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Sample records for alleviate menopausal symptoms

  1. Bee pollen and honey for the alleviation of hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    MÜNSTEDT, KARSTEN; VOSS, BENJAMIN; KULLMER, UWE; SCHNEIDER, URSULA; HÜBNER, JUTTA

    2015-01-01

    Hot flushes, night sweats, pain during sexual intercourse, hair loss, forgetfulness, depression and sleeping disturbances are common problems among breast cancer patients undergoing antihormonal treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bee pollen can alleviate menopausal symptoms in patients receiving tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors/inactivators. We compared a pollen-honey mixture with pure honey (placebo) in a prospective, randomized crossover trial in breast cancer patients receiving antihormonal treatment. The menopausal complaints were assessed using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A total of 46 patients were recruited; 68.3% (28/41) of the patients reported an improvement in their symptoms while taking honey, compared with 70.9% (22/31) who reported an improvement with pollen (the difference was non-significant). The results were confirmed by significant improvements in the postmenopausal complaints in the two groups in a pre-post analysis in the MRS and its 3 subscales. This study provided evidence that honey and bee pollen may improve the menopausal symptoms of breast cancer patients on antihormonal treatment. Of note, honey, which was intended to be used as a placebo, produced similar effects as pollen and they both exceeded the extent of a placebo effect in this setting (~25%). PMID:26171198

  2. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with HT tended to be small, especially in younger women. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality rates. Given the lower rates of adverse events on HT among women close to menopause onset and at lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease, risk stratification and personalized risk assessment appears to represent a sound strategy for optimizing the benefit: risk profile and safety of hormone therapy. Systemic HT should not be arbitrarily stopped at age 65; instead treatment duration should be individualized based on patients’ risk profiles and personal preferences. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause represents a common condition that adversely impacts the quality of life of many menopausal women. Without treatment, symptoms worsen over time. Low-dose vaginal estrogen represents highly effective treatment for this condition. Because custom-compounded hormones have not been tested for efficacy or safety, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HT is preferred. A low dose formulation of paroxetine mesylate currently represents the only nonhormonal medication FDA-approved to treat vasomotor symptoms. Gynecologists and other clinicians who remain abreast of data addressing the benefit: risk profile of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments can help menopausal women make sound choices regarding management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26348174

  3. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  4. Symptoms of menopause: hot flushes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Nanette

    2008-09-01

    Vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) are highly prevalent during the peri- and early postmenopause. They constitute a major driver for patient self-referral for medical care. Although most women will experience an abatement of their VMS by 5 years after their final menses, women with early or surgical menopause may have worse or more persistent symptoms, and up to 16% of naturally menopausal women continue to experience VMS well after their menopause is past. Although estrogen is the most effective known therapy, it is neither appropriate nor desirable for every symptomatic woman, and nonhormonal treatments such as gabapentin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors drugs, and the antihypertensives clonidine and alphamethyldopa may be helpful for some women. There is mounting evidence to support the ineffectiveness of many proposed complementary and alternative modalities. This review will highlight the natural history of VMS and the current medical evidence supporting various treatments.

  5. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... of menopause and tips for dealing with them. Hot flashes Try to notice what triggers your hot flashes and avoid those things. Possible triggers to ... foods, alcohol, caffeine, stress, or being in a hot place. Dress in layers and remove some when ...

  6. Culture and symptom reporting at menopause.

    PubMed

    Melby, Melissa K; Lock, Margaret; Kaufert, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review recent research on the relationship of culture and menopausal symptoms and propose a biocultural framework that makes use of both biological and cultural parameters in future research. Medline was searched for English-language articles published from 2000 to 2004 using the keyword 'menopause' in the journals--Menopause, Maturitas, Climacteric, Social Science and Medicine, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Journal of Women's Health, Journal of the American Medical Association, American Journal of Epidemiology, Lancet and British Medical Journal, excluding articles concerning small clinical samples, surgical menopause or HRT. Additionally, references of retrieved articles and reviews were hand-searched. Although a large number of studies and publications exist, methodological differences limit attempts at comparison or systematic review. We outline a theoretical framework in which relevant biological and cultural variables can be operationalized and measured, making it possible for rigorous comparisons in the future. Several studies carried out in Japan, North America and Australia, using similar methodology but different culture/ethnic groups, indicate that differences in symptom reporting are real and highlight the importance of biocultural research. We suggest that both biological variation and cultural differences contribute to the menopausal transition, and that more rigorous data collection is required to elucidate how biology and culture interact in female ageing.

  7. Symptom-Specific or Holistic”: Menopausal Symptom Management

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Chee, Wonshik

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to identify differences in menopausal symptom management among four major ethnic groups in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the qualitative data from a larger Internet-based study. We analyzed data from 90 middle-aged women in the U.S using thematic analysis. We extracted four themes during the data analysis process: (a) “seeking formal or informal advice,” (b) “medication as the first or final choice,” (c) “symptom-specific or holistic,” and (d) “avoiding or pursuing specific foods.” Health care providers need to develop menopausal symptom management programs while considering ethnic differences in menopausal symptom management. PMID:22577743

  8. Efficacy of Exercise for Menopausal Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Larson, Joseph C.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Roberts, Melanie; Caan, Bette J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine efficacy of exercise training for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. METHODS Late-peri and post-menopausal, sedentary women with frequent vasomotor symptoms (VMS) participated in a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites: 106 to exercise and 142 to usual activity. The exercise intervention consisted of individual, facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week for 12 weeks. VMS frequency and bother were recorded on daily diaries at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Intent to treat analyses compared between group differences in changes in VMS frequency and bother, sleep symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire). RESULTS At the end of week 12, changes in VMS frequency in the exercise group (mean change of −2.4/day, 95% CI −3.0, −1.7) and VMS bother (mean change of −0.5 on a 4 point scale, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4) were not significantly different from those in the control group (−2.6 VMS/day, 95% CI −3.2, −2.0, p=0.43; −0.5 points, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4, p=0.75). The exercise group reported greater improvement in insomnia symptoms (p=0.03), subjective sleep quality (p=0.01), and depressive symptoms (p=0.04), but differences were small and not statistically significant when p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when considering treatment-adherent women only. CONCLUSION These findings provide strong evidence that 12-weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise does not alleviate VMS but may result in small improvements in sleep quality, insomnia and depression in midlife, sedentary women. PMID:23899828

  9. Treatment options for vasomotor symptoms in menopause: focus on desvenlafaxine

    PubMed Central

    Umland, Elena M; Falconieri, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), including hot flashes and night sweats, occur in as many as 68.5% of women as a result of menopause. While the median duration of these symptoms is 4 years, approximately 10% of women continue to experience VMS as many as 12 years after their final menstrual period. As such, VMS have a significant impact on the quality of life and overall physical health of women experiencing VMS, leading to their pursuance of treatment to alleviate these symptoms. Management of VMS includes lifestyle modifications, some herbal and vitamin supplements, hormonal therapies including estrogen and tibolone, and nonhormonal therapies including clonidine, gabapentin, and some of the serotonin and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The latter agents, including desvenlafaxine, have been the focus of increased research as more is discovered about the roles of serotonin and norepinephrine in the thermoregulatory control system. This review will include an overview of VMS as they relate to menopause. It will discuss the risk factors for VMS as well as the proposed pathophysiology behind their occurrence. The variety of treatment options for VMS will be discussed. Focus will be given to the role of desvenlafaxine as a treatment option for VMS management. PMID:22870045

  10. Exercise to reduce vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms: a review.

    PubMed

    Daley, A J; Stokes-Lampard, H J; Macarthur, C

    2009-07-20

    Many women are reluctant to consider HRT as a therapeutic option for menopausal symptoms and are keen to use non-pharmacological treatments. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the effects of aerobic exercise on vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms is limited but what evidence we do have suggests that aerobic exercise can improve psychological health and quality of life in vasomotor symptomatic women. In addition, several RCTs of middle-aged/menopausal-aged women have found that aerobic exercise can invoke significant improvements in several common menopause-related symptoms (e.g. mood, health-related QoL and insomnia), relative to non-exercise comparison groups. There is some evidence that alternative forms of low intensity exercise such as yoga are beneficial in reducing vasomotor symptoms and improving psychological well-being in menopausal women. Collectively, these RCTs highlight the broader potential that exercise could have for women during the menopause transition. Whilst both the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the UK and the North American Menopause Society have recommended that women be advised to consider aerobic exercise as a treatment for vasomotor menopausal symptoms, to make any evidence-based conclusions regarding the effectiveness of exercise in managing these symptoms, more high quality research is needed.

  11. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... first 1 to 2 years Night sweats Skin flushing Sleeping problems (insomnia) Other symptoms of menopause may ... Saunders; 2016:chap 135. Read More Adrenal glands Cardiovascular Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy Iontophoresis Osteoporosis - overview Review Date ...

  12. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot

  13. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  14. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  15. Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Mobedi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Many herbal treatments for menopause symptoms contain and its components such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-PN, isoxanthohumol and xanthohumol. Recent in-vivo studies have highlighted the ability of 8-prenylnaringenin to reduce serum-luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), to increase serum prolactin levels and uterine weight, and to induce vaginal hyperplastic epithelium. Previous research has shown that hops extract can strongly bind to both estrogen receptors, stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, and upregulate presenelin-2 and progesterone receptor mRNA in Ishikawa cells. Numerous clinical trials have documented significant reductions in the frequency of hot flushes following the administration of hop-containing preparations. Nevertheless, further clinical trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted to confirm such benefits. PMID:27617238

  16. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Menopause Menopause is when a woman's menstrual period stops ... causes Ways to feel better Women's thoughts on menopause "Menopause for me was a welcomed friend. The ...

  17. Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of Menopause.

    PubMed

    Hill, D Ashley; Crider, Mark; Hill, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years. Therefore, in women with a uterus, it is recommended that physicians prescribe combination therapy only to treat menopausal symptoms such as vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) and vaginal atrophy, using the smallest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration. Although estrogen is the most effective treatment for hot flashes, nonhormonal alternatives such as low-dose paroxetine, venlafaxine, and gabapentin are effective alternatives. Women with a uterus who are using estrogen should also take a progestogen to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Women who cannot tolerate adverse effects of progestogens may benefit from a combined formulation of estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene. There is no highquality, consistent evidence that yoga, paced respiration, acupuncture, exercise, stress reduction, relaxation therapy, and alternative therapies such as black cohosh, botanical products, omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and dietary Chinese herbs benefit patients more than placebo. One systematic review suggests modest improvement in hot flashes and vaginal dryness with soy products, and small studies suggest that clinical hypnosis significantly reduces hot flashes. Patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause may benefit from vaginal estrogen, nonhormonal vaginal moisturizers, or ospemifene (the only nonhormonal treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for dyspareunia due to menopausal atrophy). The decision to use hormone therapy depends on clinical presentation, a thorough evaluation of the risks and

  18. Acupuncture in managing menopausal symptoms: hope or mirage?

    PubMed

    Alfhaily, F; Ewies, A A A

    2007-10-01

    There is an increased interest amongst women in seeking alternatives for hormone replacement therapy because of their fear of side-effects. It is claimed that acupuncture is effective for curing menopausal symptoms, and to be a safe treatment in the hands of well-trained and qualified practitioners. About one million acupuncture treatments are given in the National Health Service and two million privately each year in England for various indications. However, because its mechanism of action is not fully understood in physiological terms, acupuncture is considered by many clinicians to be of no value. This article reviews the currently available evidence as regards the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in treating menopausal symptoms.

  19. Self-directed Learning and Its Impact on Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Keshavarz, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the main criteria to verify the effectiveness of a health training program is to measure quality of life in menopausal women. Objectives: Hence the aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of self-directed learning (SDL) on MENQOl. Patients and Methods: The present single blind field study was conducted in Saadatmandi Health Center of Robat Karim (Iran, Southwest of Tehran Province) from August to December 2010. One handred and ten menopausal women were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided into two experimental (Self-directed Learning) and control groups of 55 each. Four manuals were developed to guide the women in the experimental group containing practical ways to treat menopausal symptoms. They were distributed among the participants for four weeks on a specific day. Menopausal Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) was used to determine and compare quality of life scores of these women (before and three months after intervention sessions). The control group did not receive any intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS/16 software using Kolmogorov-Sminov, ANOVA, independent paired t test and Chi-square test. Results: There were significant statistical differences between two groups regarding the age of subjects; age of menopause; economic, educational and employment status; number of dead and living children; BMI and vasomotor, physical, sexual and psycho-social postmenopausal symptoms. The implementation of Self-directed Learning (SDL) model leads to a significant statistical difference in scores of vasomotor symptoms (16.32 ± 5.92 to 13.26 ± 5.31), psychosocial symptoms (34.8 ± 11 to 27.18 ± 10.83), physical symptoms (75.02 ± 18.07 to 61.42 ± 15.49), sexual symptoms (15.36 ± 6.10 to 12.00 ± 4.97) and the overall score for quality of life (141.5 ± 41.09 to 113.86 ± 36.6) (P < 0.001). No significant changes were found in the QOL scores of the control group. Conclusions

  20. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  1. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  2. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    PubMed Central

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  3. Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities. PMID:24970987

  4. Menopause Symptoms | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... STDs), such as gonorrhea or even HIV/AIDS. Hot flashes. Many women have hot flashes around the time of menopause. They may be related to changing estrogen levels. Hot flashes may last a few years after menopause. ...

  5. Menopausal symptoms and the risk of young-onset breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chunyuan; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Women with menopausal symptoms have been reported to have reduced risk of breast cancer, possibly reflecting differences in endogenous hormone levels. We examined the associations between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer in women under age 50. Methods We carried out a sister-controlled case-control study, the Two Sister Study, comparing 1422 women with breast cancer diagnosed before age 50 and their 1669 sisters who were free of breast cancer and had enrolled in the prospective Sister Study cohort. History and age at first occurrence of menopause-associated symptoms (e.g. hot flashes, poor sleep, or night sweats) was ascertained using computer-assisted telephone interviews. To equalize opportunity for exposure, we assessed exposures in relation to a sibship-based index age (the minimum of the age at diagnosis of the case sister and the age at interview of her control sister(s)), and estimated odds ratios using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for menopausal status and birth order. Findings Having had menopause-associated symptoms (n=706) prior to the index age was associated with reduced risk of young-onset breast cancer (odds ratio (OR), 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40 to 0.61). Similar results were seen for hot flashes and for “other” menopausal symptoms. The association between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer risk was somewhat stronger for estrogen receptor positive tumors than for estrogen receptor negative tumors (heterogeneity p = 0.07). Menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI and hormone replacement therapy did not modify the associations, but the inverse association between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer attenuated with increasing index age (p<0.01). Interpretation Menopause-associated symptoms were associated with markedly reduced risk of young-onset breast cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm the association and elucidate possible pathways. PMID:23021929

  6. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  7. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  8. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help You Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions La menopausia y las hormonas: Preguntas más frecuentes Compounded Bio- ... Menopause and Hormones Card (PDF - 1.3MB) La menopausia y las hormonas tarjeta (PDF - 1.6MB) Order ...

  9. Self-Reported Menopausal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Calcification and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232

  10. [Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea and Menopause Symptoms in Women With Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ying; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy is a common adjuvant therapy for breast cancer that improves survival rates by killing residual cancer cells. However, this intervention may damage the germ cells within the ovary and interrupt the menstrual cycle, ultimately leading to chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA). The incidence of CIA depends on how broadly this term is defined. Around 75% of premenopausal breast cancer women treated with chemotherapy will develop CIA. Age, having a relatively long chemotherapy cycle duration, being estrogen-receptor positive, and using Tamoxifen all increase the risk of CIA. Although CIA may be associated with better prognosis outcomes, breast cancer women must subsequently deal with the various menopausal symptoms that are associated with a CIA-induced drop in estrogen level (such as cognitive function decline, physical and psychological symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, reproductive and sexual function problems, and body weight change). The present article describes the female menstrual cycle, the mechanism and risk factors of CIA, and the range of menopausal symptoms. Furthermore, we summarized methods of assessing menopausal symptoms and compared five common rating scales of menopausal symptoms. By better understanding the potential menopausal symptoms, researchers and clinicians may then select the most appropriate scale based on the situational needs in order to evaluate the severity of menopausal symptoms that are experienced by breast cancer women.

  11. Spirituality and severity of menopausal symptoms in a sample of religious women.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R; Soto, Marilyn

    2011-09-01

    Menopause represents an important life change, particularly for religious women whose identity is significantly related to family. Two competing hypotheses are examined: one, because religious women have their identity focused on family and child rearing, spirituality will be related to increased menopausal symptoms because menopause represents a loss of identity and purpose; and two, because spirituality can provide strength and comfort during difficult times, it will, therefore, be related to decreased menopausal symptoms. To test these competing hypotheses, questionnaires were administered to 218 women (average age 55, 35% premenopausal, 26% peri-menopausal, 39% postmenopausal) who were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of spiritual strength were related to decreased levels of reported menopausal symptoms. Spiritual strength was also related to increased benefit finding during menopause, decreased concern with body appearance, and increased use of adaptive coping strategies. We conclude that finding strength in spirituality may help religious women cope better with the life changes associated with menopause.

  12. Treatment of Insomnia, Insomnia Symptoms, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During and After Menopause: Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Joshua Z.; Suh, Sooyeon A.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women. PMID:26478725

  13. The body self and the frequency, intensity and acceptance of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wycisk, Jowita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are many studies on the concept of body image (usually understood narrowly as body acceptance) in menopausal women, but relationships between the body self and menopausal symptoms have not been explored yet. In the research discussed in this paper, a complex model of the body self, including its functions, body identity and body image, has been presented. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to explore the relationships between different aspects of the body self, and the frequency, intensity and acceptance of menopausal symptoms. Material and methods The investigated sample consisted of 81 women (age: 51.8 ± 4.2 years; range: 45-58 years). The authors used an extended version of the Menopause Symptom List and the Body Self Questionnaire. Results Perception of sensations, interpretation and regulation of emotions and physical states as well as body identity were the most important correlates of the intensity and frequency of menopausal symptoms (psychological, vasomotor and somatic). Among the body image aspects investigated in the study, the appearance evaluation was associated with the frequency of vasomotor and psychological symptoms. The level of acceptance of symptoms was only related to the ability to cope with emotions and physical needs. Conclusions The findings indicate that aspects of the body self (which are stable personality traits) are significant for the way women experience menopausal symptoms. PMID:26327894

  14. Comparative study of gabapentin and isoflavone in menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Savita Rani; Shullai, Wansalan Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was planned to compare the effects of gabapentin and isoflavones in menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Materials and Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted on 100 patients with complaints of hot flashes, divided into two groups of 50 each. Group I received 900 mg of gabapentin and Group II received 60 mg of isoflavones daily for 3 months. The patients were interviewed to calculate hot flash, global and depression scores and were rescored after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was a change in the hot flash score from baseline. The secondary outcome was an improvement in sleep, depression, and lipid profile. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in hot flash score at the end of 12 weeks (82% Group I, 74% Group II; P = 0.076). Statistically significant difference was seen at 12 weeks in sleep quality in favor of gabapentin (P = 0.011) and in depression in favor of isoflavones (0.026). Isoflavone had significant improvement in cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides profiles after 12 weeks (P < 0.001, 0.009, 0.024 and <0.001, respectively) as compared to gabapentin. Conclusion: Isoflavone and gabapentin are equally effective in the treatment of hot flashes; however, isoflavones have better response in patients who have associated with complaints of depression and gabapentin is better who have associated sleep disturbance. PMID:27721641

  15. Menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Seung Hee; Dormire, Sharon; Chee, Wonshik; Kresta, Kimberly

    2009-10-01

    Using a feminist approach, we examined the menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States This was a qualitative online forum study among 27 Hispanic midlife women in the United States. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to administer the 6-month online forum. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) "Cambio de vida (change of life)," (b) "being silent about menopause," (c) "trying to be optimistic," and (d) "getting support." More in-depth studies with diverse groups of Hispanic women are needed while considering family as a contextual factor.

  16. Effect of persistent menopausal symptoms on the wellbeing of Japanese breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sena; Masutani, Eiko; Arao, Harue

    2016-09-01

    While more women with breast cancer survive because of advances in cancer treatment including hormonal therapy, they are at a risk of menopausal symptoms, which can threaten their psychological wellbeing. We examined the effect of menopausal symptoms on women's psychological wellbeing during three different phases of breast cancer: short-term (0-1 years since diagnosis), medium-term (2-5 years), and long-term (more than 5 years). In this cross-sectional study, 425 survivors treated with hormonal therapy were recruited from a convenience sample in Japan and completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that menopausal symptoms significantly contributed to psychological wellbeing in all phases. In long-term survivors, menopausal symptoms were significantly milder; however, the negative effect was prolonged. One in three to four survivors was suspected to have poor psychological wellbeing, irrespective of time. Although the effect of menopausal symptoms on psychological wellbeing has been described in short-term survivors, little is known about the long-term effect. This study examines the effect of menopausal symptoms on psychological wellbeing, thereby providing useful information regarding long-term quality of life.

  17. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-11-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii), an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family has been used for centuries in the Andes as an adaptogenic plant to manage anemia, infertility and female hormone balance. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for and against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. We searched 17 databases from their inception up to June 2011 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of maca-based intervention to a placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane 'risk of bias' assessment tool. Four RCTs met all inclusion criteria. These RCTs tested the effects of maca on menopausal symptoms in healthy perimenopausal, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal women. Using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Greene Climacteric Score, all RCTs demonstrated favorable effects of maca. There have been very few rigorous trials of maca for menopausal symptoms. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies, were too limited to draw firm conclusions. Furthermore, the safety has not been proved yet. Therefore, the efficacy and safety should be tested in larger studies.

  18. The evolving role of oral hormonal therapies and review of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene for the management of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Parish, Sharon J; Gillespie, John A

    2017-04-01

    This review describes the evolving role of oral hormone therapy (HT) for treating menopausal symptoms and preventing osteoporosis, focusing on conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene (CE/BZA). Estrogens alleviate hot flushes and prevent bone loss associated with menopause. In nonhysterectomized women, a progestin should be added to estrogens to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Use of HT declined since the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studies showed that HT does not prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) and that conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate increased the risk of invasive breast cancer after nearly 5 years of use. However, re-analyses of the WHI data suggest that some risks (eg, CHD, all-cause mortality) may be reduced when HT is initiated in women <60 years of age and <10 years since menopause, compared with later. CE/BZA is the first menopausal HT without a progestogen for nonhysterectomized women. Instead, BZA, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, in combination with CE, protects against estrogenic effects on uterine and breast tissue. Data from 5 large, randomized clinical trials show that CE/BZA reduces hot flush frequency/severity, prevents bone loss, reduces bone turnover, improves the vaginal maturation index and ease of lubrication, and improves some measures of sleep and menopause-specific quality of life. In studies of up to 2 years, there was no increase in endometrial hyperplasia, vaginal bleeding, breast density, or breast pain/tenderness compared with placebo. Venous thromboembolism and stroke are risks of all estrogen-based therapies. The choice of HT should be individualized, with consideration of the risk/benefit profile and tolerability of therapy, as well as patient preferences.

  19. Vulvovaginal symptoms prevalence in postmenopausal women and relationship to other menopausal symptoms and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    EREKSON, Elisabeth A.; LI, Fang-Yong; MARTIN, Deanna K.; FRIED, Terri R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary objective of this study was to utilize the Vulvovaginal Symptom Questionnaire (VSQ) to estimate the prevalence and examine the emotional, life style and sexual impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We administered the VSQ questionnaire, a previous validated instrument to 358 postmenopausal women recruited from primary care physician offices and local senior centers. The first 7 questions of the VSQ comprise the symptom subscale (itching, burning, hurting, irritation, dryness, discharge and odor). Women who answered “Yes” to any of the first 7 symptom questions were considered to have vulvovaginal symptoms. Results Two hundred seventy nine women were recruited from primary care offices and 79 women were recruited from senior centers. One hundred eighty-three post-menopausal women (51.1%; 95% CI 45.9%, 56.3%) reported at least one vulvovaginal symptom. The most common symptom was being dry 35.8% (n/N = 128/358). Ten percent of women (n/N = 38/358) reported ≥ 5 symptoms and 6% of women reported all 7 symptoms in the last week. For women reporting ≥ 1vulvovaginal symptoms, 40.4% (n/N = 74/183) reported emotional impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 4 emotional impact subscale items) and 32.8% (n/N = 60/183) reported life style impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 5 life impact subscale items) from these symptoms. For sexually active women reporting vulvovaginal symptoms, 75.3% (n/N = 67/89) reported sexual impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 4 sexual impact subscale items). Vulvovaginal symptoms were associated with increased co-occurrence of specific pelvic floor disorders, including pelvic organ prolapse (p=0.001), anal incontinence to solid stool (p=0.001), urinary frequency (p=0.02), urgency urinary incontinence (p=0.001), and dysuria (p<0.001). Conclusion Vulvovaginal symptoms are common and present in over 50% of postmenopausal women. Sizeable proportions of women with vulvovaginal symptoms report emotional, life style and sexual

  20. Psychosocial and socioeconomic burden of vasomotor symptoms in menopause: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Utian, Wulf H

    2005-01-01

    Many women experience vasomotor symptoms at or around the time of menopause. Hot flushes and night sweats are considered primary menopausal symptoms that may also be associated with sleep and mood disturbances, as well as decreased cognitive function. All of these symptoms may lead to social impairment and work-related difficulties that significantly decrease overall quality of life. Hot flushes have shown a great deal of variability in their frequency and severity in women. In some women, hot flushes persist for several months; in others, they may last for more than 10 years. Traditionally vasomotor symptoms were reported to begin 5 to 10 years prior to the cessation of the final menstrual cycle, corresponding with the initial decline in circulating gonadal hormones; however, night sweats in particular most often begin in perimenopause. The pathogenesis of hot flushes has not yet been fully elucidated, but the circuitry involving estrogen and neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin specifically, are hypothesized to play a major role in the altered homeostatic thermoregulatory mechanisms underlying these events. Menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms are associated with significant direct and indirect costs. Overall costs of traditional pharmacotherapy or complementary and alternative medicine modalities, including over-the-counter treatments and dietary supplements, for managing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms are substantial and include initial and follow-up physician visits and telephone calls. Additional costs include laboratory testing, management of adverse events, loss of productivity at work, and personal and miscellaneous costs. Pharmacoeconomic analyses, including those that consider risks identified by the Women's Health Initiative, generally support the cost-effectiveness of hormonal therapy for menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms, which have been the mainstay for the management of these symptoms for more than 50 years. However

  1. Protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis: hop (Humulus lupulus L.) for menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Farideh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Menopause is a critical stage in every woman's life. It can cause a distressing time for women by creating various vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Phytoestrogens can potentially exert various favourable effects and alleviate VMS in postmenopausal women. The hop (Humulus lupulus L.) contains 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. The hop is eight times stronger than any other herbal oestrogens. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and a meta-analysis survey of the effects of hop in the management of VMS in postmenopausal women. Methods Only randomised controlled clinical trials, with cluster randomisation and crossover, blinded and non-blinded designs, conducted between 2000 and 2015, will be included in this review. Quasi-experimental and observational studies as well as case reports will be excluded. The studies will be selected if their participants were aged 40–60 years, had elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and/or menstrual irregularities, and experienced discomforting VMS (at least hot flashes or night sweats). The primary outcome will be the rate of response to treatment, such as changes in frequency and intensity of symptoms in the intervention and placebo groups. ‘Hop’, ‘Humulus’, ‘menopause’, ‘vasomotor’, ‘hot flashes’, ‘phytoestrogen’ and ‘night sweats’ will be used as search key words. Prior to their inclusion in the review, the selected papers will be assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity. Any disagreements will be resolved through a third reviewer. The risk of bias will be independently determined using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The quality of the papers will be assessed based on the CONSORT checklist. Ethics and dissemination Results will be disseminated through traditional academic literature. Dissemination of results will occur by peer-reviewed publications. The results of our project can help

  2. Behaviours and attitudes influencing treatment decisions for menopausal symptoms in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Shelli; Clerinx, Cathy; Bernick, Brian A; Krassan, Mitchell; Mirkin, Sebastian; Currie, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess women’s behaviours and attitudes regarding the treatment of menopausal symptoms in five European countries. Study design Women aged ≥45 years in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom participated in an internet survey. Completers were those who reported menopausal symptoms and had treated their symptoms. Women were equally stratified by age (45–54 years, 55–64 years, ≥65 years). Main outcome measures Behaviours, attitudes, and experiences regarding treatment of menopausal symptoms. Results Of 3890 peri- to postmenopausal women screened, 67% experienced symptoms and 54% sought either medical input or some treatment concerning their symptoms. Hot flushes, the most common symptom, decreased with age but remained prevalent after age 64. Roughly 75% of women who sought relief consulted a physician, mostly a gynaecologist or a general practitioner (GP) as in the United Kingdom. The decision to seek treatment was influenced by age, number, and severity of symptoms. Approximately 79% visiting a physician received prescription therapy. Of the women who received non-hormone therapy (HT) treatment instead of HT: patients refused HT (20–44%), physicians did not discuss HT (32–46%), or advised against HT (24–43%). Women in the United Kingdom were most familiar with and favorable to HT. Interest in a new HT (34–50%) was higher than use (19–28%). Conclusions Menopausal symptoms are common, persistent, and bothersome, but many fail to seek treatment. Sources and types of treatment vary among age groups and countries. Education regarding women’s attitudes toward treatment should be provided to those physicians who treat menopausal symptoms in each country. PMID:26895640

  3. The Natural Substance MS-10 Improves and Prevents Menopausal Symptoms, Including Colpoxerosis, in Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Noh, Yoo-Hun; Kim, Do-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ah; Yin, Xing Fu; Park, Jiae; Lee, Moo Yeol; Lee, Won Bok; Lee, Sang Hyung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sung-Su; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Myung, Soon-Chul; Kim, Tae Jin; Kang, Il-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Many natural substances were screened to develop nutraceuticals that reduce menopausal symptoms. A complex of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii and Thymus vulgaris extracts, named MS-10, had significant positive effects. Under a low concentration of estrogen, which represents postmenopausal physiological conditions, MS-10 had beneficial effects on estrogen receptor-expressing MCF-7 cells by reversibly enhancing estrogen activity. In addition, in the ovariectomized rat model, changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin, as well as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased by MS-10. These results show that MS-10 protected bone health and reduced metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, in a clinical study, all menopausal symptoms, including hot flushes, parenthesis, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue, rheumatic pain, palpitations, formication, and headache, as well as colpoxerosis, were significantly improved by taking MS-10 for 90 days. Therefore, the evidence supports that MS-10 is an effective natural substance that can safely improve menopausal symptoms, including colpoxerosis.

