-08-28

    In this paper, we have computed the rovibrational spectrum of the H(3) (+) molecule using a new global potential energy surface, invariant under all permutations of the nuclei, that includes the long range electrostatic interactions analytically. The energy levels are obtained by a variational calculation using hyperspherical coordinates. From the comparison with available experimental results for low lying levels, we conclude that our accuracy is of the order of 0.1 cm(-1) for states localized in the vicinity of equilateral triangular configurations of the nuclei, and changes to the order of 1 cm(-1) when the system is distorted away from equilateral configurations. Full rovibrational spectra up to the H(+)+H(2) dissociation energy limit have been computed. The statistical properties of this spectrum (nearest neighbor distribution and spectral rigidity) show the quantum signature of classical chaos and are consistent with random matrix theory. On the other hand, the correlation function, even when convoluted with a smoothing function, exhibits oscillations which are not described by random matrix theory. We discuss a possible similarity between these oscillations and the ones observed experimentally.

  11. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    PubMed

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented.

  12. Seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy in a global high-resolution ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, Jan K.; Böning, Claus W.; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Scheinert, Markus

    2015-11-01

    A global ocean model with 1/12° horizontal resolution is used to assess the seasonal cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE). The model reproduces the salient features of the observed mean surface EKE, including amplitude and phase of its seasonal cycle in most parts of the ocean. In all subtropical gyres of the Pacific and Atlantic, EKE peaks in summer down to a depth of ˜350 m, below which the seasonal cycle is weak. Investigation of the possible driving mechanisms reveals the seasonal changes in the thermal interactions with the atmosphere to be the most likely cause of the summer maximum of EKE. The development of the seasonal thermocline in spring and summer is accompanied by stronger mesoscale variations in the horizontal temperature gradients near the surface which corresponds, by thermal wind balance, to an intensification of mesoscale velocity anomalies toward the surface.

  13. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2008-01-01

    The Modern. Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a completing. the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, includin g comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JRA25 and NCE P I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations)

  14. The globally widespread genus Sulfurimonas: versatile energy metabolisms and adaptations to redox clines

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuchen; Perner, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Sulfurimonas species are commonly isolated from sulfidic habitats and numerous 16S rRNA sequences related to Sulfurimonas species have been identified in chemically distinct environments, such as hydrothermal deep-sea vents, marine sediments, the ocean’s water column, and terrestrial habitats. In some of these habitats, Sulfurimonas have been demonstrated to play an important role in chemoautotrophic processes. Sulfurimonas species can grow with a variety of electron donors and acceptors, which may contribute to their widespread distribution. Multiple copies of one type of enzyme (e.g., sulfide:quinone reductases and hydrogenases) may play a pivotal role in Sulfurimonas’ flexibility to colonize disparate environments. Many of these genes appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer which has promoted adaptations to the distinct habitats. Here we summarize Sulfurimonas’ versatile energy metabolisms and link their physiological properties to their global distribution. PMID:26441918

  15. Energy crisis precedes global metabolic failure in a novel Caenorhabditis elegans Alzheimer Disease model.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sheng; Teo, Emelyne; Ng, Li Fang; Chen, Ce-Belle; Lakshmanan, Lakshmi Narayanan; Tsoi, Sau Yee; Moore, Philip Keith; Inoue, Takao; Halliwell, Barry; Gruber, Jan

    2016-09-22

    Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ), predominantly the Aβ1-42 form, in the brain. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired energy metabolism are important components of AD pathogenesis. However, the causal and temporal relationships between them and AD pathology remain unclear. Using a novel C. elegans AD strain with constitutive neuronal Aβ1-42 expression that displays neuromuscular defects and age-dependent behavioural dysfunction reminiscent of AD, we have shown that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit is an early event in AD pathogenesis, preceding dysfunction of mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) complexes and the onset of global metabolic failure. These results are consistent with an emerging view that AD may be a metabolic neurodegenerative disease, and also confirm that Aβ-driven metabolic and mitochondrial effects can be reproduced in organisms separated by large evolutionary distances.

  16. Wood versus nonwood materials in U. S. residential construction; Some energy-related global implications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, P. )

    1992-05-01

    In comparison to the average annual timber harvest for the years 1983 to 1987 in the owl region, the various strategies under consideration for conservation of the northern spotted owl in Washington, Oregon, and California all call for substantial harvest reductions on both public and private lands. These timber harvest reductions will reduce the output of structural wood products. This paper reports that if nonrenewable structural materials such as steel, aluminum, concrete, brick, and plastics replace the structural wood shortfall, there will be significant increases in global energy consumption, and in carbon dioxide additions to the atmosphere. These increases amount to about 717 million gallons of oil annually, and about 7.5 million tons of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere annually, for each billion board feet (Scribner) of annual harvest reduction.

  17. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    PubMed Central

    Atroch, André Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage. PMID:18955289

  18. Investigation of the effect of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef

    2013-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the global radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse irradiance is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.

  19. Effects of ULF waves on local and global energetic particles: Particle energy and species dependences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Yu, J.; Cao, J. B.; Wang, Z. Q.; Yu, Y. Q.; Reeves, G. D.; Li, X.

    2016-11-01

    After 06:13 UT on 24 August 2005, an interplanetary shock triggers large-amplitude ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves (|δB| ≥ 15 nT) in the Pc4-Pc5 wave band (1.6-9 mHz) near the noon geosynchronous orbit (6.6 RE). The local and global effects of ULF waves on energetic particles are observed by five Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at different magnetic local times. The large-amplitude ULF waves cause the synchronous oscillations of energetic electrons and protons (≥75 keV) at the noon geosynchronous orbit. When the energetic particles have a negative phase space density radial gradient, they undergo rapid outward radial diffusion and loss in the wave activity region. In the particle drift paths without strong ULF waves, only the rapidly drifting energetic electrons (≥225 keV) display energy-dispersive oscillations and flux decays, whereas the slowly drifting electrons (<225 keV) and protons (75-400 keV) have no ULF oscillation and loss feature. When the dayside magnetopause is compressed to the geosynchronous orbit, most of energetic electrons and protons are rapidly lost because of open drift trajectories. The global and multicomposition particle measurements demonstrate that the effect of ULF waves on nonlocal particle flux depends on the particle energy and species, whereas magnetopause shadowing effect is independent of the energetic particle species. For the rapidly drifting outer radiation belt particles (≥225 keV), nonlocal particle loss/acceleration processes could also change their fluxes in the entire drift trajectory in the absence of "Dst effect" and substorm injection.

  20. Aedes aegypti Global Suitability Maps Using a Water Container Energy Balance Model for Dengue Risk Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.

  1. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  2. Global Surface Solar Energy Anomalies Including El Nino and La Nina Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Brown, D. E.; Chandler, W. S.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, Nancy A.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Wilber, Anne C.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper synthesizes past events in an attempt to define the general magnitude, duration, and location of large surface solar anomalies over the globe. Surface solar energy values are mostly a function of solar zenith angle, cloud conditions, column atmospheric water vapor, aerosols, and surface albedo. For this study, solar and meteorological parameters for the 10-yr period July 1983 through June 1993 are used. These data were generated as part of the Release 3 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) activity under the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) effort. Release 3 SSE uses upgraded input data and methods relative to previous releases. Cloud conditions are based on recent NASA Version-D International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) global satellite radiation and cloud data. Meteorological inputs are from Version-I Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) reanalysis data that uses both weather station and satellite information. Aerosol transmission for different regions and seasons are for an 'average' year based on historic solar energy data from over 1000 ground sites courtesy of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). These data are input to a new Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) that calculates surface albedo and surface solar energy. That algorithm is an upgraded version of the 'Staylor' algorithm. Calculations are performed for a 280X280 km equal-area grid system over the globe based on 3-hourly input data. A bi-linear interpolation process is used to estimate data output values on a 1 X 1 degree grid system over the globe. Maximum anomalies are examined relative to El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Maximum year-to-year anomalies over the globe are provided for a 10-year period. The data may assist in the design of systems with increased reliability. It may also allow for better planning for emergency assistance during some atypical events.

  3. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  4. Global Characterization of Biomass-Burning Patterns using Satellite Measurements of Fire Radiative Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Giglio, Louis; Wooster, Martin J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is the most practical means of measuring energy release from large open-air biomass burning. Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) enables distinction between fires of different strengths. Based on a 1-km resolution fire data acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, instanteaneous FRP values ranged between 0.02 MW and 1866 MW, with global daily means ranging between 20 and 40 MW. Regionally, at the Aqua-MODIS afternoon overpass, the mean FRP values for Alaska, Western US, Western Australia, Quebec and the rest of Canada are significantly higher than these global means, with Quebec having the overall highest value of 85 MW. Analysis of regional mean FRP per unit area of land (FRP flux) shows that a peak fire season in certain regions, fires can be responsible for up to 0.2 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day. Zambia has the highest regional monthly mean FRP flux of approximately 0.045 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day and season, while the Middle East has the lowest value of approximately 0.0005 W/m(sup 2). A simple scheme based on FRP has been devised to classify fires into five categories, to facilitate fire rating by strength, similar to earthquakes and hurricanes. The scheme uses MODIS measurements of FRP at 1-km resolution as follows: catagory 1 (less than 100 MW), category 2 (100 to less than 500 MW), category 3 (500 to less than 1000 MW), category 4 (1000 to less than 1500 MW), catagory 5 (greater than or equal to 1500 MW). In most regions of the world, over 90% of fires fall into category 1, while only less than 1% fall into each of categories 3 to 5, although these proportions may differ significantly from day to day and by season. The frequency of occurence of the larger fires is region specific, and could not be explained by ecosystem type alone. Time-series analysis of the propertions of higher category

  5. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  6. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  7. Global Nonlinear Analysis of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Ambient and Aeroelastic Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    Converting vibrations to a usable form of energy has been the topic of many recent investigations. The ultimate goal is to convert ambient or aeroelastic vibrations to operate low-power consumption devices, such as microelectromechanical systems, heath monitoring sensors, wireless sensors or replacing small batteries that have a finite life span or would require hard and expensive maintenance. The transduction mechanisms used for transforming vibrations to electric power include: electromagnetic, electrostatic, and piezoelectric mechanisms. Because it can be used to harvest energy over a wide range of frequencies and because of its ease of application, the piezoelectric option has attracted significant interest. In this work, we investigate the performance of different types of piezoelectric energy harvesters. The objective is to design and enhance the performance of these harvesters. To this end, distributed-parameter and phenomenological models of these harvesters are developed. Global analysis of these models is then performed using modern methods of nonlinear dynamics. In the first part of this Dissertation, global nonlinear distributed-parameter models for piezoelectric energy harvesters under direct and parametric excitations are developed. The method of multiple scales is then used to derive nonlinear forms of the governing equations and associated boundary conditions, which are used to evaluate their performance and determine the effects of the nonlinear piezoelectric coefficients on their behavior in terms of softening or hardening. In the second part, we assess the influence of the linear and nonlinear parameters on the dynamic behavior of a wing-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvester. The system is composed of a rigid airfoil that is constrained to pitch and plunge and supported by linear and nonlinear torsional and flexural springs with a piezoelectric coupling attached to the plunge degree of freedom. Linear analysis is performed to determine the

  8. Global energy confinement in the first operational phase of Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchert, Golo; Bozhenkov, S. A.; Beurskens, M.; Dinklage, A.; Feng, Y.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.; Hirsch, M.; Hoefel, U.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Knauer, J.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Maassberg, H.; Moseev, D.; Niemann, H.; Zhang, D.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Stange, T.; Trimino Mora, H.; Turkin, J.; Pablant, N.; Wurden, G.; Wolf, R. C.; W7-X Team

    2016-10-01

    Wendelstein 7-X went into operation on Dec. 10th 2015 for a first operation phase (OP1.1), dedicated to testing and commissioning of device components and diagnostics before the uncooled test divertor is installed. Nevertheless, a first physics program could be conducted alongside the commissioning. One of the OP1.1 activities was the determination of the energy content and confinement time of the plasma, which were estimated independently from profile measurements and data from a diamagnetic loop. The results were combined with radiation losses and limiter heat fluxes to a global power balance, where the combined losses match the heating power within 10-40%. This gives confidence that reasonable experimental data is available for OP1.1. Typical energy confinement times were found to be roughly between 100 and 150 ms. These values are consistent with the ISS04 scaling and show power degradation and strong dependence on the radiated power. Clear signs of stellarator optimization were neither expected nor observed in OP1.1 due to the neoclassical √ν -transport in the high Te-low density core plasma.

  9. Development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Madland, D.G.; Sierk, A.J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors report on the development of new global optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus scattering at medium energies. Using both Schroedinger and Dirac scattering formalisms, the goal is to construct a physically realistic optical potential describing nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering observables for a projectile energy range of (perhaps) 20 meV to (perhaps) 2 GeV and a target mass range of 16 to 209, excluding regions of strong nuclear deformation. They use a phenomenological approach guided by conclusions from recent microscopic studies. The experimental database consists largely of proton-nucleus elastic differential cross sections, analyzing powers, spin-rotation functions, and total reaction cross sections, and neutron-nucleus total cross sections. They will use this database in a nonlinear least-squares adjustment of optical model parameters in both relativistic equivalent Schroedinger (including relativistic kinematics) and Dirac (second-order reduction) formalisms. Isospin will be introduced through the standard Lane model and a relativistic generalization of that model.

  10. Climate, Agriculture, Energy and the Optimal Allocation of Global Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbuks, J.; Hertel, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Purdue University parallel processing computing cluster. The model is solved over the period 2000 - 2100. Our 100 year baseline accurately reflects developments in global land use over the 10 years that have already transpired, while also incorporating projections of population, income and demand growth from a variety of international agencies. We also consider three counterfactual scenarios (higher growth in energy prices, lower growth in agricultural productivity, and global GHG emissions regulations). Our model baseline predicts that, in absence of market imperfections, growth in cropland/deforestation that account for a large share of land-use GHG emission, declines significantly in the medium run. However, energy prices and policies have a significant effect on agricultural land use. Sensitivity to energy prices is compounded by vulnerability of agriculture to adverse productivity shocks from climate. In a 'perfect storm' of high growth in energy prices and declining agricultural productivity growth, additional demand for cropland leads to significant deforestation and higher GHG emissions. As a result, large welfare losses occur. When we also expect the sector to deliver increased ecosystem services as well as land-based GHG abatement, the pressure on land and water resources can be very significant.

  11. Scalar self-energy for a charged particle in global monopole spacetime with a spherical boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    We analyze combined effects of the geometry produced by a global monopole and a concentric spherical boundary on the self-energy of a point-like scalar charged test particle at rest. We assume that the boundary is outside the monopole’s core with a general spherically symmetric inner structure. An important quantity to this analysis is the three-dimensional Green function associated with this system. For both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions obeyed by the scalar field on the sphere, the Green function presents a structure that contains contributions due to the background geometry of the spacetime and the boundary. Consequently, the corresponding induced scalar self-energy also presents a similar structure. For points near the sphere, the boundary-induced part dominates and the self-force is repulsive/attractive with respect to the boundary for Dirichlet/Neumann boundary condition. In the region outside the sphere at large distances from it, the boundary-free part in the self-energy dominates and the corresponding self-force can be either attractive or repulsive with dependence of the curvature coupling parameter for scalar field. In particular, for the minimal coupling we show the presence of a stable equilibrium point for the Dirichlet boundary condition. In the region inside the sphere, the nature of the self-force depends on the specific model for the monopole’s core. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, we shall consider two distinct models, namely the flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen ones.

  12. Applications of the Jupiter Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model: A case study of auroral electron energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egert, Austin; Waite, J. Hunter; Bell, Jared

    2017-02-01

    We investigate auroral energy deposition by using a nonhydrostatic global atmospheric model coupled to a two-stream electron transport model. We present several electron beam study cases, discussing energy flux and electron energy effects on the ion and neutral densities, the atmospheric thermal profile, H3+ and hydrocarbon infrared (IR) emissions, H2 far ultraviolet (FUV) emissions and color ratios, and vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen. Using the nonhydrostatic Jupiter Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model, we find that FUV spectral characteristics consistent with previous Hubble Space Telescope results derive primarily from electrons with energies above 10 keV, over energy fluxes of 10-100 erg/cm2 s, while IR emissions are predominantly due to electrons with energies below 10 keV, over energy fluxes of 10-100 erg/cm2 s. Electrons with energies below about 10 keV produce enough H2(ν) to deplete the H+ population, modifying the ionospheric composition, and consequently the H3+ emissions, which can be used to directly relate H2 vibrational excitation to auroral observations. New observations by Juno will provide better electron energy distributions to constrain the electron energy spectrum and magnitude at the upper boundary of the model and simultaneously provide a determination of the FUV and IR spectra that can be cross-correlated with the observations.

  13. Simulated Impacts of a change in the AMOC on the global Climate; an Energy Budget Perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codron, F.; L'Héveder, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the impact of anomalous northward oceanic heat transport bythe AMOC on the global climate. We first use the LMDZ5 AGCM of theLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique coupled to a slab ocean, with realisticzonal asymmetries and seasonal cycle. Two anomalous surface heatingsreproducing the impact of an idealized AMOC strenghtening are imposed: (a)uniform heating over the North Atlantic basin, and (b) concentrated heating inthe Gulf Stream region; in both cases a compensating uniform cooling in the SouthernOcean is applied. The magnitude of the heating, and of the implied northwardinter-hemispheric heat transport, are within the range of current naturalvariability. Both simulations show global effects, which can be interpreted as acompensation by the atmosphere of the anomalous oceanic heat transport: theIntertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts north toward the heatinganomalies. This shift is accompanied by a northward shift of the jets and stormtracks in both hemispheres, consistent with anomalous soutward heat transportby transient eddies in the subtropics. In the extra-tropics, the clear-sky radiative response tends to damp theprescribed anomalies, while the cloud response acts as a large positivefeedback on the oceanic forcing, mainly due to the low-cloud induced shortwaveanomalies. In the tropics, the clear-sky response is dominated instead byhumidity changes and reinforces the ITCZ movements. We then use a fully coupled GCM in glacial conditions, in which a freshwaterflux ("hosing") is added in the North Atlantic to weaken the AMOC. We stillobserve a strong compensation between the ocean and atmosphere heat transports,as well as a southward shift of the ITCZ, and of the Southern Hemisphere jetand storm tracks. There is however no warming of the Southern mid and highlatitudes. In addition to the compensation mechanisms of the slab ocean settings, newfeedbacks on the meridional energy transports by the oceanic circulationappear. The Southern

  14. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  15. A global potential energy surface for the H2 + OH ↔ H2O + H reaction using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Dong H

    2013-04-21

    A global potential energy surface for the H2 + OH ↔ H2O + H reaction has been constructed using the neural networks method based on ~17,000 ab initio energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ level of theory. Time-dependent wave packet calculations showed that the new potential energy surface is very well converged with respect to the number of ab initio data points, as well as to the fitting process. Various tests revealed that the new surface is considerably more smooth and accurate than the existing YZCL2 and XXZ surfaces, representing the best available potential energy surface for the benchmark four-atom system. Equally importantly, the number of ab initio energies required to obtain the well converged potential energy surface is rather limited, indicating the neural network fitting is a powerful method to construct accurate potential energy surfaces for polyatomic reactions.

  16. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 2 in support of doubling the global rate of energy efficiency improvement and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Kammen, Daniel; Jewell, Jessica

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force Two which is dedicated energy efficiency and renewable energy objectives. The report shows that doubling the rate of energy efficiency improvements and doubling the share of energy from renewable sources by 2030 is challenging but feasible if sufficient actions are implemented. Strong and well-informed government policies as well as extensive private investment should focus on the high impact areas identified by the task force.

  17. Hard truths: facing the hard truths about energy. A comprehensive view to 2030 of global oil and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    In response to the questions posed by the US Secretary of Energy in October 2005, the National Petroleum Council conducted a comprehensive study considering the future of oil and natural gas to 2030 in the context of the global energy system. The Council proposed five core strategies to assist markets in meeting the energy challenges to 2030 and beyond. All five strategies are essential; there is no single, easy solution to the multiple challenges we face. However, we are confident that the prompt adoption of these strategies, along with a sustained commitment to implementation, will promote U.S. competitiveness by balancing economic, security, and environmental goals. The United States must: Moderate the growing demand for energy by increasing efficiency of transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial uses; Expand and diversify production from clean coal, nuclear, biomass, other renewables, and unconventional oil and gas; moderate the decline of conventional domestic oil and gas production; and increase access for development of new resources; Integrate energy policy into trade, economic, environmental, security, and foreign policies; strengthen global energy trade and investment; and broaden dialogue with both producing and consuming nations to improve global energy security; Enhance science and engineering capabilities and create long-term opportunities for research and development in all phases of the energy supply and demand system; and Develop the legal and regulatory framework to enable carbon capture and sequestration. In addition, as policymakers consider options to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, provide an effective global framework for carbon management, including establishment of a transparent, predictable, economy-wide cost for carbon dioxide emissions. The report, details findings and recommendations based on comprehensive analyses developed by the study teams. 5 apps.