  4. Menopause and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... that could cause feelings of depression and/or anxiety during menopause include: Having depression before menopause Feeling negative about menopause and getting older Increased stress Having severe menopausal symptoms Smoking Not being physically active Not being happy in ...

  5. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    PubMed Central

    Kryś-Noszczyka, Karolina; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Results The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance. PMID:26327884

  6. Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Calzada-Torres, Edwin Adiel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Díaz-Herrera, Arturo; Segura-Moreno, Raúl; de Lourdes Guerrero-Carbajal, María; Rentería-López, María Guadalupe; García, Isabel Beristain; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Some symptoms of menopause have also been described in patients with toxoplasmosis. Whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has any influence on clinical manifestations of menopause is yet unknown. We sought to determine whether T. gondii exposure is associated with symptoms and signs of menopause. We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending a public health center in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were examined for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A questionnaire including 47 symptoms and signs potentially associated with menopause was applied. Association of seroprevalence for T. gondii with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analysis showed that bouts of rapid heartbeat, breast pain, electric shock sensation, dizziness, digestive problems, low back pain, and migraine were associated with seropositivity to either IgG anti-T. gondii alone or both IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii. Breast pain was the only variable that was found to be associated with IgG seropositivity to T. gondii by multivariate analysis: (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.35–5.90; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that T. gondii exposure may influence on the clinical manifestations of menopause. Results deserve further research. PMID:27141314

  7. Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Menopause.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Calzada-Torres, Edwin Adiel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Díaz-Herrera, Arturo; Segura-Moreno, Raúl; de Lourdes Guerrero-Carbajal, María; Rentería-López, María Guadalupe; García, Isabel Beristain; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Some symptoms of menopause have also been described in patients with toxoplasmosis. Whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has any influence on clinical manifestations of menopause is yet unknown. We sought to determine whether T. gondii exposure is associated with symptoms and signs of menopause. We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending a public health center in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were examined for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A questionnaire including 47 symptoms and signs potentially associated with menopause was applied. Association of seroprevalence for T. gondii with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analysis showed that bouts of rapid heartbeat, breast pain, electric shock sensation, dizziness, digestive problems, low back pain, and migraine were associated with seropositivity to either IgG anti-T. gondii alone or both IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii. Breast pain was the only variable that was found to be associated with IgG seropositivity to T. gondii by multivariate analysis: (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.35-5.90; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that T. gondii exposure may influence on the clinical manifestations of menopause. Results deserve further research.

  8. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Bezerra da Silva, Rossânia; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Melo, Priscylla Hellouyse Angelo; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause and the quality of life of females with incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The sample consisted of 302 females, aged between 40 and 56 years, divided into three groups: PRE (n= 81), PERI (n= 108) and POST (n= 113). This was a cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Data were collected by assessment chart and conducting the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. [Results] Most of the women had less than 10 years of schooling and were married. In PERI and POST menopause, the most frequent lower urinary tract symptoms were urinary urgency and stress incontinence. The PRE group did not exhibit nocturia, urge incontinence or urinary urgency, and had the lowest symptoms frequency. In the three stages, stress incontinence was the most prevalent symptom. Of the three menopause stages, PERI had a greater impact on urinary incontinence according to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms can vary across the different stages of menopause and the urinary incontinence was the most frequent complaint. Moreover, it was observed that quality of life was more affected in the perimenopause stage. PMID:27942131

  9. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause.

    PubMed

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Bezerra da Silva, Rossânia; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Melo, Priscylla Hellouyse Angelo; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To assess lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause and the quality of life of females with incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The sample consisted of 302 females, aged between 40 and 56 years, divided into three groups: PRE (n= 81), PERI (n= 108) and POST (n= 113). This was a cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Data were collected by assessment chart and conducting the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. [Results] Most of the women had less than 10 years of schooling and were married. In PERI and POST menopause, the most frequent lower urinary tract symptoms were urinary urgency and stress incontinence. The PRE group did not exhibit nocturia, urge incontinence or urinary urgency, and had the lowest symptoms frequency. In the three stages, stress incontinence was the most prevalent symptom. Of the three menopause stages, PERI had a greater impact on urinary incontinence according to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms can vary across the different stages of menopause and the urinary incontinence was the most frequent complaint. Moreover, it was observed that quality of life was more affected in the perimenopause stage.

  10. Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John

  11. Mind-body interventions for vasomotor symptoms in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Grunfeld, Elizabeth Alice

    2016-11-11

    Mind-body therapies are commonly recommended to treat vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS). The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence to date for the efficacy of different mind-body therapies to alleviate HFNS in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using seven electronic search engines, direct searches of specific journals and backwards searches through reference lists of related publications. Outcome measures included HFNS frequency and/or severity or self-reported problem rating at post-treatment. The methodological quality of all studies was systematically assessed using predefined criteria. Twenty-six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included yoga (n = 5), hypnosis (n = 3), mindfulness (n = 2), relaxation (n = 7), paced breathing (n = 4), reflexology (n = 1) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4). Findings were consistent for the effectiveness of CBT and relaxation therapies for alleviating troublesome vasomotor symptoms. For the remaining interventions, although some trials indicated beneficial effects (within groups) at post-treatment and/or follow up, between group findings were mixed and overall, methodological differences across studies failed to provide convincing supporting evidence. Collectively, findings suggest that interventions that include breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as CBT, can be beneficial for alleviating vasomotor symptoms. Additional large, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to establish the efficacy of interventions on vasomotor symptoms, examine long-term outcomes and understand how they work.

  12. Association between Menopausal Symptoms and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingping; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jiaxin; Lv, Shiyi; Mei, Suzhen; Chen, Xing; Xi, Sisi; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Mukun; Bai, Wenpei; Yan, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between menopause and overactive bladder is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between menopausal symptoms and overactive bladder, and identify the risk factors for overactive bladder. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. The study included 403 women aged 36–76 years who visited the menopause clinic at Peking University First Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index questionnaires were used. Differences were assessed using descriptive statistics to determine any association between the overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index score, and to evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder. Results A total of 304 women were finally enrolled. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 9.43%, and the modified Kupperman index score; number of sexual problems; and frequency of urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings were significantly higher in patients with overactive bladder than in the patients without overactive bladder (p < 0.05). Menopausal symptoms (modified Kupperman index score ≥ 15) (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% confidence interval: 1.006–1.095, p = 0.025) and a low frequency of sexual intercourse in the last 6 months (odds ratio: 2.580, 95% confidence interval: 1.228–5.422, p = 0.012) were identified as independent risk factors for overactive bladder. The frequency of sexual intercourse was found to decrease with an increase in the severity of overactive bladder (p = 0.004, linear-by-linear association = 0.001). Conclusion Menopausal symptoms may be closely associated with overactive bladder, and sexual activity may be associated with the severity of overactive bladder. Moreover, sexual problems, urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings may be associated with overactive bladder. PMID:26448626

  13. Tissue-selective estrogen complexes: a promising option for the comprehensive management of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2010-07-01

    At menopause many women experience undesired symptoms such as hot flashes and those associated with vulvovaginal atrophy, and are susceptible to loss of bone mass. Menopausal therapies to date include various estrogen and estrogen-progestin (progesterone congener) formulations. However, both physicians and women became concerned about hormone-related therapies following publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative. Thus, the need exists for alternative therapies for postmenopausal women. Tissue-selective estrogen complexes (TSECs) are the pairing of estrogen(s) with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). The goal of developing a TSEC is to provide the clinical benefits of each of its components with improved tolerability. This goal can potentially be achieved by the result of the different molecular and cellular activities of the treatment's estrogen and SERM components. The therapeutic profile of a TSEC would optimally include relief of hot flashes, treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy and its symptoms, and prevention of bone loss, while providing safety for the endometrium and breast. Recent data indicate that the TSEC containing the SERM bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens relieves hot flashes, improves vulvovaginal atrophy and its symptoms, and prevents loss of bone mass without stimulating the endometrium. This article reviews the current options for menopausal treatment as well as the environment that has driven the most recent evolution of new therapies for menopausal women, including the most recent development of the TSEC bazedoxifene and its early preclinical and clinical data.

  14. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Systematic review of scientific and lay literature.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on common alternative remedies for treatment of symptoms attributed to menopause and to contrast this with available lay literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Scientific articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and HEALTH databases from 1966 to mid-1997 for English-language articles. More than 200 references were reviewed; 85 were selected for citation based on specific reference to alternative medicine for symptoms commonly attributed to menopause (e.g., hot flashes), to the effects of changing estrogen levels (e.g., irregular menses, vaginal dryness), and to reported side effects of the treatments. MAIN FINDINGS: The scientific literature was categorized under the headings nutritional supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, and physical approaches. Some scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of alternative treatments during menopause was uncovered, with the strongest evidence emerging in favour of phytoestrogens, which occur in high concentrations as isoflavones in soy products. CONCLUSIONS: In available controlled studies, the strongest data support phytoestrogens for their role in diminishing menopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency and for possible protective effects on bones and the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials, standardization of dosage, and accurate safety and efficacy labeling are required to ensure proper use of alternative remedies. PMID:9640524

  15. Acupuncture for menopausal vasomotor symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms) are common menopausal symptoms, often causing distress, sleep deprivation and reduced quality of life. Although hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment, there are concerns about serious adverse events. Non-hormonal pharmacological therapies are less effective and can also cause adverse effects. Complementary therapies, including acupuncture, are commonly used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. While the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating vasomotor symptoms is inconclusive, acupuncture has a low risk of adverse effects, and two small studies suggest it may be more effective than non-insertive sham acupuncture. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of needle acupuncture in improving hot flush severity and frequency in menopausal women. Our current study design is informed by methods tested in a pilot study. Methods/design This is a stratified, parallel, randomised sham-controlled trial with equal allocation of participants to two trial groups. We are recruiting 360 menopausal women experiencing a minimum average of seven moderate hot flushes a day over a seven-day period and who meet diagnostic criteria for the Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis of Kidney Yin deficiency. Exclusion criteria include breast cancer, surgical menopause, and current hormone replacement therapy use. Eligible women are randomised to receive either true needle acupuncture or sham acupuncture with non-insertive (blunt) needles for ten treatments over eight weeks. Participants are blinded to treatment allocation. Interventions are provided by Chinese medicine acupuncturists who have received specific training on trial procedures. The primary outcome measure is hot flush score, assessed using the validated Hot Flush Diary. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms, credibility of the sham treatment, expectancy and beliefs about

  16. Frequency of Symptoms and Health Seeking Behaviours of Menopausal Women in an Out-Patient Clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dienye, Paul Owajionyi; Judah, Funsho; Ndukwu, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms and health seeking behaviour of women with menopausal symptoms attending the General Outpatient Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Method: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which data was collected from menopausal women using a three-part, pre-tested questionnaire for a period of three months (July–September 2010). Part 1 consisted of information regarding socio-demographic and general medical information. Part 2 consisted of the modified version of the menopause rating scale (MRS). Part 3 sought for information on their health seeking behaviour. Data was analysed using EPI INFO version 6.04d software package. Results: A total of 385 women were recruited with ages ranging from 35 to 95 years, and a mean of 58.4 ± 10.39 years. The most prevalent menopausal symptoms were loss of libido (92.47%), muscle pain (87.53%), joint pain (85.45%) and tiredness (80.26%). Urinary symptoms had the least prevalence (7.79%). Results on the severity of menopausal symptoms showed that 28.25%, 49.84% and 21.9% were experiencing severe, moderate and mild menopausal symptoms, respectively. Loss of libido (79.21 %) was the most severe symptom followed by urinary symptoms (40%). The patent drug dealers were the most consulted (51.4%) followed by health workers (44.7%). The traditional healers were consulted by a small percentage (3.8%). Conclusion: The most common menopausal symptom among the patients in this study was loss of libido and the least common was urinary symptoms. The symptoms are similar to findings in other parts of the world but their prevalence and severity differ. In spite of the available health facilities in these communities, the utilization of the services of patent drug dealers is still very high but the traditional healers were poorly utilized. PMID:23777719

  17. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  18. Effect of hormone metabolism genotypes on steroid hormone levels and menopausal symptoms in a prospective population-based cohort of women experiencing the menopausal transition

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Su, H. Irene; Sammel, Mary D.; Lin, Hui; Tran, Teo V.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Freeman, Ellen W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated whether genes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones are associated with hormone levels or menopausal symptoms. Methods We used a population-based prospective sample of 436 African American (AA) and European American (EA) women who were premenopausal at enrollment and were followed longitudinally through menopause. We evaluated the relationship between steroid hormone metabolism genotypes at COMT, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP19, SULT1A1, and SULT1E1 with hormone levels and menopausal features. Results In EA women, SULT1E1 variant carriers had lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SULT1A1 variant carriers had lower levels of estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone compared with women who did not carry these variant alleles. In AA women, CYP1B1*3 genotypes were associated with hot flashes (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40–0.95). Interactions of CYP1A2 genotypes were associated with hot flashes across menopausal stage (P = 0.006). Interactions of CYP1B1*3 (P = 0.02) and CYP1B1*4 (P = 0.03) with menopausal stage were associated with depressive symptoms. In EA women, SULT1A1*3 was associated with depressive symptoms (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41–0.68) and hot flashes (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.64–2.63). There were significant interactions between SULT1A1*3 and hot flashes (P < 0.001) and between SULT1A1*2 and depressive symptoms (P = 0.007) on menopausal stage, and there were race-specific effects of SULT1A1*2, SULT1A1*3, CYP1B1*3, and CYP3A4*1B on menopause. Conclusions Our results suggest that genotypes are associated with the occurrence of menopause-related symptoms or the timing of the menopausal transition. PMID:20505544

  19. Efficacy of phytoestrogens for menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M-N.; Lin, C-C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of phytoestrogens for the relief of menopausal symptoms. Methods Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until September 30, 2013 using the following key words: vasomotor symptoms, menopausal symptoms, phytoestrogens, isoflavones, coumestrol, soy, red clover. Inclusion criteria were (1) randomized controlled trial (RCT), (2) perimenopausal or postmenopausal women experiencing menopausal symptoms, (3) intervention with an oral phytoestrogen. Outcome measures included Kupperman index (KI) changes, daily hot flush frequency, and the likelihood of side-effects. Results Of 543 potentially relevant studies identified, 15 RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The mean age of the subjects ranged from 49 to 58.3 and 48 to 60.1 years, respectively, in the placebo and phytoestrogen groups. The number of participants ranged from 30 to 252, and the intervention periods ranged from 3 to 12 months. Meta-analysis of the seven studies that reported KI data indicated no significant treatment effect of phytoestrogen as compared to placebo (pooled mean difference = 6.44, p = 0.110). Meta-analysis of the ten studies that reported hot flush data indicated that phytoestrogens result in a significantly greater reduction in hot flush frequency compared to placebo (pooled mean difference = 0.89, p < 0.005). Meta-analysis of the five studies that reported side-effect data showed no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.175). Conclusion Phytoestrogens appear to reduce the frequency of hot flushes in menopausal women, without serious side-effects. PMID:25263312

  20. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD. PMID:25628905

  1. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.

  2. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  3. Symptoms, Attitudes and Treatment Choices Surrounding Menopause among the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala”

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Joanna L.; Veliz, Mario; Soejarto, Doel D.; Caceres, Armando; Mahady, Gail B

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored symptoms, attitudes and treatments surrounding women’s health and menopause among the Q’eqchi Maya of the eastern tropical lowlands of Guatemala. Data were obtained through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and plant walks with 50 Q’eqchi community members from the state of Izabal, Municipality of Livingston, including 5 midwives, 5 traditional male healers and 8 postmenopausal women. Results indicate that the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston possess their own cultural perceptions of women’s health which affect attitudes, symptoms and treatment choices during the menopausal transition. Since discussions of menstruation and menopause are considered cultural taboos among the Q’eqchi, many women mentioned experiencing excessive preoccupation when unanticipated and unfamiliar symptoms occurred. Furthermore, many women suffered from additional hardship when their spouse misinterpreted menopausal symptoms (vaginal dryness, sexual disinterest) as infidelity. Seven of the eight postmenopausal women interviewed indicated experiencing one or more symptoms during the menopausal transition, including headaches, anxiety, muscular pain, depression, and hot flashes. These results differ from the lack of symptomatology reported in previous studies in Mexico, but are in line with the result of menopausal research conducted among other Maya groups from the highlands of Guatemala. Although the Q’eqchi did not use a specific term for “hot flash”, three Q’eqchi women used the expression “baja presion” or a “lowering of blood pressure” to explain symptoms of profuse sweating followed by chills, heart palpitations, and emotional instability. The Q’eqchi Maya mentioned a number of herbal remedies to treat menopausal symptoms. Further research on these botanical treatments is needed in order to ascertain their safety and efficacy for continued use. PMID:16580764

  4. Glutamic acid ameliorates estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal-like symptoms in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Hee-Yun; Yang, Woong Mo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Some amino acids are considered alternative therapies for improving menopausal symptoms. Glutamic acid (GA), which is abundant in meats, fish, and protein-rich plant foods, is known to be a neurotransmitter or precursor of γ-aminobutyric acid. Although it is unclear if GA functions in menopausal symptoms, we hypothesized that GA would attenuate estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal symptoms. The objective to test our hypothesis was to examine an estrogenic effect of GA in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells, and ER-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated that administration with GA to mice suppressed body weight gain and vaginal atrophy when compared with the OVX mice. A microcomputed tomographic analysis of the trabecular bone showed increases in bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density as well as a significant decrease in total porosity of the OVX mice treated with GA. In addition, GA increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and estrogen compared with the OVX mice. Furthermore, GA induced proliferation and increased ER-β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, estrogen response element (ERE) activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GA also increased proliferation, Ki-67 mRNA expression, ER-β mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Estrogen response element activity increased by GA was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist. Taken together, our data demonstrated that GA has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells.

  5. Use of Alternative Medications for Menopause-Related Symptoms in Three Major Ethnic Groups of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654).

  6. Patient considerations in the management of menopausal symptoms: role of conjugated estrogens with bazedoxifene

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Risa; Goldstein, Steven R; Pickar, James H; Komm, Barry S

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms (eg, hot flushes and vaginal symptoms) are common, often bothersome, and can adversely impact women’s sexual functioning, relationships, and quality of life. Estrogen–progestin therapy was previously considered the standard care for hormone therapy (HT) for managing these symptoms in nonhysterectomized women, but has a number of safety and tolerability concerns (eg, breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, breast pain/tenderness, and vaginal bleeding) and its use has declined dramatically in the past decade since the release of the Women’s Health Initiative trial results. Conjugated estrogens paired with bazedoxifene (CE/BZA) represent a newer progestin-free alternative to traditional HT for nonhysterectomized women. CE/BZA has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms and preventing loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. CE/BZA provides an acceptable level of protection against endometrial hyperplasia and does not increase mammographic breast density. Compared with traditional estrogen–progestin therapy, it is associated with lower rates of breast pain/tenderness and vaginal bleeding. Patient-reported outcomes indicate that CE/BZA improves menopause-specific quality of life, sleep, some measures of sexual function (especially ease of lubrication), and treatment satisfaction. This review looks at the rationale for selection and combination of CE with BZA at the dose ratio in the approved product and provides a detailed look at the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient-reported outcomes from the five Phase III trials. Patient considerations in the choice between CE/BZA and traditional HT (eg, tolerability, individual symptoms, and preferences for route of administration) are also considered. PMID:27103814

  7. Management of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms: focus on bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogen combination.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Sebastian; Pickar, James H

    2013-01-01

    Loss of estrogen production in women during menopause results in a state of estrogen deficiency which has been associated with multiple problems, including vasomotor symptoms, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, bone loss, and difficulties with sleep, mood, memory, and sexual activity. The only treatment option currently available to address multiple postmenopausal symptoms in women with an intact uterus is estrogen/progestin-containing hormone therapy (HT). Concerns surrounding side effects and published data regarding the association of HT with the increased risk for breast cancer have induced a decrease in the number of women seeking, initiating, and continuing this type of therapy. A combination containing bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens (BZA/CE) maintains the established benefits of estrogen therapy for treatment of postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis, while certain estrogenic effects, such as stimulation of the uterus and breast, are antagonized without the side effects associated with HT. BZA/CE has been evaluated in a series of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active-controlled Phase III trials known as the Selective estrogens, Menopause, And Response to Therapy (SMART) trials. BZA/CE demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, and a protective effect on the skeleton. These clinical benefits were associated with an acceptable safety profile and an improved tolerability compared with HT. BZA/CE showed a favorable safety profile on the breast, endometrium, and ovaries. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was low and the risk does not appear to be any greater than for CE alone or BZA alone or greater than HT. The incidence of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents were similar to placebo. The overall incidence of cancer (including breast cancer) was low and similar to placebo. The SMART trials demonstrate that BZA/CE is an

  8. The effects of Sutaehwan-Gami on menopausal symptoms induced by ovariectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to evaluate the beneficial effects of a modified prescription of Sutaehwan named Sutaehwan-Gami (SG), created by adding Rhizoma dioscoreae and Carthami semen to Sutaehwan, on menopausal symptoms. Methods To evaluate the estrogenic effect of SG, we first examined estrogen receptor (ER) activation by SG treatment in breast adenocarcinoma cells and confirmed the estrogenic effect of SG in vivo ovariectomized rats. The animals were randomized into four groups: Sham operated group (Sham), saline treated ovariectomized group (OVX), SG treated group (SG) and raloxifene treated group (RLX). Animals were provided with SG at a dose of 500 mg/kg bw/day and RLX at a dose of 5.4 mg/kg bw/day with standard rat pellets for 3 months. Results SG significantly increased ERα phosphorylation, and its downstream effectors, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation in breast adenocarcinoma cells. Treatment with SG reversed ovariectomy-induced uterine weight reduction and weight gain. Decreases in the levels of GOT and GPT were observed in the SG group. The significantly reduced E2β level in OVX rats was raised by treatment with SG. Moreover, SG significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK and Akt in the uterus. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that SG has phytoestrogen-like properties through ERK and Akt activation, implying that it could be protective and beneficial for the management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:23173704

  9. A Situation-specific Theory of Asian Immigrant Women’s Menopausal Symptom Experience in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a situation-specific theory that explains the menopausal symptom experiences of Asian immigrant women in the U.S. is presented. Using an integrative approach, the theory was developed based on the transition theory, a review of the relevant literature, and a study on Asian immigrant women’s menopausal symptom experiences in the U.S. The proposed theory includes transition conditions, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts and explains the relationships among these major concepts. This theory should be further validated and developed in intervention studies and nursing practice with this specific population. PMID:20460960

  10. Relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among married Turkish women in 40-65 age group.

    PubMed

    Senturk Erenel, Ayten; Golbasi, Zehra; Kavlak, Tulay; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2015-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to analyse the relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among 229 married Turkish women in the 40-65 age group. The study was carried out at a menopause clinic of a state hospital between 1 October and 31 December 2010. Data were collected with Personal Characteristics Form, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The average age of the women was 52.33 (SD = 4.80) years. The average MRS total score was 20.13(SD = 9.20). The ASEX mean score was 19.97 (SD = 5.44). It was determined that there is a positive meaningful relationship between ASEX mean score, MRS total mean score and the sub-score of women. From the results obtained from this study, it can be said that women have differing levels of menopausal symptoms, and as the severity of menopausal symptoms increases, there is an increase in sexual dysfunction.

  11. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  12. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  13. Investigation of the relationship between personality characteristics and vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahboubeh; Azhari, Sedigheh; Esmaily, Habib Allah; GhanbariHashemabadi, Bahram Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research demonstrates that most of the menopausal symptoms and problems are the reflection of individual and social circumstances rather than the endocrine events of the menopause. As majority of women live 30 years or more through postmenopausal period, treatment and following up their problems during this period is among the main duties of a midwife. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between personality traits and vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This correlation study was conducted on 400 postmenopausal women referring to the training maternity centers of Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected through simple sampling method and filled NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI (questionnaire. Their daily records of hot flashes and night sweats were also collected. NEO-FFI questionnaire assesses the five personality aspects of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. After the data were collected, they were analyzed by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and linear regression statistical tests. P < 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant value. Results: Most of the women were in average level of personality traits. Among the aspects of personality traits, there was a significant correlation between intensity of hot flashes (P = 0.041) and night sweats (P = 0.028), and conscientiousness. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, during treatment of the vasomotor symptoms, a midwife should pay close attention to the personality of postmenopausal women to achieve an effective treatment. These women should also be referred to a psychologist, if needed. PMID:27563331

  14. Evaluation of Symptoms and Prevention of Cancer in Menopause: The Value of Vulvar Exam

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, AR; Fasolino, C; Santoro, G; Gargano, V; Rinaldi, M; Arduino, B; Belli, M; Guida, M

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), is a chronic medical condition experienced by postmenopausal women, with prevalence estimated ranging from 10% to 50% [1]. VVA is characterized by a constellation of symptoms, that may affect daily activities, sexuality, relationships, and quality of life [3]. Early recognition and effective treatment of VVA may enhance sexual health and the quality of life of women and their partners. Some vulvar conditions such as lichen sclerosus are more prevalent in the postmenopausal years. Lichen sclerosus has been suggested as a precursor of Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. The vulvar exam in post-menopausal women plays an essential role in prevention of cancer because it allows to identify women who should undergo vulvar skin biopsy in order to early detect pre-neoplastic lesions for early diagnosis of cancer of the vulva. PMID:27896230

  15. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leweke, F M; Piomelli, D; Pahlisch, F; Muhl, D; Gerth, C W; Hoyer, C; Klosterkötter, J; Hellmich, M; Koethe, D

    2012-03-20

    Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition rate from initial prodromal states into frank psychosis as well as postponed transition. In our translational approach, we performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol vs amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic, in acute schizophrenia to evaluate the clinical relevance of our initial findings. Either treatment was safe and led to significant clinical improvement, but cannabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile. Moreover, cannabidiol treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement. The results suggest that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  16. What causes hot flushes? The neuroendocrine origin of vasomotor symptoms in the menopause.

    PubMed

    Rossmanith, Winfried G; Ruebberdt, Wiebke

    2009-05-01

    Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) such as hot flushes and night sweats are frequently encountered during menopause and can greatly reduce the quality of life. These symptoms are causally related to decreasing estradiol concentrations, mainly in the serum and subsequently also in the hypothalamic temperature regulating centre. The lack of estrogens alters neurotransmitter activity, especially in the serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. Because sex steroids act as potent neuromodulators, the substitution of ovarian sex steroids by hormone replacement therapy is the most effective treatment option for VMS. When contraindications exist for the use of sex steroids, steroid-free drugs are a possible alternative. A better understanding of the physiology of thermoregulation, thermoregulatory dysfunction and adaptive processes of the brain may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Such drugs could then be used to treat vasomotor disorders even when the use of steroid hormones is contraindicated. This review article summarises our knowledge on the mechanisms of temperature regulation and describes deviations from this regulation during altered sex steroid conditions. Our current knowledge on neuroendocrinology of thermoregulation may serve as a basis for the use of steroid-free pharmacological intervention.

  17. Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dante, Giulia; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition of cyclical and recurrent physical and psychological discomfort occurring 1 to 2 weeks before menstrual period. More severe psychological symptoms have been described for the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). No single treatment is universally recognised as effective and many patients often turn to therapeutic approaches outside of conventional medicine. This systematic review is aimed at analysing the effects of herb remedies in the above conditions. Systematic literature searches were performed in electronic databases, covering the period January 1980 to September 2010. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Papers quality was evaluated with the Jadad' scale. A further evaluation of PMS/PMDD diagnostic criteria was also done. Of 102 articles identified, 17 RCTs were eligible and 10 of them were included. The heterogeneity of population included, study design and outcome presentation refrained from a meta-analysis. Vitex agnus castus was the more investigated remedy (four trials, about 500 women), and it was reported to consistently ameliorate PMS better than placebo. Single trials also support the use of either Gingko biloba or Crocus sativus. On the contrary, neither evening primrose oil nor St. John's Wort show an effect different than placebo. None of the herbs was associated with major health risks, although the reduced number of tested patients does not allow definitive conclusions on safety. Some herb remedies seem useful for the treatment of PMS. However, more RCTs are required to account for the heterogeneity of the syndrome.

  18. A comparative study on the effects of Hypericum Perforatum and passion flower on the menopausal symptoms of women referring to Isfahan city health care centers

    PubMed Central

    Fahami, Fariba; Asali, Zahra; Aslani, Abolfazl; Fathizadeh, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With regard to an increase in the life expectancy for women and the consistency of the menopause age, a significant portion of women's age is passed after the menopause. Menopause is considered as a critical and sensitive period due to the changes and the disorders that are involved in it. Vasomotor symptoms, sleep disorders and psycho-mental changes are among the most prevalent symptoms of this period. Hormone therapy is a common treatment and it involves some problems for most individuals. The purpose of this study was to comparatively examine the effects of two herbal medications, Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower, on menopause symptoms. METHODS: This study was of a clinical-experimental type which was done in 1388 in Isfahan. The sample included 59 menopausal women who had the conditions for entering into the study. The individuals were selected via simple sampling and were assigned randomly into two groups of Hypericum Perforatum treatment group (30 women) and Passion Flower group (29 women). The required data were filled out through interview, Personal Characteristics Questionnaire, and Cooperman's Index for menopause symptoms in three stages of pre-intervention, the third week of intervention, and the sixth week of intervention. The results were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods and the statistical software of SPSS. RESULTS: The findings showed that the average score of menopause symptoms in two treatment groups of Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower had a significant decrease throughout the third and the sixth weeks of study (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups and both herbs equally resulted in a decrease in the menopause symptoms scores (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: With regard to the effects of Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower on treating menopause precocious symptoms (vasomotor signs, insomnia, depression, anger, headache, etc.), these two

  19. Depressive symptoms and bone mineral density in menopause and postmenopausal women: A still increasing and neglected problem

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Saleh, Najah M.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between depression and loss of bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported as controversial. Objective: The objectıve of the current study was to investigate whether an association exists between depression and low BMD during the menopausal and postmenopausal period. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian women at the Primary Health Care Centers in Qatar. A multi-stage sampling design was used, and a representative sample of 1650 women aged 45–65 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013. This prospective study explored the association between bone density and major depressive disorder in women. Bone mineral densitometry measurements (BMD) (g/m2) were assessed at the BMD unit using a lunar prodigy DXA system (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical biochemistry variables including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were collected. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered for depression purposes. Results: Out of 1650 women 1182 women agreed to participate in the study (71.6%). The mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the menopausal age were 48.71 ± 2.96 with depressed and 50.20 ± 3.22 without depressed (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean and SD of postmenopausal age were 58.55 ± 3.27 with depression and 57.78 ± 3.20 without depression (P < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to a number of parity, and place of living. There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Vitamin D deficiency, calcium deficiency and shisha smoking habits. Overall, osteopenia and osteoporosis and bone loss were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in menopausal women (P < 0.001). Similarly, T-score and Z-score were lower with depression menopause and postmenopausal women (P < 0

  20. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  1. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    PARANDAVAR, Nehleh; ABDALI, Khadijeh; KESHTGAR, Sara; EMAMGHOREISHI, Maasoumeh; AMOOEE, Seddegheh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman’s life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms. Methods The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old) referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012). The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg’s general health questionnaire (GHQ), Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention Results We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001). In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001). No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135). Conclusion The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms. PMID:26060703

  2. Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFNγ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy.

  3. Menopause and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Levine, Nanci F; Nevadunsky, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is a disease of aging, and therefore is more prevalent after menopause. Menopausal symptoms resulting from cancer treatments are an important survivorship issue in cancer care. This article reviews the preventive strategies, utilization of health resources, and management of menopausal symptoms after cancer treatment. Preventive screening as informed by genetic and lifestyle risk, and lifestyle modification, may mitigate the risk of cancer and cancer mortality. Despite potential benefits to quality of life, hormone replacement is rarely prescribed to survivors of gynecologic malignancies. Special considerations are needed for the treatment and supportive care of menopausal symptoms in cancer survivors.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise and nutrition educationon quality of life and early menopause symptoms:A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Mehrnaz; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the authors in this randomized controlled study was to assess the effect of exercise and nutrition education on quality of life and early menopausal symptoms. This trial was conducted in east Azerbaijan Province, Iran, during the period from 2013 to 2014 with 108 women allocated into one of four groups (n = 27 in each group) by block randomization. The interventions received by the three intervention groups were: nutrition education, aerobic exercise, or exercise plus nutrition education. The control group did not receive any intervention. The Greene and MENQOL menopause symptom scales were completed before and at 8 and 12 weeks after the intervention. The mean Greene score was significantly lower than the control group in the exercise (adjusted mean difference: -5.1) and exercise plus nutrition groups (-8.0) at the end of week 8 and in the nutrition (-4.8), exercise (-8.7), and exercise plus nutrition (-13.2) groups at the end of week 12. Also, the mean MENQOL score was significantly lower than the control group in the exercise (-8.3) and exercise plus nutrition groups (-13.8) at the end of week 8 and in the nutrition (-6.6), exercise (-13.5), and exercise plus nutrition (-22.1) groups at the end of week 12. Nutrition education with aerobic exercise can improve quality of life.

  5. Interventions to Alleviate Symptoms Related to Breast Cancer Treatments and Areas of Needed Research

    PubMed Central

    Janelsins, Michelle C; Mustian, Karen M; Peppone, Luke J; Sprod, Lisa K; Shayne, Michelle; Mohile, Supriya; Chandwani, Kavita; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    Treatments for breast cancer produce a host of side effects, which can become debilitating. Some cancer treatment-related side effects occur in up to 90% of patients during treatment and can persist for months or years after treatment has ended. As the number of breast cancer survivors steadily increases, the need for cancer control intervention research to alleviate side effects also grows. This review provides a general overview of recent clinical research studies of selected topics in the areas of symptom management for breast cancer with a focus on cognitive difficulties, fatigue, cardiotoxicity, bone loss, insomnia, and cancer pain. We review both pharmacological and behavioral intervention clinical research studies, conducted with breast cancer patients and survivors. Additionally, clinical perspectives on symptom management and recommendations for areas of needed research are provided. PMID:22855701

  6. Low dietary protein content alleviates motor symptoms in mice with mutant dynactin/dynein-mediated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Diana; Sinniger, Jérome; Henriques, Alexandre; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Müller, Hans-Peter; Rasche, Volker; Ferger, Boris; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Soylu-Kucharz, Rana; Petersén, Asa; Walther, Paul; Linkus, Birgit; Kassubek, Jan; Wong, Philip C.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Dupuis, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in components of the molecular motor dynein/dynactin lead to neurodegenerative diseases of the motor system or atypical parkinsonism. These mutations are associated with prominent accumulation of vesicles involved in autophagy and lysosomal pathways, and with protein inclusions. Whether alleviating these defects would affect motor symptoms remain unknown. Here, we show that a mouse model expressing low levels of disease linked-G59S mutant dynactin p150Glued develops motor dysfunction >8 months before loss of motor neurons or dopaminergic degeneration is observed. Abnormal accumulation of autophagosomes and protein inclusions were efficiently corrected by lowering dietary protein content, and this was associated with transcriptional upregulations of key players in autophagy. Most importantly this dietary modification partially rescued overall neurological symptoms in these mice after onset. Similar observations were made in another mouse strain carrying a point mutation in the dynein heavy chain gene. Collectively, our data suggest that stimulating the autophagy/lysosomal system through appropriate nutritional intervention has significant beneficial effects on motor symptoms of dynein/dynactin diseases even after symptom onset. PMID:25552654

  7. Menopausal vasomotor symptoms and incident breast cancer risk in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vicki; Sturgeon, Susan R.; Reich, Nicholas; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Crawford, Sybil L.; Gold, Ellen B.; Avis, Nancy E.; Reeves, Katherine W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Two case-control studies reported a 50% decreased breast cancer risk among women who experienced menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS), but one cohort study found no association. VMS may be triggered by declining estrogen levels during menopause, whereas elevated estrogen levels have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. VMS may thus be indicative of lower susceptibility to breast cancer. Methods We evaluated this relationship in the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), using discrete survival analysis of approximately annual data on VMS and self-reported breast cancer occurrences for up to 13 years of follow-up in 3,098 women who were pre- or early perimenopausal at enrollment. Results Over an average 11.4 years of follow-up, 129 incident breast cancer cases were self-reported, and approximately 50% of participants experienced VMS. Symptomatic women had a reduced risk of breast cancer compared to non-symptomatic women (adjusted HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39, 1.00). The association was stronger in the subgroup of women who fully transitioned to postmenopause during follow-up (N=67 cases, adjusted HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26, 0.77). Conclusion VMS appeared to be a marker of reduced breast cancer risk. Future research is needed to understand the biology underlying this relationship. PMID:27680016

  8. Efficacy of Erbium:YAG laser treatment compared to topical estriol treatment for symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Hugo; Gomez, Valentin; Luque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. Methods Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0.5 mg estriol ovules 3 times per week to hydrate the mucosa and then received three sessions with 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser in non‐ablative mode. Biopsies were taken before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post‐treatment. Maturation index, maturation value and pH where recorded up to 12‐months post‐treatment, while the VAS analysis of symptoms was recorded up to 18 months post‐treatment. Results Statistically significant (P < 0.05), reduction of all assessed symptoms was observed in the laser group at all follow‐ups up to 18 months post‐treatment. Significant improvement in maturation value and a decrease of pH in the laser group was detected up to 12 months after treatment. The improvement in all endpoints was more pronounced and longer lasting in the laser group. Histological examination showed changes in the tropism of the vaginal mucosa and also angiogenesis, congestion, and restructuring of the lamina propria in the laser group. Side effects were minimal and of transient nature in both groups, affecting 4% of patients in the laser group and 12% of patients in the estriol group. Conclusions Our results show that Er:YAG laser treatment successfully relieves symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause and that the results are more pronounced and longer lasting compared to topical estriol treatment. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:160–168, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27546524

  9. Short-Term Isoflavone Intervention in the Treatment of Severe Vasomotor Symptoms after Surgical Menopause: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Mattawanon, Natnita; Khunamornpong, Surapan

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are soy phytoestrogens that potentially exert various favorable effects in postmenopausal women, for example, alleviating vasomotor episodes, attenuating bone loss, and stimulating vaginal epithelial maturation. There has, however, been lack of consensus regarding those therapeutic effects. Most clinical studies of isoflavones have been conducted with women who had undergone natural menopause, but not those who had undergone surgical menopause. This study reports on a 51-year-old woman who presented with severe vasomotor episodes after undergoing a hysterectomy and a bilateral oophorectomy due to hypermenorrhea secondary to myoma uteri. She refused hormone therapy due to fear of adverse drug reactions so was treated with oral soy isoflavones (two capsules twice daily, equivalent to at least 100 mg daily dose) for 8 weeks. The number and severity of hot flushes and her menopause-specific quality of life dramatically improved from baseline values. The serum bone resorption marker (beta C-telopeptide) decreased markedly, while vaginal epithelial maturation improved slightly, suggesting the potential of isoflavones in attenuating bone loss and stimulating vaginal maturation. The intervention did not adversely affect the hormonal profile (FSH, LH, and estradiol) and liver or renal functions. Thus, isoflavones could be an option for women experiencing severe vasomotor episodes after surgical menopause. PMID:26605099

  10. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  11. Does lavender aromatherapy alleviate premenstrual emotional symptoms?: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    modality could alleviate premenstrual emotional symptoms, which, at least in part, is attributable to the improvement of parasympathetic nervous system activity. This study further implies that HRV could evaluate the efficacy of aromatherapy using various fragrances to relieve premenstrual symptoms, and ultimately, support the mind and body health of women. PMID:23724853

  12. Soy intake in association with menopausal symptoms during the first 6 and 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Gu, Kai; Zheng, Ying; Kallianpur, Asha; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Wei; Lu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that soy food and its components may relieve menopausal symptoms (MPS) including hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness in healthy women. However, little is known about the effect of soy food intake on MPS in women with breast cancer. We examined associations of occurrence of MPS with soy food intake in 4,842 Chinese women aged 20–75 years who had non-metastatic breast cancer and had not used hormone replacement therapy. MPS were assessed at 6 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis using a standardized questionnaire, and associations with soy food intake were evaluated in multivariate regression analyses. Daily soy food intake was assessed at 6 months postdiagnosis and over the first 36 months postdiagnosis using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of MPS was 56% at 6 months and 63% at 36 months postdiagnosis with the hotflash being the most common MPS (~44–55%). Hot flashes occurred mainly in premenopausal breast cancer patients who were in the highest quartile of isoflavone intake at 6 months post-diagnosis (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.98–1.59) compared with the lowest quartile. This association was stronger at 36 months postdiagnosis (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.02–2.48). We found no significant associations for any MPS, night sweats, or vaginal dryness. Neither tamoxifen use nor BMI modified the association between MPS and isoflavone intake. There was no evidence that soy food consumption reduced MPS among breast cancer patients. High soy intake may increase the prevalence of hotflashes among pre-menopausal patients. Our study suggests that soy acts as an estrogen antagonist in breast cancer patients. PMID:20703939

  13. Integrative therapies for menopause.

    PubMed

    McKee, Julie; Warber, Sara L

    2005-03-01

    Menopause is a transitional time for women. This gives practitioners an opportunity to focus on recommending healthy life-style changes. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been the mainstay of therapy for menopausal symptoms. With recent research findings, women and their physicians are seeking alternatives that do not carry the risks associated with HRT. Exercise has been shown to help some women with symptoms of hot flashes, as have relaxation techniques and deep breathing. Dietary changes to incorporate whole foods and soy are thought by some to help with menopausal symptoms, and are recommended because of a positive impact on heart disease and obesity; soy isoflavones may also help with menopausal symptoms. Botanicals such as black cohosh and red clover have been shown in some studies to decrease severity and frequency of hot flashes. We recommend that HRT be prescribed when other measures have failed to adequately control symptoms. Bioidentical hormones are preferred in our practice.

  14. Alternative Medicine for Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be part of mainstream medicine. CAM includes herbs and other plant-based treatments (botanicals), non-botanical ... warfarin, a blood thinner May include other untested herbs Evening primrose No effect on menopausal symptoms May ...

  15. Managing menopause at home

    MedlinePlus

    Perimenopause - self-care; Hormone replacement therapy - self-care; HRT- self-care ... Your health care provider may have prescribed hormone therapy to relieve symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, sleep problems, and ...

  16. Habitual physical activity and menopausal symptoms: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sternfeld, B; Quesenberry, C P; Husson, G

    1999-01-01

    A case-control study design was used to examine whether habitual physical activity prior to the final menstrual period (FMP) was associated with reduced risk of vasomotor and other symptoms during the perimenopausal period. Both cases and controls were identified through a screening interview with randomly selected women members, ages 48-52, of a large health maintenance organization. Cases (n = 82) were defined as women 3-12 months past their FMP who reported regularly having hot flashes or night sweats at least once a day or night during the 3 months following their FMP. Controls (n = 89) were of the same biologic age with respect to the FMP but reported vasomotor symptoms less than once a week during the reference time period. Neither cases nor controls had a history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), hysterectomy, or bilateral oophorectomy. Case-control status, habitual physical activity (including recreational, housework, child care, and occupational activity), and psychological and somatic symptoms were assessed by self-report. Participation in vigorous recreational activity during the year prior to the FMP was not associated with reduced risk of frequent vasomotor symptoms after the FMP (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 for a 50-unit increase in activity score, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-1.1). This lack of relationship was observed in all domains of activity. Factors that were associated with decreased risk included higher body mass index (BMI) (weight in kg/(height in meters)2) (OR = 0.95 per 1 unit increase in BMI, 95% CI = 0.90-1.00) and higher education (having a college degree relative to less education) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.40-0.80). Physical activity was also unassociated with reduced risk of psychologic distress, depressive feelings, or somatic symptoms, but, relative to controls, having vasomotor symptoms (being a case) was strongly associated with increased risk of experiencing those symptoms (OR ranging from 1.83 for psychologic distress to 2

  17. Menopause Treatments | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Menopause: A Woman's Change of Life Menopause Treatments Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents ... you should use hormones to help relieve some menopause symptoms. It's hard to know what to do, ...

  18. Menopause, a Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

    Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

  19. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Yuan, Yang; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-01-01

    The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec.) to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE)-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of botanical

  20. Combined estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties of estetrol on breast cancer may provide a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Céline; Mestdagt, Mélanie; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine; Communal, Laudine; Gompel, Anne; Silva, Elisabete; Arnal, Jean-François; Lenfant, Françoise; Noel, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Péqueux, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a promising compound for clinical use in MHT. However, its impact on breast cancer is controversial and poorly defined. In this preclinical study, we show that E4 acts as a weak estrogen by stimulating the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer only at concentrations exceeding menopausal therapeutic needs. E4 presents also an antitumor activity by decreasing the strong proliferative effect of estradiol (E2). While estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is the predominant receptor mediating its effects, the dual weak-estrogenic/anti-estrogenic feature of E4 results from differential signaling pathways activation. Both nuclear and rapid extra-nuclear signaling pathway are necessary for a complete estrogenic effect of E4. However, the antitumor action of E4 is not due to a capacity to antagonize E2-induced nuclear activity. Altogether, our results highlight that E4 has a limited impact on breast cancer and may offer a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26056044

  1. Combined estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties of estetrol on breast cancer may provide a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Céline; Mestdagt, Mélanie; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine; Communal, Laudine; Gompel, Anne; Silva, Elisabete; Arnal, Jean-François; Lenfant, Françoise; Noel, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Péqueux, Christel

    2015-07-10

    Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a promising compound for clinical use in MHT. However, its impact on breast cancer is controversial and poorly defined. In this preclinical study, we show that E4 acts as a weak estrogen by stimulating the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer only at concentrations exceeding menopausal therapeutic needs. E4 presents also an antitumor activity by decreasing the strong proliferative effect of estradiol (E2). While estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is the predominant receptor mediating its effects, the dual weak-estrogenic/anti-estrogenic feature of E4 results from differential signaling pathways activation. Both nuclear and rapid extra-nuclear signaling pathway are necessary for a complete estrogenic effect of E4. However, the antitumor action of E4 is not due to a capacity to antagonize E2-induced nuclear activity. Altogether, our results highlight that E4 has a limited impact on breast cancer and may offer a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  2. Impact of Hypnosis Intervention in Alleviating Psychological and Physical Symptoms During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2016-04-01

    Physical symptoms (e.g., vomiting) and psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression) during pregnancy are common. Various strategies such as hypnosis are available to reduce these symptoms. The objective of the authors in this study is to investigate the impact of a hypnosis intervention in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The hypnosis intervention was given to the experimental group participants at weeks 16 (baseline), 20 (time point 1), 28 (time point 2), and 36 (time point 3) of their pregnancy. Participants in the control group received only the traditional antenatal care. Participants from both groups completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and a Pregnancy Symptoms Checklist at weeks 16, 20, 28 and 36 of pregnancy. Results indicated that stress and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Although mean differences for the depressive symptoms were not significant, the experimental group had lower symptoms at time point 3. The physical symptoms' results showed significant group differences at time point 3, indicating a reduction in the experience of physical symptoms for the experimental group participants. Our study showed that hypnosis intervention during pregnancy aided in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy.

  3. Equol status and changes in fecal microbiota in menopausal women receiving long-term treatment for menopause symptoms with a soy-isoflavone concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Guadamuro, Lucía; Delgado, Susana; Redruello, Begoña; Flórez, Ana B.; Suárez, Adolfo; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge regarding the intestinal microbial types involved in isoflavone bioavailability and metabolism is still limited. The present work reports the influence of a treatment with isoflavones for 6 months on the fecal bacterial communities of 16 menopausal women, as determined by culturing and culture-independent microbial techniques. Changes in fecal communities were analyzed with respect to the women’s equol-producing phenotype. Compared to baseline, at 1 and 3 months the counts for all microbial populations in the feces of equol-producing women had increased strongly. In contrast, among the non-producers, the counts for all microbial populations at 1 month were similar to those at baseline, and decreased significantly by 3 and 6 months. Following isoflavone intake, major bands in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles appeared and disappeared, suggesting important changes in majority populations. In some women, increases were seen in the intensity of specific DGGE bands corresponding to microorganisms known to be involved in the metabolism of dietary phytoestrogens (Lactonifactor longoviformis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium sp., Ruminococcus sp.). Real-Time quantitative PCR revealed that the Clostridium leptum and C. coccoides populations increased in equol producers, while those of bifidobacteria and enterobacteria decreased, and vice versa in the non-producers. Finally, the Atopobium population increased in both groups, but especially in the non-producers at three months. As the main findings of this study, (i) variations in the microbial communities over the 6-month period of isoflavone supplementation were large; (ii) no changes in the fecal microbial populations that were convincingly treatment-specific were seen; and (iii) the production of equol did not appear to be associated with the presence of, or increase in the population of, any of the majority bacterial types analyzed. PMID:26300856

  4. Hypnosis to alleviate the symptoms of ciguatera toxicity: a case study.

    PubMed

    Laser, Eleanor D; Shenefelt, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Ciguatera toxicity is a poisoning from consuming reef fish that had fed on dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus found along coral reefs. The toxin is oil soluble, odorless, colorless, tasteless, heat stable, and is concentrated in larger carnivorous fish such as amberjack, barracuda, eel, grouper, red snapper, sea bass, and Spanish mackerel. Onset of symptoms is usually within 6-12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms lasting 1-2 days include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms may persist for weeks or several months or--rarely--years and include circumoral and extremity paresthesias, temperature sensation reversal, itching, weakness, ataxia, and others. A patient with burning hands and feet who had not found relief using other methods had diagnosis of ciguatera toxicity assisted by hypnotically refreshed memory followed by rapid relief with hypnotic suggestions in 1 session and remained free of symptoms.

  5. Rosmarinic Acid Alleviates Neurological Symptoms in the G93A-SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Seon; Choi, Juli; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis of voluntary skeletal muscles and eventually death, usually within 2~3 years of symptom onset. The pathophysiology mechanism underlying ALS is not yet clearly understood. Moreover the available medication for treating ALS, riluzole, only modestly improves neurological symptoms and increases survival by a few months. Therefore, improved therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated whether rosmarinic acid has a therapeutic potential to alleviate neurological deterioration in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS. Treatment of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice with rosmarinic acid from 7 weeks of age at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly extended survival, and relieved motor function deficits. Specifically, disease onset and symptom progression were delayed by more than one month. These symptomatic improvements were correlated with decreased oxidative stress and reduced neuronal loss in the ventral horns of G93A-SOD1 mice. These results support that rosmarinic acid is a potentially useful supplement for relieving ALS symptoms. PMID:26713081

  6. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loprinzi CL. Management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: current treatment options, challenges and future directions. International Journal of Women’s Health 2010; 2:123–135. [PubMed ...

  7. Effectiveness of Anma massage therapy in alleviating physical symptoms in outpatients with Parkinson's disease: a before-after study.

    PubMed

    Donoyama, Nozomi; Suoh, Sachie; Ohkoshi, Norio

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to confirm the physical effects of a single Anma massage session and continuous Anma massage therapy for outpatients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-one PD outpatients (mean age, 64.43 ± 8.39 [SD] years; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-IV) received a single 40-min Anma massage session involving upper and lower limb exercises and some subsequently received seven weekly Anma massage sessions. After a single session, visual analogue scale scores were significantly lower for muscle stiffness, movement difficulties, pain, and fatigue; gait speed and pegboard test time were significantly shortened; stride length was significantly lengthened; and shoulder flexion and abduction were significantly improved. No significant changes occurred in controls. After continuous sessions, we found general improvements in the same outcomes. In conclusion, Anma massage might effectively alleviate various physical PD symptoms; furthermore, because it is given through clothing, Anma massage is accessible for PD patients with movement difficulties.

  8. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus. PMID:23661987

  9. Endocrinology of the Menopause.

    PubMed

    Hall, Janet E

    2015-09-01

    In women, age-related changes in ovarian function begin in the mid-30s with decreased fertility and compensatory hormonal changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis that maintain follicle development and estrogen secretion in the face of a waning pool of ovarian follicles. The menopause transition is characterized by marked variability in follicle development, ovulation, bleeding patterns, and symptoms of hyper- and hypoestrogenism. The menopause, which is clinically defined by the last menstrual period, is followed by the consistent absence of ovarian secretion of estradiol.

  10. Estrogen supplements in menopause.

    PubMed

    Booher, D L

    1990-01-01

    The number of women aged 65 and older is expected to double by the year 2000, increasing the need for effective management of symptoms related to menopause. Contemporary management of menopause addresses the continuum of events associated with the effects of estrogen deprivation on quality and duration of life, including neuroendocrine changes, urogenital atrophy, sexual dysfunction, skin and hair changes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. The risks and benefits of management strategies, including hormone replacement therapy, must be weighted carefully by both physician and patient. The use of estrogens and progestins, alterative compounds, dosages, routes of administration, and their advantages and disadvantages must be analyzed.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Remifemin on Peri-Menopausal Symptoms Induced by Post-Operative GnRH-a Therapy for Endometriosis: A Randomized Study versus Tibolone

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiming; Gao, Hongyan; Li, Qin; Cong, Jing; Wu, Jie; Pu, Dahua; Jiang, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate clinical efficacy and safety of Remifemin on peri-menopausal symptoms in endometriosis patients with a post-operative GnRH-a therapy. Material/Methods We treated 116 women who had endometriosis with either Remifemin (n=56) 20 mg bid po or Tibolone (n=60) 2.5 mg qd po for 12 weeks after GnRH-a injection. The efficacy was evaluated by Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), and hot flash/sweating scores. The safety parameters such as liver and renal functions, lipid profile, endometrial thickness, and serum sex hormone level, as well as the incidence of adverse events were recorded. Results (1) After GnRH-a therapy, KMI and hot flash/sweating scores in both groups increased significantly (P<0.05) but we found no significant difference for KMI (2.87±1.40 for Remifemin and 2.70±1.26 for Tibolone) and hot flash/sweating scores (0.94±1.72 for Remifemin and 1.06±1.78 for Tibolone) between the 2 groups (P>0.05). (2) No statistical change was observed in liver or renal functions and lipid profile in both groups before and after the treatment (P>0.05). The post-therapeutic serum FSH, LH, and E2 level and endometrial thickness decreased remarkably in both groups (P<0.05). E2 level in the Remifemin group was obviously lower than that in the Tibolone group (P<0.05), and FSH and LH levels were strongly higher (P<0.05). No significant difference in thickness were found in either group (P>0.05). The Remifemin group had far fewer adverse events than the Tibolone group (P<0. 05). Conclusions Compared with Tibolone, Remifemin had a similar clinical efficacy and was safer for the peri-menopausal symptoms induced by GnRH-a in endometriosis patients. PMID:25321621

  12. Electroacupuncture Alleviates Depressive-Like Symptoms and Modulates BDNF Signaling in 6-Hydroxydopamine Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min; Wang, Ke; Yu, Yan; Su, Wen-Ting; Jiang, Xin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on motor behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role and potential mechanisms of EA in PD-associated depression remain unclear. In the present study, a rat model of PD with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the medial forebrain bundle was treated using EA for 4 weeks. We found that 100 Hz EA improved several motor phenotypes. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical analysis showed that EA had a minimal impact on the TH-positive profiles of the ipsilateral ventral tegmental area. Compared with the 6-OHDA group, long-term EA stimulation significantly increased sucrose solution consumption and decreased immobility time in the forced swim test. EA treatment did not alter dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels in the striatum and hippocampus. Noticeably, EA treatment reversed the 6-OHDA-induced abnormal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the midbrain and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that EA at 100-Hz possesses the ability to improve depressive-like symptoms in PD rats, which is, at least in part, due to the distinct effect of EA on the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways. Moreover, BDNF seems to participate in the effect of EA in PD. PMID:27525025

  13. Whole-foods, plant-based diet alleviates the symptoms of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Chelsea M; O'Brien, Shanley; Law, Junwen; Renier, Colleen M; Wendt, Mary R

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-foods, plant-based diet (WFPB) to reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis. Methods. Six-week, prospective randomized open-label study of patients aged 19-70 with osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to a WFPB (intervention) or continuing current diet (control). Outcomes were assessed by mixed models analysis of participant self-assessed weekly SF-36v2 domain t scores, weekly Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scales, and mean weekly Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain assessment. Mixed models analysis also evaluated pre-post change from baseline level for standard clinical measures: weight, BMI, body temperature, pulse, and blood pressure. Results. Forty participants were randomized. Thirty-seven of them, 18 control and 19 intervention, completed the study. The intervention group reported a significantly greater improvement than the control group in SF-36v2 energy/vitality, physical functioning, role physical, and the physical component summary scale. The differences between the intervention and control PGIC scales were statistically significant over time. Intervention group improvement in VAS weekly mean was also significantly greater than that of the control group from week 2 onward. Conclusion. Study results suggest that a whole-foods, plant-based diet significantly improves self-assessed measures of functional status among osteoarthritis patients.

  14. Treatment of menopausal symptoms with three low-dose continuous sequential 17β-estradiol/progesterone parenteral monthly formulations using novel non-polymeric microsphere technology

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Bonilla, Manuel; Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María T.; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Celis-González, Cuauhtémoc; Márquez-Oñate, Ricardo; Chedraui, Peter; Uribe, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the short-term efficacy and safety over menopausal symptoms of three low-dose continuous sequential 17β-estradiol (E)/progesterone (P) parental monthly formulations using novel non-polymeric microspheres. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, single blinded study in which peri- and postmenopausal women were assigned to receive a monthly intramuscular injection of 0.5 mg E + 15 mg P (Group A, n = 34), 1 mg E + 20 mg P (Group B, n = 24) or 1 mg E + 30 mg P (Group C, n = 26) for 6 months. Primary efficacy endpoints included mean change in the frequency and severity of hot flushes and the effect over urogenital atrophy symptoms at 3 and 6 months. Safety variables included changes in the rate of amenorrhea, endometrial thickness and histopathology, and local and systemic adverse events. Results: Compared to baseline at month 6, the three treatment schemes significantly decreased the rate of urogenital atrophy symptoms and the frequency (mean number per day) and severity (mean number graded as moderate and severe per month) of hot flushes. No differences in studied efficacy parameters were observed between studied groups at baseline or at the end of the study. For all groups the most frequent adverse event was pain at the injection site; however they were all rated as mild. At the end of the study peri- and postmenopausal women displayed no significant changes in endometrial thickness or histopathology in all treated groups. The rate of amenorrhea at the end of the study decreased for all studied groups yet was less evident among postmenopausal women as compared to perimenopausal ones. Conclusions: The three low-dose continuous sequential intramuscular monthly treatments of E/P using novel microsphere technology were effective at reducing menopausal symptoms at short-term with a low rate of adverse events. More long-term and comparative research is warranted to support our positive findings

  15. Effect of Escitalopram on Insomnia Symptoms and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ensrud, Kristine E.; Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Reed, Susan D.; Newton, Katherine M.; Sternfeld, Barbara; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Landis, Carol A.; Woods, Nancy F.; Freeman, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine effect of escitalopram on insomnia symptoms and subjective sleep quality in healthy menopausal women with hot flashes. Methods Randomized, blinded, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group 8-week trial in 205 women (95 African American; 102 white; 8 other) conducted between July 2009 and June 2010. Participants received escitalopram (10–20 mg/day) or placebo. Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at week 4 and 8 were prespecified secondary outcomes. A total of 199 women (97%) provided ISI data and 194 (95%) provided PSQI data at follow-up. Results At baseline, mean hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60), mean ISI was 11.4 (SD 6.3), and mean PSQI was 8.0 (SD 3.7). Treatment with escitalopram reduced ISI at week 8 (mean difference −2.00, 95% CI: −3.43 to −0.57, p<0.001 overall treatment effect), with mean reductions of −4.73 (95% CI −5.72 to −3.75) in the escitalopram group and −2.73 (95% CI −3.78 to −1.69) in the placebo group. Reduction in PSQI was greater in the escitalopram versus placebo group at week 8 (mean difference −1.31, 95% CI −2.14 to −0.49, p<0.001 overall treatment effect). Clinical improvement in insomnia symptoms and subjective sleep quality (≥50% decreases in ISI and PSQI from baseline) was observed more frequently in the escitalopram group versus placebo group (ISI: 50.0% versus 35.4%, p=0.04; PSQI 29.6% versus 19.2%, p=0.09). Conclusions Among healthy menopausal women with hot flashes, escitalopram at 10–20 mg/day compared with placebo reduced insomnia symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality at 8 weeks of follow-up. PMID:22433978

  16. Menopause and sexuality: key issues in premature menopause and beyond.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra

    2010-09-01

    Woman's sexuality encompasses sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationships. It is modulated throughout life by life and reproduction-related events, health, relationships, and sociocultural variables. The aging process and menopause are two potent contributors to female sexual dysfunction. The earlier the menopause, the more severe and complex the impact on sexuality is. The younger the woman, the less she realizes the different key goals of her life cycle (falling in love, having a satisfying sexual life, forming a stable couple, getting married, having a family) and the more pervasive the consequences on her sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationship can be. Premature menopause is an amplified paradigm of the complex impact menopause can have on women's and couple's sexuality. This paper will focus on biologically based sexual issues, namely desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders, as well as key questions encountered in infertility. The concepts of "symptom inducer" and "symptom carrier" will also be addressed.