  18. Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

  19. Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    This study reviews and ranks major proposed solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-E85 and cellulosic E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in six out of 11 categories, including the two most important, mortality and climate damage reduction. Although HFCVs are less efficient than BEVs, wind- HFCVs ranked second among all combinations. Tier 2 options provide significant benefits and are recommended. Tier 3 options are less desirable. However, hydroelectricity, which was ranked ahead of coal- CCS and nuclear with respect to climate and health, is an excellent load balancer, thus strongly recommended. The Tier-4 combinations (cellulosic- and corn-E85) were ranked lowest overall and with respect to

  20. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution, Energy Security, and Jobs with Roadmaps for Changing the All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure of the 50 United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of the 50 United States to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. The plans call for all new energy to be WWS by 2020, ~80% conversion of existing energy by 2030, and 100% by 2050 through aggressive policy measures and natural transition. Resource availability, footprint and spacing areas required, jobs created versus lost, energy costs, avoided costs from air pollution mortality and morbidity and climate damage, and methods of ensuring reliability of the grid are discussed. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html

  1. Golden age of gas and its impact on the world energy, the global carbon cycle and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereshin, A. G.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klimenko, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Global and regional resource and environmental problems of production and use of unconventional gas (UG) are studied. Estimations for world and national reserves of various kinds of UG are presented. The dynamics of the gas share in total energy consumption and thermal power generation around the world is analyzed. Projections of the world production of conventional gas and UG are proposed. Variations in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere and the corresponding changes in average global air temperature are calculated for various scenarios suggesting unconventional gas substitution of different energy sources. The possible consequences of expected climate changes for Russia's power industry are analyzed. It is shown that, despite the uncertainty in the estimates of the economic and environmental consequences of shale gas (SG) production, its use, according to the available resource estimates, can make it possible to solve global and regional problems associated with energy (import substitution) and environment protection (replacing the less clean coal fuel). However, the development of the huge global resources of this type of fuel can have a significant effect on the chemical and thermal radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere, and it must be noted that the climatic effect of carbon dioxide emissions from the UG combustion greatly exceeds the consequences of methane leakage during its production. In order to sustain the stability of the global climate system, the development of the world's large UG resources must be accompanied by an equivalent reduction in the use of coal. This is the only way for UG to become a safe energy bridge to the future, able to keep the climate system at the threshold of critical values. Direct effects of possible climatic changes on the territory of Russia for the domestic energy complex are estimated as more positive than adverse, mainly due to lower energy costs for space heating.

  2. 76 FR 19174 - In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated Medical Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... COMMISSION File No. 500-1 In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated... information concerning the securities of Circuit Systems, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports... securities of Integrated Medical Resources, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  3. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-10-06

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible.

  4. Accurate high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for ground state of CH2(+).

    PubMed

    Li, Y Q; Zhang, P Y; Han, K L

    2015-03-28

    A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH2 (+) by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH(+)(X(1)Σ(+))+H((2)S)→C(+)((2)P)+H2(X(1)Σg (+)) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C(+)/H containing systems.

  5. A census of the Carina Nebula - II. Energy budget and global properties of the nebulosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan; Brooks, Kate J.

    2007-08-01

    The first paper in this series took a direct census of energy input from the known OB stars in the Carina Nebula, and in this paper we study the global properties of the surrounding nebulosity. This detailed comparison may prove useful for interpreting observations of extragalactic giant HII regions and ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies. We find that the total IR luminosity of Carina is about 1.2 × 107Lsolar, accounting for only about 50-60 per cent of the known stellar luminosity from Paper I. Similarly, the ionizing photon luminosity derived from the integrated radio continuum is about 7 × 1050 s-1, accounting for ~75 per cent of the expected Lyman continuum from known OB stars. The total kinetic energy of the nebula is about 8 × 1051 erg, or ~30 per cent of the mechanical energy from stellar winds over the lifetime of the nebula, so there is no need to invoke a supernova (SN) explosion based on energetics. Warm dust grains residing in the HII region interior dominate emission at 10-30μm, but cooler grains at 30-40K dominate the IR luminosity and indicate a likely gas mass of ~106Msolar. We find an excellent correlation between the radio continuum and 20-25μm emission, consistent with the idea that the ~80-K grain population is heated by trapped Lyα photons. Similarly, we find a near perfect correlation between the far-IR optical depth map of cool grains and 8.6-μm hydrocarbon emission, indicating that most of the nebular mass resides as atomic gas in photodissociation regions and not in dense molecular clouds. Synchronized star formation around the periphery of Carina provides a strong case that star formation here was indeed triggered by stellar winds and ultraviolet radiation. This second generation appears to involve a cascade toward preferentially intermediate- and low-mass stars, but this may soon change when ηCarinae and its siblings explode. If the current reservoir of atomic and molecular gas can be tapped at that time, massive star formation

  6. Identifying early signs of Global Warming in the Energy budget of the ERA-20CM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the relation between the energy budgets of the climate system and the evolution of surface temperatures for understanding the mechanisms involved in anthropogenic Global Warming. The analysis is based on ERA-20CM, an ensemble of 10 AMIP-like simulations covering the period 1900-2009 and carried out with the IFS-ECMWF model. Simulations are forced by prescribed atmospheric composition, solar irradiance, SST and Sea-ice concentrations (SIC). The 10 members sample the uncertainty in the Had-ISST2 observational dataset for SST and SIC. This dataset is meant to reproduce the real evolution of the atmospheric component of the climate system on decadal time scales. The ensemble mean of the last decade of simulations (2000-2009) can be compared with observational datasets, based on satellite data and surface observations. At the Earth's surface simulations show a significant underestimate of the downward thermal radiation (-9W/m2), upward thermal radiation (-4W/m2) and latent heat flux (-2W/m2), while the solar net flux is overestimated (+4W/m2). As a result there is a net warming of the surface (+1.5W/m2), which is larger than observational estimates. Further the energy balance shows a net cooling (-2.1W/m2) of the atmosphere that added to the net warming of the surface determines a total net cooling (-0.6W/m2). Compared to CERES-EBAF satellite observations, which instead show a net warming of about 1W/m2 a systematic bias in net radiation at Top of Atmosphere (TOA) is suggested (-1.6W/m2). Actually, the energy deficit of the atmosphere has not changed during the simulated period (it is always about -2.1W/m2) and it is likely to be a model systematic bias. In fact, the small heat capacity of the atmosphere would prevent it from absorbing such an amount of heat without changing dramatically its temperature. As a result, a systematic bias in surface budget can be defined as the difference between the total and atmospheric bias, i.e. amounting to

  7. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  8. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.

  9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Adam R.; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  10. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  11. Energy choices and risk beliefs: is it just global warming and fear of a nuclear power plant accident?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael; Truelove, Heather Barnes

    2011-05-01

    A survey of 3,200 U.S. residents focused on two issues associated with the use of nuclear and coal fuels to produce electrical energy. The first was the association between risk beliefs and preferences for coal and nuclear energy. As expected, concern about nuclear power plant accidents led to decreased support for nuclear power, and those who believed that coal causes global warming preferred less coal use. Yet other risk beliefs about the coal and nuclear energy fuel cycles were stronger or equal correlates of public preferences. The second issue is the existence of what we call acknowledged risk takers, respondents who favored increased reliance on nuclear energy, although also noting that there could be a serious nuclear plant accident, and those who favored greater coal use, despite acknowledging a link to global warming. The pro-nuclear group disproportionately was affluent educated white males, and the pro-coal group was relatively poor less educated African-American and Latino females. Yet both shared four similarities: older age, trust in management, belief that the energy facilities help the local economy, and individualistic personal values. These findings show that there is no single public with regard to energy preferences and risk beliefs. Rather, there are multiple populations with different viewpoints that surely would benefit by hearing a clear and comprehensive national energy life cycle policy from the national government.

  12. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    Paper 1, Local Solutions to Global Problems: Climate Change Policies and Regulatory Jurisdiction, considers the efficacy of various types of environmental regulations when they are applied locally to pollutants whose damages extend beyond the jurisdiction of the local regulators. Local regulations of a global pollutant may be ineffective if producers and consumers can avoid them by transacting outside the reach of the local regulator. In many cases, this may involve the physical relocation of the economic activity, a problem often referred to as "leakage." This paper highlights another way in which local policies can be circumvented: through the shuffling of who buys from whom. The paper maintains that the problems of reshuffling are exacerbated when the options for compliance with the regulations are more flexible. Numerical analyses is presented demonstrating that several proposed policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the California electricity sector may have very little effect on carbon emissions if they are applied only within that state. Paper 1 concludes that although local subsidies for energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and transportation biofuels constitute attempts to pick technology winners, they may be the only mechanisms that local jurisdictions, acting alone, have at their disposal to address climate change. Paper 2, Pass-Through of Solar PV Incentives to Consumers: The Early Years of California's Solar PV Incentives, examines the pass through of incentives to California solar PV system owners. The full post-subsidy price consumers pay for solar power is a key metric of the success of solar PV incentive programs and of overall PV market performance. This study examines the early years of California's most recent wave of distributed solar PV incentives (2000-2008) to determine the pass-through of incentives. Examination of this period is both intellectually and pragmatically important due to the high level of incentives provided and

  13. Land Surface Water and Energy Estimates in the Global MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, R. H.; Draper, C. S.; Liu, Q.; Koster, R. D.; Mahanama, S. P. P.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Girotto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-decadal reanalysis datasets have been widely used to study the global terrestrial water and energy cycles. The driving component of the land surface water budget is the incoming precipitation forcing, which was traditionally generated by the atmospheric general circulation model component of the reanalysis system following the assimilation of atmospheric temperature and humidity observations. The recent CFSR and MERRA-2 reanalysis products, however, essentially use precipitation observations from satellites and/or gauges to force the land surface. This presentation first reviews the approach by which the precipitation observations are introduced in MERRA-2, which relies on a mix of (i) model-generated precipitation at high-latitudes, (ii) a pentad, 2.5 degree satellite product from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) over Africa, and (iii) a daily, 0.5 degree, gauge-based CPC precipitation product elsewhere. This approach represents an evolution of the method used in the land-only MERRA-Land reanalysis. Next, the precipitation climatologies and the resulting land surface conditions are evaluated regionally and for the reanalysis time period (1980-present) against available independent observations. MERRA-2 provides generally improved land surface conditions when compared to MERRA, its predecessor. Improvements include enhanced estimates of soil moisture, terrestrial water storage, runoff, screen-level temperature and turbulent fluxes, with MERRA-2 skill metrics generally similar to those of MERRA-Land. But MERRA-2 also suffers from adverse spin-up effects in soil moisture conditions at very high latitudes because of model precipitation bias in this region.

  14. Conceptional Considerations to Energy Balance and Global Warming Potential of Soil Bioengineering Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Thannen, Magdalena; Paratscha, Roman; Smutny, Roman; Lampalzer, Thomas; Strauss, Alfred; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there is a high demand on engineering solutions considering not only technical aspects but also ecological and aesthetic values. In this context soil bioengineering techniques are often used as standalone solutions or in combination with conventional engineering structures. It is a construction technique that uses biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions. In general it pursues the same objectives as conventional civil engineering structures. Currently the used assessment methods for soil bioengineering structures are referencing technically, ecologically and socio-economically. In a modern engineering approach additionally, environmental impacts and potential added values should be considered. The research project E-Protect aims at developing Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models for this special field of alpine protective constructions. Both, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) should be considered in an Environmental LCA over the whole life cycle of an engineering structure. The life cycle itself can be divided into three phases: the construction phase, the use phase and the end of life phase. The paper represents a concept to apply an Environmental LCA model for soil bioengineering structures. Beside the construction phase of these structures particular attention will be given to the use phase. It is not only important in terms of engineering effects but also plays an important role for positive carbon footprint due to the growing plants of soil bioengineering structures in contrast to conventional structures. Innovative Environmental LCA models will be applied to soil bioengineering structures which provide a new transparency for the responsible planners and stakeholders, by pointing out the total consumption of resources in all construction phases and components.

  15. The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a global energy transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes; Bardi, Ugo

    2016-09-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy (RE) installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world’s economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a RE infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the RE technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of RE plants to accelerate from 0.12 TWp yr-1 in 2013 to peak between 7.3 and 11.6 TWp yr-1 in the late 2030s, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 budget.

  16. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Analysis of a long-term dataset of global and diffuse horizontal irradiance at northeastern Spain for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    An accurate knowledge of the global, diffuse and direct beam irradiance at specific geographical locations in high temporal and spatial resolutions is a must requirement for the development of solar energy applications. Most available datasets comprise global irradiance, but it is not the case for diffuse or direct beam components. These two latter are of great importance when converting the data into declined impinging irradiance or specific components like for example daylight or available energy, utilized to assess the feasibility of solar energy systems. The surface irradiance presents a high temporal variability, and analysis of high frequency sampling datasets provides very valuable information for energy applications. In this contribution, we present an analysis of a long-term dataset of ground measurements of global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years (1986-2007) at northeastern Spain. Ten Irradiance stations of the Catalan Energy Institute (ICAEN) solar network are analyzed to assess the temporal and spatial fluctuations and trends of the ground solar irradiance. The stations provide 5-minutes global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years. In a first step, a quality control testing is applied over our datasets based on QCRad methodology (Long and Shi, 2006; Long and Dutton, 2002). The total amount of valid data from sunrise to sunset is over 6 Million data for global irradiance (87%) and over 4.5 Million data for diffuse irradiance (62%). Then, a comparison and validation of global-to-beam irradiance conversion models is performed to estimate beam irradiance and daily sunshine duration through the clearness index (Kt) and diffuse fraction (Kd). The results allow us to provide a representative solar radiation year which sums up all the climatic information characterizing an annual radiation cycle. REFERENCES Long CN. and Shi Y., 2006. "The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including

  18. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D.; de Freitas, U.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green's function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopole's core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole.

  19. DESAE (Dynamic Energy System- Atomic Energy): Integrated Computer Model for Performing Global Analysis in INPRO Assessment Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tsibulskiy, V.; Subbotin, S.; Khoroshev, M.; Depisch, F.

    2006-07-01

    The Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was established to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute, in a sustainable manner, to the energy needs in the 21. century. In 2005, its membership continued to grow, with Ukraine and United States of America becoming additional members, and total INPRO membership now stands at 24. (authors)

  20. Contribution of gravitational potential energy differences to the global stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Attreyee; Holt, William E.; Flesch, Lucy M.

    2009-11-01

    Modelling the lithospheric stress field has proved to be an efficient means of determining the role of lithospheric versus sublithospheric buoyancies and also of constraining the driving forces behind plate tectonics. Both these sources of buoyancies are important in generating the lithospheric stress field. However, these sources and the contribution that they make are dependent on a number of variables, such as the role of lateral strength variation in the lithosphere, the reference level for computing the gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) of the lithosphere, and even the definition of deviatoric stress. For the mantle contribution, much depends on the mantle convection model, including the role of lateral and radial viscosity variations, the spatial distribution of density buoyancies, and the resolution of the convection model. GPE differences are influenced by both lithosphere density buoyancies and by radial basal tractions that produce dynamic topography. The global lithospheric stress field can thus be divided into (1) stresses associated with GPE differences (including the contribution from radial basal tractions) and (2) stresses associated with the contribution of horizontal basal tractions. In this paper, we investigate only the contribution of GPE differences, both with and without the inferred contribution of radial basal tractions. We use the Crust 2.0 model to compute GPE values and show that these GPE differences are not sufficient alone to match all the directions and relative magnitudes of principal strain rate axes, as inferred from the comparison of our depth integrated deviatoric stress tensor field with the velocity gradient tensor field within the Earth's plate boundary zones. We argue that GPE differences calibrate the absolute magnitudes of depth integrated deviatoric stresses within the lithosphere; shortcomings of this contribution in matching the stress indicators within the plate boundary zones can be corrected by

  1. Building a Course on Global Sustainability using the grand challenges of Energy-Water-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources is a lower division integrated science course at the University of Wyoming that fulfills the university's science requirement. Course content and context has been developed using the grand challenge nexus of energy-water-and climate (EWC). The interconnection of these issues, their social relevance and timeliness has provided a framework that gives students an opportunity to recognize why STEM is relevant to their lives regardless of their ultimate professional career choices. The EWC nexus provides the filter to sieve the course's STEM content. It also provides an ideal mechanism by which the non-STEM perspectives important in grand challenge solutions can be seamlessly incorporated in the course. Through a combination of content and context, the relevance of these issues engage students in their own learning. Development of the course followed the Grand Challenge Scientific Literacy (GCSL) model independently developed by the author and two colleagues at the University of Wyoming. This course model stresses science principles centered on the nature of science (e.g., fundamental premises, habits of mind, critical thinking) and unifying scientific concepts (e.g., methods and tools, experimentation, modeling). Grand challenge principles identify the STEM and non-STEM concepts needed to understand the grand challenges, drawing on multiple STEM and non-STEM disciplines and subjects (i.e., economics, politics, unintended consequences, roles of stakeholders). Using the EWC nexus filter and building on the Grand Challenge Principles, specific content included in the course is selected is that most relevant to understanding the Grand Challenges, thereby stressing content depth over breadth. Because quantitative data and reasoning is critical to effectively evaluating challenge solutions, QR is a component of nearly all class activities, while engineering and technology aspects of grand challenges are

  2. Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part II: Land-characteristic contributions to spatial variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Shmakin, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Land water and energy balances vary around the globe because of variations in amount and temporal distribution of water and energy supplies and because of variations in land characteristics. The former control (water and energy supplies) explains much more variance in water and energy balances than the latter (land characteristics). A largely untested hypothesis underlying most global models of land water and energy balance is the assumption that parameter values based on estimated geographic distributions of soil and vegetation characteristics improve the performance of the models relative to the use of globally constant land parameters. This hypothesis is tested here through an evaluation of the improvement in performance of one land model associated with the introduction of geographic information on land characteristics. The capability of the model to reproduce annual runoff ratios of large river basins, with and without information on the global distribution of albedo, rooting depth, and stomatal resistance, is assessed. To allow a fair comparison, the model is calibrated in both cases by adjusting globally constant scale factors for snow-free albedo, non-water-stressed bulk stomatal resistance, and critical root density (which is used to determine effective root-zone depth). The test is made in stand-alone mode, that is, using prescribed radiative and atmospheric forcing. Model performance is evaluated by comparing modeled runoff ratios with observed runoff ratios for a set of basins where precipitation biases have been shown to be minimal. The withholding of information on global variations in these parameters leads to a significant degradation of the capability of the model to simulate the annual runoff ratio. An additional set of optimization experiments, in which the parameters are examined individually, reveals that the stomatal resistance is, by far, the parameter among these three whose spatial variations add the most predictive power to the model in

  3. Available potential energy gain from mixing due to the nonlinearity of the equation of state in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, L. S.; Saenz, J. A.; Hogg, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Densification in the ocean interior upon mixing at high latitudes, due to the nonlinear equation of state (EoS) of seawater, enhances the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). However, recent calculations using numerical simulations of global ocean circulation have shown that the nonlinearity of the EoS leads to a sink of gravitational potential energy (PE), from which one might infer that there is less energy available to be released to the MOC. Here the available PE (APE) budget of the global ocean is investigated using a numerical model with a nonlinear EoS under a realistic configuration. The results show that, while the nonlinearity of the EoS leads to a loss of gravitational PE, it is a source of APE. For the model used in this study, nonlinearity of the EoS is as significant as surface buoyancy forcing in generating APE.

  4. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores.

  5. Nuclear Energy Experiments to the Center for Global Security and Cooperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas M.

    2015-06-01

    This is to serve as verification that the Center 6200 experimental pieces supplied to the Technology Training and Demonstration Area within the Center of Global Security and Cooperation are indeed unclassified unlimited released for viewing.

  6. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1975-01-01

    Application of the aerodynamic energy approach to some problems of flutter suppression and gust alleviation were considered. A simple modification of the control-law is suggested for achieving the required pitch control in the use of a leading edge - trailing edge activated strip. The possible replacement of the leading edge - trailing edge activated strip by a trailing edge - tab strip is also considered as an alternate solution. Parameters affecting the performance of the activated leading edge - trailing edge strip were tested on the Arava STOL Transport and the Westwind Executive Jet Transport and include strip location, control-law gains and a variation in the control-law itself.

  7. Global analysis of steady-state energy transfer measurements in membranes: resolution of structural and binding parameters.