  17. Effects of low-dose paroxetine 7.5 mg on weight and sexual function during treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause

    PubMed Central

    Portman, David J.; Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Kazempour, Kazem; Mekonnen, Hana; Bhaskar, Sailaja; Lippman, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective Two phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that low-dose paroxetine 7.5 mg reduced the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) associated with menopause and had a favorable tolerability profile. The impact of paroxetine 7.5 mg on body weight and sexual function was evaluated in a pooled analysis. Methods Postmenopausal women aged 40 years or older who had moderate to severe VMS were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine 7.5 mg or placebo once daily for 12 or 24 weeks. Assessments included changes in body mass index (BMI) and weight, Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale score, Hot Flash–Related Daily Interference Scale sexuality subscore, and adverse events related to weight or sexual dysfunction. Results Pooled efficacy and safety populations comprised 1,174 and 1,175 participants, respectively. Baseline values were similar for median weight (∼75 kg), median BMI (∼28 kg/m2), and the proportion of women with sexual dysfunction (∼58%). No clinically meaningful or statistically significant changes from baseline in weight or sexual function assessments occurred in the paroxetine 7.5 mg group. Small but statistically significant increases in weight and BMI were observed in the placebo group only on week 4. No significant difference between treatment groups was observed in the proportion of participants who had 7% or higher gain in body weight on week 4, 12, or 24. Rates of adverse events suggestive of sexual dysfunction were low and similar in both treatment groups. Conclusions Paroxetine 7.5 mg does not cause weight gain or negative changes in libido when used to treat menopause-associated VMS in postmenopausal women. PMID:24552977

  18. [Clinical evaluation of vertigo in menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Owada, Satoko; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya; Yoshida, Tomoe; Nomura, Toshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    Vertigo is one of the usual menopausal symptoms. We have often examined some women under the complaint of vertigo related with the menopause. We diagnosed each disease based on neuro-otological examinations and investigated the characteristics of menopausal-associated vertigo. We studied 413 women aged 40-59 years old who complained of vertigo. There were 73 women with menopause symptoms (14 women introduced from the gynecologist in our medical center, 18 women had undergone treatment at another female clinic, and 41 women visited an otorhinolaryngologist first) compared with 340 women without menopause symptoms. In the menopause group, 41 (56.2%) cases were diagnosed as having benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), 13 (17.8%) cases had Meniere's disease, sudden deafness with vertigo accounted 2 cases, one was an acoustic tumor, and so on. The percentage of patients with BPPV was almost same ratio between the menopause group (56.2%) and the non-menopause group (52.9%). The percentage of patients with Meniere's disease was higher markedly in the menopausal group (17.8%). than the non-menopause group (9.7%). Menopausal symptoms are caused not only by hot flashes related to a lack of estrogen but also by psychological factors. The onset of Meniere's disease can also be influenced by psychological factors. As for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease, we supposed the reason for the higher percentage in the menopausal group was its relationship with psychological factors. We could diagnose and treat some menopausal women with vertigo. We believe that joint consultation with a gynecologist and otorhinolaryngologist would be necessary to ensure an optimum quality of life for such patients.

  19. A novel vibratory stimulation-based occlusal splint for alleviation of TMD painful symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hara, E S; Witzel, A L; de Luca, C E P; Ballester, R Y; Kuboki, T; Bolzan, M C

    2013-03-01

    This pilot study introduces a novel vibratory stimulation-based occlusal splint (VibOS) for management of pain related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age: 40·5 ± 13·7 years, male/female: 3/7) who were using stabilisation splints for more than 2 months prior to the study onset and still complained of pain. Patients utilised the active and inactive VibOS during 15 days in a crossover designed clinical trial. The analysed variables were self-reported VAS pain levels and number of painful sites to palpation (PSP). Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures anova. At baseline, mean VAS pain levels for group I and II were 45·6 ± 21·0 mm and 37·4 ± 16·3 mm, respectively. Comparison between these baseline values showed no statistical difference (P > 0·05, unpaired t-test). In group I, the inactive VibOS caused a slight increase in VAS pain levels, whereas the active VibOS promoted a significant decrease in VAS pain levels and PSP (P < 0·01). In group II, which received the active VibOS first, a significant decrease in VAS levels (P < 0·05) and in PSP (P < 0·01) was observed. No significant decrease in VAS pain levels or PSP (P > 0·05) was observed with the use of the inactive VibOS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a good tendency of this novel VibOS in the alleviation of painful symptoms related to TMD after a 15-day management period compared to control VibOS.

  20. Effects of simplified lymph drainage on the body: in females with menopausal disorder

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazuhisa; Maruoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Hormone replacement therapy has been reported to be effective for alleviating menopausal symptoms, its side effects have been a concern. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate methods that could alleviate menopausal symptoms but with fewer side effects. Few previous reports have investigated the effects of simplified, viable manual lymph drainage, particularly the effects of one-time therapy on physiologically active substances and other variables. Effects of one-time simplified lymph drainage performed at salon A were investigated in females with any type of menopausal symptoms, such as edema or a sense of fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] Before and after lymph drainage, saliva was collected to detect substances that would reveal immune function. Questionnaire surveys were also conducted before and after therapy. [Results] Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were significantly reduced after therapy compared with those before therapy. The questionnaire survey showed a significant decrease in the visual analog scale. Also apparent were positive opinions, such as “I feel better” and “My legs feel lighter.” [Conclusion] These results demonstrated the stress reduction effect of one-time simplified lymph drainage, which decreased cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels. This therapy was also shown to produce positive mental and physical effects. PMID:28210055

  1. Effects of simplified lymph drainage on the body: in females with menopausal disorder.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazuhisa; Maruoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Hormone replacement therapy has been reported to be effective for alleviating menopausal symptoms, its side effects have been a concern. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate methods that could alleviate menopausal symptoms but with fewer side effects. Few previous reports have investigated the effects of simplified, viable manual lymph drainage, particularly the effects of one-time therapy on physiologically active substances and other variables. Effects of one-time simplified lymph drainage performed at salon A were investigated in females with any type of menopausal symptoms, such as edema or a sense of fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] Before and after lymph drainage, saliva was collected to detect substances that would reveal immune function. Questionnaire surveys were also conducted before and after therapy. [Results] Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were significantly reduced after therapy compared with those before therapy. The questionnaire survey showed a significant decrease in the visual analog scale. Also apparent were positive opinions, such as "I feel better" and "My legs feel lighter." [Conclusion] These results demonstrated the stress reduction effect of one-time simplified lymph drainage, which decreased cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels. This therapy was also shown to produce positive mental and physical effects.

  2. Systematic review of progesterone use by midlife and menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon

    2012-07-01

    Progesterone treatment for menopausal symptoms is still controversial. Progesterone levels fall during menopause transition, therefore some menopausal women may benefit from progesterone therapy. A systematic review was conducted of studies published from 2001 reporting on progesterone use to treat symptoms associated with menopause or postmenopausal women. Fourteen data bases were searched using the search terms progesterone, menopause, aged, female and human; exclusions were breast cancer, animal and contraception. Thirteen studies were selected for inclusion (11 clinical trials, 1 cohort study and 1 qualitative study), evaluating progesterone effects on menopausal symptoms, bone, sleep, skin, cognition, plasma lipids and plaque progression. Most studies were of low methodological quality (GRADE low or very low). Progesterone improved vasomotor symptoms and sleep quality, with minimal risk. Large studies designed to identify confounders, such as hormone levels, menopausal status and metabolism are required to understand the place of progesterone in clinical practice.

  3. Saint John's wort, an herbal inducer of the cytochrome P4503A4 isoform, may alleviate symptoms of Willis-Ekbom's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, José Carlos; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Alves, Rosana Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Certain drug classes alleviate the symptoms of Willis-Ekbom's disease, whereas others aggravate them. The pharmacological profiles of these drugs suggest that drugs that alleviate Willis-Ekbom's disease inhibit thyroid hormone activity, whereas drugs that aggravate Willis-Ekbom's disease increase thyroid hormone activity. These different effects may be secondary to the opposing actions that drugs have on the CYP4503A4 enzyme isoform. Drugs that worsen the symptoms of the Willis-Ekbom's disease inhibit the CYP4503A4 isoform, and drugs that ameliorate the symptoms induce CYP4503A4. The aim of this study is to determine whether Saint John's wort, as an inducer of the CYP4503A4 isoform, diminishes the severity of Willis-Ekbom's disease symptoms by increasing the metabolism of thyroid hormone in treated patients. METHODS: In an open-label pilot trial, we treated 21 Willis-Ekbom's disease patients with a concentrated extract of Saint John's wort at a daily dose of 300 mg over the course of three months. RESULTS: Saint John's wort reduced the severity of Willis-Ekbom's disease symptoms in 17 of the 21 patients. CONCLUSION: Results of this trial suggest that Saint John's wort may benefit some Willis-Ekbom's disease patients. However, as this trial was not placebo-controlled, the extent to which Saint John's wort is effective as a Willis-Ekbom's disease treatment will depend on future, blinded placebo-controlled studies. PMID:23778343

  4. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Lactococcus lactis expressing food-grade β-galactosidase alleviates lactose intolerance symptoms in post-weaning Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Chuan; Yu, Qian; Dai, Ruirui; Pei, Xiaofang

    2012-12-01

    The endogenous β-galactosidase expressed in intestinal microbes is demonstrated to help humans in lactose usage, and treatment associated with the promotion of beneficial microorganism in the gut is correlated with lactose tolerance. From this point, a kind of recombinant live β-galactosidase delivery system using food-grade protein expression techniques and selected probiotics as vehicle was promoted by us for the purpose of application in lactose intolerance subjects. Previously, a recombinant Lactococcus lactis MG1363 strain expressing food-grade β-galactosidase, the L. lactis MG1363/FGZW, was successfully constructed and evaluated in vitro. This study was conducted to in vivo evaluate its efficacy on alleviating lactose intolerance symptoms in post-weaning Balb/c mice, which were orally administered with 1 × 10⁶ CFU or 1 × 10⁸ CFU of L. lactis MG1363/FGZW daily for 4 weeks before lactose challenge. In comparison with naïve mice, the mice administered with L. lactis MG1363/FGZW showed significant alleviation of diarrhea symptoms in less total feces weight within 6 h post-challenge and suppressed intestinal motility after lactose challenge, although there was no significant increase of β-galactosidase activity in small intestine. The alleviation also correlated with higher species abundance, more Bifidobacterium colonization, and stronger colonization resistance in mice intestinal microflora. Therefore, this recombinant L. lactis strain effectively alleviated diarrhea symptom induced by lactose uptake in lactose intolerance model mice with the probable mechanism of promotion of lactic acid bacteria to differentiate and predominantly colonize in gut microbial community, thus making it a promising probiotic for lactose intolerance subjects.

  6. Management of menopause in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A J

    2015-10-01

    Increasing breast cancer incidence and decreasing mortality have highlighted the importance of survivorship issues related to breast cancer. A consideration of the issues related to menopause is therefore of great importance to both women and clinicians. Menopause/menopausal symptoms, with significant negative effects on quality of life and potential long-term health impacts, may in women with breast cancer be associated with: (1) natural menopause occurring concurrently with a breast cancer diagnosis; (2) recurrence of menopausal symptoms following cessation of hormone replacement therapy; (3) treatment-induced menopause (chemotherapy, ovarian ablation/suppression) and adjuvant endocrine therapy. A variety of non-hormonal pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been investigated as therapeutic options for menopausal symptoms with mixed results, and ongoing research is required. This review presents a summary of the causes, common problematic symptoms of menopause (vasomotor, genitourinary and sexual dysfunction), and longer-term consequences (cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis) related to menopause. It proposes an evidenced-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of menopause/menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer.

  7. Effect of Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa Extract on Uterine Fibroids in Comparison with Tibolone among Patients of a Recent Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-Controlled Study in Chinese Women with Menopausal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Xi, Sisi; Liske, Eckehard; Wang, Shuyu; Liu, Jianli; Zhang, Zhonglan; Geng, Li; Hu, Lina; Jiao, Chunfeng; Zheng, Shurong; Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich Henneicke-von; Bai, Wenpei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40-60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as -30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone.

  8. Effect of Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa Extract on Uterine Fibroids in Comparison with Tibolone among Patients of a Recent Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-Controlled Study in Chinese Women with Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Liske, Eckehard; Wang, Shuyu; Liu, Jianli; Zhang, Zhonglan; Geng, Li; Hu, Lina; Zheng, Shurong; Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich Henneicke-von; Bai, Wenpei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40–60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as −30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone. PMID:24719645

  9. Contemporary Alternatives to Plant Estrogens for Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Every year, millions of women begin the peri-menopause and may experience a number of symptoms related to this transition. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements (BDS) for relief. This paper reviews the literature on alternatives to plant estrogens for relief of menopausal symptoms. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for clinical trials of non-estrogenic plant extracts for menopausal symptoms. To be included, studies had to include peri- or postmenopausal women as subjects. All clinical trials (randomized-controlled trials, open trials, and comparison group studies) were included for this review. Results Black Cohosh appears to be one of the most effective botanicals for relief of vasomotor symptoms, while St. John’s wort can improve mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Many other botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. Conclusions A growing body of evidence suggests that some botanicals and dietary supplements could result in improved clinical outcomes. Health care providers should discuss these issues with their patients so they can assist them in managing these alternative therapies through an evidence-based approach. PMID:16884867

  10. [Hormone treatment of sex disorders in menopause--causal therapy or placebo?].

    PubMed

    Loewit, K

    1993-11-01

    Clinical reports on successful hormonal treatment of climacteric or menopausal sexual dysfunctions are in contradiction with the lack of oestrous phenomena in humans as well as with the results of double-blind studies finding no objective proof for the alleged hormonal influence. A review of recent studies on the topic showed, that apart from a critical threshold, hormones exert no influence on sexual behaviour that would go beyond the alleviation of vasomotoric or genital menopausal symptoms or their consequences. However, psychosocial and relational factors play a major role in sexual dysfunctions generally and at this age of the "empty nest" and a doctor-patient relationship based on trust may well help in coping with them. Finally, a (new?) understanding of genital sexuality as a concise body-language or literally an incarnation of the relationship is advocated and may add a new dimension and quality to a couple's sex life.

  11. Mitragyna speciosa Leaf Extract Exhibits Antipsychotic-Like Effect with the Potential to Alleviate Positive and Negative Symptoms of Psychosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vijeepallam, Kamini; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani D.; Naidu, Murali

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antipsychotic-like effect of methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa leaf (MMS) using in vivo and ex vivo studies. In vivo studies comprised of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and ketamine-induced social withdrawal tests in mice whereas the ex vivo study was conducted utilizing isolated rat vas deferens preparation. Acute oral administration of MMS (50–500 mg/kg) showed an inverted bell-shaped dose-response in apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior in mice. The effective inhibitory doses of MMS (75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) obtained from the apomorphine study was further tested on haloperidol (subcataleptic dose; 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy in the mouse bar test. MMS (75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly potentiated the haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. Interestingly, MMS at the same effective doses (75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly facilitated the social interaction in ketamine-induced social withdrawal mice. Furthermore, MMS inhibited the dopamine-induced contractile response dose-dependently in the isolated rat vas deferens preparations. In conclusion, this investigation provides first evidence that MMS exhibits antipsychotic-like activity with potential to alleviate positive as well as negative symptoms of psychosis in mice. This study also suggests the antidopaminergic activity of MMS that could be responsible for alleviating positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:27999544

  12. The menopause specialist and breast cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Jo

    2016-09-15

    Due to improvement in survival rates, breast cancer is the most prevalent female malignancy in Europe and hence the management of breast cancer survivorship is garnering significant attention. Most of the health issues associated with treatment result from iatrogenic estrogen deficiency and recognition of this in the recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) menopause guidance has resulted in the recommendation for referral of breast cancer patients to menopause specialists for appropriate counselling about and management of early menopause, estrogen deficiency symptoms and lifestyle risk modification. The latter has significant implications for both all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Extending the role of health professionals with an interest in menopause to provide such service for breast cancer patients is necessary as this is not within the remit or expertise of specialist breast cancer teams; however it will in turn, require menopause specialists to expand and regularly update their knowledge of breast cancer and its treatment.

  13. Hypothalamic orexin’s role in exacerbated cutaneous vasodilation responses to an anxiogenic stimulus in a surgical menopause model

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Lauren M.; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Molosh, Andrei I.; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Truitt, William A.; Bonaventure, Pascal; Carpenter, Janet S.; Shekhar, Anantha; Johnson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Distressing symptoms such as hot flashes and sleep disturbances affect over 70% of women approaching menopause for an average of 4–7 years, and recent large cohort studies have shown that anxiety and stress are strongly associated with more severe and persistent hot flashes and can induce hot flashes. Although high estrogen doses alleviate symptoms, extended use increases health risks, and current non-hormonal therapies are marginally better than placebo. The lack of effective non-hormonal treatments is largely due to the limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie menopausal symptoms. One mechanistic pathway that has not been explored is the wake-promoting orexin neuropeptide system. Orexin is exclusively synthesized in the estrogen receptor rich perifornical hypothalamic region, and has an emerging role in anxiety and thermoregulation. In female rodents, estrogens tonically inhibit expression of orexin, and estrogen replacement normalizes severely elevated central orexin levels in postmenopausal women. Using an ovariectomy menopause model, we demonstrated that an anxiogenic compound elicited exacerbated hot flash-associated increases in tail skin temperature (TST, that is blocked with estrogen), and cellular responses in orexin neurons and efferent targets. Furthermore, systemic administration of centrally active, selective orexin 1 or 2 and dual receptor antagonists attenuated or blocked TST responses, respectively. This included the reformulated Suvorexant, which was recently FDA-approved for treating insomnia. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that dramatic loss of estrogen tone during menopausal states leads to a hyperactive orexin system that contributes to symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia, and more severe hot flashes. Additionally, orexin receptor antagonists may represent a novel non-hormonal therapy for treating menopausal symptoms, with minimal side effects. PMID:26765933

  14. Comparing the Effects of Yoga & Oral Calcium Administration in Alleviating Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome in Medical Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Mehta

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: Medical undergraduates are heavily burdened by their curriculum. The females, in addition, suffer from vivid affective or somatic premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms such as bloating, mastalgia, insomnia, fatigue, mood swings, irritability, and depression. The present study was proposed to attenuate the symptoms of PMS by simple lifestyle measures like yoga and/or oral calcium. Methods: 65 medical female students (18-22 years) with a regular menstrual cycle were asked to self-rate their symptoms, along with their severity, in a validated questionnaire for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Fifty-eight students were found to have PMS. Twenty girls were given yoga training (45 minutes daily, five days a week, for three months). Another group of 20 was given oral tablets of calcium carbonate daily (500 mg, for three months) and rest 18 girl served as control group. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The yoga and calcium groups showed a significant decrease in number and severity of premenstrual symptoms whereas in the control group there was not the significant difference. Conclusion: Encouraging a regular practice of yoga or taking a tablet of calcium daily in the medical schools can decrease the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

  15. Comparing the Effects of Yoga & Oral Calcium Administration in Alleviating Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome in Medical Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medical undergraduates are heavily burdened by their curriculum. The females, in addition, suffer from vivid affective or somatic premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms such as bloating, mastalgia, insomnia, fatigue, mood swings, irritability, and depression. The present study was proposed to attenuate the symptoms of PMS by simple lifestyle measures like yoga and/or oral calcium. Methods: 65 medical female students (18-22 years) with a regular menstrual cycle were asked to self-rate their symptoms, along with their severity, in a validated questionnaire for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Fifty-eight students were found to have PMS. Twenty girls were given yoga training (45 minutes daily, five days a week, for three months). Another group of 20 was given oral tablets of calcium carbonate daily (500 mg, for three months) and rest 18 girl served as control group. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The yoga and calcium groups showed a significant decrease in number and severity of premenstrual symptoms whereas in the control group there was not the significant difference. Conclusion: Encouraging a regular practice of yoga or taking a tablet of calcium daily in the medical schools can decrease the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:27752483

  16. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  17. Dangers of the menopause. 1910.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Anne E

    2012-06-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the September 1910 issue, is "Dangers of the Menopause." The author, Anne E. Perkins, MD, states that its purpose is to correct "popular fallacies," so nurses can "disseminate knowledge of the real dangers" of menopause. It's interesting how much information in the article is still valid 100 years later, such as the need to investigate any postmenopausal bleeding. It's also noteworthy that the three symptoms causing women the most distress-hot flashes, insomnia, and mood problems-haven't changed, although a comparison of Dr. Perkins's article with "Managing Menopausal Symptoms" in this issue reveals that menopause management certainly has: from a "trip abroad" and avoiding "fancy work" in 1910 to physical exercise and acupuncture in 2012. To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/IZkCiD.

  18. Internet-based support programs to alleviate psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients: a literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Grietje; Admiraal, Jolien M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolien P; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Reyners, Anna K L

    2015-07-01

    In this review the effect of internet-based support programs on psychosocial and physical symptoms resulting from cancer diagnosis and treatment is analyzed. Selection of studies was based on the following criteria: (non-)randomized controlled trials, performed in adult cancer patients, comparing quantitative psychosocial and/or physical outcomes of an internet-based support program with (a) comparison group(s). Literature search yielded 2032 studies of which 16 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Three different internet-based support programs were identified: social support groups, online therapy for psychosocial/physical symptoms, and online systems integrating information, support, and coaching services. Outcomes improved by these programs in nine studies. Especially fatigue, social support, and distress improved, regardless of the program type. All online systems showed positive effects, mainly for social support and quality of life. This analysis indicates that internet-based support programs are effective in improving psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients.

  19. Menopause: Every Experience is Different | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional problems connected to their menstrual periods. Why did you volunteer for the trial? I've always ... guess menopause comes in many forms! How long did actual menopause symptoms last for you? They came ...

  20. Menopause, local biologies, and cultures of aging.

    PubMed

    Lock, M; Kaufert, P

    2001-01-01

    Menopause marks the end of menstruation, once generally accepted as the closure of women's reproductive lives. The current medical view of menopause, however, is as a pathological event with its own distinct set of symptoms and diseases. Researchers have described women as facing a dramatic increase in the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, stroke, and Alzheimer's, all as the result of the impact of changing hormone levels, particularly the decline in estrogen. The clinical literature has interpreted these findings in terms of the absolute necessity of replacing these lost hormones for all women who are menopausal regardless of any other physiological, social, or cultural characteristic they might possess. Using research done in Japan, Canada, and the United States, this paper challenges the notion of a universal menopause by showing that both the symptoms reported at menopause and the post-menopause disease profiles vary from one study population to the next. For most of the symptoms commonly associated with menopause in the medical literature, rates are much lower for Japanese women than for women in the United States and Canada, although they are comparable to rates reported from studies in Thailand and China. Mortality and morbidity data from these same societies are used to show that post-menopausal women are also not equally at risk for heart disease, breast cancer, or osteoporosis. Rather than universality, the paper suggests that it is important to think in terms of "local biologies", which reflect the very different social and physical conditions of women's lives from one society to another.

  1. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Nancy L; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2009-05-01

    Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time.

  2. Is menopausal status related to women's attitudes toward menopause and aging?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between menopausal status and attitudes toward menopause and aging. We identified 1,400 Bengali Hindu women aged 40-55 years (early perimenopausal n = 445; late perimenopausal n = 240; early postmenopausal n = 285; late postmenopausal n = 430) from West Bengal, India. Information on attitudes toward menopause and aging was collected from March 2009 to July 2012 using ten agree/disagree statements, of which three were positive, four were negative, and the rest were neutral. We used only the positive and negative statements in the analyses. The participants were given three response options for each statement: (1) agreed, (2) disagreed, and (3) felt neutral. Agreement with positive statements and disagreement with negative statements were scored as 3. The converse responses were scored as 1. Neutral responses were not scored. Thus, the total attitude score for each participant ranged from 7 to 21. Additionally, data on sociodemographic and reproductive variables, menopausal symptoms, and perceptions toward menopause were also collected. Multivariable analyses (ANCOVA) showed that postmenopausal women had more positive attitudes toward menopause and aging than perimenopausal women. Providing balanced information about menopause and aging might help to foster positive attitudes toward menopause.

  3. Hormonal management of migraine at menopause.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Sances, Grazia; Detaddei, Silvia; Ornati, Alessandra; Chiovato, Luca; Polatti, Franco

    2009-06-01

    In this review, we underline the importance of linking migraine to reproductive stages for optimal management of such a common disease across the lifespan of women. Menopause has a variable effect on migraine depending on individual vulnerability to neuroendocrine changes induced by estrogen fluctuations and on the length of menopausal transition. Indeed, an association between estrogen 'milieu' and attacks of migraine is strongly supported by several lines of evidence. During the perimenopause, it is likely to observe a worsening of migraine, and a tailored hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) to minimize estrogen/progesterone imbalance may be effective. In the natural menopause, women experience a more favourable course of migraine in comparison with those who have surgical menopause. When severe climacteric symptoms are present, postmenopausal women may be treated with continuous HRT. Even tibolone may be useful when analgesic overuse is documented. However, the transdermal route of oestradiol administration in the lowest effective dose should be preferred to avoid potential vascular risk.

  4. The Impact of Menopause: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldo, Tracy D.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Slyter, Marty

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a brief, informative view of the impact of menopause along with implications for mental health counselors. Menopause and associated stages are defined; symptoms associated with these stages are discussed; the benefits, risks, and consequences of hormone replacement therapy are considered; and…

  5. Treating schizophrenia at the time of menopause.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to optimize treatment for women with schizophrenia during the menopause. Recommendations are based on a relatively sparse literature derived from searching PubMed, PsychINFO, SOCINDEX with appropriate search terms for all years subsequent to 2000. Attention needs to be paid to menopausal symptoms in women with schizophrenia and to the possibility that psychotic symptoms may worsen at this time and that general health may deteriorate. Antipsychotic treatment may need to be modified and cardiac and metabolic health indices closely monitored.

  6. The Menopause Time of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet examines menopause and the changes associated with it. Menopause is briefly described, surgical menopause is explained, and the relationship between menopause and the reproductive cycle is discussed. Signs of menopause are described, including hot flashes and vaginal and urinary tract changes. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is explained…

  7. Endocrine disrupters and menopausal health.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip; Rumsby, Paul; Harrison, Paul T C

    2004-06-01

    Chemicals known to disrupt the endocrine system of animal models are assessed for their potential impact on the health of menopausal and postmenopausal women. These "endocrine disrupters" consist of two groups of compounds - man-made and naturally occurring. There is some evidence to suggest that the naturally occurring phytoestrogens, derived from plant material, may have some beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms and the risk of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are required to confirm these possibilities. Some man-made environmental pollutants appear to increase the risk of breast cancer, although again the evidence is inconclusive. Mechanistic experiments indicate that these chemicals interact with oestrogen receptors and alter metabolism in a number of different ways, some of which may be important in postmenopausal women. Further investigation of the differences in mode of action between the man-made and the natural endocrine disrupters may lead to important insights into their effects on women's health.

  8. The medical management of menopause: A four country comparison of urban care

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Saliba, Matilda; Reher, David; Sahel, Amina; Hoyer, Doris; Deeb, Mary; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the medical management of menopause across urban areas in four countries which differ by level of income and degree of medicalization. Methods Surveys of health providers who advise women on the menopausal transition were carried out in Beirut, Lebanon (n=100), Madrid, Spain (n=60), Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S. (n=59), and Rabat, Morocco (n=50) from 2002 to 2004. Physician characteristics, hormone therapy (HT) prescribing practices, and concerns about the management of menopause were compared across countries using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results After controlling for physician specialty and sex, physicians in Madrid (OR 3.228) and Massachusetts (OR 7.641) were more likely to write >5 prescriptions for HT per month compared with physicians in Beirut. Physicians in Massachusetts (OR 3.961) were most likely to recommended HT for 10 years or more. Physicians in Madrid were significantly less likely to talk with patients about menopause for ≥ 15 minutes (OR 0.160), and were less likely to say that the benefit of HT was “very high” for symptom alleviation (OR 0.253) or osteoporosis prevention (OR 0.146). Physicians in Beirut were most likely to obtain a mammogram and an endometrial biopsy prior to treating symptoms. Physicians in Massachusetts (OR 0.298) and Rabat (OR 0.399) were significantly less apt to describe their concern about breast cancer as “serious.” Conclusions Prescription patterns and perceived benefits of HT appear to reflect local medical culture rather than simply physician characteristics. The impact of the WHI study was seen in prescribing patterns and concerns about HT. Physicians in all 4 countries were generally well informed. PMID:18178044

  9. Ecology drives intragenomic conflict over menopause

    PubMed Central

    Úbeda, Francisco; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Gardner, Andy; Baalen, Minus

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is the transition from reproductive to non-reproductive life well before natural death. Rather than involving a smooth, rapid change, it is normally preceded by a long period of erratic hormonal fluctuation that is accompanied by a plethora of unpleasant symptoms. Here, we (1) suggest that this turbulent period owes to conflict, between a woman's maternally inherited (MI) and paternally inherited (PI) genes, over the trade-off between reproduction and communal care; (2) perform a theoretical analysis to show that this conflict is resolved either through silencing or fluctuating expression of one of the genes; (3) highlight which of the symptoms preceding menopause may result from antagonistic co-evolution of MI and PI genes; (4) argue that ecological differences between ancestral human populations may explain the variability in menopause among different ethnic groups; (5) discuss how these insights may be used to inform family planning and cancer risk assessment based on a woman's ancestral background. PMID:24320989

  10. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26327890

  11. Metabolic disorders in menopause.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance - IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus - T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  12. Dermatosis associated with menopause

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising. PMID:25540566

  13. Menopause in the workplace: What employers should be doing.

    PubMed

    Jack, Gavin; Riach, Kathleen; Bariola, Emily; Pitts, Marian; Schapper, Jan; Sarrel, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Large numbers of women transition through menopause whilst in paid employment. Symptoms associated with menopause may cause difficulties for working women, especially if untreated, yet employers are practically silent on this potentially costly issue. This review summarises existing research on the underexplored topic of menopause in the workplace, and synthesises recommendations for employers. Longstanding scholarly interest in the relationship between employment status and symptom reporting typically (but not consistently) shows that women in paid employment (and in specific occupations) report fewer and less severe symptoms than those who are unemployed. Recent studies more systematically focused on the effects of menopausal symptoms on work are typically cross-sectional self-report surveys, with a small number of qualitative studies. Though several papers established that vasomotor (and associated) symptoms have a negative impact on women's productivity, capacity to work and work experience, this is not a uniform finding. Psychological and other somatic symptoms associated with menopause can have a relatively greater negative influence. Physical (e.g., workplace temperature and design) and psychosocial (e.g., work stress, perceptions of control/autonomy) workplace factors have been found to influence the relationship between symptoms and work. Principal recommendations for employers to best support menopausal women as part of a holistic approach to employee health and well-being include risk assessments to make suitable adjustments to the physical and psychosocial work environment, provision of information and support, and training for line managers. Limitations of prior studies, and directions for future research are presented.

  14. Understanding and Managing Menopause | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... life," is different for each woman. For example, hot flashes and sleep problems may trouble your sister. ... But you might not have menopause symptoms like hot flashes right then because if your ovaries are ...

  15. Managing Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2010-01-01

    The menopausal transition is associated with both first onset of depression and recurrent depression. Risk factors include vasomotor symptoms, a history of premenstrual dysphoria, postpartum depression, major depression, and sleep disturbances. Hormone replacement therapy, complementary and alternative medicine approaches, and counseling…

  16. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  17. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity

    PubMed Central

    Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause. PMID:26327888

  18. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity.

    PubMed

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause.

  19. Empowerment and Coping Strategies in Menopause Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Menopause is described as a period of psychological difficulties that changes the lifestyle of women in multiple ways. Menopausal women require more information about their physical and psychosocial needs. Empowerment during the menopause can contribute to improving the perception of this stage and the importance of self-care. It is essential to increase women’s awareness and adaptation to menopause, using empowerment programs. The aim of this study was to review the empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases were scanned for relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed, using the combinations of the keywords "empowerment, menopause, coping with" to review relevant literature and higher education journals. Results: Most interventions for menopause women have focused on educational intervention, physical activity/exercise, healthy diet, stress management, healthy behaviors, preventing certain diseases and osteoporosis. Health education intervention strategy is one of the alternative strategies for improving women's attitudes and coping with menopause symptoms, identified as severalof the subcategories of health promotion programs. Conclusions: Empowerment of menopausal women will guarantee their health during the last third of their life. It will also help them benefit from their final years of reproductive life. The results of the present study can pave the way for future research about women’s health promotion and empowerment. PMID:26019897

  20. Managing menopause.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy; Fortier, Michel; Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Graves, Lisa; Guthrie, Bing; Khan, Aliya; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Objectif : Offrir, aux fournisseurs de soins de santé, une mise à jour de la directive clinique quant à la prise en charge de la ménopause chez les femmes asymptomatiques en santé, ainsi que chez les femmes qui présentent des symptômes vasomoteurs ou urogénitaux; cette mise à jour se penche également sur les facteurs associés à la maladie cardiovasculaire, au cancer du sein, à l’urogynécologie et à la sexualité. Issues : Les interventions quant au mode de vie, les médicaments d’ordonnance et les traitements de médecine complémentaire et parallèle sont présentés en fonction de leur efficacité dans la prise en charge des symptômes ménopausiques. Des stratégies de counseling et thérapeutiques en ce qui concerne les préoccupations en matière de sexualité au cours de la périménopause et de la postménopause sont passées en revue. Des approches quant à l’identification et à l’évaluation des femmes exposées à un risque élevé d’ostéoporose (ainsi que des options en matière de prévention et de traitement) sont présentées dans la directive clinique sur l’ostéoporose qui accompagne les présentes. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed et The Cochrane Library, en août et en septembre 2012, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « hormone replacement therapy », « menopause », « cardiovascular diseases » et « sexual function ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « HRT », « perimenopause », « heart disease » et « sexuality »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux directives cliniques, aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Les résultats ont également été restreints aux documents publiés, en anglais ou en français, à partir de 2009. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la

  1. Hand osteoarthritis, menopause and menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona E

    2016-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest musculoskeletal conditions, primarily affecting women over the age of 50, typically around the age of the menopause. Symptomatic disease can give rise to substantial pain, impairment of hand function and quality of life, leading to significant socioeconomic cost. There is currently no disease-modifying therapy, representing a huge unmet clinical need. The evidence for a relationship between hand OA and the menopause is summarised. Whether there is evidence for an effect of menopausal hormonal therapy on the incidence, prevalence or severity of symptomatic hand OA is critically reviewed, and gaps in our knowledge identified. Lastly, the potential mechanisms by which estrogen, or newer agents such as SERMs, might act to interfere with disease pathogenesis are overviewed. The need for specifically designed, controlled trials of agents in cohorts with symptomatic hand OA, refractory to standard symptomatic management is highlighted.

  2. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Daily, James W.; Yang, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although turmeric and its curcumin-enriched extracts have been used for treating arthritis, no systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been conducted to evaluate the strength of the research. We systemically evaluated all RCTs of turmeric extracts and curcumin for treating arthritis symptoms to elucidate the efficacy of curcuma for alleviating the symptoms of arthritis. Literature searches were conducted using 12 electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Korean databases, Chinese medical databases, and Indian scientific database. Search terms used were “turmeric,” “curcuma,” “curcumin,” “arthritis,” and “osteoarthritis.” A pain visual analogue score (PVAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were used for the major outcomes of arthritis. Initial searches yielded 29 articles, of which 8 met specific selection criteria. Three among the included RCTs reported reduction of PVAS (mean difference: −2.04 [−2.85, −1.24]) with turmeric/curcumin in comparison with placebo (P < .00001), whereas meta-analysis of four studies showed a decrease of WOMAC with turmeric/curcumin treatment (mean difference: −15.36 [−26.9, −3.77]; P = .009). Furthermore, there was no significant mean difference in PVAS between turmeric/curcumin and pain medicine in meta-analysis of five studies. Eight RCTs included in the review exhibited low to moderate risk of bias. There was no publication bias in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, these RCTs provide scientific evidence that supports the efficacy of turmeric extract (about 1000 mg/day of curcumin) in the treatment of arthritis. However, the total number of RCTs included in the analysis, the total sample size, and the methodological quality of the primary studies were not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Thus, more rigorous and larger studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic efficacy

  3. Phytoestrogens and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Mackey, R; Eden, J

    1998-12-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as naturally occurring plant compounds that are structurally and functionally similar to 17 beta-estradiol or that produce estrogenic effects. The commonest sources are cereals, legumes and grasses. Isoflavones are the most highly investigated subgroup of phytoestrogens. They are attenuated estrogens and behave both in vivo and in vitro as agonists and antagonists. The highest concentrations are found in soy beans and legumes. The relative potencies of isoflavones as compared to estradiol are small but they can exhibit bioactivity when tested in high concentrations. A high dietary intake of phytoestrogens was first noted to be associated with a decreased incidence of certain diseases. This epidemiological information was obtained primarily from studying Asian populations. Soy consumption is highest in Japan, where urinary levels of phytoestrogen metabolites are extremely high, and where there are lower rates of so-called 'Western' diseases, namely breast, endometrial, colon and prostatic cancers as well as atherosclerotic disease. These observations have prompted extensive research, which has demonstrated the varying degrees of estrogenicity of these phytoestrogen compounds. This article provides an epidemiological background to phytoestrogens, a brief description of their composition and biochemistry, and an overview of the literature to date on phytoestrogens with an emphasis on relief of menopausal symptoms.

  4. [Isoflavones in menopause women].

    PubMed

    Gris Martínez, José M

    2006-09-09

    Phytoestrogens are composed derivatives of vegetables. The 2 main classes of interest to human health are lignans and isoflavones. Isoflavones exist in at least 15 different chemical forms and their effect on human health has been investigated to some extent (particularly, genistein and daidzein as high levels of these compounds are present in soybean). Isoflavones have similar structure to oestrogen and have the capacity to exert both oestrogenic and anti oestrogenic effects. They may block the effects of oestrogen in some tissues (e. g., the breast and endometrium), but act like an oestrogen in providing possible protection against bone loss and heart disease. Lignans are much more widespread in plant foods but investigation has been limited due to the complexity of measurement. The increasing interest in the use of the soybean and the phytoestrogens derived from the soybean is due to the results published on experimental animal actions, and in human case-control studies. There are many observational and epidemiologists studies that suggest the potential benefit of isoflavones on the menopause symptoms, the cardiovascular system, the osteoporosis and the estrogen dependent cancers, but many open questions exist. We must be very strict with certain observational studies by the possible influences of collateral factors to the isoflavones (exercise, type of diet, etc.), and attribute the beneficial effects may be due to own treatment.

  5. Educational Approach to Menopausal Distress

    PubMed Central

    Stirtzinger, Ruth; Robinson, G. Erlick; Crawford, Belinda

    1992-01-01

    A brief menopause education workshop conducted by a psychiatrist and a gynecologist presented information on the physical, psychological, and sociocultural aspects of menopause. Before the course, 73% of participants were anxious about the menopause, and 54% felt a woman's body ceased functioning well at menopause. After the course, all the women felt less anxious, depressed, and irritable and more hopeful about themselves. PMID:21221255

  6. Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Andany, Nisha; Kennedy, V Logan; Aden, Muna; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Since the implementation of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a life-threatening condition into a chronic disease. As people with HIV are living longer, aging and its associated manifestations have become key priorities as part of HIV care. For women with HIV, menopause is an important part of aging to consider. Women currently represent more than one half of HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Given the vast proportion of women living with HIV who are, and will be, transitioning through age-related life events, the interaction between HIV infection and menopause must be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Menopause is a major clinical event that is universally experienced by women, but affects each individual woman uniquely. This transitional time in women’s lives has various clinical implications including physical and psychological symptoms, and accelerated development and progression of other age-related comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, and bone mineral disease; all of which are potentially heightened by HIV or its treatment. Furthermore, within the context of HIV, there are the additional considerations of HIV acquisition and transmission risk, progression of infection, changes in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, response, and toxicities. These menopausal manifestations and complications must be managed concurrently with HIV, while keeping in mind the potential influence of menopause on the prognosis of HIV infection itself. This results in additional complexity for clinicians caring for women living with HIV, and highlights the shifting paradigm in HIV care that must accompany this aging and evolving population. PMID:26834498

  7. "Why can't you control this?" How women's interactions with intimate partners define menopause and family.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather E

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explore women's discussions of the interactions that families have about menopause and, thus, attempt to broaden feminist knowledge of women's experiences of menopause within families. Data on which this article is based were collected in 61 in-depth interviews with menopausal women in a midwest state in 2001. Findings suggest that biomedical definitions of menopause are often reaffirmed within interactions between intimate partners. Thus, women reported negative familial interactions about menopause, as they were encouraged to define symptoms as problematic and seek medical treatment. Alternatively, some interviewees reported positive interactions about menopause, as a few partners helped them soothe symptoms and follow health regimens. Women interpreted these latter interactions as support or care, rather than surveillance or monitoring. The author concludes that familial interactions bolster dominant constructions of both menopause and family because, as menopause is discussed between intimate partners, definitions of gendered familial roles and responsibilities are cemented.

  8. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  9. From Hot Flashes to Cool Insights: Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause From Hot Flashes to Cool Insights: Menopause Winter 2017 Table ... experienced the menopausal transition. Researching "the menopause transition" Hot flashes, weight gain, night sweats, insomnia, and moodiness— ...

  10. Skin academy: hair, skin, hormones and menopause - current status/knowledge on the management of hair disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Atkin, Stephen; Gieler, Uwe; Grimalt, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is defined by 12 months of amenorrhea after the final menstrual period. The reduction in ovarian hormones and increased androgen levels can manifest as hair and skin disorders. Although hirsutism, unwanted facial hair, alopecia, skin atrophy and slackness of facial skin are common issues encountered by post-menopausal women, these problems receive very little attention relative to other menopausal symptoms. The visibility of these disorders has been shown to cause significant anxiety and may impact on patients' self-esteem and quality of life, particularly given the strong association of hair and skin with a woman's femininity and beauty, which is demonstrated by extensive marketing by the cosmetic industry targeting this population and the large expenditure on these products by menopausal women. The proportion of the female population who are in the post-menopausal age group is rising. Therefore, the prevalence of these dermatological symptoms is likely to increase. Current therapies aim to rectify underlying hormonal imbalances and improve cosmetic appearance. However, there is little evidence to support treatment for these disorders specifically in post-menopausal women. This review discusses the assessment and treatment of both the physiological and psychological aspects of hair and skin disorders pertinent to the growing post-menopausal population.

  11. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  12. Toward a Biology of Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Madeleine

    1980-01-01

    Discusses research dealing with the study of menopause. Underscores the problems with the case study method. Discusses two population-based studies and the problems of age adjustment and measurement in menopause research. Highlights alternate research strategies. (MK)

  13. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  14. The menopausal hot flush: a review.

    PubMed

    Sturdee, D W; Hunter, M S; Maki, P M; Gupta, P; Sassarini, J; Stevenson, J C; Lumsden, M A

    2017-04-05

    The hot flush is the most characteristic and often the most distressing symptom of the menopause. It is a unique feature and yet the mechanism and health implications are still not fully understood. This review summarizes some of the current thoughts on factors contributing to flushing, the physiological, vascular and neuroendocrine changes associated with flushing and the possible cardiovascular and other health implications for women experiencing hot flushes. Therapy is not discussed.

  15. Cardiac tumour masquerades as mid-life (menopause) event

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Gareth J; Goode, Emily F; Godazgar, Faezah; Dubrey, Simon William

    2013-01-01

    Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumours encountered. Their detection may be incidental, owing to embolic events, intracardiac obstructive features or in some cases, non-specific constitutional symptoms. We describe a middle-aged woman attributing constitutional symptoms to menopause, but later determined to be due to an atrial myxoma. PMID:23362067

  16. Liver disease in menopause.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  17. [Transdermal estrogenic therapy in menopause].

    PubMed

    Nencioni, T; Polvani, F; Penotti, M; Porcaro, E; Barbieri Carones, M

    1989-01-01

    The availability of percutaneous estrogenic preparations capable of directly entering the bloodstream, avoiding the liver, has opened new prospects in the treatment of the climacteric syndrome. The purpose of our work has been to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of a percutaneous 17-beta-estradiol-oral progestin association with an all oral association of conjugated estrogens and progestins and to evaluate the ability to control menopausal symptoms and biohumoral characteristics. 42 (1 to 7 years postmenopausal) heavily symptomatic patients were selected at the "Centro per lo studio e la terapia del climaterio" in Milan and divided in two equally sized groups. One group was treated using the percutaneous therapy, the other with the all-oral one. The results show that percutaneous administration leads to a quicker control of vasomotor symptomatology and metabolic effects similar to oral administration.

  18. Novel use of the ovarian follicular pool to postpone menopause and delay osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-08-01

    Life expectancy has increased by more than 30 years during the last century and continues to increase. Many women already live decades in menopause deprived of naturally produced oestradiol and progesterone, leading to an increasing incidence of menopause-related disorders such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and lack of general well-being. Exogenous oestradiol has traditionally been used to alleviate menopause-related effects. This commentary discusses a radical new method to postpone menopause. Part of the enormous surplus of ovarian follicles can now be cryostored in youth for use after menopause. Excision of ovarian tissue will advance menopause marginally and will not reduce natural fertility. Grafted tissue restores ovarian function with circulating concentrations of sex steroids for years in post-menopausal cancer survivors. Future developments may further utilize the enormous store of ovarian follicles. Currently, the main goal of ovarian cryopreservation is fertility preservation, but grafting of ovarian tissue may also serve endocrine functions as a physiological solution to prevent the massive medical legacy of osteoporosis and menopause-related conditions in the ageing population. This intriguing solution is now technically available; the question is whether this method qualifies for postponing menopause, perhaps initially for those patients who already have cryostored tissue?

  19. Exercising after Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... before beginning a new exercise program. Benefits of Exercise for Post-Menopausal Women Helps prevent osteoporosis by keeping bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy. Reduces the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases by increasing heart and respiratory rates. Keeps your ...

  20. Metabolic implications of menopause.

    PubMed

    Polotsky, Hanah N; Polotsky, Alex J

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases substantially during perimenopause and early menopause. Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of hypertension, proatherogenic lipid changes, diabetes, and severe cardiovascular disease as compared with their premenopausal counterparts. Whether or not menopause has a causative contribution to the deteriorating metabolic profile that is independent of chronological aging has been a subject of many studies. Menopausal transition is associated with significant weight gain (2 to 2.5 kg over 3 years on average), which is not dissimilar to that in premenopausal women of like age. Concomitantly, there is an increase in abdominal adiposity and a decrease in energy expenditure, phenomena that have been postulated to explain the higher risk of metabolic syndrome and increases in cholesterol and triglycerides. Hypertension and diabetes become more prevalent with age and should be timely diagnosed and treated. Lifestyle changes including moderately decreased caloric intake and aerobic exercise could prevent proatherogenic changes and weight gain observed with aging. Accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk in midlife women is essential to help identify the subset of women who are likely to benefit from intensive management of metabolic risk factors. This review focuses on metabolic changes associated with menopausal transition, specifically alterations in weight, waist circumference, body fat distribution, energy expenditure, and circulating biomarkers including adipokines.

  1. Rationale and study design of a patient-centered intervention to improve health status in chronic heart failure: The Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bekelman, David B; Allen, Larry A; Peterson, Jamie; Hattler, Brack; Havranek, Edward P; Fairclough, Diane L; McBryde, Connor F; Meek, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    While contemporary heart failure management has led to some improvements in morbidity and mortality, patients continue to report poor health status (i.e., burdensome symptoms, impaired function, and poor quality of life). The Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) trial is a NIH-funded, three-site, randomized clinical trial that examines the effect of the CASA intervention compared to usual care on the primary outcome of patient-reported health status at 6months in patients with heart failure and poor health status. The CASA intervention involves a nurse who works with patients to treat symptoms (e.g., shortness of breath, fatigue, pain) using disease-specific and palliative approaches, and a social worker who provides psychosocial care targeting depression and adjustment to illness. The intervention uses a collaborative care team model of health care delivery and is structured and primarily phone-based to enhance reproducibility and scalability. This article describes the rationale and design of the CASA trial, including several decision points: (1) how to design a patient-centered intervention to improve health status; (2) how to structure the intervention so that it is reproducible and scalable; and (3) how to systematically identify outpatients with heart failure most likely to need and benefit from the intervention. The results should provide valuable information to providers and health systems about the use of team care to manage symptoms and provide psychosocial care in chronic illness.

  2. Suplatast tosilate alleviates nasal symptoms through the suppression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-mediated IL-9 gene expression in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Naoki; Kadota, Takuya; Kominami, Takahiro; Das, Asish K; Sawada, Akiho; Tamada, Misaki; Miyagi, Kohei; Adachi, Tsubasa; Matsumoto, Mayumi; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis; its expression level is highly correlated with the nasal symptom severity. Antihistamines are widely used as allergy treatments because they inhibit histamine signaling by blocking H1R or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. However, long-term treatment with antihistamines does not completely resolve toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced nasal symptoms, although it can decrease H1R gene expression to the basal level, suggesting additional signaling is responsible for the pathogenesis of the allergic symptoms. Here, we show that treatment with suplatast tosilate in combination with antihistamines markedly alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats. Suplatast suppressed TDI-induced upregulation of IL-9 gene expression. Suplatast also suppressed ionomycin/phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced upregulation of IL-2 gene expression in Jurkat cells, in which calcineurin (CN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling is known to be involved. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that suplatast inhibited binding of NFAT to DNA. Furthermore, suplatast suppressed ionomycin-induced IL-9 mRNA upregulation in RBL-2H3 cells, in which CN/NFAT signaling is also involved. These data suggest that suplatast suppressed NFAT-mediated IL-9 gene expression in TDI-sensitized rats and this might be the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of combined therapy of suplatast with antihistamine.

  3. What Are the Symptoms of Menopause?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006). Extent and health consequences of chronic sleep loss and sleep disorders. In Colten, H. R., & Altevogt, B. M. (Eds.), Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: An unmet public health problem (page 55). Washington, ...

  4. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  5. Reproductive aging, menopause, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Stovall, Dale W

    2010-08-01

    Changes in ovarian hormone production may affect numerous health outcomes including vasomotor symptoms, cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, cognition, depression, mood disorders, sexual function, and vaginal atrophy. We will compare age-related changes to those associated with reproductive aging and menopause and the effects of estrogen therapy on selected health outcomes. Hormone therapy (HT) reduces frequency and severity of hot flashes, prevents bone loss and osteoporotic fractures, and relieves vaginal atrophy. Nonhormone therapy trials with antidepressants or gabapentin for hot flash relief are promising. To date, clinical trial data are insufficient to recommend the use of HT for prevention or treatment of CVD, mood disorders, cognition, or sleep disorders. For some disease states, such as CVD and cognition, a "critical time window" has been proposed but not proven, such that estrogen use early in the menopause transition may be beneficial while estrogen use later in life would lead to increased health risks.

  6. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age.

  7. Circadian rhythm and menopause.

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2016-12-01

    Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock which initiates and monitors various physiological processes with a fixed time-related schedule. The master circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The circadian clock undergoes significant changes throughout the life span, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This cyclical physiological process, which is very complex and multifactorial, may be associated with metabolic alterations, atherosclerosis, impaired cognition, mood disturbances and even development of cancer. Sex differences do exist, and the well-known sleep disturbances associated with menopause are a good example. Circadian rhythm was detected in the daily pattern of hot flushes, with a peak in the afternoons. Endogenous secretion of melatonin decreases with aging across genders, and, among women, menopause is associated with a significant reduction of melatonin levels, affecting sleep. Although it might seem that hot flushes and melatonin secretion are likely related, there are not enough data to support such a hypothesis.

  8. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  9. The efficacy of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hot flashes are the most common symptoms experienced by women around the time of menopause. Many women are interested in herbal medicines because of fear of side effects of hormone therapy. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to January 2015), Scopus (1996 to January 2015), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2015) were searched along with, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Medlib and Irandoc. Nineteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Results: Overall, studies showed that Anise (Pimpinella anisum), licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra), Soy, Black cohosh, Red clover, Evening primrose, Flaxseed, Salvia officinalis, Passiflora، itex Agnus Castus, Piascledine (Avacado plus soybean oil), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), and valerian can alleviate the side effects of hot flashes. Conclusion: This research demonstrated the efficacy of herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes, which are embraced both with people and health providers of Iran Therefore, herbal medicine can be seen as an alternative treatment for women experiencing hot flashes. PMID:27294213

  10. First Nations women’s knowledge of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Sharen; St Pierre-Hansen, Natalie; Kelly, Len; Cromarty, Helen; Linkewich, Barbara; Payne, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To understand and describe the menopause experiences and perspectives of First Nations women residing in northwestern Ontario. DESIGN Phenomenologic approach using in-depth qualitative interviews. SETTING Sioux Lookout, Ont, and 4 surrounding First Nations communities. PARTICIPANTS Eighteen perimenopausal and postmenopausal First Nations women, recruited by convenience and snowball sampling techniques. METHODS Semistructured interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Themes emerged through a crystallization and immersion analytical approach. Triangulation of methods was used to ensure reliability of findings. MAIN FINDINGS This study confirms the hypothesis that menopause is generally not discussed by First Nations women, particularly with their health care providers. The generational knowledge gained by the women in this study suggests that a variety of experiences and symptoms typical of menopause from a medical perspective might not be conceptually linked to menopause by First Nations women. The interview process and initial consultation with translators revealed that there is no uniform word in Ojibway or Oji-Cree for menopause. A common phrase is “that time when periods stop,” which can be used by caregivers as a starting point for discussion. Participants’ interest in the topic and their desire for more information might imply that they would welcome the topic being raised by health care providers. CONCLUSION This study speaks to the importance of understanding the different influences on a woman’s menopause experience. Patient communication regarding menopause might be enhanced by providing women with an opportunity or option to discuss the topic with their health care providers. Caregivers should also be cautious of attaching preconceived ideas to the meaning and importance of the menopause experience. PMID:20841572

  11. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Toshiyuki; Seino, Satoshi; Sato, Toshihide; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Masuda, Yasunobu; Fukui, Naoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of oral hyaluronic acid (HA) administration for osteoarthritis (OA) in knee joints. Sixty osteoarthritic subjects (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3) were randomly assigned to the HA or placebo group. The subjects in the HA group were given 200 mg of HA once a day everyday for 12 months, while the subjects in the placebo group were given placebo. The subjects in both groups were requested to conduct quadriceps strengthening exercise everyday as part of the treatment. The subjects' symptoms were evaluated by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) score. The symptoms of the subjects as determined by the JKOM score improved with time in both the HA and placebo groups. This improvement tended to be more obvious with the HA group, and this trend was more obvious with the subjects aged 70 years or less. For these relatively younger subjects, the JKOM score was significantly better than the one for the placebo group at the 2nd and 4th months after the initiation of administration. Oral administration of HA may improve the symptoms of knee OA in patients aged 70 years or younger when combined with the quadriceps strengthening exercise.

  12. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk,

  13. Insomnia in women approaching menopause: Beyond perception.

    PubMed

    Baker, Fiona C; Willoughby, Adrian R; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Colrain, Ian M; de Zambotti, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    The menopausal transition is marked by increased prevalence in disturbed sleep and insomnia, present in 40-60% of women, but evidence for a physiological basis for their sleep complaints is lacking. We aimed to quantify sleep disturbance and the underlying contribution of objective hot flashes in 72 women (age range: 43-57 years) who had (38 women), compared to those who had not (34 women), developed clinical insomnia in association with the menopausal transition. Sleep quality was assessed with two weeks of sleep diaries and one laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording. In multiple regression models controlling for menopausal transition stage, menstrual cycle phase, depression symptoms, and presence of objective hot flashes, a diagnosis of insomnia predicted PSG-measured total sleep time (p < 0.01), sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) (p = 0.01). Women with insomnia had, on average, 43.5 min less PSG-measured sleep time (p < 0.001). There was little evidence of cortical EEG hyperarousal in insomniacs apart from elevated beta EEG power during REM sleep. Estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone levels were unrelated to beta EEG power but were associated with the frequency of hot flashes. Insomniacs were more likely to have physiological hot flashes, and the presence of hot flashes predicted the number of PSG-awakenings per hour of sleep (p = 0.03). From diaries, women with insomnia reported more WASO (p = 0.002), more night-to-night variability in WASO (p < 0.002) and more hot flashes (p = 0.012) compared with controls. Women who develop insomnia in the approach to menopause have a measurable sleep deficit, with almost 50% of the sample having less than 6h of sleep. Compromised sleep that develops in the context of the menopausal transition should be addressed, taking into account unique aspects of menopause like hot flashes, to avoid the known negative health consequences associated with insufficient sleep and insomnia in

  14. A brief history of the International Menopause Society.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Wright, J

    2017-04-01

    Although some understanding of post-reproductive life dates back to Ancient Greece, the term 'menopause' was only introduced in the early 1800s by a French physician. Notwithstanding familiarity with the condition at that time, treatments were largely ineffective, often harmful and never evidence-based, and it was not until 100 years later with the identification and description of estrogen and progesterone that effective treatments became available. So efficacious were hormone therapies for menopausal symptoms that their prescription was often recommended for all postmenopausal women regardless of their needs, wishes or health status. For many there was benefit but for some there was harm. It was in this environment that a small group of clinicians determined to form an International Menopause Society (IMS) to conduct research into the appropriate use of hormone therapy in treating menopause symptoms, to hold regular congresses to educate colleagues and discuss research results and thus to improve the health and well-being of women in midlife and beyond. Formed in 1978, the IMS is now recognized as the global leader in its field, working towards these goals in collaboration with colleagues and other national and regional societies concerned with women's health. During that time, the IMS has been led by 13 Presidents and has conducted 15 World Congresses on the Menopause, all of which are reviewed in this paper.

  15. Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes: Evaluation by Objective Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germaine, Leonard M.; Freedman, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    Used latency to hot flash onset under heat stress to evaluate the effects of relaxation treatment or a control procedure in 14 menopausal women. Following treatment, the latency to hot flash onset during heat stress was increased in relaxation subjects. Reported symptom frequency was significantly reduced in relaxation subjects. (BH)

  16. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jessie S. M.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Chung, Ka-fai; Wang, Chong-wen; Yao, Tzy-jyun; Ng, Siu-man; Chan, Cecilia L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380. PMID:25610473

  17. Qigong exercise alleviates fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, and shortens sleep latency in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-Man; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the "subjective sleep quality" and "sleep latency" items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in "subjective sleep quality" was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  18. [Quality of life in menopause. Experimental research].