    PubMed

    Domanov, Yegor A; Gorbenko, Galina P; Molotkovsky, Julian G

    2004-01-01

    A method has been developed allowing structural and binding parameters to be recovered by global analysis of two-dimensional array of steady-state RET data in the special case where energy acceptors distribute between aqueous and lipid phases while donors are embedded in the membrane at a known depth. To test the validity of this approach, correlation and error analyses have been performed using simulated data. To exemplify the method application to the membrane studies, energy transfer from anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine incorporated into mixed phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin unilamellar vesicles to heme group of cytochrome c is analyzed.

  8. A comparison of global optimization algorithms with standard benchmark functions and real-world applications using Energy Plus

    SciTech Connect

    Kamph, Jerome Henri; Robinson, Darren; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of computer algorithms to identify combinations of parameters which optimise the energy performance of buildings. For such problems, the objective function can be multi-modal and needs to be approximated numerically using building energy simulation programs. As these programs contain iterative solution algorithms, they introduce discontinuities in the numerical approximation to the objective function. Metaheuristics often work well for such problems, but their convergence to a global optimum cannot be established formally. Moreover, different algorithms tend to be suited to particular classes of optimization problems. To shed light on this issue we compared the performance of two metaheuristics, the hybrid CMA-ES/HDE and the hybrid PSO/HJ, in minimizing standard benchmark functions and real-world building energy optimization problems of varying complexity. From this we find that the CMA-ES/HDE performs well on more complex objective functions, but that the PSO/HJ more consistently identifies the global minimum for simpler objective functions. Both identified similar values in the objective functions arising from energy simulations, but with different combinations of model parameters. This may suggest that the objective function is multi-modal. The algorithms also correctly identified some non-intuitive parameter combinations that were caused by a simplified control sequence of the building energy system that does not represent actual practice, further reinforcing their utility.

  9. Nonsolar energy use and one-hundred-year global warming potential of Iowa swine feedstuffs and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Kenealy, M D; Kliebenstein, J B; Harmon, J D; Helmers, M J; Honeyman, M S

    2010-03-01

    Demand for nonsolar energy and concern about the implications of fossil fuel combustion have encouraged examination of energy use associated with agriculture. The United States is a global leader in pig production, and the United States swine industry is centered in Iowa. Feed is the largest individual input in pig production, but the energy consumption of the Iowa swine feed production chain has yet to be critically examined. This analysis examines nonsolar energy use and resulting 100-yr global warming potential (GWP) associated with the swine feed production chain, beginning with cultivation of crops and concluding with diet formulation. The nonsolar energy use and accompanying 100-yr GWP associated with production of 13 common swine feed ingredients are estimated. Two diet formulation strategies are considered for 4 crop sequence x ingredient choice combinations to generate 8 crop sequence x diet formulation scenarios. The first formulation strategy (simple) does not include synthetic AA or phytase. The second strategy (complex) reduces CP content of the diet by using L-lysine to meet standardized ileal digestibility lysine requirements of pigs and includes the exogenous enzyme phytase. Regardless of crop sequence x diet formulation scenario, including the enzyme phytase is energetically favorable and reduces the potential excretion of P by reducing or removing inorganic P from the complete diet. Including L-lysine reduces the CP content of the diet and requires less nonsolar energy to deliver adequate standardized ileal digestible lysine than simply feeding soybean meal. Replacing soybean meal with full-fat soybeans is not energetically beneficial under Iowa conditions. Swine diets including dried distillers grains with solubles and crude glycerol require approximately 50% more nonsolar energy inputs than corn-soybean meal diets or corn-soybean meal diets including oats. This study provides essential information on cultivation, processing, and manufacture of

  10. An International Solar Energy Development Decade. A Proposal for Global Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonier, Tom

    1972-01-01

    Argues that international cooperation in developing solar energy, either by collecting the energy in space stations and transmitting to earth via microwave beams or by terrestrial collection, can lead to peace between nations. (AL)

  11. Climate sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems' subdaily carbon, water, and energy dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Childers, D. L.; Kang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Under the context of global climate change, it is important to understand the direction and magnitude of different ecosystems respond to climate at the global level. In this study, we applied dynamical process network (DPN) approach combined with eco-climate system sensitivity model and used the global FLUXNET eddy covariance measurements (subdaily net ecosystem exchange of CO2, air temperature, and precipitation) to access eco-climate system sensitivity to climate and biophysical factors at the flux site level. For the first time, eco-climate system sensitivity was estimated at the global flux sites and extrapolated to all possible land covers by employing artificial neural network approach and using the MODIS phenology and land cover products, the long-term climate GLDAS-2 product, and the GMTED2010 Global Grid elevation dataset. We produced the seasonal eco-climate system DPN maps, which revealed how global carbon dynamics driven by temperature and precipitation. We also found that the eco-climate system dynamical process structures are more sensitive to temperature, whether directly or indirectly via phenology. Interestingly, if temperature continues rising, the temperature-NEE coupling may increase in tropical rain forest areas while decrease in tropical desert or Savanna areas, which means that rising temperature in the future could lead to more carbon sequestration in tropical forests whereas less carbon sequestration in tropical drylands. At the same time, phenology showed a positive effect on the temperature-NEE coupling at all pixels, which suggests increased greenness may increase temperature driven carbon dynamics and consequently carbon sequestration globally. Precipitation showed relatively strong influence on the precipitation-NEE coupling, especially indirectly via phenology. This study has the potential to conduct eco-climate system short-term and long-term forecasting.

  12. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  13. Alleviation of Communication Apprehension: An Individualized Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    Communication apprehension (CA) affects from 15% to 20% of the college population, indicating inherent problems of negative cognitive appraisal, conditioned anxiety, or skills deficits. Use of an individualized approach to the alleviation of CA has been shown to increase students' class interaction and to improve their verbal skills. During an…

  14. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  15. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  16. Global exploration of isomers and isomerization channels on the quantum chemical potential energy surface of H3 CNO3.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Kishimoto, Naoki; Iwamoto, Takeaki; Satoh, Hiroko

    2017-04-15

    Global exploration of isomers and isomerization channels on the quantum chemical potential energy surface (PES) is performed for H3 CNO3 using the Scaled Hypersphere Search-Anharmonic Downward Distortion Following (SHS-ADDF) method. The molecular formula of H3 CNO3 includes functional groups of CH3 , OH, NH2 , COOH, NO, NO2 , and NO3 , which are very important in connection with amino acids and NOx. Geometrical structures and interconversion pathways are disclosed after 18719781 force calculations and 534726 Hessian calculations at the level of B3LYP/6-31G(d). The explored results are confirmed to be valid, especially for the important lower energy regions, by re-optimization at the higher level of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). A global reaction route-mapping using SHS-ADDF demonstrates the entire view and undeveloped landscapes on PES of H3 CNO3 . Typical compounds of H3 CNO3 , aminoxy formic acid, hydroxycarbamic acid, aminoperformic acid, hydroxymethyl nitrite, nitromethanol, methyl nitrate, methyl peroxynitrite, and dioxaziridine, are well separated from others by very high energy-barriers. The stable-most conformer of H3 CNO3 is difficult to be determined, because of seven structures existing with nearly the same energies within 5.7 kJ/mol at the level of CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  18. HPC-scaling and energy consumption of the global seismic wave-propagation code AxiSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan; van Driel, Martin; Staehler, Simon; Brietzke, Gilbert

    2014-05-01

    We present the global seismic wave propagation package AxiSEM with a particular focus on scalability on diverse multi-core HPC systems and quantification of energy consumption. The code itself has only recently been adapted to large-scale HPC systems and shows excellent, near-perfect scalability up to 10'000 CPU cores. It has been released under the GPL licence and is used in the research community and on a variety of platforms. Here, we quantify its HPC performance for realistic simulation settings, including platform-independent I/O, and present these in user-friendly application-driven formulations. Due to the physical limitations of the current generation of micro-processor technologies, energy consumption of processors has now become a primary limitation in reaching the full potential of such systems. Although the runtime scalability of large parallel systems has been investigated in the past, the energy performance and its effect on future systems scalability and development is not well understood. Additionally with the recent changes in legislation towards emissions and energy prices, traditional runtime scalability problems have been further aggravated by the energy costs and cost of ownership of large parallel systems. The emergence of the green 500 (www.green500.org) reflects this trend, but quantification of such energy consumption for real-world application lags behind. To this end, we analyse the energy characteristics using a new energy profiling software called EMPPACK and study how AxiSEM scaled with respect to energy cost and find promising results on moderate resources. We shall extend this energy analysis to run on some of the largest available HPC systems, and give a perspective on performing similar studies for different codes and GPU facilities.

  19. The initial mass function and global rates of mass, momentum, and energy input to the interstellar medium via stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Published observational data are compiled and analyzed, using theoretical stellar-evolution models to determine the global rates of mass, momentum, and energy injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds. Expressions derived include psi = 0.00054 x (M to the -1.03) stars formed/sq kpc yr log M (where M is the initial mass function in solar mass units) and mass-loss = (2 x 10 to the -13th) x (L to the 1.25) solar mass/yr (with L in solar luminosity units). It is found that the wind/supernova injection of energy into the ISM and the mass loss from stars of 5 solar mass or more are approximately balanced by the dissipation of energy by cloud-cloud collisions and the formation of stars, respectively.

  20. A new global approach using a network of piezoelectric elements and energy redistribution for enhanced vibration damping of smart structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dan; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude

    2013-04-01

    A new global approach for improved vibration damping of smart structure, based on global energy redistribution by means of a network of piezoelectric elements is proposed. It is basically using semi-active Synchronized Switch Damping technique. SSD technique relies on a cumulative build-up of the voltage resulting from the continuous switching and it was shown that the performance is strongly related to this voltage. The increase of the piezoelectric voltage results in improvement of the damping performance. External voltage sources or improved switching sequences were previously designed to increase this voltage in the case of single piezoelectric element structure configurations. This paper deals with extended structure with many embedded piezoelectric elements. The proposed strategy consist of using an electric network made with non-linear component and switches in order to set up and control a low-loss energy transfer from source piezoelements extracting the vibration energy of the structure and oriented toward a given piezoelement in order to increase its operative energy for improving a given mode damping. This paper presents simulation of a clamped plate with four piezoelectric elements implemented in the Matlab/SimulinkTM environment and SimscapeTM library. The various simulation cases show the relationship between the damping performance on a given targeted mode and the established power flow. SSDD and SSDT are two proposed original networks. Performances are compared to the SSDI baseline. A damping increase of 18dB can be obtained even with a weakly coupled piezoelectric element in the multi-sine excitation case. This result proves the importance of new global non-linear multi-actuator strategies for improved vibration damping of extended smart structure.

  1. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedjazi, Babak

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  2. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  3. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  4. Global and Regional Future Potential for Energy from Municipal Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Smith, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a low-cost form of alternative energy with a large potential for future expansion. MSW is already collected and aggregated at population centers where energy demands are high. In addition, it is non-seasonal, and using MSW as an energy source reduces land demand for waste disposal sites in urban areas where land pressures are high. Across the world, the MSW generation rate and its composition vary greatly, but detailed historical data on MSW are not well archived for most of the world. In this study, material flows into the MSW stream are estimated by analyzing production and trade statistics of food, wood, and paper. A life cycle analysis for consumption is used to estimate the amount and composition of MSW for all countries of the world. The primary energy available is estimated based on the energy content of the various waste components. The relationship between GDP, population, per capita GDP, and MSW generation is determined via a regression model. The ObjECTS MiniCAM (integrated assessment model) is used to project the demand for waste-to-energy for the next century for different regions of the world under various international climate policy scenarios. MSW is potentially a low net carbon energy source that can displace fossil energy, and as such, demand for waste-to-energy increases under a climate policy that places a price on carbon emissions.

  5. A Worldwide Plan to Eliminate Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Instability With Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses a plan to solve the problems by powering 100% of the world's energy for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industrial processes, and heating/cooling, with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) within the next 20-40 years. It reviews and ranks major proposed energy solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy insecurity while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, resource availability, reliability, wildlife, and catastrophic risk. It then evaluates a scenario for powering the world on the energy options determined to be the best while also considering materials, transmission infrastructure, costs, and politics. The study concludes that powering the world with WWS electric power technologies and a conversion from combustion to electricity and electrolytically-produced hydrogen is the cleanest and safest method of solving these problems. Due to the efficiency of electricity, such a conversion reduces world power demand by 30%. Methods of ensuring reliability of WWS electric power are available and will be demonstrated. We also conclude that neither liquid biofuels for transportation (including ethanol or biodiesel from any source), solid biofuels for home heating and cooking, biomass for electricity, conventional or fracked natural gas for electricity or transportation, nuclear power, nor coal with carbon capture (clean coal) are nearly so clean or safe as WWS technologies so are not recommended, either as bridge technologies or in the long term. Our plan calls for all new energy to be supplied by WWS-electricity-hydrogen resources no later than 2030 and all existing non-WWS infrastructure to be eliminated no later than 2050. We find that the plan is technically and economically feasible but politically challenging.

  6. Cost, energy, global warming, eutrophication and local human health impacts of community water and sanitation service options.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options.

  7. Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input–output LCA method with a global link input–output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input–output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input–output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains. PMID:22881452

  8. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  9. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Ellen

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  10. The Global Energy Situation on Earth, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide are: (1) Introduction to the unit; (2) The "EARTH" program; (3) Exercises; and (4) Sources of information on the energy crisis. This guide supplements a simulation which allows students to analyze different aspects of…

  11. Energy, Atmosphere, and Climate. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about how daily human activities, such as energy use, add pollutants to the atmosphere. The lesson is divided into seven parts and can be taught in two or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Total Energy Use by Fuel Type, 1991"; (2) "Facts…

  12. Global energy transports and the influence of clouds on transport requirements - A satellite analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of differential net radiative heating on 2D energy transports within the atmosphere ocean system and the role of clouds on this process. The 2D mean energy transports, in answer to zonal and meridional gradients in the net radiation field, show an east-west coupled dipole structure in which the Pacific acts as the major energy source and North Africa as the major energy sink. It is demonstrated that the dipole is embedded in the secondary energy transports arising mainly from the differential heating between land and oceans in the tropics in which the tropical east-west (zonal) transports are up to 30 percent of the tropical north-south (meridional) transports.

  13. The role of country-to-region assignments in global integrated modeling of energy, agriculture, land use, and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    Global integrated assessment models used for understanding the linkages between the future energy, agriculture, and climate systems typically represent between 8 and 30 geopolitical macro-regions, balancing the benefits of geographic resolution with the costs of additional data collection, processing, analysis, and computing resources. As these models are continually being improved and updated in order to address new questions for the research and policy communities, it is worth examining the consequences of the country-to-region mapping schemes used for model results. This study presents an application of a data processing system built for the GCAM integrated assessment model that allows any country-to-region assignments, with a minimum of four geopolitical regions and a maximum of 185. We test ten different mapping schemes, including the specific mappings used in existing major integrated assessment models. We also explore the impacts of clustering nations into regions according to the similarity of the structure of each nation's energy and agricultural sectors, as indicated by multivariate analysis. Scenarios examined include a reference scenario, a low-emissions scenario, and scenarios with agricultural and buildings sector climate change impacts. We find that at the global level, the major output variables (primary energy, agricultural land use) are surprisingly similar regardless of regional assignments, but at finer geographic scales, differences are pronounced. We suggest that enhancing geographic resolution is advantageous for analysis of climate impacts on the buildings and agricultural sectors, due to the spatial heterogeneity of these drivers.

  14. Global energy gradients and size in colonial organisms: worker mass and worker number in ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Kaspari, Michael

    2005-04-05

    Body mass shapes processes from cell metabolism to community dynamics. Little is known, however, about how the average body mass of individuals varies among ecological communities. Ants alter colony mass by independently changing worker mass and/or worker number. In a survey of 49 ecosystems from tundra to tropical rainforest, average worker mass and worker number were uncorrelated (r(s) = 0.2, P > 0.14) and varied 100-fold. Data supported the hypothesis that higher mean monthly temperatures, T, reduce worker mass by increasing metabolic costs during worker development. In contrast, worker number was unimodal over a 1,000-fold gradient of net primary productivity (NPP, g of carbon per m2 per yr), a measure of organic carbon available to consumers. At the lowest levels of NPP colonies appeared to be carbon-limited; above 60 g of carbon per m2 per yr average worker number decreased to a global low. This decline in worker number with increasing NPP supports the hypothesis that abundant carbon ameliorates the Achilles heel of small taxa in competition with large taxa: their relatively high metabolic demands. Higher predation rates in resource-rich environments may also play a role in limiting worker number. In all, about half the global variation in worker mass and number was accounted for by gradients of NPP and T. Changes in global temperature and rainfall may thus mold gradients of ectotherm size, with consequences for the structure and function of the ecosystems.

  15. A new one-dimensional simple energy balance and carbon cycle coupled model for global warming simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kazutaka; Sasai, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2010-08-01

    Global warming and accompanying climate change may be caused by an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses generated by anthropogenic activities. In order to supply such a mechanism of global warming with a quantitative underpinning, we need to understand the multifaceted roles of the Earth's energy balance and material cycles. In this study, we propose a new one-dimensional simple Earth system model. The model consists of carbon and energy balance submodels with a north-south zonal structure. The two submodels are coupled by interactive feedback processes such as CO2 fertilization of net primary production (NPP) and temperature dependencies of NPP, soil respiration, and ocean surface chemistry. The most important characteristics of the model are not only that the model requires a relatively short calculation time for carbon and energy simulation compared with a General Circulation Model (GCM) and an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), but also that the model can simulate average latitudinal variations. In order to analyze the response of the Earth system due to increasing greenhouse gasses, several simulations were conducted in one dimension from the years 1750 to 2000. Evaluating terrestrial and oceanic carbon uptake output of the model in the meridional direction through comparison with observations and satellite data, we analyzed the time variation patterns of air temperature in low- and middle-latitude belts. The model successfully reproduced the temporal variation in each latitude belt and the latitudinal distribution pattern of carbon uptake. Therefore, this model could more accurately demonstrate a difference in the latitudinal response of air temperature than existing models. As a result of the model evaluations, we concluded that this new one-dimensional simple Earth system model is a good tool for conducting global warming simulations. From future projections using various emission scenarios, we showed that the spatial distribution of

  16. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature ‘well below 2°C’ and to ‘aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C’. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international ‘pro-growth’ strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve ‘sustainable development’ goals. PMID:26959977

  17. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  18. Systematics of Global Observables in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2006-07-11

    Charged particles produced in Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 200 and 62.4 GeV have been measured in the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The comparison of the results for Cu+Cu and Au+Au for the most central collisions at the same energy reveals that the particle density per nucleon participant pair and the extended longitudinal scaling behavior are similar in both systems. This implies that for the most central events in symmetric nucleus-nucleus collisions the particle density per nucleon participant pair does not depend on the size of the two colliding nuclei but only on the collision energy. Also the extended longitudinal scaling seems independent of the colliding energy and species for central collisions. In addition, there is an overall factorization of dNch/d{eta} shapes as a function of collision centraliry between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at the same energy.

  19. Global patterns of the beta diversity-energy relationship in terrestrial vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Xiao, Ming

    2012-02-01

    Patterns in beta diversity or species turnover, describing the change in species composition between places, have their wide implication for ecological and evolutionary issues. It is thought that beta diversity increases with increasing energy availability, but very few studies have directly tested this hypothesis. We examined the beta diversity-energy relationship for four classes of terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) in ecoregions across the world. The relationship was examined for each class in each of six biogeographic realms. We show that beta diversity is generally higher in areas with higher energy availability, measured as annual potential evapotranspiration. A higher level of beta diversity in areas with higher energy availability may have contributed to the well-known latitudinal diversity gradient (i.e., species richness increases towards the equator).

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  1. The READY program: Building a global potential energy surface and reactive dynamic simulations for the hydrogen combustion.

    PubMed

    Mogo, César; Brandão, João

    2014-06-30

    READY (REActive DYnamics) is a program for studying reactive dynamic systems using a global potential energy surface (PES) built from previously existing PESs corresponding to each of the most important elementary reactions present in the system. We present an application to the combustion dynamics of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen using accurate PESs for all the systems involving up to four oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Results at the temperature of 4000 K and pressure of 2 atm are presented and compared with model based on rate constants. Drawbacks and advantages of this approach are discussed and future directions of research are pointed out.

  2. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsenti, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  3. Inferring deep ocean tidal energy dissipation from the global high-resolution data-assimilative HAMTIDE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, E.; Stammer, D.; Zahel, W.