    PubMed

    Di Corrado, D; Di Nuovo, S; Catalano, D; Squatrito, R; Sciacchitano, G; Trovato, G M

    2001-01-01

    Psychophysiological relationship in menopausal women was explored by the comparison of stress level and resistance to stress and related symptoms: socio-economic and cultural variables and willingness to participate into a specific therapeutic program were taken into account. One hundred women, aged 44-59 years (54.2 +/- 5.64), that consecutively were referred to an out-patient menopausal Clinic, were studied by a questionnaire that evaluates quality of life (qol) derived and adapted from the Sickness Impact Profile and the Functional Living Test; moreover the test MSP (psychological stress measurement), translated from the original and adapted to Italy, was used. Psychological complaints of women examined are minimal: adaptation tests are substantially normal, and stress index measurements are even lower in comparison with a gender and age matched population group. Our results suggest that after a short period of psychological tension at the onset of climaterium, women acquire a positive, stable status, well different from stereotypes and prejudices around psychological disturbance associated with menopause. Minimal relevance of perceived disturbance seems the reason that limits the women's need and request for a specific therapy. Menopausal depression seems more related to life changes than to hormonal alterations. Reduced physical fitness, increased risk of parental death, difficulty to cope with new roles, apart the care of adult sons or daughters. A critical point is socio-economic level and the possibility to maintain a satisfying work. Contextual conditions, and specially degree of instruction, type of role change inside the family and number of sons, appears the most evident and relevant variables that mediate psychophysical conditions and perceived quality of life.

  19. Ginseng for managing menopausal woman's health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Jiae; Lee, YoungJoo; Kil, Ki-Jung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this systematic review was to update, complete, and critically evaluate the evidence from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ginseng for managing menopausal women's health. Methods: We searched the literature using 13 databases (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 6 Korean Medical, and 3 Chinese Databases) from their inception to July 2016 and included all double-blind RCTs that compared any type of ginseng with a placebo control in postmenopausal women. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using a Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Ten RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Most RCTs had unclear risk of bias. One RCT did not show a significant difference in hot flash frequency between Korean red ginseng (KRG) and placebo. The second RCT reported positive effects of KRG on menopausal symptoms. The third RCT found beneficial effects of ginseng (Ginsena) on depression, well-being, and general health. Four RCTs failed to show significant differences in various hormones between KRG and placebo controls except dehydroepiandrosterone. Two other RCTs failed to show effects of KRG on endometrial thickness in menopausal women. The other RCT also failed to show the effects of American ginseng on oxidative stress markers and other antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: Our systematic review provided positive evidence of ginseng for sexual function and KRG for sexual arousal and total hot flashes score in menopausal women. However, the results of KRG or ginseng failed to show specific effects on hot flash frequency, hormones, biomarkers, or endometrial thickness. The level of evidence for these findings was low because of unclear risk of bias. PMID:27661038

  20. Menopause: Salient Issues for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Marilyn M.; Lynch, Ann Q.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding menopause, with the idea that counselors are in an ideal position to help change attitudes toward viewing menopause as a time of positive change rather than a time of psychological distress. Reviews historical, sociological, psychological, and attitudinal factors that account for negative responses associated with…

  1. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  2. Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Nancy E.

    2003-01-01

    The perception that menopause leads to mood disturbances such as depression has a long history. How did these beliefs come about, and are they supported by the scientific literature? This article reviews the theories of menopause and depression, the scientific literature, and the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment.…

  3. Methods for the Design of Vasomotor Symptom Trials: The MsFLASH Network

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Katherine M.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Caan, Bette; Cohen, Lee S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Joffe, Hadine; Sternfeld, Barbara; Reed, Susan D.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; Kroenke, Kurt; Larson, Joseph C.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This report describes the "Menopausal Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers to Symptoms and Health” (MsFLASH) network and methodological issues addressed in designing and implementing vasomotor symptom trials. Methods Established in response to a National Institute of Health request for applications, the network was charged with conducting rapid throughput randomized trials of novel and understudied available interventions postulated to alleviate vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. Included are descriptions of and rationale for criteria used for interventions and study selection, common eligibility and exclusion criteria, common primary and secondary outcome measures, consideration of placebo response, establishment of a biorepository, trial duration, screening and recruitment, statistical methods, and quality control. All trial designs are presented including: 1) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate effectiveness of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in reducing vasomotor symptom frequency and severity; 2) a 2×3 factorial design trial to test three different interventions (yoga, exercise, and omega-3 supplementation) for improvement of vasomotor symptom frequency and bother; and 3) a three-arm comparative efficacy trial of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine and low-dose oral estradiol versus placebo for reducing vasomotor symptom frequency compared to placebo. The network’s structure and governance are also discussed. Conclusions The methods used and lessons learned in the MsFLASH trials are shared to encourage and support the conduct of similar trials and encourage collaborations with other researchers. PMID:23760428

  4. Non-obligatory role of prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1 in rosacea: laropiprant in comparison to a placebo did not alleviate the symptoms of erythematoelangiectaic rosacea.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajesh; Guo, Ying; Schulz, Valerie; Cord-Cruz, Evyan; Smith, Shanna; Hair, Suzanne; Nahm, Walter K; Draelos, Zoe D

    2015-02-01

    Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea shares facial flushing features with those seen after niacin. This study was performed to test the hypothesis whether prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor subtype 1 antagonist (laropiprant) will improve the symptoms of rosacea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laropiprant 100 mg administered once daily for 4 weeks on the signs and symptoms of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Subjects received laropiprant 100 mg once-daily (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 4 weeks. The primary pharmacodynamics endpoint was change in Clinician's Erythema Assessment (CEA) score from baseline to week 4. The patient self-assessment (PSA) was a secondary endpoint. Laropiprant was generally well tolerated in this study for the primary endpoint of change in CEA score from Baseline to Week 4, the least-squares mean of change from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was -3.7 and -3.4 for placebo and laropiprant (100 mg), respectively. The least-squares mean difference (placebo minus laropiprant) with 90% confidence interval of change in CEA score from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was estimated as -0.3 (-1.6, 1.0). For the secondary endpoint, the least-squares mean difference (placebo minus laropiprant) with 90% confidence interval of change from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was estimated as -0.7 (-7.7, 6.4) for PSA total score, -4.5 (-14.2, 5.3) for PSA emotion score, -1.3 (-7.8, 5.3) for PSA symptoms score, and 3.6 (-4.3, 11.4) for PSA functioning score. Laropiprant administered once daily for 4 weeks was generally well tolerated in this population of subjects with rosacea. However, there were no clinically meaningful changes in the primary endpoint of CEA given that the response to laropiprant could not be differentiated from that to placebo. There was also no clinically meaningful change in the secondary endpoint, PSA. A DP1 antagonist is not likely to be effective in rosacea.

  5. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M.; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Methods The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. Results In vitro, BU08070 (10−10–10−6 M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effect of BU08070 was observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Conclusion Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. PMID:24815321

  6. Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Efficient Ameliorating Effects of Acupoint Stimulations on the Menopause-caused Alterations in Mammalian Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Xu, Yunxiang; Lei, Hehua; Zhao, Ying; Li, Huihui; Lin, Xiaosheng; Chen, Guizhen; Tang, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies.

  7. Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Efficient Ameliorating Effects of Acupoint Stimulations on the Menopause-caused Alterations in Mammalian Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Xu, Yunxiang; Lei, Hehua; Zhao, Ying; Li, Huihui; Lin, Xiaosheng; Chen, Guizhen; Tang, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies. PMID:24407431

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  9. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  10. Development of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene, the first tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) for management of menopausal hot flashes and postmenopausal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Komm, Barry S; Mirkin, Sebastian; Jenkins, Simon N

    2014-11-01

    Conjugated estrogens (CE) combined with the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) bazedoxifene (BZA) is a new option for alleviating menopausal symptoms and preventing postmenopausal bone loss. The rationale for developing the tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) CE/BZA was to combine CE's benefits with the SERM's tissue-specific properties to offset estrogenic stimulation of endometrial and breast tissue. TSECs provide a progestin-free alternative to traditional estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) in women with a uterus. Preclinical studies supported bazedoxifene as the SERM of choice and demonstrated that CE/BZA provided an optimal balance of estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist activity compared with other potential TSEC pairings. Initial clinical development of CE/BZA focused on determining the appropriate dose ratio that would demonstrate efficacy with minimal to no stimulation of the breast or endometrium. Clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of the selected doses for maintaining bone mass; relieving vasomotor symptoms, vulvar-vaginal atrophy, and dyspareunia; and improving sexual function in postmenopausal women. Reduction of hot flashes also translated into improved menopause-specific quality of life and sleep. Unlike EPT, the FDA-approved dose of CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20mg does not cause a change in breast density or the endometrium, or increase breast pain compared with placebo. In clinical trials up to 2 years, CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg has a favorable tolerability profile and rates of coronary heart disease, venous thromboembolism, and amenorrhea similar to placebo. Therefore, CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg is an effective, well-tolerated alternative to EPT for menopausal symptom relief and osteoporosis prevention for postmenopausal women with a uterus.

  11. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. The Relaxation Exercise and Social Support Trial (RESST): a community-based randomized controlled trial to alleviate medically unexplained vaginal discharge symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms such as medically unexplained vaginal discharge (MUVD) are common and bothersome, leading to potentially unnecessary use of resources. Methods A community-based individually randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a relatively simple, culturally appropriate multi-component intervention on reducing reported MUVD, among women suffering from low-moderate levels of common mental distress. The setting was a socio-economically deprived, informal settlement in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon. The intervention comprised up to 12 group sessions implemented over a six-week period, each divided into a psychosocial and a relaxation exercise component. The primary outcome was self-reported MUVD, which was defined as a complaint of vaginal discharge upon ruling out reproductive tract infections (RTIs), through lab analysis. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms were the secondary outcomes for this trial. These were assessed using an Arabic validated version of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Assessments were done at baseline and six months using face-to face interviews, pelvic examinations and laboratory tests. Women were randomized into either intervention or control group. Blinding on the intervention status was not possible for both logistic and ethical reasons, especially as knowledge of involvement in the intervention was integral to its delivery. Intent to treat analysis was used. Results Of 75 women randomized to the intervention, 48% reported MUVD at 6 months compared with 63% of 73 in the control group (difference of -15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -31%, 0%, p=0.067). Adjustments for baseline imbalances and any factors relating to consent had no appreciable effect on these results. The risk of MUVD was reduced in absolute terms by 2.4% for each intervention session attended (95% CI -4.9%, 0.0%, p=0.049). While there was also marginal evidence of a beneficial effect on anxiety, there was no evidence of mediation

  13. Cellulite in menopause.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Menopause is a physiological process related to the increasing insufficiency of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. The pool of ovarian follicles capable of synthesizing female sex hormones becomes gradually depleted. In response to the sequence of endocrine changes of premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, systemic somatic and emotional disturbances appear. Skin is the target organ for sex hormones. In women, the trophicity and appearance of the skin are most significantly affected by female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone. However, this review also emphasizes the influences of other hormones on the skin and subcutaneous tissue. During menopause, a low estrogen concentration is responsible for increased vascular permeability and decreased vascular tone, which lead to microcirculation impairment and are important factors predisposing to the development of cellulite. The effects of estrogen deficiency on the skin connective tissue include a decreased production and topical content of both type I and III collagen and elastin fibers, which also contributes to cellulite. This paper presents diagnostic methods and clinical types of cellulite, as well as principal instrumental and manual treatments used for the reduction of the condition. Preparations containing ingredients which help to improve the metabolism of subcutaneous fat and enhance blood and lymphatic circulation, applied in cosmetology and esthetic medicine practice, have been reviewed. Furthermore, we provide an array of opinions regarding the effectiveness of treatment modalities presented here.

  14. Cellulite in menopause

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process related to the increasing insufficiency of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. The pool of ovarian follicles capable of synthesizing female sex hormones becomes gradually depleted. In response to the sequence of endocrine changes of premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, systemic somatic and emotional disturbances appear. Skin is the target organ for sex hormones. In women, the trophicity and appearance of the skin are most significantly affected by female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone. However, this review also emphasizes the influences of other hormones on the skin and subcutaneous tissue. During menopause, a low estrogen concentration is responsible for increased vascular permeability and decreased vascular tone, which lead to microcirculation impairment and are important factors predisposing to the development of cellulite. The effects of estrogen deficiency on the skin connective tissue include a decreased production and topical content of both type I and III collagen and elastin fibers, which also contributes to cellulite. This paper presents diagnostic methods and clinical types of cellulite, as well as principal instrumental and manual treatments used for the reduction of the condition. Preparations containing ingredients which help to improve the metabolism of subcutaneous fat and enhance blood and lymphatic circulation, applied in cosmetology and esthetic medicine practice, have been reviewed. Furthermore, we provide an array of opinions regarding the effectiveness of treatment modalities presented here. PMID:26327870

  15. Sexuality and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Joan

    2009-02-01

    Sexuality is innate within all women to a greater or lesser extent, and is affected by a number of extrinsic factors that occur in the menopausal transition. Assessing hormone status is difficult as evidence exists that sex hormones may differ between ethnic groups, and that bio-assays may be insensitive at lower testosterone levels. Data are available on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction, but results from cross-sectional studies differ from those of longitudinal studies. The original traditional models of human sexual response have been challenged, and new models have been defined which show more complex interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Definitions of sexual dysfunction have been redefined. There are a limited number of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of drugs to improve sexual function. These include sildenafil citrate, tibolone and hormone replacement therapy. Randomized controlled trials on testosterone replacement in naturally and/or surgically menopausal patients with female sexual dysfunction have been criticized for a high placebo response rate and short duration. This chapter seeks to put sexuality into perspective and to define both function and dysfunction.

  16. Managing the menopause - British Menopause Society Council consensus statement on hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Joan; Rees, Margaret C P; Gray, Sarah; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Stevenson, John; Williamson, Jennifer

    2003-09-01

    The British Menopause Society Council aims to aid health professionals to inform and advise women about the menopause. The oestrogen plus progestogen arm of the Women's Health Initiative was stopped in July 2002. This guidance regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use responds to the results and analysis that have been published since then. Because there are few effective alternatives to HRT for vasomotor and urogenital symptoms, oestrogen-based treatments still have a major role. HRT is also most effective for prevention of osteoporosis. Unopposed oestrogens are contraindicated in women with an intact uterus, and hence a range of oestrogen and progestogen combinations, with differing routes of delivery, now exists under the title of "HRT". Treatment choice should be based on up to date information and targeted to individual women's needs. Hormone replacement still offers the potential for benefit to outweigh harm, providing the appropriate regimen has been instigated in terms of dose, route and combination.

  17. An innovative metal base denture design for a 55-year-old menopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vishwas; Bhatia, Garima; Jain, Nitul; Jadon, Ashwani Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a normal developmental stage in a woman's life, marking the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from irreversible changes in the hormonal and reproductive functions of the ovaries and is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. Some of the common oral manifestations are oral burning sensation with associated mucosal infections, pain, altered taste perception, and alveolar bone loss. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to devise newer methods that would add along to the treatment modalities advised by gynecologists in relieving menopausal women from above symptoms. The present case report describes an innovative method of fabricating a metal base denture in an edentulous female that would help perimenopausal/menopausal/post-menopausal edentulous women feel hot/cold sensations of food/liquids, thereby giving them relief from pain, better taste perception, and relief from associated allergic and candidal infections that are common with conventional acrylic base dentures. PMID:24082754

  18. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  19. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Manfrini, Enrico; Ferri, Emanuele; La Ferla, Barbara; Schiano, Irene; Michelotti, Angela; Nobile, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The efficacy of supplementation treatment with two multispecies probiotic formulates on subjects diagnosed with IBS-C and the assessment of their gut microbiota were investigated. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, three-arm parallel group trial was carried out on 150 IBS-C subjects divided into three groups (F_1, F_2, and F_3). Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 60 days) F_1 or F_2 or placebo F_3, respectively. Fecal microbiological analyses were performed by species-specific qPCR to assess the different amount of probiotics. Results. The percentage of responders for each symptom was higher in the probiotic groups when compared to placebo group during the treatment period (t60) and was maintained quite similar during the follow-up period (t90). Fecal analysis demonstrated that probiotics of the formulations increased during the times of treatment only in fecal DNA from subjects treated with F_1 and F_2 and not with F_3, and the same level was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions. Multispecies probiotic supplementations are effective in IBS-C subjects and induce a different assessment in the composition of intestinal microbiota. This clinical study is registered with the clinical study registration number ISRCTN15032219. PMID:27595104

  20. EMAS recommendations for conditions in the workplace for menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Amanda; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    Women form a large part of many workforces throughout Europe. Many will be working throughout their menopausal years. Whilst the menopause may cause no significant problems for some, for others it is known to present considerable difficulties in both their personal and working lives. During the menopausal transition women report that fatigue and difficulties with memory and concentration can have a negative impact on their working lives. Furthermore, hot flushes can be a source of embarrassment and distress. Some consider that these symptoms can impact on their performance. Greater awareness among employers, together with sensitive and flexible management can be helpful for women at this time. Particular strategies might include: fostering a culture whereby employees feel comfortable disclosing health problems, allowing flexible working, reducing sources of work-related stress, providing easy access to cold drinking water and toilets, and reviewing workplace temperature and ventilation.

  1. Herbs, menopause, and dialysis.

    PubMed

    Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Dahl, Naomi V

    2002-01-01

    Women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for menstrual disorders, early menopause, and osteoporosis, and rarely discuss gynecologic and reproductive issues with their nephrologist. Various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products are of interest to women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who have these disorders. However, very little is known about the specifics of using herbal medicines in patients on chronic dialysis, resulting in numerous problems when patients and providers try to ascertain the safety and efficacy of these products. This article reviews evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of black cohosh, ginseng, chastetree, dong quai, evening primrose oil, soy products, and the so-called natural hormones. Pharmacologic parameters important to evaluating the quality of botanical products are discussed, along with recommendations and information resources.

  2. The menopause transition in women living with HIV: current evidence and future avenues of research.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Shema; Anderson, Jane; Burns, Fiona; Delpech, Valerie; Gilson, Richard; Sabin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    As the life expectancy of people living with HIV improves as a result of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are now reaching menopausal age. The menopause transition in WLHIV remains a relatively overlooked area in clinical HIV research. Whilst there is some evidence to suggest that WLHIV experience menopause at an earlier age and that they have more menopausal symptoms, there is no clear consensus in the literature around an impact of HIV infection on either timing or symptomatology of the menopause. Data are also conflicting on whether HIV-related factors such as HIV viral load and CD4 cell count have an impact on the menopause. Furthermore, menopausal symptoms in WLHIV are known to go under-recognised by both healthcare providers and women themselves. There is likely to be a burden of unmet health needs among WLHIV transitioning through the menopause, with significant gaps in the evidence base for their care. With this in mind, we have developed the PRIME study (Positive Transitions Through the Menopause). This mixed-methods observational study will explore, for the first time in the UK, the impact of the menopause on the health and wellbeing of 1500 ethnically diverse WLHIV. In establishing a cohort of women in their midlife and following them up longitudinally, we hope to develop a nuanced understanding of the gendered aspects of ageing and HIV, informing the provision of appropriate services for WLHIV to ensure that they are supported in maintaining optimal health and wellbeing as they get older.

  3. Prevention of diseases after menopause.

    PubMed

    Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J

    2014-10-01

    Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium.

  4. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  5. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J

    2014-02-01

    There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century.

  6. Maintaining postreproductive health: A care pathway from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Armeni, Eleni; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    This position statement from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) provides a care pathway for the maintenance of women's health during and after the menopause. It is designed for use by all those involved in women's health. It covers assessment, screening for diseases in later life, treatment and follow-up. Strategies need to be optimised to maintain postreproductive health, in part because of increased longevity. They encompass optimising diet and lifestyle, menopausal hormone therapy and non-estrogen-based treatment options for climacteric symptoms and skeletal conservation, personalised to individual needs.

  7. Ambiguities of aging: Japanese experience and perceptions of menopause.

    PubMed

    Lock, M

    1986-03-01

    The initial findings of this study indicate that menopause is regarded as a natural life-cycle transition in Japan in which the biological marker of cessation of menstruation is not considered to be of great importance. Symptom reporting among all respondents is generally low regardless of menopausal status, and symptoms such as shoulder stiffness and headaches, which are reported frequently, are not linked specifically to menopausal status (even though individual informants may perceive them to be so). Symptoms of hot flashes and sudden perspiration are higher among peri- and post-menopausal women, but their prevalence appears to be much lower than research findings from other areas to date. Reports by Japanese gynecologists emphasize that menopausal women are liable to present with numerous non-specific somatic complaints. This may well be an accurate representation of a clinical population, but the findings of this present study indicate that such a picture is by no means representative of the average middle-aged female population in Japan. While occupational differences do not contribute to variation in reported symptomatology (with the exception of lumbago and shoulder stiffness), there are nevertheless considerable differences in the subjective meaning of menopause, many of which can be accounted for by class and occupational differences. Presentation of these differences awaits a future publication, but there is one topic which is of concern to the majority of the respondents from each of the sub-samples. The present generation of women entering their 50's are the first where the majority must face later middle age in a nuclear family, along with their husbands, although both they and their husbands have been socialized for the more distant male/female relationships of an extended family. Japanese women cannot look forward, as they did in the past, to the power and comforts derived from running an extended family; on the contrary many can expect a late

  8. Vascular Effects of Estrogenic Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reslan, Ossama M.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2011-01-01

    an appropriate MHT dose, route of administration, and estrogen/progestin combination could maximize the vascular benefits of MHT and minimize other adverse effects, especially if given within a reasonably short time after menopause to women that seek MHT for the relief of menopausal symptoms. PMID:21864249

  9. [Hormone therapy in menopause: when not to use].

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Poli Mara; Wender, Maria Celeste Osório

    2007-10-01

    Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menses, as a result of the loss of ovarian follicular function or of surgical removal of ovaries. The mean age for occurrence of natural menopause is around 50 years. Estrogen deficiency has been associated with vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, and cognitive impairment, as well as increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen therapy remains the most effective treatment for the management of vasomotor symptoms and urogenital atrophy. Progesterone or progestins should be added to estrogen treatment in women with uterus, in order to antagonize the estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation. In turn, in specific clinical conditions hormone therapy is not recommended. In the present article, the authors critically focus these clinical conditions in which hormone therapy should not be used.

  10. Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163625.html Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try Study participants were fitter, felt better -- ... Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After menopause, moderate exercise can help women manage hot flashes, become more ...

  11. Dietary bitter melon seed increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene expression in adipose tissue, down-regulates the nuclear factor-κB expression, and alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gadang, Vidya; Gilbert, William; Hettiararchchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Katwa, Laxmansa; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which bitter melon seed (BMS) alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome and elucidate the mechanism by which BMS exerts beneficial effects. Three-month-old female Zucker rats were assigned to following groups: lean control (L-Ctrl), obese control (O-Ctrl), and obese + BMS (O-BMS). The control groups were fed AIN-93M purified rodent diet, and the O-BMS group was fed AIN-93M diet modified to contain 3.0% (wt/wt) ground BMS for 100 days. After 100 days of treatment, BMS supplementation in the obese rats lowered the total serum cholesterol by 38% and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by about 52% and increased the ratio of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to total cholesterol compared to the O-Ctrl group. The percentage of total liver lipids was about 32% lower and serum triglyceride levels were 71% higher in the O-BMS group compared to the O-Ctrl group. Serum glucose levels were significantly lowered partly because of the increase in the serum insulin levels in the BMS-based diet groups. BMS supplementation increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the white adipose tissue of the obese rats significantly (P < .05) and down-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and interferon-γ mRNA in heart tissue of the obese rats. The findings of this study suggest that BMS improves the serum and liver lipid profiles and serum glucose levels by modulating PPAR-γ gene expression. To our knowledge, this study for the first time shows that BMS exerts cardioprotective effects by down-regulating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.

  12. Daydreaming in 40- to 60-Year-Old Women: Menopause, Health, Values, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambra, Leonard M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated midlife influences on daydreaming for 477 women from 40 to 60 years of age. Examined 42 variables including health status, symptom presence, menstruation difficulties, sexual activities, and effects of menopause. Results indicated daydreaming was more prevalent among women with various psychological symptoms. (PAS)

  13. The Quality of Life During and After Menopause Among Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    G K, Poomalar; Arounassalame, Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The overall health and well-being of middle-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of the women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the years when they approach menopause, with various distresses and disturbances in their lives, leading to a decrease in the quality of life. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life and the impact of hormonal changes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to correlate the prevalence of the symptoms with their duration since menopause. Material and Methods: A cross- sectional study was done at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, from January 2012 to April 2012. Five hundred women who were in the age group of 40-65 years, who came from rural areas to our hospital, were included in the study. The women who were receiving hormonal treatment and those who refused to participate in the study were excluded. The data such as the socio-demographic information and the menstruation status, which were based on the reported length of time since the last menstrual period and the experience of the symptoms, as were tested in the Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire, were collected from each patient. The women who were included in the study were divided into three groups as the menopause transition, early postmenopausal and the late postmenopausal groups. All the data which were gathered were analyzed by using SAS 9.2. The Chi square test and the relative risk and the confidence interval calculations were applied to compare the frequencies of the symptoms among the women with different menopausal statuses. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean menopausal age in the study group was 45 years. The most common symptom within study subjects were low back ache (79%) and muscle-joint pain (77.2%). The least frequent symptoms were increase in facial hair (15%) and

  14. Attitude to the Menopause and Sex amongst Middle-Aged Women in a Family Medicine Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Daramola, Olufunmilola Olutosin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Menopause is the expected end of reproductive life. Having a positive attitude towards it has been shown to result in a positive experience, while a negative attitude is associated with negative experiences and symptoms. Traditionally, women often abstain from sex after menopause. The study aimed to determine the level of awareness and perceptions about the menopause and sex in perimenopausal women attending a general outpatient clinic. Methods. Women over 40 years were recruited from the Family Medicine Department of University College Hospital, excluding those who were menopausal. Data analyses were done with chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results. Most (302; 86.4%) of the 352 surveyed participants were aware of the menopause. Only 36.1% anticipated associated symptoms. About half (55.7%) were indifferent to menopause onset, while 23% had a positive attitude and 21.4% had a negative attitude, respectively. Younger women were less likely to have a positive attitude to the menopause (p = 0.04). There were negative cultural beliefs towards sex. Sexual activity was low and declined with age (p < 0.001). Many women would like treatment to improve their sexual activity. Conclusion. Most participants had a favourable disposition towards the menopause, though sexual relationships suffer. Counselling and treatment should be offered. PMID:27895667

  15. Menstruation and the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Siobán D; Paramsothy, Pangaja

    2011-09-01

    This paper characterizes changes in menstrual bleeding during perimenopause,including bleeding changes that represent markers of the menopausal transition. Recent results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation and other cohort studies are reviewed. Emerging data describing subpopulation differences in the transition experience are highlighted. When treating women in the midlife, clinicians should pay careful attention to medical factors, including both conditions and treatments, that may increase menstrual blood loss or alter menstrual cycle characteristics sufficiently to obscure the onset of the menopausal transition or the final menstrual period.

  16. Does menopausal transition really influence mental health? Findings from the prospective long‐term Zurich study

    PubMed Central

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic‐Gross, Vladeta; Riecher‐Rössler, Anita; Angst, Jules; Hengartner, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    In the prospective long‐term Zurich study, we re‐examined the hypothesized association between mental health problems in women and the transition through menopausal stages. One hundred sixty‐eight women from a population‐based Swiss community cohort were prospectively followed up from age 21 to 50. At age 50, the occurrence of hot flushes/night sweats and sleep disturbances was significantly more frequent in peri‐ and post‐menopausal women. Irritability/nervousness was increased only in peri‐menopausal women, but that association was accounted for by neuroticism trait scores at age 30. Transitions to peri‐ or post‐menopause were not related to changes in either the prevalence rates of DSM major depressive episode or anxiety disorders, or the course of psychopathological syndromes as assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90 ‐ Revised. The null associations held when adjusting for duration of reproductive period or age at menopause. Preceding mental health problems between ages 21 and 41, increased neuroticism trait scores at age 30, and concurrent psychosocial distress were significantly related to mental health problems occurring between ages 41 and 50. Depending upon the cut‐off point that was chosen, the arbitrary dichotomization of a continuous depression outcome produced spurious associations with the menopausal transition. We conclude that mental health problems between ages 41 and 50 are probably not directly related to the menopausal transition, and that previously reported associations could be false positives due to inadequate dichotomizations, reporting bias, undisclosed multiple adjustments or overfitting. PMID:27265705

  17. An assessment of Manasika Bhavas in menopausal syndrome and its management

    PubMed Central

    Santwani, Khyati; Shukla, V. D.; Santwani, M. A.; Thaker, Gayatri

    2010-01-01

    The present clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Shirodhara and Saraswatarishta as compared to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the management of menopausal syndrome, along with the assessment of Manasika Bhavas. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. A total 48 patients were selected for the study, out of which 43 patients completed the study. Specialized Ayurvedic rating scales like Manasa Pariksha Bhavas as well as the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating scale, and Menopause Rating Scale were adopted to assess the effect of therapy. The effects were examined on the chief complaints as well as the associated complaints. Patients undergoing Shirodhara had better relief of the disturbances of Manasa Bhavas and psychic symptoms of menopause as compared to the other two groups. Saraswatarishta also showed encouraging results in managing the associated somatic symptoms and the psychic symptoms. Hence, we conclude that it can be used as an alternative therapy to HRT. PMID:22131732

  18. New attitudes to sexuality in the menopause: clinical evaluation and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nappi, R E

    2007-10-01

    Sexuality is a critical issue at menopause for many women. Several biological, psychological and socio-relational factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle, inducing significant changes in desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction. Age- and menopause-related events may impair the integrity of multiple biological systems involved in the normal sexual response of women, including hormonal environment, neuromuscular substrates and vascular supplies. Sex hormones, namely low levels of estradiol, physical and mental well-being and, very importantly, feelings for partner are extremely relevant for women's sexuality in natural menopause. Even a significant lack of androgens, as more frequently occurs in surgical menopause, has a negative impact on women's desire and sexual responsiveness. Sexual history and clinical evaluation may help doctors to accurately diagnose sexual symptoms causing personal and relational distress and to identify the best therapeutic approach.

  19. Menopause prediction and potential implications.

    PubMed

    Daan, Nadine M P; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2015-11-01

    Reproductive ageing in women is characterized by a decline in both the quantity and quality of oocytes. Menopause is reached upon exhaustion of the resting primordial follicle pool, occurring on average at 51 years of age (range 40-60 years). The mean global age at natural menopause (ANM) appears robust, suggesting a distinct genetic control. Accordingly, a strong correlation in ANM is observed between mothers and daughters. Few specific genetic determinants of ANM have been identified. Substantial efforts have been made to predict ANM by using anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. AMH serum concentrations at reproductive age predict ANM, but precision is currently limited. Early ANM is associated with early preceding fertility loss, whereas late menopause is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality later in life. Menopause affects various women's health aspects, including bone density, breast, the cardiovascular system, mood/cognitive function and sexual well-being. If the current trend of increasing human life expectancy persists, women will soon spend half their life postmenopause. Unfortunately, increased longevity does not coincide with an equal increase in years spend in good health. Future research should focus on determinants of long term health effects of ANM, and efforts to improve women's postmenopausal health and quality of life.

  20. Menopause: Medicines to Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications English Publications Spanish Publications Publications in Other Languages Take Time to Care Program College Women's Health Pink Ribbon ... for You Menopause Office of Women's Health Take Time to Care Program ... Assistance Available: Español | 繁體中文 | Tiếng Việt | 한국어 | Tagalog | ...

  1. An Evaluation of a Health Education Intervention for Mid-Aged Women: Five Year Follow-up of Effects upon Knowledge, Impact of Menopause and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Myra; O'Dea, Irene

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an evaluation of the long-term impact of a health education intervention for premenopausal women (N=86). Five years after the intervention questionnaire results showed that greater knowledge of menopause and fewer symptoms attributed to menopause. The evaluation was positive in terms of increasing knowledge and helping women to deal with…

  2. Design and baseline characteristics of the soy phytoestrogens as replacement estrogen (SPARE) study--a clinical trial of the effects of soy isoflavones in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Levis, Silvina; Strickman-Stein, Nancy; Doerge, Daniel R; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    Following the results of the Women's Health Initiative, many women now decline estrogen replacement at the time of menopause and seek natural remedies that would treat menopausal symptoms and prevent bone loss and other long-term consequences of estrogen deficiency, but without adverse effects on the breast, uterus, and cardiovascular system. The results of most soy studies in this population have had limitations because of poor design, small sample size, or short duration. This report describes the study rationale, design, and procedures of the Soy Phytoestrogens As Replacement Estrogen (SPARE) study, which was designed to determine the efficacy of soy isoflavones in preventing spinal bone loss and menopausal symptoms in the initial years of menopause. Women ages 45 to 60 without osteoporosis and within 5 years from menopause were randomized to receive soy isoflavones 200mg daily or placebo for 2 years. Participants have yearly measurements of spine and hip bone density, urinary phytoestrogens, and serum lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Menopausal symptoms, mood changes, depression, and quality of life are assessed annually. The SPARE study recruited 283 women, 66.1% were Hispanic white. With a large cohort, long duration, and large isoflavone dose, this trial will provide important, relevant, and currently unavailable information on the benefits of purified soy isoflavones in the prevention of bone loss and menopausal symptoms in the first 5 years of menopause. Given the high proportion of Hispanics participating in the study, the results of this trial will also be applicable to this minority group.

  3. Phase I/II Pilot Study to Assess Toxicity and Efficacy of Chinese Herbs to Treat Hot Flashes and Menopausal Symptoms for Women With a History of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Lenihan JP, McDermott M, Keber IJ, Nanavati N, Arce J. Initial 17-beta- estradiol dose for treating vasomotor symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:726-731...therapy. Obstet Gynecol 2003 ;Dec; 102(6): 1225-32. Paruthiyil S, Parmar H, Kerekatte V, Cunha G, Firestone G and Leitman D. Estrogen receptor P3

  4. Low back pain in women before and after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Piotrowska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a massive problem in modern population, both in social and economic terms. It affects large numbers of women, especially those aged 45-60. Going through a perimenopausal period is associated with many symptoms, including low back pain. This paper is a review of published research on the association between the perimenopausal age and low back pain. PubMed databases were investigated. After the search was narrowed to “menopausal status, back pain”, 35 studies were found. Seven studies, which suited our area of research best, were thoroughly analyzed. All studies show increased pain when women enter this period of their life. There is no agreement among researchers regarding which stage of menopause is the most burdensome. Examples of possible treatments and physiotherapeutic methods targeting low back pain are also presented. Physiotherapeutic procedures used to treat low back pain include exercises in safe positions, balance exercises, manual therapy, massage and physical measures. PMID:26528111

  5. Low back pain in women before and after menopause.

    PubMed

    Kozinoga, Mateusz; Majchrzycki, Marian; Piotrowska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Low back pain is a massive problem in modern population, both in social and economic terms. It affects large numbers of women, especially those aged 45-60. Going through a perimenopausal period is associated with many symptoms, including low back pain. This paper is a review of published research on the association between the perimenopausal age and low back pain. PubMed databases were investigated. After the search was narrowed to "menopausal status, back pain", 35 studies were found. Seven studies, which suited our area of research best, were thoroughly analyzed. All studies show increased pain when women enter this period of their life. There is no agreement among researchers regarding which stage of menopause is the most burdensome. Examples of possible treatments and physiotherapeutic methods targeting low back pain are also presented. Physiotherapeutic procedures used to treat low back pain include exercises in safe positions, balance exercises, manual therapy, massage and physical measures.

  6. Menopausal complaints are associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Grobbee, Diederick E; Pop, Victor J M; Keyzer, Jules J; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J M; Samsioe, Göran N; Nilsson, Peter M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2008-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that women with vasomotor symptoms differ from those without with respect to cardiovascular risk factors or responses to exogenous hormone therapy. We studied whether the presence and extent of menopausal complaints are associated with cardiovascular risk profile. Data were used from a population-based sample of 5523 women, aged 46 to 57 years, enrolled between 1994 and 1995. Data on menopausal complaints and potential confounders were collected by questionnaires. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index were measured. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Night sweats were reported by 38% and flushing by 39% of women. After multivariate adjustment, women with complaints of flushing had a 0.27-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.39) higher cholesterol level, a 0.60-kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.84) higher BMI, a 1.59-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.52 to 2.67) higher systolic blood pressure, and a 1.09-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.48 to 1.69) higher diastolic blood pressure compared with asymptomatic women. Flushing was also associated with hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.84) and hypertension (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.34). Results were similar for complaints of night sweating. The findings support the view that menopausal complaints are associated with a less favorable cardiovascular risk profile. These findings substantiate the view that differences in the presence of menopausal symptoms as a reason for using hormone therapy could explain discrepant findings between observational research and trials.

  7. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  8. The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

  9. Age at menopause in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Hautaniemi, Susan I

    2003-04-01

    Comparisons of age at menopause are made difficult by the different methodologies applied across populations. This study extended an opportunity to apply different methodologies to the same data to draw some preliminary conclusions about age at menopause in Puebla, Mexico. Among 755 women aged 28 to 70 interviewed in the capital city of Puebla, Mexico, 447 (59.6%) were naturally or surgically postmenopausal. Mean recalled age at natural menopause in Puebla (46.7 years) appears to be similar to mean recalled age at menopause in Mexico City (46.5 years), suggesting that age at menopause is similar in urban Mexican populations. However, median age at menopause computed by probit analysis was later in the city of Puebla (49.6 years) compared to the median age computed by the same method in the capital city of León, Guanajuato, Mexico (48.2 years). Median age at menopause computed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggests that age at menopause in Puebla (50.0 years) is older still, and close to that of the United States (51.1 years). The differences in median ages at menopause in Puebla are solely due to methodological choices and highlight the difficulty inherent in making inferences across studies of age at menopause between biological and/or cultural groups. Factors associated with age at menopause offer another avenue for comparing and understanding variation in this basic biological process. In Puebla, smoking, low levels of education, and nulliparity are associated with an earlier age at menopause.

  10. Osteoporosis in menopause.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aliya; Fortier, Michel; Fortier, Michel; Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Graves, Lisa; Guthrie, Bing; Johnston, Shawna; Khan, Aliya; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Objectif : Offrir aux fournisseurs de soins de santé des lignes directrices quant à la prévention, au diagnostic et à la prise en charge clinique de l’ostéoporose postménopausique. Issues : Stratégies visant à identifier et à évaluer les femmes exposées à des risques élevés; utilisation de la densité minérale osseuse et des marqueurs du renouvellement des cellules osseuses pour l’évaluation du diagnostic et de la réaction à la prise en charge; et recommandations quant à la nutrition, à l’activité physique et au choix du traitement pharmacologique en vue de prévenir l’ostéoporose et d’en assurer la prise en charge. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library le 30 août et le 18 septembre 2012, respectivement, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « osteoporosis », « bone density », « menopause ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « bone health », « bone loss », « BMD ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais ou en français. Les résultats ont été restreints aux documents publiés à partir de 2009. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mars 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques, auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales, et dans des collections de directives cliniques Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères d

  11. Escitalopram Reduces Hot Flashes in Non-depressed Menopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Menza, Matthew; Allen, Lesley A.; Marin, Humberto; Bienfait, Karina L.; Tiu, Jade; Howarth, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Background Hot flashes are one of the most troubling manifestations of menopause, affecting about 80% of women. Due to recent controversies about hormone replacement therapy (HRT), many women are seeking alternative treatments. The use of antidepressants to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms has been an active area of investigation. However, the majority of past research in this area has included women with significant medical or psychiatric histories that may influence treatment response. This was the first study to examine the impact of escitalopram on hot flashes, mood, sleep, and quality of life in a healthy sample of non-depressed menopausal women. Methods Twenty-five menopausal women, with no significant psychiatric or medical history, were enrolled. All women were treated with escitalopram (10-20mg flexibly dosed) for 8 weeks. The active treatment phase was preceded by a single blind placebo lead-in period. Results Over the course of the study, women reported significant decreases in both hot flash frequency and severity and improvements in dysphoria, anxiety, quality of life, and sleep. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that escitalopram may be a feasible and effective option for treating hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in healthy women who might not ordinarily consider antidepressant treatment. PMID:19439155

  12. Menopausal Experiences of Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, D. S.; Wishart, J. G.; Muir, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the menopause in women with intellectual disabilities (ID) save that its onset is earlier than in the general population, and earlier still in women with Down's syndrome (DS). This study directly explored menopausal experiences in women with ID, both with and without DS, with the aim of identifying levels of…

  13. Menopausal complaints in Slovak midlife women and the impact of CYP1B1 polymorphism on their incidence.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Lenka; Sivtáková, Daniela; Cernanová, Veronika; Cvicelová, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of symptoms have been attributed to menopause, negatively influencing women's physical and psychological health. In addition to lifestyle parameters and personal history, genetic factors are considered to be the main source of this variation. This study aims to investigate the incidence of menopausal symptoms among midlife women according to their menopausal status, and to evaluate the contribution to their manifestation from CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism as a predisposing factor for menopausal symptoms. The studied cohort consisted of 299 women ranging from 39 to 59 years of age. Women were recruited from the western and middle parts of Slovakia, and all participants completed a menopause-specific questionnaire and provided blood or saliva samples for genotyping. Our results indicated that all women are at risk of typical menopausal symptoms, but there is a higher number of postmenopausal women affected than premenopausal ones. Regression analysis showed that the CYP1B1 Leu/Leu genotype can increase the experience of bloated stomach and facial hair increase in all the sampled women, while the Leu/Leu genotype may increase experience of palpitations and involuntary urination in the premenopausal women. The Leu/Leu genotype may increase the experience of nausea, bloated stomach, and vaginal dryness in peri- and postmenopausal women. We determined that women with the Leu/Leu, or Leu/Val genotypes were approximately five times more likely to suffer from vaginal dryness than the Val/Val women (OR = 4.948; 95% CI, 1.259-19.447). We therefore suggest that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism could be involved in individual susceptibility to menopausal symptoms in Slovak midlife women.

  14. Pharmacologic Therapies in Women's Health: Contraception and Menopause Treatment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Caitlin; Evans, Ginger; Sutton, Eliza L

    2016-07-01

    Female hormones play a significant role in the etiology and treatment of many women's health conditions. This article focuses on the common uses of hormonal therapy. When prescribing estrogen-containing regimens throughout the span of a woman's life, the risks are similar (ie, cardiovascular risk and venous thromboembolism), but the degree of risk varies significantly depending on a woman's particular set of risk factors and the details of the hormone regimen. In addition to estrogens and progestogens, this article also touches on the use of selective steroid receptor modulators in emergency contraception and in treatment of menopause symptoms.

  15. Menopause and Crisis? Fake or Real: Comprehensive Search to The Depth of Crisis Experienced: A Mixed-method Study

    PubMed Central

    avar, Nehle Parand; Mosalanejad, Leili; Ramezanli, Somaye; Ghavi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopause is beyond the lack of menstruation and fertility decline in estrogen. Menopause is associated with at least three types of crisis: Biological, psychological and social. The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric problems related to menopausal stress and experiences about psychological conditions related to menopause as a developmental crisis. Material and Methods: This mixed-method study (by triangulation approach) was done on 300 women in menopause age (44-54 years) by consensus sampling. Data gathering was from questionnaire conclude psychosomatic listed and hypochondria’s criterion that has been specified by DSMIV. The severity of the disorder was also collected by self-reported question. In the qualitative part, as a phenomenology study, data were gathered with Purposive sampling by a deep semi-structured interview. Data analysis was from content analysis). Results: Results showed that most of the disorders from psychosomatic listed experienced by women conclude: sexual problems 101(33.7%), hypertension 39(13%), and constipation 30(10%); 2.9% had experienced hypochondrias disorder. In the qualitative part, 5 themes were driven from the results of this study which described the structures of psychological experiences of the menopause as follows: change in emotion and mood, change in attitude, change in self-concept and change in interpersonal relationships. Conclusion: Menopause is a physiological process in women’s life, but due to many symptoms and complications, it requires culturally appropriate education, appropriate coping with problems and mental health promotion in this sexual crisis. PMID:24576387

  16. The impact of the menopause transition on the health and wellbeing of women living with HIV: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Shema; Delpech, Valerie; Anderson, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Improvements in survival due to advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have led to a shift in the age distribution of those receiving HIV care, with increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) reaching menopausal age. We present a narrative literature review of 26 studies exploring the menopause transition in WLHIV, focusing on: (1) natural history (2) symptomatology and management, and (3) immunologic and virologic effects. Data are conflicting on the association between HIV and earlier age at menopause, and the role of HIV-specific factors such as HIV viral load and CD4 count. There are some data to suggest that WLHIV experience more vasomotor and psychological symptoms during the menopause than HIV-negative women, and that uptake of hormone replacement therapy by WLHIV is comparatively low. There is no evidence that menopause affects either CD4 count or response to ART, although there may be increased immune activation in older WLHIV. We conclude that menopause in WLHIV is a neglected area of study. Specific information gaps include qualitative studies on experiences of reproductive ageing; data on the impact of the menopause on women's quality of life and ability to adhere to health-sustaining behaviors; as well as studies investigating the safety and efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. There is likely to be a burden of unmet health need among this growing population, and better data are required to inform optimal provision of care, supporting WLHIV to maintain their health and wellbeing into their post-reproductive years.

  17. Cysteine Prevents Menopausal Syndromes in Ovariectomized Mouse.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-05-01

    Cysteine (Cys) is well known to be involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, serving as a source of sulfides in the body. Amino acids are known to improve menopausal symptoms and significantly reduce morbidity. This study aims to find an unrevealed effect of Cys with estrogenic and osteogenic actions. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice were treated with Cys daily for 8 weeks. Estrogen-related and osteoporosis-related factors were analyzed in the vagina, serum, and tibia. Cys was treated in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and ER-positive human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. Cysteine administration ameliorated overweightness of the body and vaginal atrophy in the OVX mice. Cysteine increased the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 17β-estradiol in the serum of the OVX mice and improved the bone mineral density in the OVX mice. In MG-63 cells, Cys increased the proliferation, ERβ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, and estrogen response element (ERE) activity. Cysteine increased the ALP activity and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In MCF-7 cells, Cys also increased the proliferation, ERβ mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Cys has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells. The novel insights gained here strongly imply the potential use of Cys as a new agent for postmenopausal women.

  18. El cambio de vida: conceptualizations of menopause and midlife among urban Latina women.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Harlow, Sioban D; Lopez, Maria; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    The experience of menopause among Latina women has seldom been described. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize and contextualize the experience of menopause from the perspective of Latina women. A series of focus group sessions were conducted with postmenopausal Latina women living in a large midwestern city. Themes derived from content analysis included: (a) The primacy of health and the importance of harmony and balance; (b) El cambio de vida--something you have to go through; and (c) This time is for me: reorientation and restructuring. Rediscovery and redefinition as opposed to being defined by physical symptoms marked this life phase. Implications of study findings are discussed within the context of an emerging biopsychosocial perspective of midlife and menopause transition.

  19. Menopause knowledge and attitude among Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Taherpour, M; Sefidi, F; Afsharinia, S; Hamissi, JH

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was done to assess the effects of training on knowledge and attitude level promotion of post menopause women about menopause. Methods & Material: The research communication included 100 menopausal women aged 45-60 years, who were selected in a stratified manner (according to the economic status: poor, average, and good). The tool used was an examiners-made questionnaire, which contained 3 parts: demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude measurement. Results: Eleven percent of the studied women had a low knowledge regarding menopause and 1% was good. After training, 27% got a good knowledge and no one remained at the low level. The attitude of 59% of the studied women regarding menopause was positive and 80% got a positive attitude after training. A significant relation was found between knowledge and attitude, before and after training. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the majority of women judge menopause as a positive incident, it seems that paying attention to their training caused the bringing to their knowledge of the natural menopause and having a healthy and jolly life. PMID:28255401

  20. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To update for both clinicians and the lay public the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in March 2007 regarding its recommendations for menopausal hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women, with consideration for the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio at various times through menopause and beyond. Design An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the March 2007 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence through an evidence-based analysis, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. The document was provided to other interested organizations to seek their endorsement. Results Current evidence supports a consensus regarding the role of HT in postmenopausal women, when potential therapeutic benefits and risks around the time of menopause are considered. This paper lists all these areas along with explanatory comments. Conclusions that vary from the 2007 position statement are highlighted. Addenda include a discussion of risk concepts, a new component not included in the 2007 paper, and a recommended list of areas for future HT research. A suggested reading list of key references is also provided. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms; to treat or reduce the risk of certain disorders, such as osteoporosis or fractures in select postmenopausal women; or both. The benefit-risk ratio for menopausal HT is favorable close to menopause but decreases with aging and with time since menopause in previously untreated women. PMID:18580541

  1. The effectiveness of conization treatment for post-menopausal women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAODONG; FENG, YAN; WANG, XINYU; WAN, XIAOYUN; XIE, XING; LU, WEIGUO

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conization in the diagnosis and treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in post-menopausal women. A total of 101 post-menopausal patients who were diagnosed with high-grade lesion CIN by biopsy and in whom conization was used as the primary treatment were examined and 202 pre-menopausal patients were studied as the controls. Clinical and pathological data including symptoms, cytological examination and HPV DNA test results before and after conization treatment were analyzed. Both the cytological abnormalities (57.9 vs. 58.5%, P=0.260) and the positive rate of the HPV DNA test (89.5 vs. 86.4%, P=0.812) did not show a significant difference between the post- and pre-menopausal group. The rate of satisfactory colposcopy was significantly lower in post-menopausal patients compared with pre-menosausal patients (23.2 vs. 68.9%, P<0.001). Post-menopausal patients presented a significantly lower diagnostic consistency between colpscopy-directed biopsy and conization (46.4 vs. 68.9%, P=0.004), and a significantly higher positive margin rate of conization (20.8 vs. 10.9%, P=0.020). A total of 10 of the 101 post-menopausal and 2 of the 202 pre-menopausal women were diagnosed with invasive cancer by conization and underwent further treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that conization, as a conservative primary treatment, is not suitable for post-menopausal women with high-grade lesion CIN due to the lower rate of satisfactory colposcopy, lower consistency of diagnosis between colposcopy-directed biopsy and conization, and a higher positive margin of conization. PMID:23251264

  2. Use of compounded bioidentical hormone therapy in menopausal women: an opinion statement of the Women's Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    McBane, Sarah E; Borgelt, Laura M; Barnes, Kylie N; Westberg, Sarah M; Lodise, Nicole M; Stassinos, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms affect a significant portion of women. Traditional treatment with manufactured hormone therapy can alleviate these symptoms, but many women and their health care providers are concerned about the risks, such as venous thromboembolism and certain types of cancer, demonstrated with manufactured hormone therapy. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy has been proposed and is often used as a solution for these concerns. Despite this use, no data are currently available to support the claims that compounded bioidentical hormone therapy is a safer or more efficacious option compared with manufactured hormone therapy. A common misperception is that all manufactured products consist of synthetic hormones and all compounded medications consist of natural hormones; however, in fact, significant overlap exists. Several key stakeholder organizations have issued statements expressing concern about the lack of evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of compounded bioidentical hormone therapy, in addition to concerns regarding prescribing patterns. The Women's Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy recommends against the consistent use of compounded bioidentical hormones as a safer option compared with manufactured therapy and supports the statements of other key organizations, acknowledging the need for more robust clinical studies to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of compounded bioidentical products compared with manufactured products.

  3. Vaginal Estrogen for Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, David D.; Carberry, Cassandra; Sanses, Tatiana V.; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ward, Renée M.; Meriwether, Kate V.; Olivera, Cedric K.; Abed, Husam; Balk, Ethan M.; Murphy, Miles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehensively review and critically assess the literature on vaginal estrogen and its alternatives for women with genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to provide clinical practice guidelines. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to April 2013. We included randomized controlled trials and prospective comparative studies. Interventions and comparators included all commercially available vaginal estrogen products. Placebo, no treatment, systemic estrogen (all routes), and nonhormonal moisturizers and lubricants were included as comparators. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION We double-screened 1,805 abstracts, identifying 44 eligible studies. Discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reviewer. Studies were individually and collectively assessed for methodologic quality and strength of evidence. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS Studies were extracted for participant, intervention, comparator, and outcomes data, including patient-reported atrophy symptoms (eg, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, dysuria, urgency, frequency, recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), and urinary incontinence), objective signs of atrophy, urodynamic measures, endometrial effects, serum estradiol changes, and adverse events. Compared with placebo, vaginal estrogens improved dryness, dyspareunia, urinary urgency, frequency, and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). Urinary tract infection rates decreased. The various estrogen preparations had similar efficacy and safety; serum estradiol levels remained within postmenopausal norms for all except high-dose conjugated equine estrogen cream. Endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma were extremely rare among those receiving vaginal estrogen. Comparing vaginal estrogen with nonhormonal moisturizers, patients with two or more symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy were substantially more improved using vaginal estrogens, but those with one or minor complaints had similar

  4. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers Data Sharing and Other Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories Research Research networks, center programs, career development programs Grants & Funding About ...

  5. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  6. Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge

    MedlinePlus

    ... have diabetes, you're at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The risk increases even more when you reach menopause. To reduce the risk, eat healthy foods and exercise regularly. Your doctor may recommend cholesterol-lowering medication ...

  7. Determinants of willingness to pay for a new therapy in a sample of menopausal-aged women.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Andrej; Hodek, Jan-Marc; Runge, Claus; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Menopause is a natural physiological event that usually begins in women between the ages of 48 and 55 years. In many cases, this event is associated with unpleasant somatic-vegetative, urogenital or psychological symptoms. To test the health and social demographic factors (especially household income level) that influence willingness to pay (WTP) for a new hormone-free treatment in women of menopausal age. 1365 women between the ages of 45 and 73 years were surveyed about their health and WTP for the new treatment. WTP was evaluated with a closed-ended binary questionnaire (four groups with different levels of co-payment between euro15 and euro60), using the contingent valuation method. The average WTP was calculated according to the area under the demand function. Factors contributing to payment readiness were examined by means of binary logistic regression. WTP was significantly affected by women's opinion of the new medication, the level of co-payment required, net household income, whether currently in treatment for menopausal symptoms, and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) values. Compared with other factors, the level of co-payment was predicted to have a negative impact on WTP. Income level is an important factor in WTP and correlates highly with several other health-related variables (WHO-5 index, MRS value, receipt of other menopause medicines and existing co-morbidity). The average co-payment that our group of women was willing to pay was between euro17 and euro35 per month, or euro24 to euro42 for women who were currently receiving treatment for symptoms of menopause. While interpreting the results, it should be considered that the hypothetical therapy was assumed to be a new non-reimbursable alternative to conventional therapy offered under the existing statutory framework for health insurance in Germany. Despite some methodological limitations, these results are useful for examining the factors affecting WTP and incremental utilities for future medicine

  8. [A physiopathological overview of climacteric and menopause].

    PubMed

    Aranda Gallegos, J E; Barrón Vallejo, J; Ortega Díaz, R; Pereyra Quiñones, R; Kably Ambe, A

    1998-06-01

    Today, million of woman in the world lived enough to experience the menopause ant it's seculae. In the last few years the research of the events associated with this age has gained enormous attention. Hormonal replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and other complications in postmenopausal woman. In this paper we review the endocrinology of the menopause, benefits and risks of hormonal replacement therapy, Prescription choices, compliance and health care professional attitudes are too analysed.

  9. Menopause - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... الطمث (سن اليأس - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Managing Menopause 顺利渡过停经期 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Menopause English 女性更年期 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese ...

  10. What Are the Treatments for Other Symptoms of Menopause?

    MedlinePlus

    ... walking. [top] Treatment of Hot Flashes and Night Sweats Several prescription drugs are available to relieve hot flashes and night sweats: Clonidine, a blood pressure drug Gabapentin, a seizure ...

  11. Is it Safe to Take Hormones to Treat Menopause Symptoms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... state settlement of consumer fraud claims regarding the marketing of the prescription drug Neurontin. This brief should not be viewed as a substitute for a consultation with a medical or health professional. It is provided to enhance communication with your doctor, not replace it. 3 Is ...

  12. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  13. Premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  14. Manufacturing Menopause: An Analysis of the Portrayal of Menopause and Information Content on Pharmaceutical Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Deborah Hile

    2010-01-01

    Consumer-targeted prescription drug advertising serves as an interesting lens through which we can examine the portrayal of menopause in online drug advertisements. The aim of this study was to explore the portrayal of menopause on web sites sponsored by pharmaceutical companies for hormone therapies (HT). To unravel this question, a qualitative…

  15. Hormone replacement therapy after menopause and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Neuhausen, Susan L; Senter, Leigha; Demsky, Rochelle; Foulkes, William D; Eng, Charis; Karlan, Beth; Tung, Nadine; Singer, Christian F; Sun, Ping; Lubinski, Jan; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Many BRCA1 mutation carriers undergo elective surgical oophorectomy (often before menopause) to manage their elevated risk of developing ovarian cancer. It is important to clarify whether or not the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to mitigate the symptoms associated with surgical or natural menopause is safe in women with an inherited BRCA1 mutation and no personal history of breast or ovarian cancer. We conducted a case-control analysis of 432 matched pairs of women with a BRCA1 mutation. Detailed information on HRT use after menopause (duration, type, age at first/last use, formulation) was obtained from a research questionnaire administered at the time of study enrollment. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) associated with HRT use. The mean duration of HRT use after menopause was 4.3 years among the cases and 4.4 years among the controls (P = 0.83). The adjusted OR for breast cancer comparing all women who ever used HRT to those who never used HRT was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.55-1.16; P = 0.24). Findings did not differ by type of menopause (natural vs. surgical), by recency of use, by duration of use, and by formulation type. These findings suggest that a short course of HRT should not be contra-indicated for BRCA1 mutation carriers who have undergone menopause and who have no personal history of cancer.

  16. Recognizing menopause in women with amenorrhea induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Torino, Francesco; Barnabei, Agnese; De Vecchis, Liana; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Strigari, Lidia; Corsello, Salvatore M

    2012-04-01

    Cytotoxic anticancer treatment may induce amenorrhea or menopause to a variable extent. These side effects may not only impair or impede fertility but also cause sexual dysfunction, bone loss, and menopausal symptoms, with a strikingly negative effect on quality of life in many women. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a recommended adjuvant endocrine treatment option in postmenopausal patients affected by early breast cancer (EBC) but are contraindicated in premenopausal women and in those with residual ovarian function. Women over 40 years of age with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) and routine hormonal levels consistent with menopause may receive an AI as adjuvant endocrine treatment. For these women, the tools available to identify menopause do not appear to be completely reliable. This review focused on the pathophysiology of ovarian toxicity induced by cytotoxic agents and on potentially useful methods to diagnose chemotherapy-induced menopause in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for endocrine-responsive EBC. Moreover, practical approaches are proposed to distinguish true menopausal women, who would benefit from AIs, from those with transient or persistent CIA.

  17. Female Sexual Function During the Menopausal Transition in a Group of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Dashti, Mahboobeh; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS) was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms. Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively). Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions. PMID:27648093

  18. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  19. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  20. Life Course Exposure to Smoke and Early Menopause and Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Heba; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D.; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at menopausal transition. Using data from two U.S. birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal, childhood exposure to parental smoking and adult smoke exposure) with menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 – 49 years at follow-up. Methods We used logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age at follow-up, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and menopausal transition. Results The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar, but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders for i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke at adult follow-up (OR= 2.7 [95% CI 0.8, 9.4]) and ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR= 2.8 [95% CI 0.9, 9.0]). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing natural menopause (adjusted OR=3.4 [95% CI 1.1, 10.3]) compared to women without smoke exposure in either time period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 years) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Conclusion Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging. PMID:25803667

  1. Shared decision-making, health choices and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Salkovskis, Paul M; Wroe, Abigail L; Rees, Margaret C P

    2004-03-01

    The growing influence of the mass media on public understanding of health care matters has increased both information and misinformation in patients seeking help with menopausal symptoms. The use of shared decision-making strategies provides the opportunity to engage the patient in taking some responsibility for their own treatment. It also allows the identification and correction of any distortions in the perceived balance of evidence for and against any particular treatment. Shared decision-making balances the need to respect patients' values and autonomy with the drive towards evidence-based medicine and clinical cost-effectiveness. Although ways of achieving such a balance are much discussed, the current need is for research which can identify effective strategies that allow the principles of "shared decision-making" and "evidence-based patient choice" to be validated and applied in clinical practice. Previous research focused on hormone replacement therapy indicates that the patient's decision is the outcome of the way they balance the pros and cons of taking (or not taking) it, and that their satisfaction with the decision is strongly associated with the perception that they have been given information about the full range of treatment available. It therefore seems likely that patients will respond more positively to consultations which include discussion of hormone replacement therapy alongside alternative strategies such as natural remedies and dietary/lifestyle changes. Psychological factors influencing treatment choice and the decision making process are discussed, and clinical and research implications for clinical practice in the menopause clinic examined.