    2014-07-01

    Energy dissipation rates of eight major semidiurnal and diurnal tidal constituents are inferred using a barotropic data assimilative tide model with 7.5' spatial resolution. Dynamical residuals and dynamical residual power, estimated through the assimilation procedure as a correction for model uncertainties, constitute an essential contribution to deep-ocean and shallow-seas dissipation rates. Resulting total dissipation rates amount to 3.54 TW, of which 2.44 TW (69%) are accounted for by the M2 component alone. Concentrating on the deep ocean (> 1000 m water depth), the dissipation by all eight constituents amounts to 1.42 TW, and 0.93 TW just for the M2 component. These results are higher by 19% and 38% than dissipation rates estimated by Egbert and Ray (2003), respectively. Of the globally dissipated 2.44TWM2 energy, 1.24 TW are estimated to arise from bottom drag and eddy turbulence, 1.20 TW from residual power. For just the deep ocean, respective numbers amount to 0.10 TW for bottom drag and eddy turbulence, 1.07 TW for barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion due to the internal wave drag. Interpreting negative residual power -0.24 TW as a potential tidal energy source, a net surface-to-internal tide M2 energy conversion would amount to 0.83 TW.

  4. Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  5. Global transverse and forward energy measurements for Si+A and Au+A at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, B.; E802 /866 Collaboration

    1993-04-01

    The global transverse and forward energy from Si+Al,Au at 14.6A GeV/c and Au+Al,Au, at 11.6A GeV/c have been measured using the E802 lead-glass and ZCAL. Preliminary d{sigma}/dE{sub T}, dE{sub T}/d{eta} and d{sigma}dT{sub ZCAL} spectra are presented, and the shapes of the spectra from different systems are compared. The transverse and forward energies in Au+Au are observed to be anticorrelated in a manner that is reproduced by the cascade model ARC but not by the essentially geometric model Fritiof.

  6. Global transverse and forward energy measurements for Si+A and Au+A at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, B.

    1993-01-01

    The global transverse and forward energy from Si+Al,Au at 14.6A GeV/c and Au+Al,Au, at 11.6A GeV/c have been measured using the E802 lead-glass and ZCAL. Preliminary d[sigma]/dE[sub T], dE[sub T]/d[eta] and d[sigma]dT[sub ZCAL] spectra are presented, and the shapes of the spectra from different systems are compared. The transverse and forward energies in Au+Au are observed to be anticorrelated in a manner that is reproduced by the cascade model ARC but not by the essentially geometric model Fritiof.

  7. Innovation in Photovoltaic Science, Engineering, and Policy: A Potential Trillion-Dollar Global Industry for Sustainable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Cheng

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology was an expensive niche energy source only for satellite applications, hallmarked by the Bell Lab's launch of the Telstar satellite with PV cells in 1962. Over the past decades, the accumulation of vast amount of effort across various disciplines in science, engineering, and policy has enabled the phenomenal growth of the solar PV industry into a global enterprise with about 140 gigawatt (GW) of cumulative installations by the end of 2013. Further cost reduction through innovation holds the promise in deploying terawatt (TW)-scale solar PV systems globally in both developed and developing countries, meeting growing energy demand and mitigating climate change. Chapter 1 presents a big picture view of the unsustainable path, heavily relying on fossil fuels, in the current global energy landscape. The main body of the dissertation examines the solar PV technology from a holistic and interdisciplinary perspective: from the basic research, to innovations in manufacturing and installing PV modules, to the driving energy policies. Chapter 2 offers a fundamental understanding of the PV technology and a review on recent scientific advances in improving PV efficiency (W/m 2). Chapter 3 reviews the state-of-the-art process flow in manufacturing commercial PV modules. In the context of pursuing further reduction in manufacturing cost (/m2), the thin Si film concept and its recent research effort are reviewed. Aiming to explore novel ways to produce high-quality seed crystals for thin Si film deposition, the key findings of the laser crystallization experiment is presented in Chapter 4. The fundamental thermophysics of nucleation and crystal growth is first reviewed, which highlights the importance of temperature evolution and heat transport in modelling the ultrafast laser crystallization process. Laser crystallization of a range of Si nanostructures are then carried out to study the nucleation and crystal growth behavior under some novel

  8. Modeling U.S. Energy Use Changes with Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Erickson III, David J; Hernandez Figueroa, Jose L

    2006-09-01

    Using a general circulation model of Earth climate (PCM-IBIS) to drive an energy use model (DD-NEMS), we calculated the energy use changes for each year from 2003-2025 for the nine U.S. Census regions. We used five scenarios: 1) a reference with no change in temperatures from the 1970-2003 average, 2) a gradual 1 F rise in temperature by 2025, 3) a gradual 3 F rise by 2025, 4) a climate simulation with low temperature response to CO2 doubling in the atmosphere, and 5) a climate simulation with a more extreme response. The low-?T scenario had a cumulative reduction in energy of 2.1 Quads but an increase in cost of $14.8 billion. The northern states had reductions in cost over the entire period, but most other regions had increases in costs because increases in cooling costs outweighed reductions in heating and other energy uses. Higher temperature sensitivity resulted in increased warming, especially in the winter months. Because heating needs decreased, total energy requirements declined by a cumulative 4.2 Quads. However, total cost still increased $6.1 billion and carbon emissions still rose as coal-based electricity for cooling needs grew.

  9. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    PubMed

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

  10. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  11. Unforced surface air temperature anomalies and their opposite relationship with the TOA energy imbalance at local and global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. T.; Li, W.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2015-12-01

    Unforced global mean surface air temperature (Tglobal) is stable in the long-term primarily because warm Tglobal anomalies are associated with enhanced outgoing longwave radiation to space and thus a negative global radiative energy imbalance (Nglobal, positive downward) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). However, it is shown here that at the local spatial scale, warm unforced Tlocal anomalies tend to be associated with anomalously positive Nlocal imbalances over most of the surface of the planet. It is revealed that this occurs mainly because warm Tlocal anomalies are accompanied by anomalously low surface albedo near sea ice margins and over high altitudes, anomalously low cloud albedo over much of the mid/low-latitudes and an anomalously large water-vapor greenhouse effect over the deep tropical ocean. During warm Tglobal years, the largest negative Nlocal anomalies primarily occur over regions of cool or near-neutral Tlocal anomalies. These results help explain how TOA energy imbalances can act to damp unforced Tglobal anomalies while simultaneously amplifying unforced Tlocal anomalies.

  12. Sustaining Action and Optimizing Entropy: Coupling Efficiency for Energy and the Sustainability of Global Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Michael T.; Crossan, Angus N.; Kennedy, Ivan R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the property of action is proposed to provide a more meaningful definition of efficient energy use and sustainable production in ecosystems. Action has physical dimensions similar to angular momentum, its magnitude varying with mass, spatial configuration and relative motion. In this article, the relationship of action to…

  13. Teaching of Energy Issues: A Debate Proposal for a Global Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Josep Lluis; Gil-Perez, Daniel; Gras-Marti, Albert; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martinez-Torregrosa, Joaquin; Salinas, Julia; Trumper, Ricardo; Valdes, Pablo; Vilches, Amparo

    2007-01-01

    The growing awareness of serious difficulties in the learning of energy issues has produced a great deal of research, most of which is focused on specific conceptual aspects. In our opinion, the difficulties pointed out in the literature are interrelated and connected to other aspects (conceptual "as well as" procedural and axiological), which are…

  14. Energy and Global Climate Change: The Road from Paris to Denver

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-10-27

    This presentation provides an overview of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; a snapshot of U.S. power sector transformation; a brief history of climate negotiations; an overview of the Paris Agreement; and what the Paris Agreement means for Colorado and beyond.

  15. Energy and Economic Impacts of H.R.5049, the Keep America Competitive Global Warming Policy

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2006 request from Congressmen Tom Udall and Tom Petri asking the Energy Information Administration to analyze the impacts of their legislation implementing a market-based allowance program to cap greenhouse gas emissions at 2009 levels.

  16. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Burton; Goldston, David; Crabtree, George; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Greene, David; Kammen, Dan; Levine, Mark; Lubell, Michael; Savitz, Maxine; Sperling, Daniel; Schlachter, Fred; Scofield, John; Dawson, James

    2008-10-01

    The American Physical Society regularly produces reports on issues of public import that require technical understanding and for which an objective and authoritative analysis would be of particular use to the public and policy makers. This report, entitled Energy Future: Think Efficiency, is the latest in the series and appears here as a special supplement issue of Reviews of Modern Physics, as have other such reports. It is hard to imagine a more timely study topic, given the urgent environmental, geopolitical, and economic incentives for improving energy efficiency at this juncture. Energy Future: Think Efficiency provides a valuable and broadly applicable guide to effective approaches, many of which employ existing technologies and, surprisingly, need not be difficult or expensive. In order to have the most immediate impact, an earlier version of Energy Future: Think Efficiency was issued at a press release in Washington, D.C. in September of 2008 in hard copy and online. Prior to its release a distinguished review panel examined the report and its conclusions. Thus the study has been rigorously refereed although this was outside of the usual review process employed by RMP. Except for adjustments in pagination, this version is unchanged from the earlier version. The report introduction contains full information on the study personnel, review panel members, and other acknowledgments, so these are not repeated here. What is repeated is an expression of deep appreciation to all those involved in the preparation of a revelatory report on a topic of critical importance.

  17. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  18. Adopting a Long View to Energy R&D and Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Doley; P.J. Runci

    1999-08-09

    This report presents the results of an assessment of a test installation of two similar sulfur lamp, or S-lamp lighting systems, with hollow-light guide distribution. The S-lamp, developed by Fusion Lighting, Inc. with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technology, Community and State Programs (BTS), was demonstrated as a prototype for the first time in 1994. The S-lamp embodies a new, microwave-powered, electrodeless technology that offers improved energy efficiency and color rendition compared with most available sources. The purpose of this assessment is to provide important information to all of those involved regarding the effectiveness and future applicability of this technology in a postal sorting setting.

  19. Kinetic Energy in the Northern Hemisphere during the FGGE (First GARP Global Experiment) Year.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    transient components by month shows good agreement with values from Peixoto and Oort (1974) for standing K but poorer agreement for transient I. A large...quanti- ties from Kin and Born (1982) allow K to A ratios to be compared with those of Peixoto and Oort (1974). ii a4 APPROVED: , LYLE 1. 303 DATE: &/c...meteorologist. As the energy of otion, it is most directly related to weather producing processes. Small vertical motions lead to cloud formation or

  20. Global search for minimum energy (H2O)n clusters, n = 3-5.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Beth; Kirschner, Karl N; Shields, George C

    2005-08-04

    The Gaussian-3 (G3) model chemistry method has been used to calculate the relative deltaG(o) values for all possible conformers of neutral clusters of water, (H2O)n, where n = 3-5. A complete 12-fold conformational search around each hydrogen bond produced 144, 1728, and 20,736 initial starting structures of the water trimer, tetramer, and pentamer. These structures were optimized with PM3, followed by HF/6-31G* optimization, and then with the G3 model chemistry. Only two trimers are present on the G3 potential energy hypersurface. We identified 5 tetramers and 10 pentamers on the potential energy and free-energy hypersurfaces at 298 K. None of these 17 structures were linear; all linear starting models folded into cyclic or three-dimensional structures. The cyclic pentamer is the most stable isomer at 298 K. On the basis of this and previous studies, we expect the cyclic tetramers and pentamers to be the most significant cyclic water clusters in the atmosphere.

  1. Global energy dependence of N2O+ >(A 2Σ+) photoion alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Romith; Wu, Chuanyong; Poliakoff, E. D.

    1997-12-01

    We present experimental results for the alignment of N2O+(A 2Σ+) photoions over an extended energy range (16.4⩽hνexc⩽240 eV). The polarization of the N2O+(A 2Σ+→X 2Π) fluorescence is used to interpret the oscillator strength distributions for normally unresolved degenerate ionization channels. The results clearly show the influence of a near-threshold 7σ→kσ shape resonance, and help to clarify the results of previous fluorescence and photoelectron studies. At high photon energies, the photoelectrons are not favored to exit via a particular channel, in contrast to recent results on N2 and CO, where photoelectrons are ejected preferentially via the kσ channel and the photoions retain significant alignment even at the highest measurable energies. These results demonstrate that even well above threshold the spectral dependence of the alignment (i.e., polarization) is very sensitive to the molecular environment for photoejection.

  2. A global potential energy surface and dipole moment surface for silane

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Thiel, Walter

    2015-12-28

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) for silane have been generated using high-level ab initio theory. The PES, CBS-F12{sup HL}, reproduces all four fundamental term values for {sup 28}SiH{sub 4} with sub-wavenumber accuracy, resulting in an overall root-mean-square error of 0.63 cm{sup −1}. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, and scalar relativistic effects. Systematic errors in computed intra-band rotational energy levels are reduced by empirically refining the equilibrium geometry. The resultant Si–H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous experimental and theoretical values. Vibrational transition moments, absolute line intensities of the ν{sub 3} band, and the infrared spectrum for {sup 28}SiH{sub 4} including states up to J = 20 and vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm{sup −1} are calculated and compared with available experimental results. The DMS tends to marginally overestimate the strength of line intensities. Despite this, band shape and structure across the spectrum are well reproduced and show good agreement with experiment. We thus recommend the PES and DMS for future use.

  3. A global potential energy surface and dipole moment surface for silane.

    PubMed

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Thiel, Walter

    2015-12-28

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) for silane have been generated using high-level ab initio theory. The PES, CBS-F12(HL), reproduces all four fundamental term values for (28)SiH4 with sub-wavenumber accuracy, resulting in an overall root-mean-square error of 0.63 cm(-1). The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, and scalar relativistic effects. Systematic errors in computed intra-band rotational energy levels are reduced by empirically refining the equilibrium geometry. The resultant Si-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous experimental and theoretical values. Vibrational transition moments, absolute line intensities of the ν3 band, and the infrared spectrum for (28)SiH4 including states up to J = 20 and vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm(-1) are calculated and compared with available experimental results. The DMS tends to marginally overestimate the strength of line intensities. Despite this, band shape and structure across the spectrum are well reproduced and show good agreement with experiment. We thus recommend the PES and DMS for future use.

  4. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  5. Energy. Our Common Home: Earth. A Curriculum Strategy to Affect Student Skills Development and Exposure to Diverse Global Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    One of a series of global education instructional units, this energy awareness curriculum was designed to be infused with existing social studies courses aimed at students in grades 5-12. Concept-based and skills-oriented, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of synthetic energy sources; human dependence…

  6. Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part I: The land dynamics (LaD) model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Shmakin, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of large-scale land (continental) water and energy balances is presented. The model is an extension of an earlier scheme with a record of successful application in climate modeling. The most important changes from the original model include 1) introduction of non-water-stressed stomatal control of transpiration, in order to correct a tendency toward excessive evaporation: 2) conversion from globally constant parameters (with the exception of vegetation-dependent snow-free surface albedo) to more complete vegetation and soil dependence of all parameters, in order to provide more realistic representation of geographic variations in water and energy balances and to enable model-based investigations of land-cover change; 3) introduction of soil sensible heat storage and transport, in order to move toward realistic diurnal-cycle modeling; 4) a groundwater (saturated-zone) storage reservoir, in order to provide more realistic temporal variability of runoff; and 5) a rudimentary runoff-routing scheme for delivery of runoff to the ocean, in order to provide realistic freshwater forcing of the ocean general circulation model component of a global climate model. The new model is tested with forcing from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative I global dataset and a recently produced observation-based water-balance dataset for major river basins of the world. Model performance is evaluated by comparing computed and observed runoff ratios from many major river basins of the world. Special attention is given to distinguishing between two components of the apparent runoff ratio error: the part due to intrinsic model error and the part due to errors in the assumed precipitation forcing. The pattern of discrepancies between modeled and observed runoff ratios is consistent with results from a companion study of precipitation estimation errors. The new model is tuned by adjustment of a globally constant scale factor for non

  7. Comparison greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming potential (GWP) effect of energy use in different wheat agroecosystems in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy requirement and global warming potential (GWP) in low and high input wheat production systems in western of Iran. For this purpose, data were collected from 120 wheat farms applying questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Results showed that total energy input and output were 60,000 and 180,000 MJ ha(-1) in high input systems and 14,000 and 56,000 MJ ha(-1) in low input wheat production systems, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in high input systems recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 36, 18, and 13 %, respectively, while the highest share of input energy in low input systems observed for N fertilizer, diesel fuel, and seed with 32, 31, and 27 %. Energy use efficiency in high input systems (3.03) was lower than of low input systems (3.94). Total CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in high input systems were 1981.25, 31.18, and 1.87 kg ha(-1), respectively. These amounts were 699.88, 0.02, and 0.96 kg ha(-1) in low input systems. In high input wheat production systems, total GWP was 11686.63 kg CO2eq ha(-1) wheat. This amount was 725.89 kg CO2eq ha(-1) in low input systems. The results show that 1 ha of high input system will produce greenhouse effect 17 times of low input systems. So, high input production systems need to have an efficient and sustainable management for reducing environmental crises such as change climate.

  8. Global nonlinear electroelastic dynamics of a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever for energy harvesting, sensing, and actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    Inherent nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials are inevitably pronounced in various engineering applications such as sensing, actuation, their combined applications for vibration control, and most recently, energy harvesting from dynamical systems. The existing literature focusing on the dynamics of electroelastic structures made of piezoelectric materials have explored such nonlinearities in a disconnected way for the separate problems of mechanical and electrical excitation such that nonlinear resonance trends have been assumed to be due to different additional terms in constitutive equations by different researchers. Similar manifestations of softening nonlinearities have been attributed to purely elastic nonlinear terms, coupling nonlinearities, hysteresis, or a combination of these effects, by various authors. However, a reliable nonlinear constitutive equation for a given piezoelectric material is expected to be rather unique and valid regardless of the application, e.g. energy harvesting, sensing, or actuation. A systematic approach focusing on the two-way coupling can result in a sound mathematical framework. To this end, the present work investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever under low-to-high mechanical and electrical excitation levels in energy harvesting, sensing, and actuation. A physical model is proposed including both ferroelastic hysteresis, stiffness, and electromechanical coupling nonlinearities. A lumped parameter electroelastic model is developed by accounting for these nonlinearities to analyze the primary resonance of a cantilever using the method of harmonic balance. Strong agreement between the model and experimental investigation is found, providing solid evidence that the the dominant source of observed softening nonlinear effects in geometrically linear piezolectric cantilever beams is well represented by a quadratic term resulting from ferroelastic hysteresis. Electromechanical coupling and

  9. Daily spectral energy conversions of the global circulation during 10-27 January 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Huo-Jin; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1988-01-01

    A modified version of ECMWF Level III-b analyses is used to examine the energetics of the daily low and middle latitude wave activity that occurred over the globe during part of FGGE. The results indicate that the eddy available potential is increased by sensible heat transport down the temperature gradient at all wavenumbers; it is immediately converted to eddy kinetic energy through warmer air rising and/or colder air sinking. In the present study, particular attention is given to Southern Hemispheric energetics.

  10. The "Business-As-Usual" growth of global primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions - historical trends and near-term forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-09-01

    We analyse the global primary energy use and total CO2 emissions time series since 1850 and show that their relative growth rates appear to exhibit periodicity with a fundamental timescale of ~60 years and with significant harmonic behaviour. Quantifying the inertia inherent in these dynamics allows forecasting of future "business as usual" energy needs and their associated CO2 emissions. Our best estimates for 2020 are 800 EJ yr-1 for global energy use and 14 Gt yr-1 for global CO2 emissions, with both being above almost all other published forecasts. This suggests the energy and total CO2 emissions landscape in 2020 may be significantly more challenging than currently envisaged.

  11. The global infrared energy budget of the thermosphere from 1947 to 2016 and implications for solar variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Russell, James M.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mertens, Christopher J.; Thompson, R. Earl

    2016-12-01

    We present an empirical model of the global infrared energy budget of the thermosphere over the past 70 years. The F10.7, Ap, and Dst indices are used in linear regression fits to the 14.5 year time series of radiative cooling by carbon dioxide and nitric oxide measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the TIMED satellite. Databases of these indices are used to develop the radiative cooling time series from 1947. No consistent relation between the occurrence of peak sunspot number and peak infrared cooling is found over the past six solar cycles. The total infrared energy radiated by the thermosphere, integrated over a solar cycle, is nearly constant over five complete solar cycles studied. This is a direct consequence of the geoeffective solar energy also being nearly constant over the same intervals. These results provide a new metric for assessing the terrestrial context of the long-term record of solar-related indices.

  12. Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model.

    PubMed

    Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria; Andersson, Karin; Johnson, Hannes

    2014-11-04

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition model has been modified to include a more detailed shipping sector in order to assess what marine fuels and propulsion technologies might be cost-effective by 2050 when achieving an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 or 500 ppm by the year 2100. The robustness of the results was examined in a Monte Carlo analysis, varying uncertain parameters and technology options, including the amount of primary energy resources, the availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, and costs of different technologies and fuels. The four main findings are (i) it is cost-effective to start the phase out of fuel oil from the shipping sector in the next decade; (ii) natural gas-based fuels (liquefied natural gas and methanol) are the most probable substitutes during the study period; (iii) availability of CCS, the CO2 target, the liquefied natural gas tank cost and potential oil resources affect marine fuel choices significantly; and (iv) biofuels rarely play a major role in the shipping sector, due to limited supply and competition for bioenergy from other energy sectors.

  13. Integrated evaluation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) agroecosystems in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Mondani, Farzad

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and discuss the aggregate of energy use and greenhouse gas emission (CO2, N2O, and CH4) for sugar beet agroecosystems in western of Iran. For this propose data was collected by using questionnaires and face to face interview with 50 farmers. Results showed that total inputs and output energy were 49517.2 and 1095360.0 MJ ha-1, respectively. Energy use efficiency was 22.12. Total CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions due to chemical inputs were 2668.35, 22.92 and 3.49 kg, respectively. In sugar beet farms total global warming potential (GWPs) was 9847.77 kg CO2eq ha-1. In terms of CO2 equivalents, 27% of the GWPs come from CO2, 72% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this research input and output carbon were 29340.0 and 2678.6 kg C ha-1, respectively. Hence, carbon efficiency ratio was 10.95.

  14. Global deletion of MGL in mice delays lipid absorption and alters energy homeostasis and diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, John D.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Wu, Amy; Zadrogra, John A.; Gajda, Angela M.; Lackey, Atreju I.; Lang, Wensheng; Chevalier, Kristen M.; Sutton, Steven W.; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M.; Connelly, Margery A.; Storch, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of monoacylglycerols (MGs) to yield FFAs and glycerol. MGL contributes to energy homeostasis through the mobilization of fat stores and also via the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. To further examine the role of MG metabolism in energy homeostasis, MGL−/− mice were fed either a 10% (kilocalories) low-fat diet (LFD) or a 45% (kilocalories) high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Profound increases of MG species in the MGL−/− mice compared with WT control mice were found. Weight gain over the 12 weeks was blunted in both diet groups. MGL−/− mice were leaner than WT mice at both baseline and after 12 weeks of LFD feeding. Circulating lipids were decreased in HFD-fed MGL−/− mice, as were the levels of several plasma peptides involved in glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Interestingly, MGL−/− mice had markedly reduced intestinal TG secretion following an oral fat challenge, suggesting delayed lipid absorption. Overall, the results indicate that global MGL deletion leads to systemic changes that produce a leaner phenotype and an improved serum metabolic profile. PMID:25842377

  15. A compact and accurate semi-global potential energy surface for malonaldehyde from constrained least squares regression

    SciTech Connect

    Mizukami, Wataru Tew, David P.; Habershon, Scott

    2014-10-14

    We present a new approach to semi-global potential energy surface fitting that uses the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) constrained least squares procedure to exploit an extremely flexible form for the potential function, while at the same time controlling the risk of overfitting and avoiding the introduction of unphysical features such as divergences or high-frequency oscillations. Drawing from a massively redundant set of overlapping distributed multi-dimensional Gaussian functions of inter-atomic separations we build a compact full-dimensional surface for malonaldehyde, fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster CCSD(T)(F12*) energies with a root mean square deviations accuracy of 0.3%–0.5% up to 25 000 cm{sup −1} above equilibrium. Importance-sampled diffusion Monte Carlo calculations predict zero point energies for malonaldehyde and its deuterated isotopologue of 14 715.4(2) and 13 997.9(2) cm{sup −1} and hydrogen transfer tunnelling splittings of 21.0(4) and 3.2(4) cm{sup −1}, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental values of 21.583 and 2.915(4) cm{sup −1}.

  16. A Globally Distributed System for Job, Data, and Information Handling for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele

    2006-01-13

    The computing infrastructures of the modern high energy physics experiments need to address an unprecedented set of requirements. The collaborations consist of hundreds of members from dozens of institutions around the world and the computing power necessary to analyze the data produced surpasses already the capabilities of any single computing center. A software infrastructure capable of seamlessly integrating dozens of computing centers around the world, enabling computing for a large and dynamical group of users, is of fundamental importance for the production of scientific results. Such a computing infrastructure is called a computational grid. The SAM-Grid offers a solution to these problems for CDF and DZero, two of the largest high energy physics experiments in the world, running at Fermilab. The SAM-Grid integrates standard grid middleware, such as Condor-G and the Globus Toolkit, with software developed at Fermilab, organizing the system in three major components: data handling, job handling, and information management. This dissertation presents the challenges and the solutions provided in such a computing infrastructure.

  17. Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  18. Predicting carbon dioxide and energy fluxes across global FLUXNET sites with regression algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Jung, Martin; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Ichii, Kazuhito; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Ráduly, Botond; Reichstein, Markus; Altaf Arain, M.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Kiely, Gerard; Merbold, Lutz; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Sickert, Sven; Wolf, Sebastian; Papale, Dario

    2016-07-01

    Spatio-temporal fields of land-atmosphere fluxes derived from data-driven models can complement simulations by process-based land surface models. While a number of strategies for empirical models with eddy-covariance flux data have been applied, a systematic intercomparison of these methods has been missing so far. In this study, we performed a cross-validation experiment for predicting carbon dioxide, latent heat, sensible heat and net radiation fluxes across different ecosystem types with 11 machine learning (ML) methods from four different classes (kernel methods, neural networks, tree methods, and regression splines). We applied two complementary setups: (1) 8-day average fluxes based on remotely sensed data and (2) daily mean fluxes based on meteorological data and a mean seasonal cycle of remotely sensed variables. The patterns of predictions from different ML and experimental setups were highly consistent. There were systematic differences in performance among the fluxes, with the following ascending order: net ecosystem exchange (R2 < 0.5), ecosystem respiration (R2 > 0.6), gross primary production (R2> 0.7), latent heat (R2 > 0.7), sensible heat (R2 > 0.7), and net radiation (R2 > 0.8). The ML methods predicted the across-site variability and the mean seasonal cycle of the observed fluxes very well (R2 > 0.7), while the 8-day deviations from the mean seasonal cycle were not well predicted (R2 < 0.5). Fluxes were better predicted at forested and temperate climate sites than at sites in extreme climates or less represented by training data (e.g., the tropics). The evaluated large ensemble of ML-based models will be the basis of new global flux products.

  19. Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than

  20. Protein-energy malnutrition alters hippocampal plasticity-associated protein expression following global ischemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Verge, Valerie M K; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2010-11-01

    Previously it has been demonstrated that protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs habituation in the open field test following global ischemia. The present study examined the hypothesis that PEM exerts some of its deleterious effects on functional outcome by altering the post-ischemic expression of the plasticity-associated genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB), and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Male, Mongolian gerbils (11-12 wk) were randomized to either control diet (12.5% protein) or PEM (2% protein) for 4 wk, and then underwent 5 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion or sham surgery. Tympanic temperature was maintained at 36.5 ± 0.5°C during surgery. Brains collected at 1, 3 and 7 d post-surgery were processed by in-situ hybridization or immunofluorescence. BDNF and trkB mRNA expression was increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons after ischemia at all time points and was not significantly influenced by diet. However, increased trkB protein expression after ischemia was exacerbated by PEM at 7 d in the CA1 region. Post-ischemic GAP-43 protein increased at 3 and 7 d in the CA1 region, and PEM intensified this response and extended it to the CA3 and hilar regions. PEM exerted these effects without exacerbating CA1 neuron loss caused by global ischemia. The findings suggest that PEM increases the stress response and/or hyper-excitability in the hippocampus after global ischemia. Nutritional care appears to have robust effects on plasticity mechanisms important to recovery after brain ischemia.

  1. PETC review: A global role for energy. Issue 10, Summer 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, K.H.; Friedman, S.; Eastman, M.L.; Finseth, D.H.; Ruth, L.A.; Reiss, J.

    1994-10-01

    This issue contains five feature articles. `Build It and They Will Come` describes the international reputation of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center which prompts professionals from around the world to come to PETC for training, technical expertise, and collaboration on research projects. `PETC`s Overseas Activities` reviews international projects with which PETC staff have helped. The most prestigious of all conferences dedicated solely to the timely international exchange of basic scientific information on coal is described in `The 7th International Conference on Coal Science`. `What is Coal?` attempts to present a true picture of the nature and complexity of coal. `NOx Reduction by SCR/SNCR` reviews technologies which may be required to meet new NOx compliance standards.

  2. Preparing Oregon State University to Meet the Research Challenges of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Reese

    2008-10-08

    The OSU Radiation Center requested $100,000 under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership University Readiness program to provide for graduate student support, reactor equipment upgrades, and irradiation support. A portion of the funds requested were used to support the graduate education of a graduate student for a period of one year. The remaining funds were utilized to enhance the irradiation facilities of the Oregon State TRIGA® Reactor as well as to offset the costs of irradiations for initial investigations where grant funding is not available. The focus of this effort was to create an environment that would enhance facilities and equipment at Oregon State University which emphasize GNEP related themes, specifically material science analytical capabilities for the next generation of nuclear reactors. These enhancements included development of a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis analytical capability, digital reactor data logging, electronic dosimetry for researchers, replacement of sample grapples, and irradiation/analytical services.

  3. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  4. Cuckoo Search with Lévy Flights for Weighted Bayesian Energy Functional Optimization in Global-Support Curve Data Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés; Cabellos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The problem of data fitting is very important in many theoretical and applied fields. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a weighted Bayesian energy functional for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS) that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way. PMID:24977175

  5. Cuckoo search with Lévy flights for weighted Bayesian energy functional optimization in global-support curve data fitting.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés; Cabellos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The problem of data fitting is very important in many theoretical and applied fields. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a weighted Bayesian energy functional for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS) that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  6. Quantifying the "Energy-Return-on-Investment" of desert greening in the Sahara/Sahel using a Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, S. P. K.; Miller, L. M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-08-01

    "Greening" the world's deserts has been proposed as a way to produce additional food, sequester carbon, and alter the climate of desert regions. Here, we quantify the potential benefits in terms of energetic quantities and compare these to the energetic costs. We then compare these using the metric of Energy-Return-On-Investment (EROI). We apply EROI to a series of global climate model simulations where the arid Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated with various rates of desalinated water to produce biomass. The energy content of this biomass is greater than the energy input rate for a minimum irrigation rate of about 200 mm yr-1 in the winter and 500 mm yr-1 in the summer, thereby yielding an EROI ratio > 1 : 1, expressing energetic sustainability. Quantified annually, the EROI was > 1 : 1 for irrigation rates more than 500 mm yr-1, progressively increasing to a maximum of 1.8 : 1 with 900 mm yr-1, and then decreasing with further increases in the irrigation rate. Including the precipitation feedback arising from changes in moisture-recycling within the study region approximately doubles these EROI ratios. This overall result varies spatially and temporally, so while the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated equally, the western coastal region from June to August had the highest EROI. Other factors would complicate such a large-scale modification of the Earth System, but this sensitivity study concludes that with a required energy input, desert greening may be energetically sustainable. Furthermore, we suggest that this type of EROI-analysis could be applied as a metric to assess a diverse range of human alterations to, and interventions within, the Earth System.

  7. Global scale observation of scattered energy near the ICB: seismic constraints on the base of the outer-core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPdf phase arrivals in the distance range 149-178 degrees. Within this collection, we have identified in more than a thousand records an energy packet that arrives 5-20 seconds after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a coda that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. The origin of this scattered energy is unclear and may provide valuable information about structure in the core. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of theses scatterers and try and locate them.Our results show that the scattered energy originates along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameter. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, in particular the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for these scatterers, we show that their origin is most likely in the vicinity of the inner-core boundary. We refer to this scattered energy the "M" phase.To assess our interpretation, we model synthetic seismograms and explore models of structures at the base of the outer-core and search for models that predict the relative travel times and amplitudes of the M to PKPdf without destroying the fit to PKPbc. We show that a ~300km thick layer with a larger gradient than in AK135 over a ~50km lower velocity layer above the ICB provides a good fit to the differential travel times. We also consider the possibility that lateral variations in the thickness or velocity of this layer and ICB topography could produce a M phase.

  8. Body composition in aquatic organisms — A global data bank of relationships between mass, elemental composition and energy content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, Thomas; Müller-Wiegmann, Corinna; Zittier, Zora M. C.; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a global data bank on body composition of aquatic organisms that is available at http://www.thomas-brey.de/science/virtualhandbook. It covers ratios between body mass (wet, dry, ash free dry mass), body composition (protein, lipid, carbohydrate), macro-elements (C, N, P) and energy content (J). Sofar, data for 3158 different taxa (animals, plants, bacteria) were collected from 725 different sources. The principal purpose of the data bank is mining for conversion factors, as necessary in ecological studies that require a common energetic currency. The data bank can be used to explore general ecological principles, too: among all animals, carnivorous swimmers have the highest energy density, presumably an across-taxon selection for propulsion power and handling force. Plants and animals do not only differ in their C/N and C/P ratios, but these ratios change with temperature in opposite directions. In plants, C/N and C/P increase with temperature, most likely a response to the higher levels of N and P in polar waters. In animals C/N and C/P decrease with temperature, an indicator for selection towards lower activity and larger lipid stores in polar animals.

  9. Automated global mapping of minimal energy points on seams of crossing by the anharmonic downward distortion following method: a case study of H2CO.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoshi; Ohno, Koichi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2009-03-05

    Automated global mapping of minimal energy points on seams of crossing (MSX structures) were performed by using the anharmonic downward distortion following (ADD-following) method, which has previously been applied to the single potential energy surfaces (PESs) to perform automated global reaction route mapping. In this study, the ADD-following is applied to a penalty function based on two PESs of different electronic states. The present approach is effective not only for crossing seams between states with different symmetry but also for conical intersections for states with the same symmetry. Many new MSX structures were discovered on the S(0)/T(1) and S(1)/T(1) crossing seams and the S(0)/S(1) conical intersections of H(2)CO by automated global mapping using the ADD-following method. A possible pathway for dissociation of formaldehyde excited to S(1) at low energy is discussed.

  10. Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market

    SciTech Connect

    Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck

    2007-07-01

    Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated

  11. Energy storage and fecundity explain deviations from ecological stoichiometry predictions under global warming and size-selective predation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    A key challenge for ecologists is to predict how single and joint effects of global warming and predation risk translate from the individual level up to ecosystem functions. Recently, stoichiometric theory linked these levels through changes in body stoichiometry, predicting that both higher temperatures and predation risk induce shifts in energy storage (increases in C-rich carbohydrates and reductions in N-rich proteins) and body stoichiometry (increases in C : N and C : P). This promising theory, however, is rarely tested and assumes that prey will divert energy away from reproduction under predation risk, while under size-selective predation, prey instead increase fecundity. We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna to 4 °C warming and fish predation risk to test whether C-rich carbohydrates increase and N-rich proteins decrease, and as a result, C : N and C : P increase under warming and predation risk. Unexpectedly, warming decreased body C : N, which was driven by reductions in C-rich fat and sugar contents while the protein content did not change. This reflected a trade-off where the accelerated intrinsic growth rate under warming occurred at the cost of a reduced energy storage. Warming reduced C : N less and only increased C : P and N : P in the fish-period Daphnia. These evolved stoichiometric responses to warming were largely driven by stronger warming-induced reductions in P than in C and N and could be explained by the better ability to deal with warming in the fish-period Daphnia. In contrast to theory predictions, body C : N decreased under predation risk due to a strong increase in the N-rich protein content that offsets the increase in C-rich fat content. The higher investment in fecundity (more N-rich eggs) under predation risk contributed to this stronger increase in protein content. Similarly, the lower body C : N of pre-fish Daphnia also matched their higher fecundity. Warming and predation risk independently shaped body

  12. Methanol clusters (CH3OH)n: putative global minimum-energy structures from model potentials and dispersion-corrected density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Bulusu, Satya; Thakkar, Ajit J

    2013-06-14

    Putative global minima are reported for methanol clusters (CH3OH)n with n ≤ 15. The predictions are based on global optimization of three intermolecular potential energy models followed by local optimization and single-point energy calculations using two variants of dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Recurring structural motifs include folded and/or twisted rings, folded rings with a short branch, and stacked rings. Many of the larger structures are stabilized by weak C-H···O bonds.

  13. Fall of Global Temperature In The First Half of 21-st Century. Physical-statistical Modeling of Global and Regional Annual Surface Temperatures of Air On The Basis of Energy Model of Atmosphere and Hydrosphere In View of Solar Activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudovyi, V.; Medvedev, V.; Khorozov, S.; Belogolov, V.

    The energy model of atmosphere and hydrosphere and model of global annual surface temperatures are constructed on the basis of the equations of thermal balance of the upper layers of the Earth. It is supposed, that a major reason of greenhouse effect is the increase of concentration of products of water vapour condensation (sublimation) on account of ionization of the upper layers of an atmosphere by hard radiation at high solar activity. Parameters of the models were defined on the basis of a 300-years observation series of Wolf numbers and 120-years observation series of global annual temperature. The models of annual surface temperatures in various geographical points are constructed on the basis of energy model of the upper layers of the Earth and 50- years series of meteorological observations. The models of annual surface temperatures well explain the global warming during the 20-th century and annual temperature oscillations on a phon of warming trend. The modelling of annual surface temperature changings within several centuries (on the basis of the probable script of solar activity development) shows, that in the first half of the 21-st century global warming, probably, will be replaced by the fall of global temperature. At the end of the 22-nd century this tendency can finish by small glacial period similar to period observed in Europe in 15-18 centuries and most brightly expressed during 1450 -1700 years. The analysis of probable consequences of fall of temperature in Europe on the basis of historical documents is submitted.

  14. Office of Inspector General audit report on ``The U.S. Department of Energy`s X-Change 1997: The global D and D marketplace conference``

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy and Florida International University (FIU), a state university, cosponsored the X-Change 1997: The Global D and D Marketplace conference (X-Change Conference) that was held December 1--5, 1997, in Miami, Florida. The purpose of the conference was to disseminate information on decontamination and decommissioning problems, solutions, and technologies to an international audience of government, industry, and academia. Through a contract with the Department, FIU was responsible for conference planning, organization, and logistical support. FIU awarded a subcontract to ICF, Inc. to work on the conference. ICF, Inc. is a major Department contractor with responsibilities for projects at Hanford, Argonne National laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The audit objectives were to determine whether FIU had controls in place to ensure that public funds were used appropriately, and whether fiscal practices associated with the conference were consistent with Government requirements and Department policy. FIU implemented accounting and budget mechanisms to identify and control the sources and uses of funds. However, the absence of a Departmental policy on funding conferences resulted in questionable fiscal practices associated with the conference. These are discussed.

  15. Global transcriptome analysis of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) liver after in vivo methylmercury exposure suggests effects on energy metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Yadetie, Fekadu; Karlsen, Odd Andre; Lanzén, Anders; Berg, Karin; Olsvik, Pål; Hogstrand, Christer; Goksøyr, Anders

    2013-01-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widely distributed contaminant polluting many aquatic environments, with health risks to humans exposed mainly through consumption of seafood. The mechanisms of toxicity of MeHg are not completely understood. In order to map the range of molecular targets and gain better insights into the mechanisms of toxicity, we prepared Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) 135k oligonucleotide arrays and performed global analysis of transcriptional changes in the liver of fish treated with MeHg (0.5 and 2 mg/kg of body weight) for 14 days. Inferring from the observed transcriptional changes, the main pathways significantly affected by the treatment were energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, immune response and cytoskeleton remodeling. Consistent with known effects of MeHg, many transcripts for genes in oxidative stress pathways such as glutathione metabolism and Nrf2 regulation of oxidative stress response were differentially regulated. Among the differentially regulated genes, there were disproportionate numbers of genes coding for enzymes involved in metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids and glucose. In particular, many genes coding for enzymes of fatty acid beta-oxidation were up-regulated. The coordinated effects observed on many transcripts coding for enzymes of energy pathways may suggest disruption of nutrient metabolism by MeHg. Many transcripts for genes coding for enzymes in the synthetic pathways of sulphur containing amino acids were also up-regulated, suggesting adaptive responses to MeHg toxicity. By this toxicogenomics approach, we were also able to identify many potential biomarker candidate genes for monitoring environmental MeHg pollution. These results based on changes on transcript levels, however, need to be confirmed by other methods such as proteomics.

  16. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  17. Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey

  18. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  19. Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents.

  20. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth.

    PubMed Central

    de Onís, M.; Monteiro, C.; Akré, J.; Glugston, G.

    1993-01-01

    Using the WHO Global Database on Child Growth, which covers 87% of the total population of under-5-year-olds in developing countries, we describe the worldwide distribution of protein-energy malnutrition, based on nationally representative cross-sectional data gathered between 1980 and 1992 in 79 developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. The findings confirm that more than a third of the world's children are affected. For all the indicators (wasting, stunting, and underweight) the most favourable situation--low or moderate prevalences--occurs in Latin America; in Asia most countries have high or very high prevalences; and in Africa a combination of both these circumstances is found. A total 80% of the children affected live in Asia--mainly in southern Asia--15% in Africa, and 5% in Latin America. Approximately, 43% of children (230 million) in developing countries are stunted. Efforts to accelerate significantly economic development will be unsuccessful until optimal child growth and development are ensured for the majority. PMID:8313488

  1. Global Behaviors of Stress Drop, Radiated Energy and Rupture Velocity Extracted from an Exhaustive Catalog of Earthquake Source Time Functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chounet, Agnès; Vallée, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The SCARDEC method (Vallée et al, 2011) gives us access to the focal mechanism and the relative Source Time Functions (RSTFs) of the Mw > 5.8 earthquakes of the past 20 years, leading to a catalog of more than 2000 earthquakes. This allows us to make an exhaustive analysis of two main rupture process properties : the static stress drop Δσ and the apparent stress μEr/Mo. We have insights about the stress drop variations through the peak of the average STF, scaled to the seismic moment : Fmscaled ≈ Δσ1/3V r (with Vr being the rupture velocity), and radiated energy is obtained through integration of STF squared first derivative. Our estimations indicate at the global scale an invariant stress drop with moment magnitude Mw, while Er/Mo slightly increases with Mw. A focus on thrust interplate subduction earthquakes (700 events) shows that, among normal and inverse shallow earthquakes (a subset of 1500 earthquakes, z

  2. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth.

    PubMed

    de Onís, M; Monteiro, C; Akré, J; Glugston, G

    1993-01-01

    Using the WHO Global Database on Child Growth, which covers 87% of the total population of under-5-year-olds in developing countries, we describe the worldwide distribution of protein-energy malnutrition, based on nationally representative cross-sectional data gathered between 1980 and 1992 in 79 developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. The findings confirm that more than a third of the world's children are affected. For all the indicators (wasting, stunting, and underweight) the most favourable situation--low or moderate prevalences--occurs in Latin America; in Asia most countries have high or very high prevalences; and in Africa a combination of both these circumstances is found. A total 80% of the children affected live in Asia--mainly in southern Asia--15% in Africa, and 5% in Latin America. Approximately, 43% of children (230 million) in developing countries are stunted. Efforts to accelerate significantly economic development will be unsuccessful until optimal child growth and development are ensured for the majority.

  3. Global analysis of the role of autophagy in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedlings under carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Bajdzienko, Krzysztof; Wittenberg, Gal; Alseekh, Saleh; Tohge, Takayuki; Bock, Ralph; Giavalisco, Patrick; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-02-01

    Germination and early seedling establishment are developmental stages in which plants face limited nutrient supply as their photosynthesis mechanism is not yet active. For this reason, the plant must mobilize the nutrient reserves provided by the mother plant in order to facilitate growth. Autophagy is a catabolic process enabling the bulk degradation of cellular constituents in the vacuole. The autophagy mechanism is conserved among eukaryotes, and homologs of many autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been found in Arabidopsis thaliana. T-DNA insertion mutants (atg mutants) of these genes display higher sensitivity to various stresses, particularly nutrient starvation. However, the direct impact of autophagy on cellular metabolism has not been well studied. In this work, we used etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings as a model system for carbon starvation. atg mutant seedlings display delayed growth in response to carbon starvation compared with wild-type seedlings. High-throughput metabolomic, lipidomic, and proteomic analyses were performed, as well as extensive flux analyses, in order to decipher the underlying causes of the phenotype. Significant differences between atg mutants and wild-type plants have been demonstrated, suggesting global effects of autophagy on central metabolism during carbon starvation as well as severe energy deprivation, resulting in a morphological phenotype.

  4. First joint in situ and global observations of the medium-energy oxygen and hydrogen in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, P. W.; Goldstein, J.; Jahn, J.-M.; McComas, D. J.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first simultaneous observations of the in situ ions and global Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the composition-separated, medium-energy (~1-50 keV) particle populations of the inner magnetosphere. The ENA emissions are mapped into L shell/magnetic local time space based on the exospheric density along the line of sight (LOS). The ENA measurement can then be scaled to determine an average ion flux along a given LOS. The in situ ion flux tends to be larger than the scaled ENAs at the same local time. This indicates that the ion population is more concentrated in the Van Allen Probes orbital plane than distributed along the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers LOS. For the large storm of 14 November 2012, we observe that the concentration of O (in situ ions and ENAs) increases during the storm's main phase with a relatively larger increase than H. The ratio of the O+/H+ can be measured both from the in situ observations and from the ENA images. During the main phase, this O+/H+ increase is initially seen near midnight, but when the storm reaches its peak value the O+/H+ ratio increases across all local times, with the largest at dusk and dawn.

  5. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth’s energy imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-01-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15–20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40–50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible. PMID:26437599

  6. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.

  7. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  9. Alleviating spatial conflict between people and biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Imhoff, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Human settlements are expanding in species-rich regions and pose a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. We quantify the degree to which this threat manifests itself in two contrasting continents, Australia and North America, and suggest how it can be substantially alleviated. Human population density has a strong positive correlation with species richness in Australia for birds, mammals, amphibians, and butterflies (but not reptiles) and in North America for all five taxa. Nevertheless, conservation investments could secure locations that harbor almost all species while greatly reducing overlap with densely populated regions. We compared two conservation-planning scenarios that each aimed to represent all species at least once in a minimum set of sampling sites. The first scenario assigned equal cost to each site (ignoring differences in human population density); the second assigned a cost proportional to the site's human population density. Under the equal-cost scenario, 13–40% of selected sites occurred where population density values were highest (in the top decile). However, this overlap was reduced to as low as 0%, and in almost all cases to <10%, under the population-cost scenario, when sites of high population density were avoided where possible. Moreover, this reduction of overlap was achieved with only small increases in the total amount of area requiring protection. As densely populated regions continue to expand rapidly and drive up land values, the strategic conservation investments of the kind highlighted in our analysis are best made now. PMID:14681554

  10. Accurate high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.

    2015-03-28

    A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.

  11. Global model analysis of negative ion generation in low-pressure inductively coupled hydrogen plasmas with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Jung, Bong-Ki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2015-03-15

    A global model was developed to investigate the densities of negative ions and the other species in a low-pressure inductively coupled hydrogen plasma with a bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution. Compared to a Maxwellian plasma, bi-Maxwellian plasmas have higher populations of low-energy electrons and highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are generated efficiently by high-energy electrons. This leads to a higher reaction rate of the dissociative electron attachment responsible for negative ion production. The model indicated that the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures is favorable for the creation of negative ions. In addition, the electron temperature, electron density, and negative ion density calculated using the model were compared with the experimental data. In the low-pressure regime, the model results of the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distributions agreed well quantitatively with the experimental measurements, unlike those of the assumed Maxwellian electron energy distributions that had discrepancies.

  12. Why May Allopregnanolone Help Alleviate Loneliness?

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, S.; Cacioppo, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. PMID:26365247

  13. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  14. Metabolic Power Method: Underestimation of Energy Expenditure in Field-Sport Movements Using a Global Positioning System Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Brown, Darcy M; Dwyer, Dan B; Robertson, Samuel J; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a global positioning system (GPS) tracking system to estimate energy expenditure (EE) during exercise and field-sport locomotor movements. Twenty-seven participants each completed a 90-min exercise session on an outdoor synthetic futsal pitch. During the exercise session, they wore a 5-Hz GPS unit interpolated to 15 Hz and a portable gas analyzer that acted as the criterion measure of EE. The exercise session was composed of alternating 5-minute exercise bouts of randomized walking, jogging, running, or a field-sport circuit (×3) followed by 10 min of recovery. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P < .01) and very large underestimations between GPS metabolic power- derived EE and oxygen-consumption (VO2) -derived EE for all field-sport circuits (% difference ≈ -44%). No differences in EE were observed for the jog (7.8%) and run (4.8%), whereas very large overestimations were found for the walk (43.0%). The GPS metabolic power EE over the entire 90-min session was significantly lower (P < .01) than the VO2 EE, resulting in a moderate underestimation overall (-19%). The results of this study suggest that a GPS tracking system using the metabolic power model of EE does not accurately estimate EE in field-sport movements or over an exercise session consisting of mixed locomotor activities interspersed with recovery periods; however, is it able to provide a reasonably accurate estimation of EE during continuous jogging and running.

  15. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Energy Budget of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The annual energy budget of the Arctic Ocean is characterized by a net heat loss at the air-sea interface that is balanced by oceanic heat transport into the Arctic. The energy loss at the air-sea interface is due to the combined effects of radiative, sensible, and latent heat fluxes. The inflow of heat by the ocean can be divided into two components: the transport of water masses of different temperatures between the Arctic and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the export of sea ice, primarily through Fram Strait. Two 150-year simulations (1950-2099) of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. One is a control simulation for the present climate with constant 1950 atmospheric composition, and the other is a transient experiment with observed GHGs from 1950 to 1990 and 0.5% annual compounded increases of CO2 after 1990. For the present climate the model agrees well with observations of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric advective energy transport into the Arctic, and surface air temperature. It also simulates the seasonal cycle and summer increase of cloud cover and the seasonal cycle of sea-ice cover. In addition, the changes in high-latitude surface air temperature and sea-ice cover in the GHG experiment are consistent with observed changes during the last 40 and 20 years, respectively. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that even though the net annual incident solar radiation at the surface decreases by 4.6 W(per square meters) (because of greater cloud cover and increased cloud optical depth), the absorbed solar radiation increases by 2.8 W(per square meters) (because of less sea ice). Increased cloud cover and warmer air also cause increased downward thermal radiation at the surface so that the net radiation into the ocean increases by 5.0 Wm-2. The annual increase in radiation into the ocean, however, is

  16. A passive gust alleviation system for a light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesch, P.; Harlan, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A passive aeromechanical gust alleviation system was examined for application to a Cessna 172. The system employs small auxiliary wings to sense changes in angle of attack and to drive the wing flaps to compensate the resulting incremental lift. The flaps also can be spring loaded to neutralize the effects of variations in dynamic pressure. Conditions for gust alleviation are developed and shown to introduce marginal stability if both vertical and horizontal gusts are compensated. Satisfactory behavior is realized if only vertical gusts are absorbed; however, elevator control is effectively negated by the system. Techniques to couple the elevator and flaps are demonstrated to restore full controllability without sacrifice of gust alleviation.

  17. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of active controls on the suppression of flutter and gust alleviation of two different types of subsonic aircraft (the Arava, twin turboprop STOL transport, and the Westwind twin-jet business transport) are investigated. The active controls are introduced in pairs which include, in any chosen wing strip, a leading-edge (LE) control and a trailing-edge (TE) control. Each control surface is allowed to be driven by a combined linear-rotational sensor system, located on the activated strip. The control law, which translates the sensor signals into control surface rotations, is based on the concept of aerodynamic energy. The results indicate the extreme effectiveness of the active systems in controlling flutter. A single system spanning 10% of the wing semispan made the Arava flutter-free, and a similar active system, for the Westwind aircraft, yielded a reduction of 75% in the maximum bending moment of the wing and a reduction of 90% in the acceleration of the cg of the aircraft. Results for simultaneous activation of several LE - TE systems are presented. Further work needed to bring the investigation to completion is also discussed.

  18. Population Growth, Energy Use, and Pollution: Understanding the Driving Forces of Global Change. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Michael

    Since the beginning of the scientific revolution in the 1700s, the absolute scale of the human economy has increased many times over, and, with it, the impact on the natural environment. This learning module's activities introduce the student to linkages among population growth, energy use, level of economic and technological development and their…

  19. Accelerated global warming after 1998 is caused by decrease in terrestrial evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, GuoYu; Yang, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 50 years, the global temperature has increased an average of 0.180K per decade. However, the increase has accelerated since 1998 at a rate of 0.334K per decade. No satisfactory explanation has been offered by any past research concerning the accelerated global warming after 1998. In this hypothesis-driven study, we proposed that accelerated global warming since 1998 is mainly caused by a significant reduction of global terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET). This is because global annual terrestrial ET increased on average by 7.1 mm per year per decade between 1982 and 1997 and has decreased on average by 7.9 mm per year per decade since 1998. To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed terrestrial ET energy consumption data and the effects of terrestrial ET change on global warming. Results show that the global warming rate by including the effect of terrestrial ET reduction is 0.349K per decade, which is very close to the observed global warming rate of 0.334K per decade. Our study also shows that global warming can be alleviated by increasing terrestrial ET. The global temperature can be reduced by 0.129K per decade by increasing 1 W/m2, which can be achieved by a combination of land use management measures (such as increasing natural vegetation rehabilitation, crop land irrigation) and appropriate water management for biofuel production.

  20. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  1. Global triplet potential energy surfaces for the N2(X(1)Σ) + O((3)P) → NO(X(2)Π) + N((4)S) reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Varga, Zoltan; Song, Guoliang; Paukku, Yuliya; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-14

    This work presents two global triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the high-energy reaction N2(X(1)Σ) + O((3)P) → NO(X(2)Π) + N((4)S)-in particular, for the lowest energy (3)A' and (3)A″ PESs. In order to obtain the energies needed for fitting analytic surfaces, we carried out multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations based on wave functions obtained from state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field calculations for 2280 geometries for the three lowest (3)A″ states and for 2298 geometries for the three lowest (3)A' states. The lowest-energy (3)A' and (3)A″ states at each of these geometries were then improved by applying the dynamically scaled external correlation (DSEC) method to all MRCI points, and the resulting DSEC energies were used for construction of the ground-state PES for each symmetry. The many-body component of the DSEC energies for the three-dimensional (3)A' and (3)A″ PESs was then least-squares fitted in terms of permutationally invariant polynomials in mixed exponential-Gaussian bond order variables. The global and local minima as well as the transition structures of both the (3)A' and the (3)A″ analytic PES were explored. In agreement with previous work, we find that the reverse reaction is barrierless on the (3)A″ surface along the minimum energy pathway. However, we have explored several new local minima and transition structures on the (3)A' PES. Furthermore, based on the newly found minima and transition structures, two independent reaction mechanisms have been illustrated for the reaction path on the (3)A' PES. The analytic surfaces may be used for dynamics calculations of electronically adiabatic reactive scattering and energy transfer.

  2. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  3. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  4. Globally accurate potential energy surface for the ground-state HCS(X2A′) and its use in reaction dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Gao, Shou-Bao; Meng, Qing-Tian

    2016-01-01

    A globally accurate many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for HCS(X2A′) by fitting a wealth of accurate ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level using aug-cc-pVQZ and aug-cc-pV5Z basis sets via extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. The topographical features of the present potential energy surface are examined in detail and is in good agreement with the raw ab initio results, as well as other theoretical results available in literatures. By utilizing the potential energy surface of HCS(X2A′), the dynamic studies of the C(3P) + SH(X2Π) → H(2S) + CS(X1∑+) reaction has been carried out using quasi-classical trajectory method. PMID:27898106

  5. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for the reversible reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. III - Computed points to define a global potential energy surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Duchovic, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    Computed energies and geometries are reported which, combined with previously published calculations, permit a global representation of the potential energy surface for the reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. These new calculations characterize the potential energy surface (PES) for all H atom angles of approach to O2 and for the region of the inner repulsive wall. The region of the T-shaped H-O2 exchange saddle point is connected with the constrained energy minimum (CEM) path, and a new collinear H-O2 exchange saddle point is characterized which lies only 9 kcal/mol above the H + O2 asymptote. A vibrational analysis which utilizes local cubic and quartic polynomial representations of the PES along the CEM path has been carried out. Optimal geometries, energies, and harmonic frequencies are reported along with anharmonic analyses for the O2 and OH asymptotes and for the HO2 minimum region of the PES.

  6. Dietary clays alleviate diarrhea of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Liu, Y; Soares, J A; Che, T M; Osuna, O; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-01-01

    , kaolinite, and zeolite individually and all possible combinations to total 0.3% of the diet)] were used. The clay treatments did not affect growth rate of the pigs. In the E. coli challenged group, the clay treatments reduced DS for the overall period (1.63 vs. 3.00; P < 0.05), RHT on d 9 (0.32 vs. 0.76; P < 0.05) and d 12 (0.13 vs. 0.39; P = 0.094), and total WBC on d 6 (15.2 vs. 17.7 × 10(3)/μL; P = 0.069) compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, dietary clays alleviated diarrhea of weaned pigs.

  7. Guidelines for Alleviation of Simulator Sickness Symptomatology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    from perceptual learning or the "neural store " (Reason, 1969; 1978) troubleshooting begins and the subject feels sick. Given the principles of learning...behavior is considered to be an output "function of external stimuli or situations. In human engineering, the stimulus may be energy (e.g., lighting...providing certain conditions are met. In general, the organism samples over time or past history (neural store ) to determine whether phenomena which are

  8. Centring radiological protection on today's global challenges in energy, climate change, environment and health--with nuclear energy playing a key role.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pierre, Sylvain

    2011-07-01

    The climate change issue includes meeting the growing demand for electricity while reducing the impacts from energy sources. Applying carbon capture and storage technology to fossil fuel energy and increasing renewable energy pose greater challenges than increasing nuclear energy. International Energy Agency's (IEA) electricity demand of 30 000 TWh by 2030 can be met with 10 000 TWh each from renewable, nuclear and fossil fuel energy. However, the ill-imposed very strict control of tiny public exposure to ionising radiation from nuclear energy continues to pose a serious hindrance. Effort needs to be re-balanced to produce an even-handed control of public exposure with emphasis on the most significant sources (i.e. natural background radiation and medical use) and vice versa. The on-going revision of the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards (BSS) provides an opportunity to achieve this internationally so that national regulations can be subsequently remediated. There can be no urgency in a BSS revision that fails to encompass such perspective.

  9. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order.

  10. Understanding the Global Water and Energy Cycle Through Assimilation of Precipitation-Related Observations: Lessons from TRMM and Prospects for GPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur; Zhang, Sara; daSilva, Arlindo; Li, Frank; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the Earth's climate and how it responds to climate perturbations relies on what we know about how atmospheric moisture, clouds, latent heating, and the large-scale circulation vary with changing climatic conditions. The physical process that links these key climate elements is precipitation. Improving the fidelity of precipitation-related fields in global analyses is essential for gaining a better understanding of the global water and energy cycle. In recent years, research and operational use of precipitation observations derived from microwave sensors such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have shown the tremendous potential of using these data to improve global modeling, data assimilation, and numerical weather prediction. We will give an overview of the benefits of assimilating TRMM and SSM/I rain rates and discuss developmental strategies for using space-based rainfall and rainfall-related observations to improve forecast models and climate datasets in preparation for the proposed multi-national Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  11. The role of El Niño in the global energy redistribution: a case study in the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Lu, Marion; Braconnot, Pascale; Leloup, Julie; Marti, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that El Niño events contribute to discharge the warm pool excess of energy out of the tropical Pacific. In a different climate, the energetic budget in the tropical Pacific is altered, which might have an effect on the El Niño amplitude and/or occurrence and thereby on the role of El Niño on energy redistribution. The mid-Holocene period (6 ka BP) offers a good example of changes in the distribution of incoming solar energy. In particular, the equator-pole gradient was weaker compared to the modern period. We analyze long stable simulations of the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial era and discuss the mean- and El Niño-related energy transports in the two climates. We show that the role of global energy pump played by the tropical Pacific is reduced in the mid-Holocene in our simulation, both in long-term mean and during El Niño years. We demonstrate that this is not only a direct response to insolation forcing but this is further amplified by changes in internal processes. We analyze the relative role of El Niño events in the Pacific discharge in the two climates and show that it is reduced in the mid-Holocene, i.e. the fraction of the Pacific discharge that is due to El Niño is reduced. This is mainly due to reduction in the occurrence of El Niño events. This work gives a new approach to address El Niño changes, from the perspective of the role of El Niño in global energy redistribution.

  12. Environmental controls of energy and trace gas exchanges at the water-air interface: Global synthesis of eddy fluxes over inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, M.; Desai, A. R.; Bohrer, G.; Blanken, P.; Deshmukh, C. S.; Franz, D.; Guérin, F.; Heiskanen, J. J.; Jammet, M.; Jonsson, A.; Karlsson, J.; Koebsch, F.; Liu, H.; Lohila, A.; Lundin, E.; Mammarella, I.; Rutgersson, A.; Sachs, T.; Serça, D.; Spence, C.; Strachan, I. B.; Vesala, T.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Xiao, W.; Glatzel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Current estimates of energy and trace gases from inland waters often rely on limited point in time measurements, therefore, short time variation of fluxes and mechanism controlling the fluxes are particularly understudied. Here we present the results of a global synthesis of eddy fluxes from 29 globally distributed aquatic sites. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitudes and variation of energy and CO2 fluxes and investigate their responses to environmental controls across half-hourly to monthly time scales. The coupled observations of in-lake physical and biogeochemical parameters with meteorology and eddy covariance fluxes were analyzed using decomposed correlation and wavelength coherence analysis to quantify the critical time scales that are associated with variation of energy and CO2 fluxes, and related drivers. The rates of fluxes were synthesized according to time scale, climate, and water body type. The diurnal cycles of both energy and CO2 fluxes variation were attributed to wind speed, solar radiation cycle, vapor pressure deficit, temperature gradients at water-air interface, and metabolism. Weekly time scales of variations were correlated with synoptic weather patterns. The monthly sums of energy fluxes showed a latitudinal gradient with the maxima observed in mid-latitude waterbodies. We found an inconsistent latitudinal pattern of monthly CO2 fluxes. Instead, we found correlation with proxies of lake productivity suggesting lake-specific characteristics play an important role in controlling flux magnitudes and variation. The results presented here highlight the importance of quantifying short-term variation of energy and trace gases fluxes towards improving the understanding of the water and carbon cycles and linked ecological processes.

  13. Biomaterial strategies for alleviation of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Dan, Kai; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization estimated that heart failure initiated by coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) leads to 29 per cent of deaths worldwide. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries and is expected to become a global epidemic within the twenty-first century. MI, the main cause of heart failure, leads to a loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. The damaged left ventricle undergoes progressive ‘remodelling’ and chamber dilation, with myocyte slippage and fibroblast proliferation. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro-engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for heart failure patients. These events reflect an apparent lack of effective intrinsic mechanism for myocardial repair and regeneration. Motivated by the desire to develop minimally invasive procedures, the last 10 years observed growing efforts to develop injectable biomaterials with and without cells to treat cardiac failure. Biomaterials evaluated include alginate, fibrin, collagen, chitosan, self-assembling peptides, biopolymers and a range of synthetic hydrogels. The ultimate goal in therapeutic cardiac tissue engineering is to generate biocompatible, non-immunogenic heart muscle with morphological and functional properties similar to natural myocardium to repair MI. This review summarizes the properties of biomaterial substrates having sufficient mechanical stability, which stimulates the native collagen fibril structure for differentiating pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21900319

  14. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuwang; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ + α)/(α + β) and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. PMID:25254242

  15. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Shew, Aaron; Thoma, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production.

  16. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  17. Dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for aircraft gust alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yang; Wan, Xiaopeng; Li, Aijun

    2008-10-01

    A dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for MIMO system is presented in this paper. The dynamic inversion method is used to decouple the multivariable system. The nonlinear control method is used to overcome the poor decoupling effect when the system model is inaccurate. The nonlinear control method has correcting function and is expressed in analytic form, it is easy to adjust the parameters of the controller and optimize the design of the control system. The method is used to design vertical transition mode of active control aircraft for gust alleviation. Simulation results show that the designed vertical transition mode improves the gust alleviation effect about 34% comparing with the normal aircraft.

  18. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  19. A global ab initio potential energy surface for the X 2A' ground state of the Si + OH → SiO + H reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayou, Fabrice; Duflot, Denis; Rivero-Santamaría, Alejandro; Monnerville, Maurice

    2013-11-01

    We report the first global potential energy surface (PES) for the X 2A' ground electronic state of the Si(3P) + OH(X2Π) → SiO(X^1Σ _g^+) + H(2S) reaction. The PES is based on a large number of ab initio energies obtained from multireference configuration interaction calculations plus Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality. Corrections were applied to the ab initio energies in the reactant channel allowing a proper description of long-range interactions between Si(3P) and OH(X2Π). An analytical representation of the global PES has been developed by means of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The reaction is found barrierless. Two minima, corresponding to the SiOH and HSiO isomers, and six saddle points, among which the isomerization transition state, have been characterized on the PES. The vibrational spectra of the SiOH/HSiO radicals have been computed from second-order perturbation theory and quantum dynamics methods. The structural, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of the two isomers are in good agreement with experimental data and previous high quality calculations.

  20. Life-cycle thinking and the LEED rating system: global perspective on building energy use and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2015-04-07

    This research investigates the relationship between energy use, geographic location, life cycle environmental impacts, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The researchers studied worldwide variations in building energy use and associated life cycle impacts in relation to the LEED rating systems. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a reference 43,000 ft(2) office building was developed and situated in 400 locations worldwide while making relevant changes to the energy model to meet reference codes, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Then life cycle environmental and human health impacts from the buildings' energy consumption were calculated. The results revealed considerable variations between sites in the U.S. and international locations (ranging from 394 ton CO2 equiv to 911 ton CO2 equiv, respectively). The variations indicate that location specific results, when paired with life cycle assessment, can be an effective means to achieve a better understanding of possible adverse environmental impacts as a result of building energy consumption in the context of green building rating systems. Looking at these factors in combination and using a systems approach may allow rating systems like LEED to continue to drive market transformation toward sustainable development, while taking into consideration both energy sources and building efficiency.

  1. An atmospheric energy analysis of the impact of satellite lidar winds and TIROS temperatures in global simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Linda M.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effects on forecast accuracy of adding wind-profiler data is conducted. An observing system simulation test is employed that assumes a sufficient concentration of aerosols to provide global wind profiles (a best case scenario). The simulated data for the series of five day forecasts are produced from a twenty day integration utilizing the ECMWF model, which is also employed to produce the verification forecast for the five day period.

  2. Uncertainty in future global energy use and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions 1975 to 2075: Appendices A--B

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.M.; Gardner, R.H.; Brenkert, A.

    1985-12-01

    Appendix A contains the Monte Carlo Data Set. The data sheets give the distribution for input variables used in Monte Carlo analysis of the IEA/ORAU Global Energy, CO{sub 2} Model. The data sheets include a discussion of data sources, bibliographic sources, and other considerations used in developing the particular data format and values for distributions. As much detail as possible about how distributions are related to published estimates is given but in most cases it was necessary to make a significant leap from available data to the quantified distribution. The distributions are meant to be roughly accurate and to the degree that uncertainty exists about the form and value of distributions, the authors have tended to opt for wider bounds. Appendix B contains The IEA/ORAU Long-Term Global Energy-CO{sub 2} Model, Version A.84 -- Model Improvements. The model was originally developed in 1982 in support of work conducted for the US Department of Energy Carbon Dioxide Research Division in the area of future global fossil fuel related CO emissions research. The uncertainty analysis, documented in this report, made demands on the model that had not previously been made, and in the process of operating the model much was learned about areas in which simplification or elaboration was justified, or in which a different approach was warranted. As a consequence of these criticisms, demands, and learning numerous model modifications were undertaken. Since two versions of the model now exist, version specifications have been adopted. The 1984 version is designated A.84, while the version completed in 1982 is designated B.82. Model changes fall into three categories: those which affect the theoretical structure of the model, those which affect the computational processes of the model, and those which affect only the model by which model inputs are entered.

  3. Monitoring the spring-summer surface energy budget transition in the Gobi Desert using AVHRR GAC data. [Global Area Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Reiter, Elmar R.

    1986-01-01

    A research program has been started in which operationally available weather satellites radiance data are used to reconstruct various properties of the diurnal surface energy budget over sites for which detailed estimates of the complete radiation, heat, and moisture exchange process are available. In this paper, preliminary analysis of the 1985 Gobi Desert summer period results is presented. The findings demonstrate various important relationships concerning the feasibility of retrieving the amplitudes of the diurnal surface energy budget processes for daytime and nighttime conditions.

  4. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation.

  5. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  6. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  7. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally—the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world’s population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production. PMID

  8. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Tomas; Ekvall, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007-1.13 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh(-1)). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004-3 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01-0.69 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO( 2) emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided.

  9. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  10. Say You Want a Revolution: harnessing the Next Generation Science Standards to foster energy and climate literacy and understanding of global change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M.; Berbeco, M.

    2011-12-01

    By infusing human impacts on the environment and responses throughout the grade bands--from Kindergarten to High School graduation--the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), in conjunction with Common Core mathematics and language arts standards, have the potential to revolutionize science education in particular and benefit society by fostering informed decision-making, knowledge and knowhow. This paper will focus on the potential for NGSS to support climate and energy literacy and related understanding of global change --which have often been missing, skimmed over, or taught as 'controversy' in traditional science courses. It will also examine challenges to adopt, deploy and assess the standards, including teacher professional development and efforts to undermine and defund deployment of NGSS and Common Core standards. While the NGSS performance expectations do not fully cover important topics such as the mechanism of the greenhouse effect, and full deployment faces many daunting challenges, they offer a path forward that will potentially benefit the 56 million K12 students who currently lack strong climate and energy literacy skills or understanding of global change.

  11. Say You Want a Revolution: harnessing the Next Generation Science Standards to foster energy and climate literacy and understanding of global change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M.; Berbeco, M.

    2013-12-01

    By infusing human impacts on the environment and responses throughout the grade bands--from Kindergarten to High School graduation--the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), in conjunction with Common Core mathematics and language arts standards, have the potential to revolutionize science education in particular and benefit society by fostering informed decision-making, knowledge and knowhow. This paper will focus on the potential for NGSS to support climate and energy literacy and related understanding of global change --which have often been missing, skimmed over, or taught as 'controversy' in traditional science courses. It will also examine challenges to adopt, deploy and assess the standards, including teacher professional development and efforts to undermine and defund deployment of NGSS and Common Core standards. While the NGSS performance expectations do not fully cover important topics such as the mechanism of the greenhouse effect, and full deployment faces many daunting challenges, they offer a path forward that will potentially benefit the 56 million K12 students who currently lack strong climate and energy literacy skills or understanding of global change.

  12. Global and local aspects of the surface potential landscape for energy level alignment at organic-ZnO interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähler, Julia; Rinke, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid systems of organic and inorganic semiconductors are a promising route for the development of novel opto-electronic and light-harvesting devices. A key ingredient for achieving a superior functionality by means of a hybrid system is the right relative position of energy levels at the interfaces of the two material classes. In this Perspective, we address the sensitivity of the potential energy landscape at various ZnO surfaces, a key ingredient for interfacial energy level alignment, by combining one- and two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy with density-functional theory calculations (DFT). We show that even very large work function changes (>2.5 eV) do not necessarily have to be accompanied by surface band bending in ZnO. Band bending - if it does occur - may be localized to few Å or extend over hundreds of nanometers with very different results for the surface work function and energy level alignment. Managing the delicate balance of different interface manipulation mechanisms in organic-inorganic hybrid systems will be a major challenge towards future applications.

  13. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + N2 yields HN2. II - Computed points to define a global potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    A previous calculation for H + N2 (Walch et al., 1989) focused on the minimum energy path (MEP) region of the potential energy surface and on estimates of the lifetime of the HN2 species. In this paper, energies computed at geometries selected to permit a global representation of the potential energy surface (PES) are reported. As in the previous work, the calculations were performed using the complete active space self-consistent field/externally contracted configuration interaction method. The surface was characterized using the same basis set as in the previous paper except that an improved contraction of the H s-basis is used. Calculations with a larger basis set were carried out along an approximate MEP obtained with the smaller basis set. The new PES exhibits a sharp curvature, which was not present in the previous calculations, and has a slightly narrower and smaller barrier to dissociation. Saddle points for H atom exchange via collinear and T shaped HN2 complexes are also reported.

  14. Derivation of the photometric flux of daylight from filtered measurements of global (sun and sky) radiant energy.

    PubMed

    Drummond, A J; Angström, A K

    1971-09-01

    The study reported on here is a continuation of an earlier investigation by the same authors into the relationship between natural illumination and shortwave solar radiation. Whereas the initial approach treated the illumination of sunlight as derived from the corresponding filtered direct radiation component, the results now given extend this work to parallel determination of the (more generally applicable) illumination of integral daylight on the basis of similarly filtered global (sun and sky) radiation. Characteristics are outlined of the instrumentation employed in the investigation undertaken at different locations, viz., Newport, Jerusalem (Israel), and Mauna Loa (Hawaii), as compared with the basic work that utilized data assembled at Pretoria (South Africa). Included is an extension to recent solar radiation measurements obtained on high-altitude aircraft. In general, it is established that it is possible to derive such estimates of natural illumination from radiometric measurements with an accuracy comparable with that obtainable in the best direct photometric efforts.

  15. Status Report of the DPHEP Study Group: Towards a Global Effort for Sustainable Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Akopov, Zaven; Amerio, Silvia; Asner, David; Avetisyan, Eduard; Barring, Olof; Beacham, James; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bethke, Siegfried; Boehnlein, Amber; Brooks, Travis; Browder, Thomas; Brun, Rene; Cartaro, Concetta; Cattaneo, Marco; Chen, Gang; Corney, David; Cranmer, Kyle; Culbertson, Ray; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Denisov, Dmitri

    2013-03-27

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. An inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened as a panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The group was formed by large collider-based experiments and investigated the technical and organisational aspects of HEP data preservation. An intermediate report was released in November 2009 addressing the general issues of data preservation in HEP. This paper includes and extends the intermediate report. It provides an analysis of the research case for data preservation and a detailed description of the various projects at experiment, laboratory and international levels. In addition, the paper provides a concrete proposal for an international organisation in charge of the data management and policies in high-energy physics.

  16. Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D Claire; Cheng, Zhangrui; Chowdhury, Waliul; Fenwick, Mark A; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Morris, Dermot G; Patton, Joe; Murphy, John J

    2009-09-09

    Most dairy cows suffer uterine microbial contamination postpartum. Persistent endometritis often develops, associated with reduced fertility. We used a model of differential feeding and milking regimes to produce cows in differing negative energy balance status in early lactation (mild or severe, MNEB or SNEB). Blood hematology was assessed preslaughter at 2 wk postpartum. RNA expression in endometrial samples was compared using bovine Affymetrix arrays. Data were mapped using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I remained lower in the SNEB group, whereas blood nonesterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were raised. White blood cell count and lymphocyte number were reduced in SNEB cows. Array analysis of endometrial samples identified 274 differentially expressed probes representing 197 recognized genes between the energy balance groups. The main canonical pathways affected related to immunological and inflammatory disease and connective tissue disorders. Inflammatory response genes with major upregulation in SNEB cows included matrix metalloproteinases, chemokines, cytokines, and calgranulins. Expression of several interferon-inducible genes including ISG20, IFIH1, MX1, and MX2 were also significantly increased in the SNEB cows. These results provide evidence that cows in SNEB were still undergoing an active uterine inflammatory response 2 wk postpartum, whereas MNEB cows had more fully recovered from their energy deficit, with their endometrium reaching a more advanced stage of repair. SNEB may therefore prevent cows from mounting an effective immune response to the microbial challenge experienced after calving, prolonging the time required for uterine recovery and compromising subsequent fertility.

  17. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study.

  18. Omeprazole Alleviates Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianmei; Zhang, Hongbing; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Tian, Jingzhuo; Zhang, Yushi; Wei, Xiaolu; Gao, Yue; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is a member of the Aristolochiaceae family and is a well-known cause of aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the potential of omeprazole (OM) to alleviate AMK-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that OM reduced mouse mortality caused by AMK and attenuated AMK-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. OM enhanced hepatic Cyp 1a1/2 and renal Cyp 1a1 expression in rats, as well as CYP 1A1 expression in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HKCs). HKCs with ectopic CYP 1A1 expression were more tolerant to AA than the control cells. Therefore, OM may alleviate AMK-mediated acute nephrotoxicity through induction of CYP 1A1. We suggest that the coadministration of OM might be beneficial for reducing of AA-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27716846

  19. Alleviating α quenching by solar wind and meridional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, D.; Moss, D.; Tavakol, R.; Brandenburg, A.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic α-quenching in mean field dynamos in two-dimensional spherical wedge domains. Methods: Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider α^2Ω mean field models with a dynamical α quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow ("solar wind") and meridional circulation. Results: We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  20. Mode-specific multi-channel dynamics of the F- + CHD2Cl reaction on a global ab initio potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, István; Czakó, Gábor

    2016-10-01

    We report a detailed quasiclassical trajectory study for the dynamics of the ground-state and CH/CD stretching-excited F- + CHD2Cl(vCH/CD = 0, 1) → Cl- + CHD2F, HF + CD2Cl-, and DF + CHDCl- SN2, proton-, and deuteron-abstraction reactions using a full-dimensional global ab initio analytical potential energy surface. The simulations show that (a) CHD2Cl(vCH/CD = 1), especially for vCH = 1, maintains its mode-specific excited character prior to interaction, (b) the SN2 reaction is vibrationally mode-specific, (c) double inversion can occur and is enhanced upon CH/CD stretching excitations, (d) in the abstraction reactions the HF channel is preferred and the vCH/CD = 1 excitations significantly promote the HF/DF channels, (e) back-side rebound, back-side stripping, and front-side stripping are the dominant direct abstraction mechanisms based on correlated scattering- and attack-angle distributions, (f) the exact classical vibrational energy-based Gaussian binning (1GB) provides realistic mode-specific polyatomic product state distributions, (g) in the abstraction reactions CH and CD stretchings are not pure spectator modes and mainly ground-state products are produced, thus most of the initial energy transfers into product translation, and (h) the HF and DF product molecules are rotationally cold without any significant dependence on the reactant's and HF/DF vibrational states.

  1. A New Global Potential Energy Surface for the Hydroperoxyl Radical, HO2: Reaction Coefficients for H + O2 and Vibrational Splittings for H Atom Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A new analytic global potential energy surface describing the hydroperoxyl radical system H((sup 2)S) + O2(X (sup 3)Sigma((sup -)(sub g))) (reversible reaction) HO2 ((X-tilde) (sup 2)A'') (reversible reaction) O((sup 3)P) + O H (X (sup 2)Pi) has been fitted using the ab initio complete active space SCF (self-consistent-field)/externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) energy calculations of Walch and Duchovic. Results of quasiclassical trajectory studies to determine the rate coefficients of the forward and reverse reactions at combustion temperatures will be presented. In addition, vibrational energy levels were calculated using the quantum DVR-DGB (discrete variable representation-distributed Gaussian basis) method and the splitting due to H atom migration is investigated. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.

  2. Damage in the dorsal striatum alleviates addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Muskens, J B; Schellekens, A F A; de Leeuw, F E; Tendolkar, I; Hepark, S

    2012-01-01

    The ventral striatum has been assigned a major role in addictive behavior. In addition, clinical lesion studies have described involvement of the insula and globus pallidus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of alleviation of alcohol and nicotine addiction after a cerebrovascular incident in the dorsal striatum. The patient was still abstinent from alcohol and nicotine at follow-up. This observation suggests that the dorsal striatum may play a critical role in addiction to alcohol and nicotine.

  3. Aircraft Dynamic Load Alleviation Using Smart Actuation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    is under the auspices of the International Follow - On Structural Test Program ( IFOSTP ) funded by the US Air Force with the primary objective to...Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel," presented at the CEAS International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural ...Next, a fast Fourier transform is used to compute the pressure time history, p(t) at all known data points on the structural surface. f.., i~n(2-15) p(t

  4. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Judith

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  5. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. I. A global model for the broadband spectral energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, M.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kriss, G. A.; Cappi, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Arav, N.; Behar, E.; Bianchi, S.; Boissay, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Costantini, E.; Ebrero, J.; Di Gesu, L.; Harrison, F. A.; Kaspi, S.; De Marco, B.; Matt, G.; Paltani, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Ponti, G.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; De Rosa, A.; Ursini, F.; de Vries, C. P.; Walton, D. J.; Whewell, M.

    2015-03-01

    An extensive multi-satellite campaign on NGC 5548 has revealed this archetypal Seyfert-1 galaxy to be in an exceptional state of persistent heavy absorption. Our observations taken in 2013-2014 with XMM-Newton, Swift, NuSTAR, INTEGRAL, Chandra, HST and two ground-based observatories have together enabled us to establish that this unexpected phenomenon is caused by an outflowing stream of weakly ionised gas (called the obscurer), extending from the vicinity of the accretion disk to the broad-line region. In this work we present the details of our campaign and the data obtained by all the observatories. We determine the spectral energy distribution of NGC 5548 from near-infrared to hard X-rays by establishing the contribution of various emission and absorption processes taking place along our line of sight towards the central engine. We thus uncover the intrinsic emission and produce a broadband continuum model for both obscured (average summer 2013 data) and unobscured (<2011) epochs of NGC 5548. Our results suggest that the intrinsic NIR/optical/UV continuum is a single Comptonised component with its higher energy tail creating the "softX-ray excess". This component is compatible with emission from a warm, optically-thick corona as part of the inner accretion disk. We then investigate the effects of the continuum on the ionisation balance and thermal stability of photoionised gas for unobscured and obscured epochs. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level.

  7. Alleviation of chromium toxicity by hydrogen sulfide in barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafaqat; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Abbasi, G H; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to examine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in alleviating chromium (Cr) stress in barley. A 2-factorial design with 6 replications was selected, including 3 levels of NaHS (0 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) and 2 levels of Cr (0 μM and 100 μM) as treatments. The results showed that NaHS addition enhances plant growth and photosynthesis slightly compared with the control. Moreover, NaHS alleviated the inhibition in plant growth and photosynthesis by Cr stress. Higher levels of NaHS exhibited more pronounced effects in reducing Cr concentrations in roots, shoots, and leaves. Ultrastructural examination of plant cells supported the facts by indication of visible alleviation of cell disorders in both root and leaf with exogenous application of NaHS. An increased number of plastoglobuli, disintegration, and disappearance of thylakoid membranes and starch granules were visualized inside the chloroplast of Cr-stressed plants. Starch accumulation in the chloroplasts was also noticed in the Cr-treated cells, with the effect being much less in Cr + NaHS-treated plants. Hence, it is concluded that H2 S produced from NaHS can improve plant tolerance under Cr stress.

  8. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  9. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  10. A study of helicopter gust response alleviation by automatic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two control schemes designed to alleviate gust-induced vibration are analytically investigated for a helicopter with four articulated blades. One is an individual blade pitch control scheme. The other is an adaptive blade pitch control algorithm based on linear optimal control theory. In both controllers, control inputs to alleviate gust response are superimposed on the conventional control inputs required to maintain the trim condition. A sinusoidal vertical gust model and a step gust model are used. The individual blade pitch control, in this research, is composed of sensors and a pitch control actuator for each blade. Each sensor can detect flapwise (or lead-lag or torsionwise) deflection of the respective blade. The acturator controls the blade pitch angle for gust alleviation. Theoretical calculations to predict the performance of this feedback system have been conducted by means of the harmonic method. The adaptive blade pitch control system is composed of a set of measurements (oscillatory hub forces and moments), an identification system using a Kalman filter, and a control system based on the minimization of the quadratic performance function.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

    PubMed Central

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-01-01

    Background Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. Scope This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. Conclusions The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K+ : Na+ ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na+/H+ antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes. PMID:19815570

  12. Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

  13. Red Ginseng Supplementation More Effectively Alleviates Psychological than Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Young; Woo, Tae Sun; Yoon, Seo Young; Ike Campomayor dela, Peña; Choi, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Lee, Yong Soo; Yu, Gu Yong; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Red ginseng (RG, the extract of Panax ginseng Meyer) has various biological and psychological activities and may also alleviate fatigue-related disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate what kind of fatigue red ginseng alleviate. Animals were orally administered with 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg of RG for 7 days. Before experiments were performed. Physiological stress (swimming, rotarod, and wire test) are behavioral parameters used to represent physical fatigue. Restraint stress and electric field test to a certain degree, induce psychological fatigue in animals. Plasma concentration of lactate and corticosterone (CORT) were also measured after these behavioral assays. RG supplementation (100 mg/kg) increased movement duration and rearing frequency of restrainted mice in comparison with control. 100 and 200 mg/kg of RG increased swimming time in cold water (8±4℃) while at 100 mg/kg, RG increased electric field crossing over frequencies. 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg RG prolonged running time on the rotarod and at 100 mg/kg, it increased balancing time on the wire. RG at those doses also reduced falling frequencies. RG supplementation decreased plasma CORT levels, which was increased by stress. Lactate levels were not significantly altered. These results suggest that RG supplementation can alleviate more the damages induced by psychological than physical fatigue. PMID:23717077

  14. A global 12-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface and dynamical studies for the SiH4+H →SiH3+H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Manhui; Sun, Xiaomin; Bian, Wensheng; Cai, Zhengting

    2006-06-01

    A global 12-dimensional ab initio interpolated potential energy surface (PES) for the SiH4+H →SiH3+H2 reaction is presented. The ab initio calculations are based on the unrestricted quadratic configuration interaction treatment with all single and double excitations together with the cc-pVTZ basis set, and the modified Shepard interpolation method of Collins and co-workers [K. C. Thompson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 108, 8302 (1998); M. A. Collins, Theor. Chem. Acc. 108, 313 (2002); R. P. A. Bettens and M. A. Collins, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 816 (1999)] is applied. Using this PES, classical trajectory and variational transition state theory calculations have been carried out, and the computed rate constants are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  15. Applying the concept of "energy return on investment" to desert greening of the Sahara/Sahel using a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, S. P. K.; Miller, L. M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-01-01

    Altering the large-scale dynamics of the Earth system through continual and deliberate human intervention now seems possible. In doing so, one should question the energetic sustainability of such interventions. Here, from the basis that a region might be unnaturally vegetated by employing technological means, we apply the metric of "energy return on investment" (EROI) to benchmark the energetic sustainability of such a scenario. We do this by applying EROI to a series of global climate model simulations where the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated with increased rates of desalinated water to produce biomass. The energy content of this biomass is greater than the energy input rate for a minimum irrigation rate of about 200 mm yr-1 in the winter and 500 mm yr-1 in the summer, thereby yielding an EROI ratio >1 : 1, expressing energetic sustainability. Quantified annually, the EROI was >1 : 1 for irrigation rates more than 500 mm yr-1, progressively increasing to a maximum of 1.8 : 1 with 900 mm yr-1, and then decreasing with further increases in the irrigation rate. Including the precipitation feedback arising from changes in moisture recycling within the study region approximately doubles these EROI ratios. This overall result varies spatially and temporally, so while the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated equally, the western coastal region from June to August had the highest EROI. Other factors would complicate such a large-scale modification of the Earth system, but this sensitivity study concludes that with a required energy input, desert greening may be energetically sustainable. More specifically, we have shown how this type of EROI analysis could be applied as a metric to assess a diverse range of human alterations to, and interventions within, the Earth system.

  16. Are transcriptional responses to inbreeding a functional response to alleviate inbreeding depression?

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Ávila, Victoria; Quesada, Humberto; Caballero, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies addressing the relationship between gene regulation and inbreeding depression did not allow for discerning the changes that alleviate the depression from those that generate it. We directly addressed this question by analyzing changes in gene expression, using Affymetrix 2.0 arrays in Drosophila melanogaster inbred sublines differing in their magnitudes of inbreeding depression relative to the expression in an outbred control. The total number of arrays analyzed was 27, with 9,133 probe sets showing a significant signal of expression. We found that for those genes differentially expressed between inbred and outbred sublines, most of them showed a pattern of expression consistent with a protective role against inbreeding effects. The observed increase in depression was presumably related to an inability of the genome to do the appropriate expression adjustments. Expression changes detected in our study showed a clear specificity of RNA-splicing and energy derivation functions. Thus, it appears that most of the observed changes in gene expression associated with inbreeding may occur predominantly to alleviate inbreeding depression, i.e., as a protection against the effects of inbreeding.

  17. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  18. Metabolic regulation is sufficient for global and robust coordination of glucose uptake, catabolism, energy production and growth in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The metabolism of microorganisms is regulated through two main mechanisms: changes of enzyme capacities as a consequence of gene expression modulation (“hierarchical control”) and changes of enzyme activities through metabolite-enzyme interactions. An increasing body of evidence indicates that hierarchical control is insufficient to explain metabolic behaviors, but the system-wide impact of metabolic regulation remains largely uncharacterized. To clarify its role, we developed and validated a detailed kinetic model of Escherichia coli central metabolism that links growth to environment. Metabolic control analyses confirm that the control is widely distributed across the network and highlight strong interconnections between all the pathways. Exploration of the model solution space reveals that several robust properties emerge from metabolic regulation, from the molecular level (e.g. homeostasis of total metabolite pool) to the overall cellular physiology (e.g. coordination of carbon uptake, catabolism, energy and redox production, and growth), while allowing a large degree of flexibility at most individual metabolic steps. These properties have important physiological implications for E. coli and significantly expand the self-regulating capacities of its metabolism. PMID:28187134

  19. GLOBAL SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN THE PROSPECT OF THE PLANCK SATELLITE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacIas-Perez, J. F.; Mayet, F.; Aumont, J.

    2010-03-01

    Within the framework of the Planck satellite polarization calibration, we present a study of the Crab Nebula spectral energy distribution (SED) over more than six decades in frequency ranging from 1 to 10{sup 6} GHz (from 299 to 2.99 x 10{sup -4} mm). The Planck satellite mission observes the sky from 30 to 857 GHz (from 9.99 to 0.3498 mm) and therefore we focus on the millimeter region. We use radio and submillimeter data from the WMAP satellite between 23 and 94 GHz (from 13 to 3.18 mm), from the Archeops balloon experiment between 143 (2.1 mm) and 545 GHz (0.55 mm), and a compendium of other Crab Nebula observations. The Crab SED is compared to models including three main components: synchrotron that is responsible for the emission at low and high frequencies, dust that explains the excess of flux observed by the IRAS satellite, and an extra component on the millimeter regime. From this analysis, we conclude that the unpolarized emission of the Crab Nebula at microwave and millimeter wavelengths is the same synchrotron emission as the one observed in the radio domain. Therefore, we expect the millimeter emission of the Crab Nebula to be polarized with the same degree of polarization and orientation as the radio emission. We set upper limits on the possible errors induced by any millimeter extra component on the reconstruction of the degree and angle of polarization at the percent level as a maximum. This result strongly supports the choice by the Planck collaboration of the Crab Nebula emission for performing polarization cross-checks in the range 30 (299 mm) to 353 GHz (0.849 mm).

  20. Global scale observations of scattered energy near the inner-core boundary: Seismic constraints on the base of the outer-core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. M.-C.; Romanowicz, B.

    2015-08-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPdf, PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPab phase arrivals in the distance range [149-178°]. Within this collection, we have identified an energy packet that arrives 5-20 s after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a phase that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of these scattered phases and show that they originate along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameters. We therefore refer to this scattered energy the "M" phase. Using the cross-correlation technique to detect and measure the scattered energy arrival times, we compiled a dataset of 1116 records of this M phase. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, nor with the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for this M phase, we show that its origin is most likely in the vicinity of the inner-core boundary. A tentative model is found that predicts an M-like phase, and produces good fits to its travel times as well as those of the main core phases. In this model, the P velocity profile with depth exhibits an increased gradient from about 400 km to 50 km above the ICB (i.e. slightly faster velocities than in AK135 or PREM), and a ∼ 50 km thick lower velocity layer right above the ICB.

  1. Population, poverty alleviation issues considered at 50th commission session.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    ESCAP's (UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) work program has focused on poverty alleviation through economic growth and social development. A paper was issued on this theme as a follow-up to the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development and as regional preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development. A meeting on April 5-13, 1994, in New Delhi stressed the new philosophy on development. The emphasis was on empowerment of individuals and growth of individuals' independence and self-sufficiency. ESCAP's programs have targeted women, disabled persons, human resource development, and population growth.

  2. Alleviating stress in the workplace: advice for nurses.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    Stress is an inherent and arguably essential aspect of the nurse's role, with ongoing challenges associated with providing care for patients and their families. However, the level of stress currently being experienced in health care exceeds the capacity of many nurses, resulting in ill health and burnout. This stress can undermine the care and compassion nurses are able to give, a vital concern in health care which was highlighted by the Francis inquiry. This article explores the factors that contribute to stress and the strategies that can be used to alleviate the stresses inherent in nursing.

  3. Independent Clinical Research May Alleviate Disparities in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zwitter, Matjaz

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in cancer care are a reality of the modern world. Unfortunately, current clinical research is in the hands of for-profit pharmaceutical companies and of researchers from the developed world. Problems specific to cancer care in developing countries and among deprivileged populations are ignored. Independent clinical research can offer new valuable knowledge and identify affordable and cost-effective treatments. As such, research not depending on commercial sponsors should become one of the important avenues to alleviate the problem of cancer disparities. PMID:28083547

  4. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-05-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in line with government initiatives for poverty reduction. Many Ganokendras implement programmes geared towards income-generating activities and establish linkages with other service providers, both governmental and non-governmental. As is shown, one particularly successful strategy for facilitating women's economic empowerment involves co-ordinating micro-credit available through other agencies.

  5. One earth, one future. Our changing global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

  6. Conservation in the energy industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic energy supply and utilization problems faced by the United States were described. Actions which might alleviate the domestic shortfall of petroleum and natural gas are described, analyzed and overall impacts are assessed. Specific actions included are coal gasification, in situ shale oil production, improved oil and gas recovery, importation of liquid natural gas and deregulation of natural gas prices. These actions are weighed against each other as alternate techniques of alleviating or overcoming existing shortfalls.

  7. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days).

  8. SNR Wall Effect Alleviation by Generalized Detector Employed in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shbat, Modar Safir; Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio (CR) networks, such as the energy detector (ED), matched filter (MF), and others, suffer from the noise uncertainty and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wall phenomenon. These detectors cannot achieve the required signal detection performance regardless of the sensing time. In this paper, we explore a signal processing scheme, namely, the generalized detector (GD) constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise, in spectrum sensing of CR network based on antenna array with the purpose to alleviate the SNR wall problem and improve the signal detection robustness under the low SNR. The simulation results confirm our theoretical issues and effectiveness of GD implementation in CR networks based on antenna array. PMID:26151216

  9. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  10. Global 2000 Countdown Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Fourteen units for high school global education classes are based on "The Global 2000 Report to the President," which examines the relationships between worldwide population growth and resource and environmental consequences. Topics of the units are population; income; food; fisheries; forests; water; nonfuel minerals; energy; impacts on…

  11. National Update: Discussions on global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The American Forestry Association (AFA) has launched a national campaign called Global Releaf to educate the public about global warming and the role of forestry in alleviating its effects. AFA executive vice-president R. Neil Sampson states that trees need to be intentionally grown and managed. More trees means less CO{sub 2} buildup, and the lack of trees is one of the causes of global warming. The AFA campaign included public service announcements, educational posters for schools, and material for all forms of media.

  12. Energy Informatics Panel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2012-06-01

    Designed to be the world's most comprehensive, open, and collaborative energy information network, Open Energy Information (OpenEI - openei.org) supplies essential energy data to decision makers and supports a global energy transformation. The platform, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is intended for global contribution and collaboration.

  13. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-In; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50=0.164 mg/mL). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. PMID:27752493

  14. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  15. Alleviating cancer patients' suffering: whose responsibility is it?

    PubMed

    Grau, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    In medicine, we have historically been better at learning about the body and disease than we have at understanding the human beings who come to us with the ailments. We have acted to relieve pain, consoling patients and families as a complement, but done little to understand and alleviate suffering as a fundamental part of our practice. In fact, only in more recent decades has "suffering" been conceptualized as something apart from pain, associated with distress and its causes. It was Eric T. Cassell, in his ground-breaking work in the 1980s, who posed the need to consider alleviation of suffering and treatment of illness as twin-and equally important-obligations of the medical profession. Suffering is defined as a negative, complex emotional and cognitive state, characterized by feeling under constant threat and powerless to confront it, having drained the physical and psycho-social resources that might have made resistance possible. This unique depletion of personal resources is key to understanding suffering.

  16. Web services for ecosystem services management and poverty alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. Here, we present the results of two projects on integrated environmental monitoring and scenario analysis aimed at poverty alleviation in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon. In the upper Andean highlands, farmers are monitoring the water cycle of headwater catchments to analyse the impact of land-use changes on stream flow and potential consequences for downstream irrigation. In the Amazon, local communities are monitoring the dynamics of turtle populations and their relations with river levels. In both cases, the use of online databases and web processing services enable real-time analysis of the data and scenario analysis. The system provides both physical and social indicators to assess the impact of land-use management options on local socio-economic development.

  17. Dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Xiangkai; Chang, Cong; Jia, Dongfeng; Wei, Zhiwei; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, ion homeostasis and the response to salinity in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Both hydroponics and field-pot experiments were conducted under saline conditions. Salt-stressed plants had reduced growth and a marked decline in their net photosynthetic rates, values for Fv /Fm and chlorophyll contents. However, pretreatment with 100 or 200 μM dopamine significantly alleviated this inhibition and enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity. In addition to changing stomatal behavior, supplementation with dopamine positively influenced the uptake of K, N, P, S, Cu and Mn ions but had an inhibitory effect on Na and Cl uptake, the balance of which is responsible for managing the response to salinity by Malus plants. Dopamine pretreatment also controlled the burst of hydrogen peroxide, possibly through direct scavenging and by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. We also investigated whether dopamine might regulate salt overly sensitive pathway genes under salinity. Here, MdHKT1, MdNHX1 and MdSOS1 were greatly upregulated in roots and leaves, which possibly contributed to the maintenance of ion homeostasis and, thus, improved salinity resistance in plants exposed earlier to exogenous dopamine. These results support our conclusion that dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by regulating other mechanisms of ion homeostasis.

  18. Alleviating rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    El Sherbini, A A

    1986-02-01

    This analysis of rural poverty and hunger in Africa discusses the intertemporal and cross-sectional dimensions of poverty as an aid to policies and programs to alleviate hunger. Since nutritional adequacy of diets varies according to season, seasonality is an important cause of poverty especially in countries with 1 major harvest. In agricultural communities the wet season brings on food shortages and high prices, requiring assistance programs to concentrate on alleviating hunger at this time of year. Drought places a similar demand on resources. People may be poorer in 1 section of a country than another if they have no access to the existing power system, depriving them of services and assistance. There are forgotten regions of Africa where people are poor due to physical isolation, increasing the risk of drought and impeding emergency relief. Production in these areas may be low because there are no consumer goods to buy with surplus. It is important to identify target groups for financial assistance which will change with time and environmental conditions.

  19. Role of relative humidity, temperature, and water status in dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening.

    PubMed

    Bazin, J; Batlla, D; Dussert, S; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H; Bailly, C

    2011-01-01

    The effect of various combinations of temperature and relative humidity on dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening was investigated. The rate of dormancy alleviation depended on both temperature and embryo moisture content (MC). Below an embryo MC of 0.1 g H(2)O g(-1) dw, dormancy release was faster at 15 °C than at higher temperatures. This suggests that dormancy release at low MC was associated with negative activation energy, supported by Arrhenius plots, and low Q(10) values. At higher MC, the rate of dormancy alleviation increased with temperature, correlating well with the temperature dependence of biochemical processes. These findings suggests the involvement of two distinct cellular mechanisms in dormancy release; non-enzymatic below 0.1 g H(2)O g(-1) dw and associated with active metabolism above this value. The effects of temperature on seed dormancy release above the threshold MC were analysed using a population-based thermal time approach and a model predicting the rate of dormancy alleviation is provided. Sunflower embryo dormancy release was effective at temperatures above 8 °C (the base temperature for after-ripening, Tb(AR), was 8.17 °C), and the higher the after-ripening temperature above this threshold value, the higher was the rate of dormancy loss. Thermodynamic analyses of water sorption isotherms revealed that dormancy release was associated with less bound water and increased molecular mobility within the embryonic axes but not the cotyledons. It is proposed that the changes in water binding properties result from oxidative processes and can, in turn, allow metabolic activities.

  20. Negative energy balance and hepatic gene expression patterns in high-yielding dairy cows during the early postpartum period: a global approach.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, S D; Waters, S M; Kenny, D A; Diskin, M G; Fitzpatrick, R; Patton, J; Wathes, D C; Morris, D G

    2010-11-15

    In high-yielding dairy cows the liver undergoes extensive physiological and biochemical changes during the early postpartum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis and to counteract the adverse effects of negative energy balance (NEB). These adaptations are likely to be mediated by significant alterations in hepatic gene expression. To gain new insights into these events an energy balance model was created using differential feeding and milking regimes to produce two groups of cows with either a mild (MNEB) or severe NEB (SNEB) status. Cows were slaughtered and liver tissues collected on days 6-7 of the first follicular wave postpartum. Using an Affymetrix 23k oligonucleotide bovine array to determine global gene expression in hepatic tissue of these cows, we found a total of 416 genes (189 up- and 227 downregulated) to be altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with widespread changes in gene expression classified into 36 gene networks including those associated with lipid metabolism, connective tissue development and function, cell signaling, cell cycle, and metabolic diseases, the three most significant of which are discussed in detail. SNEB cows displayed reduced expression of transcription activators and signal transducers that regulate the expression of genes and gene networks associated with cell signaling and tissue repair. These alterations are linked with increased expression of abnormal cell cycle and cellular proliferation associated pathways. This study provides new information and insights on the effect of SNEB on gene expression in high-yielding Holstein Friesian dairy cows in the early postpartum period.