  2. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291

  3. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    PubMed

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  4. Trauma as A Teen May Boost Depression Risk Around Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164355.html Trauma as a Teen May Boost Depression Risk Around Menopause Likelihood was more than twice ... during their teens have a greater risk of depression during the years leading into menopause, a new ...

  5. Discourses on menopause--Part II: How do women talk about menopause?

    PubMed

    Hvas, Lotte; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this article is to describe which of the different available discourses women relate to as revealed in the way they talk about menopause. We use a discourse analytic approach, which implies that meaning is ascribed to things according to how we talk about them. Twenty-four menopausal women from Denmark were interviewed. They were selected to cover a broad spectrum of Danish women with different menopausal experiences and social background factors. Seven previously identified discourses could be found in the interviews, though to varying degrees from woman to woman. Nearly all women used terms from the biomedical sphere like 'a period of decline and decay', even if they did not necessarily agree with this view. Also the existential discourse permeated most of the interviews, especially when the conversation turned to the ageing process, femininity and self-development. The way the menopause was talked about almost became kaleidoscopic when images speedily changed from the decrepit osteoporotic woman or a woman with lack of vitality and sex-appeal to a healthy and strong woman with control over her body and self. Since many women contact doctors in relation to menopause, and since the way doctors talk about menopause is influential, doctors should carefully consider which words and images they use in the counselling. The medical way of perceiving menopause is just one of many, and doctors must be aware that there are other different and partially contradicting discourses at play in society and in the women's universes.

  6. Mapping the primrose patch--a practical approach to herbal therapies in the menopause.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Women suffering post-menopausal symptoms will often seek alternative therapies. No alternative therapies have been shown to be more effective for hot flashes than estrogen replacement; nonetheless, there are more than 40 products on the alternative medicine shelf, which claim to bring relief to women in the climacteric. Patients will benefit from physician knowledge of the herbal remedies that are now heavily marketed, and apparently widely used, without FDA oversight.

  7. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide important new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms or conditions related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk. The results were published April 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. |

  8. Menopausal hot flashes: mechanisms, endocrinology, treatment.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Robert R

    2014-07-01

    Hot flashes (HFs) are a rapid and exaggerated heat dissipation response, consisting of profuse sweating, peripheral vasodilation, and feelings of intense, internal heat. They are triggered by small elevations in core body temperature (Tc) acting within a greatly reduced thermoneutral zone, i.e., the Tc region between the upper (sweating) and lower (shivering) thresholds. This is due in part, but not entirely, to estrogen depletion at menopause. Elevated central sympathetic activation, mediated through α2-adrenergic receptors, is one factor responsible for narrowing of the thermoneutral zone. Procedures which reduce this activation, such as paced respiration and clonidine administration, ameliorate HFs as will peripheral cooling. HFs are responsible for some, but not all, of the sleep disturbance reported during menopause. Recent work calls into question the role of serotonin in HFs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

  9. The reproductive endocrinology of the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Butler, Laura; Santoro, Nanette

    2011-06-01

    The menopause transition is a dynamic process that begins with the first appearance of menstrual irregularity and ends with a woman's final menstrual period. As ovarian follicle numbers dwindle, the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis enters a state of compensated failure. In this state, elevated FSH is capable of maintaining relatively regular folliculogenesis and ovulation, but fertility is reduced. Eventually, this state of compensated failure cannot be sustained, and the ovary becomes unable to produce functioning follicles. Recent multicenter studies from several countries have addressed the pattern of change in hormones and a model form reproductive aging has been developed that helps explain the changes in hormone patterns and fertility that accompany menopause. Perhaps more important, the hormonal changes of the menopausal transition may be predictive of future disease risk. This review will undertake an explanation of the current literature on this topic.

  10. [Hormonal treatment for menopause and arterial risk].

    PubMed

    Gueyffier, François; Cornu, Catherine

    2005-02-28

    Is hormonal atmosphere before menopause the cause of the lower risk of coronary heart disease in women? Big clinical trials do not validate this hypothesis, however simple and attractive: in 5 primary or secondary prevention trials, estrogens alone or in association with progestatives to near 32000 women after menopause, do not leave hope for a significant reduction of coronary risk, and show in contrast an 30% increase of stroke risk. These results highlight the crucial importance of clinical trials to validate therapeutic models. The remaining hypotheses on the nature of hormonal treatments and the administration route must follow the same validation process. The prescription of hormonal treatment for menopause illustrates the importance of informed decision including individualised estimate of the risk to benefit ratio.

  11. Staying Healthy After Menopause | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy diet, low in fat, high in fiber, with plenty ...

  12. The 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective This position statement aimed to update the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in 2010 regarding recommendations for hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women. This updated position statement further distinguishes the emerging differences in the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio between estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) at various ages and time intervals since menopause onset. Methods An Advisory Panel of expert clinicians and researchers in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the 2010 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. Results Current evidence supports the use of HT for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women when the balance of potential benefits and risks is favorable for the individual woman. This position statement reviews the effects of ET and EPT on many aspects of women’s health and recognizes the greater safety profile associated with ET. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms and to prevent osteoporosis in women at high risk of fracture. The more favorable benefit-risk ratio for ET allows more flexibility in extending the duration of use compared with EPT, where the earlier appearance of increased breast cancer risk precludes a recommendation for use beyond 3 to 5 years. PMID:22367731

  13. Effects of Escitalopram on Menopause-specific Quality of Life and Pain in Healthy Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Larson, Joseph; Carpenter, Janet S.; Joffe, Hadine; Reed, Susan D.; Newton, Katherine M.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of escitalopram 10-20 mg/day on menopause-related quality of life and pain in healthy menopausal women with hot flashes. Study Design A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of escitalopram 10-20 mg/day vs. identical placebo was conducted among 205 women ages 40-62 years with an average of > 4 daily hot flashes recruited at 4 clinical sites from July 2009 - June 2010. Main Outcome Measures The primary trial outcomes, reported previously, were the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms at 8 weeks. Here, we report on the pre-specified secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and the Pain Intensity and Interference Scale (PEG). Results Outcome data were collected on 97% of randomized women and 87% of women took at least 70% of their study medication. Treatment with escitalopram resulted in significantly greater improvement in total MENQOL scores (mean difference at 8 weeks of −0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.71 to −0.11; p<0.001), as well as Vasomotor, Psychosocial, and Physical domain scores with the largest difference seen in the Vasomotor domain (mean difference −0.75; 95% CI −1.28 to −0.22; p=0.02). There was no significant treatment group difference for the Sexual Function domain. Escitalopram treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in PEG scores compared to placebo (mean treatment group difference at 8 weeks of −0.33; 95% CI - 0.81 to 0.15; p=0.045). Conclusions Treatment with escitalopram 10-20 mg/day in healthy women with vasomotor symptoms significantly improved menopause-related quality of life and pain. PMID:23031421

  14. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  15. Menopause as a long-term risk to health: implications of general practitioner accounts of prevention for women's choice and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Hepworth, Julie

    2003-03-01

    Over the past two decades medical researchers and modernist feminist researchers have contested the meaning of menopause. In this article we examine various meanings of menopause in major medical and feminist literature and the construction of menopause in a semi-structured interview study of general practitioners in rural South Australia. Three discursive themes are identified in these interviews; (i) .the hormonal menopause - symptoms, risk, prevention; (ii). the informed menopausal woman; and (iii). decision-making and hormone replacement therapy. By using the discourse of prevention, general practitioners construct menopause in relation to women's health care choices, empowerment and autonomy. We argue that the ways in which these concepts are deployed by general practitioners in this study produces and constrains the options available to women. The implications of these general practitioner accounts are discussed in relation to the proposition that medical and feminist descriptions of menopause posit alternative but equally-fixed truths about menopause and their relationship with the range of responses available to women at menopause. Social and cultural explanations of disease causality (c.f. Germov 1998, Hardey 1998) are absent from the new menopause despite their being an integral part of the framework of the women's health movement and health promotion drawn on by these general practitioners. Further, the shift of responsibility for health to the individual woman reinforces practice claims to empower women, but oversimplifies power relations and constructs menopause as a site of self-surveillance. The use of concepts from the women's health movement and health promotion have nevertheless created change in both the positioning of women as having 'choices' and the positioning of some general practitioners in terms of greater information provision to women and an attention to the woman's autonomy. In conclusion, we propose that a new menopause has evolved

  16. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause.

  17. Menopause in Blackfeet women--a life span perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Susan L

    2003-06-01

    A lifespan perspective, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, is used to examine factors related to the timing of menopause in Blackfeet women of northern Montana (USA). Cross-sectional survey data demonstrate a median age at menopause using a status quo method of 51.6 years, and a mean age of 47.0 +/- 5.0 years among those women who had already experienced menopause. Age at menopause is inversely associated with age at menarche and having been breastfed, and positively associated with use of contraceptives, household income, and current or recent employment. Household income and age at menarche influence menopause age jointly in multivariate models. These and other patterns are examined in the lives of two women with very divergent ages at menopause. Although these data support an effect of early life influences on shaping reproductive trajectories that culminate in menopause, environmental factors and human agency during adult life may play a modifying role.

  18. Role of exercise and nutrition in menopause.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Allison R; Warren, Michelle P

    2008-09-01

    Menopause and the aging process itself cause many physiologic changes, which explain the increased prevalence of chronic diseases observed in postmenopausal women. Exercise and nutrition play important roles in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, and depression.

  19. The medicalisation of male menopause in America.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2007-08-01

    The topic of male menopause occupied space on the medical radar screen from the late 1930s through the mid-1950s, then virtually disappeared for the next four decades, until the late 1990s. By contrast, articles on this subject appeared in American popular magazines and newspapers at a consistent, if low-level, rate throughout the same period. This essay describes how the male menopause became medicalised, not by the driving forces of academic researchers and influential clinicians, but instead by a model perpetuated by lay people and medical popularisers. A medicalised conceptualisation of the body and the life-cycle had become widespread by the second half of the twentieth century, as Americans grew accustomed to regarding their lives through the lens of medicine. People came to expect medicine to provide a cure for any ailment; in the wake of the development of the so-called wonder drugs, no affliction seemed beyond medical and pharmaceutical intervention. A medicalised model had also been effectively produced for understanding and treating the menopause in women; a parallel, if not identical, stage in the life-course of men seemed reasonable. This framework, rather than persuasive evidence from the research laboratory or clinic, helped to medicalise male menopause and provided the basis for its eventual pharmaceuticalisation at the end of the twentieth century.

  20. Exercise at menopause: a critical difference.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, M

    1999-01-01

    Even at menopause, fitness can reduce the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes, yet only 38% of women over age 19 exercise regularly. A sports medicine expert recommends that exercise be encouraged and prescribed, even for women with a variety of comorbidities.

  1. Menopausal Quality of Life: A RCT of Yoga, Exercise and Omega-3 Supplements

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D; GUTHRIE, Katherine A; NEWTON, Katherine M; ANDERSON, Garnet L; BOOTH-LAFORCE, Cathryn; CAAN, Bette; CARPENTER, Janet S; COHEN, Lee S; DUNN, Andrea L; ENSRUD, Kristine E; FREEMAN, Ellen W; HUNT, Julie R; JOFFE, Hadine; LARSON, Joseph C; LEARMAN, Lee A; ROTHENBERG, Robin; SEGUIN, Rebecca A; SHERMAN, Karen J; STERNFELD, Barbara S; LACROIX, Andrea Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine efficacy of three non-hormonal therapies for improving menopause-related quality of life (QOL) in women with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Methods 12-week 3×2 randomized, controlled, factorial design trial. Peri- and postmenopausal women, ages 40-62 years, were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and also randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Interventions: 1) weekly 90-minute yoga classes with daily at-home practice; 2) individualized facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week; and 3) 0.615 gram omega-3 supplement, 3 times/day. Outcomes: Menopausal Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) total and domain (VMS, psychosocial, physical and sexual) scores. Results Among 355 randomized women, average age 54.7 years, 338 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.6/day and mean baseline total MENQOL score was 3.8 (range 1-8 from better to worse) with no between-group differences. For yoga compared to usual activity, baseline to 12-week improvements were seen for MENQOL total -0.3 (95% CI -0.6 to 0.0, p=0.02), and VMS (p=0.02) and sexuality (p=0.03) domain scores. For exercise and omega-3 compared to controls, improvements in baseline to 12-week total MENQOL scores were not observed. Exercise showed benefit in the MENQOL physical domain score at 12-weeks (p=0.02). Conclusion All women become menopausal and many seek medical advice on ways to improve quality of life; little evidence-based information exists. We found, among healthy sedentary menopausal women, yoga appears to improve menopausal QOL - the clinical significance of our finding is uncertain due to modest effect. PMID:24215858

  2. Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy with Vaginal Estrogen Cream in Menopausal Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maitri; Karena, Zalak; Patel, Sangita V.; Parmar, Niyati; Singh, Pawan K.; Sharma, Atul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effect of vaginal estrogen cream in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in menopausal Indian women. Methods A total of 50 menopausal women aged between 40 and 80 years old with symptoms of vaginal atrophy were selected and treated with 0.5 g vaginal estrogen cream, twice weekly for 12 weeks. The women were followed-up monthly where symptom score, Genital Health Clinical Evaluation (GHCE) score, vaginal pH, and vaginal maturation index (VMI) were assessed and compared to baseline data. Any adverse events were recorded. Results There was a significant improvement (p < 0.010) in complaints such as vaginal dryness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia at the end of the study period. The clinical improvement of these patients was reflected in a decrease in GHCE score on every visit. Vaginal pH and VMI score also showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.010). No side effects with the drugs used were recorded during the study period. Conclusions Vaginal estrogen cream causes symptomatic relief in women of menopausal age in India suffering from vaginal atrophy. PMID:28042397

  3. Estradiol Variability, Stressful Life Events and the Emergence of Depressive Symptomatology during the Menopause Transition

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jennifer L.; Rubinow, David R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Leserman, Jane; Girdler, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of estradiol fluctuation in triggering depressive symptoms in the menopause transition and assess the role of recent very stressful life events (VSLEs) as a moderating factor in this relationship. Methods 52 euthymic women in the menopause transition or early postmenopause (age 45–60) who were assigned to the placebo arm of a randomized controlled trial of hormone therapy provided the data for this report. At enrollment, women’s experience of recent VSLEs, depressive symptoms, serum estradiol and progesterone were assessed. At months 1, 8 and 14, depressive symptoms and hormones were re-assessed and participants underwent a stressor battery involving a speech and a mental arithmetic task. Participants rated their feelings of anxiety, fear, anger and rejection. The standard deviation of estradiol provided an index of hormone variability over the entire 14 months. Results Greater estradiol variability across the 14 months predicted greater depressive symptoms at month 14, though only in women reporting a higher number of VSLEs at baseline (39% of women reported ≤1 recent event). Greater estradiol variability also predicted greater feelings of rejection to the laboratory stressor at months 8 and 14. Furthermore, among women reporting higher VSLEs at baseline, feelings of rejection in response to the laboratory stressor at month 8 predicted depressive symptoms at month 14. Conclusion These data suggest estradiol variability may enhance emotional sensitivity to psychosocial stress, particularly sensitivity to social rejection. Combined with VSLEs proximate to the menopause transition, this increased sensitivity may contribute to the development of depressed mood. PMID:26529616

  4. Telomere length and age-at-menopause in the US

    PubMed Central

    Shenassa, Edmond D.; Rossen, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age-at-menopause and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) are both associated with biologic aging. Therefore, it would be reasonable to hypothesize that LTL may also serve as a marker for reproductive aging as shorter LTL may be associated with earlier age-at-menopause. Methods We analyzed data from 799 post-menopausal (ages 41–85) participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002), a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Results Controlling for behavioral, socio-demographic, and health-related determinants of menopause, we found that among non-Hispanic white women, an increase of one standard deviation in LTL was associated with a 0.43 year higher reported age-at-menopause. Among Mexican–Americans, an increase of one standard deviation in LTL was associated with a 1.56 year earlier menopause. There was no significant association between LTL and age-at-menopause among non-Hispanic black women. Conclusions Our main finding is evidence of a strong interaction by race/ethnicity in the association between LTL and age-at-menopause. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that shorter LTL is a predictor of earlier age-at-menopause, as the magnitude and direction of the associations between LTL and age-at-menopause varied across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:26297686

  5. The endometrial and breast safety of menopausal hormone therapy containing micronised progesterone: A short review.

    PubMed

    Eden, John

    2017-02-01

    For a significant minority of women, menopausal symptoms can be very unpleasant; however, many are worried about taking menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for fear of causing breast cancer. Micronised progesterone (mP4) has been available in Europe since the 1990s and clinical trials have shown that 100 mg oral daily, 200 mg oral sequentially or 100 mg vaginal every second day effectively protect the endometrium from the stimulatory effects of oestrogen. MHT containing mP4 has a significantly lower breast cancer risk than those containing progestins. Micronised progesterone does not appear to attenuate the cardiovascular benefits of oestrogen. Pharmaceutical grade, body identical MHT is now available in Australia.

  6. Sex hormone therapy and progression of cardiovascular disease in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Alhurani, Rabe E.; Chahal, C. Anwar A.; Ahmed, Ahmed T.; Mohamed, Essa A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most controversial health decisions facing women is deciding upon the use of hormonal treatments for symptoms of menopause. This brief review focuses on the historical context of use of menopausal hormone treatments (MHT), summarizes results of major observational, primary and secondary prevention studies of MHT and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, provides evidence for how sex steroids modulate CV function and identifies challenges for future research. As medicine enters an era of personalization of treatment options, additional research into sex differences in the aetiology of CV diseases will lead to better risk identification for CV disease in women and identify whether a woman might receive CV benefit from specific formulations and doses of MHT. PMID:27215679

  7. Unpredictable endocrinology of the menopause transition: clinical, diagnostic and management implications.

    PubMed

    Burger, Henry G

    2011-12-01

    The approach to menopause can be divided into the early (E) and late (L) menopausal transitions (MT) on the basis of menstrual irregularity (EMT) and subsequent observation of at least one episode of 60 or more days amenorrhoea (LMT). In total, 40-60% of cycles in the LMT are anovulatory, often with low oestradiol (E2) and high follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. The ovulatory cycles have variable endocrine characteristics, none of which is specific to EMT or LMT. Hormonal measurements of FSH and E2 are thus of little diagnostic value because of their unpredictable variability. Symptoms during the transitions may result from high or low E2 and can often be satisfactorily managed with low-dose oral contraceptives, which suppress pituitary-ovarian function.

  8. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values

  9. Efficacy of proline in the treatment of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sun-Young; Yoou, Myoung-Schook

    2016-01-01

    The amino acids in the placenta have multiple functions; however, the therapeutic effects of proline remain poorly for relief postmenopausal symptoms. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of proline in the treatment of menopause using in vitro and in vivo models. We assessed the therapeutic effects and regulatory mechanisms of proline by using MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cells, MG63 osteoblast cells, and ovariectomized mice model. An in vivo study was carried out in eight-week-old sham and ovariectomized group. The ovariectomized mouse was further subdivided into two groups administered orally with 17β-estradiol or proline (10 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks. Proline significantly increased cell proliferation and Ki-67 levels in MCF-7 cells and enhanced cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase activation in MG63 cells. The estrogen receptor-β and estrogen-response elements luciferase activity were significantly increased by proline in MCF-7 and MG63 cells. In ovariectomized mice, oral administration of proline (10 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks significantly reduced body and vaginal weights. Proline also significantly increased serum estradiol and alkaline phosphatase levels, whereas serum luteinizing hormone was decreased by proline. In addition, detailed microcomputed tomography analysis showed that the proline notably enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number in ovariectomized mice. Those findings implied that proline can be a promising candidate for the treatment of menopause. PMID:26830682

  10. Efficacy of proline in the treatment of menopause.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Young; Yoou, Myoung-Schook; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-03-01

    The amino acids in the placenta have multiple functions; however, the therapeutic effects of proline remain poorly for relief postmenopausal symptoms. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of proline in the treatment of menopause using in vitro and in vivo models. We assessed the therapeutic effects and regulatory mechanisms of proline by using MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cells, MG63 osteoblast cells, and ovariectomized mice model. An in vivo study was carried out in eight-week-old sham and ovariectomized group. The ovariectomized mouse was further subdivided into two groups administered orally with 17β-estradiol or proline (10 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks. Proline significantly increased cell proliferation and Ki-67 levels in MCF-7 cells and enhanced cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase activation in MG63 cells. The estrogen receptor-β and estrogen-response elements luciferase activity were significantly increased by proline in MCF-7 and MG63 cells. In ovariectomized mice, oral administration of proline (10 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks significantly reduced body and vaginal weights. Proline also significantly increased serum estradiol and alkaline phosphatase levels, whereas serum luteinizing hormone was decreased by proline. In addition, detailed microcomputed tomography analysis showed that the proline notably enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number in ovariectomized mice. Those findings implied that proline can be a promising candidate for the treatment of menopause.

  11. Management of Hormone Deprivation Symptoms After Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-08-01

    Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation.

  12. Validation of the traditional Chinese version of the Menopausal Rating Scale with WHOQOL-BREF.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-c; Wen, S-h; Hwang, J-s; Huang, S-c

    2015-10-01

    Objective To assess the criterion validity, construct validity and test-retest reliability of the traditional Chinese language version of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS-TC version). Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study covering hospital and community samples of 317 women aged 39-62 years. Two questionnaires were administered, namely, the MRS-TC version, made up of 11 items in three dimensions, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. The internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's α. To evaluate criterion validity, the relationship between the individual items and dimension scores of both instruments was estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to assess convergent and discriminant validity; construct validity was evaluated by comparing the mean scores of menopausal and non-menopausal women for each of the MRS dimensions. Results The final questionnaire comprised 11 items in three dimensions. The intra-class correlation (ICC) for the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.83 to 0.93; values of Cronbach's α for psychological, somatic, and urogenital symptom domains were 0.88, 0.68, and 0.59, respectively. For the convergent and discriminant validity, the correlations between the individual questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF were significant; those with the MRS dimensions were significantly negatively associated for the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Conclusion The MRS-TC version using the traditional Chinese language is a reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing menopausal symptoms and global quality of life in climacteric women.

  13. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parsa, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment). Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p<0.05) in different experiments. Conclusion: The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human. PMID:27247926

  14. MENOPAUSAL HOT FLASHES: MECHANISMS, ENDOCRINOLOGY, TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Hot flashes (HFs) are a rapid and exaggerated heat dissipation response, consisting of profuse sweating, peripheral vasodilation, and feelings of intense, internal heat. They are triggered by small elevations in core body temperature (Tc) acting within a greatly reduced thermoneutral zone, i.e., the Tc region between the upper (sweating) and lower (shivering) thresholds. This is due in part, but not entirely, to estrogen depletion at menopause. Elevated central sympathetic activation, mediated through α2-adrenergic receptors, is one factor responsible for narrowing of the thermoneutral zone. Procedures which reduce this activation, such as paced respiration and clonidine administration, ameliorate HFs as will peripheral cooling. HFs are responsible for some, but not all, of the sleep disturbance reported during menopause. Recent work calls into question the role of serotonin in HFs. PMID:24012626

  15. The menopause: women's psychology and health care.

    PubMed

    Defey, D; Storch, E; Cardozo, S; Díaz, O; Fernández, G

    1996-05-01

    Menopause has often been described as a time of loss and decay in the lay and medical literature. The present research aims at defining women's perception of themselves and their health care needs in this period of life. Through a community-based sample of women, participative assessments were performed and their conclusions contrasted with the opinions of male and female gynecologists. Though both groups coincided concerning the relevance of loneliness, partnership, beauty and the "empty nest" syndrome, several items showed a marked difference between both groups. Gynecologists tended to perceive women as much more striving for an active sex-life, depressed, lacking projects for the future and worried about their health care than they actually were. Women, instead, stressed the relevance of menopause as a life crisis laden with opportunities for self-accomplishment and positive changes in life-style towards greater autonomy.

  16. Postmenopausal Symptoms in Female Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes: Glucose Control and Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Krein, Sarah L.; Reame, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: While type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common condition of midlife women, few studies have examined its influence on the symptom features of menopause. To explore this relationship, we conducted a study of symptom patterns of diabetic patients using a random sample of female veterans receiving care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare system. Methods: A cross-sectional comparison was conducted with three groups of postmenopausal respondents (ages 45–60 years) to a mailed national survey who also consented to clinical data access: no diabetes (n=90), diabetes with better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]≤7%, n=135) and diabetes with worse glucose control (HbA1c>7%, n=102). Results: Respondents, on average, were obese (body mass index: 33.9±0.4 kg/m2), 11.30±0.2 years postmenopause, with more than one chronic illness. Despite higher body mass index and increased comorbidities in women with diabetes compared with nondiabetic women, measures of mental health (anxiety, depressed mood, stress) were similar across groups. The pattern of menopause symptoms did not differ by group. Muscle aches/joint pain was the most prevalent symptom (78.6%), followed by vasomotor symptoms (74.4%). Respondents with elevated HbA1c demonstrated higher total menopausal symptom severity scores (DM-HbA1c>7: 15.4±0.8 vs. DM-HbA1c≤7%: 12.2±0.8 vs. No diabetes: 12.3±0.8; p=0.006) than the other two groups. Conclusions: In postmenopausal female veterans with diabetes, glucose control is associated with the severity of those symptoms commonly attributed to menopause. Joint pain is an important part of the postmenopausal symptom complex in this population. PMID:25938989

  17. Why Do Only Some Women Develop Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    turnover and net bone loss. Fortunately, only 25-30% of post-menopausal women will develop vertebral fractures – the hallmark of post-menopausal...sex steroids results in increased bone turnover and net bone loss. Fortunately, only 25-30% of post- menopausal women will develop vertebral ...achieve. Therefore greater expenditures on reagents, etc have been incurred. Significant changes in use or care of human subjects, vertebrate

  18. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.

  19. The timing of the age at which natural menopause occurs.

    PubMed

    Gold, Ellen B

    2011-09-01

    The timing of natural menopause is a clinically important indicator of longevity and risk of morbidity and mortality. Demographic, menstrual, reproductive, familial, genetic, and lifestyle factors seem to be important in this timing. Smoking, lower parity and poor socioeconomic status are associated with earlier menopause. However, a number of relationships have been inconsistent; others remain largely unexplored. Much remains to be learned about factors that affect follicular atresia and the onset and duration of perimenopause and the timing of the natural menopause. Knowledge about these relationships offers women and their health care providers enhanced understanding and choices to deal with menopause.

  20. Managing the menopause: British Menopause Society Council consensus statement on hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Joan; Rees, Margaret C P; Gray, Sarah; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Marsden, Jo; Stevenson, John; Williamson, Jennifer

    2005-12-01

    The British Menopause Society Council aims to help health professionals inform and advise women about the menopause. This guidance regarding estrogen-based hormone replacement therapy (HRT), including tibolone, which is classified in the British National Formulary as HRT, responds to the results and analysis of the randomized Women's Health Initiative studies and the observational Million Women Study. Treatment choice should be based on up-to-date information and targeted to individual women's needs. HRT still offers the potential for benefit to outweigh harm, providing the appropriate regimen has been instigated in terms of dose, route and combination.

  1. Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the biology of sex differences is integral to personalized medicine. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline are two related conditions, with distinct sex differences in morbidity and clinical manifestations, response to treatments, and mortality. Although mortality from all-cause cardiovascular diseases has declined in women over the past five years, due in part to increased educational campaigns regarding the recognition of symptoms and application of treatment guidelines, the mortality in women still exceeds that of men. The physiological basis for these differences requires further research, with particular attention to two physiological conditions which are unique to women and associated with hormonal changes: pregnancy and menopause. Both conditions have the potential to impact life-long cardiovascular risk, including cerebrovascular function and cognition in women. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of hypertensive pregnancy disorders on cardiovascular disease and cognitive function later in life, and examines the effects of post-menopausal hormone treatments on cardiovascular risk and cognition in midlife women. We suggest that hypertensive pregnancy disorders and menopause activate vascular components, i.e., vascular endothelium and blood elements, including platelets and leukocytes, to release cell-membrane derived microvesicles that are potential mediators of changes in cerebral blood flow, and may ultimately affect cognition in women as they age. Research into specific sex differences for these disease processes with attention to an individual’s sex chromosomal complement and hormonal status is important and timely. PMID:23537114

  2. Health issues for menopausal women: the top 11 conditions have common solutions.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Gabriella M; Kavousi, Maryam; Troup, Jenna; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple health issues affect women throughout the life course differently from men, or do not affect men at all. Although attention to women's health is important in all stages in life, health among middle-aged and elderly women has not received sufficient attention by scientists and policy-makers. Related to the menopausal transition and the experiences accumulated until that age, many diseases occur or further develop in middle-aged and elderly women. To improve women's quality of life and guarantee a long-lasting and active role for middle-aged and elderly women in society, prevention of chronic diseases and disability is a key aspect. In this manuscript we give an overview of the major health issues for peri- and post-menopausal women, we summarize risk factors and interventions to improve menopausal health. Based on the available scientific literature and the global burden of disease endeavor, we have selected and herein describe the following top 11 key health issues, selected in terms of burden exerted in women's mortality, morbidity, disability and quality of life: cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, cancer, cognitive decline and dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, depression, vasomotor symptoms, sleep disturbances and migraine.

  3. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  4. Twelve-week exercise training and the quality of life in menopausal women – clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Jolanta; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Michalski, Bogdan Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The menopause transition is associated with decreased health functioning. About 80-90% of women experience mild to severe physical or physiological menopause-related complaints per year when approaching menopause. Physical activity may reduce some climacteric symptoms and improve the quality of life. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a 12-week training programme on the quality of life (QoL) in menopausal-aged women living in a rural area. Material and methods Participants were 80 women aged 40-65 years and divided into two randomly selected groups in training sessions (exercising group, n = 40 and control group, n = 40). SF36 was used to assess the quality of life in both groups before and after 12 weeks. Exercising women participated in training session 3 times a week. Each 60-minute exercise session included warming-up exercises, walking, stretching, strengthening exercises with an elastic band and cooling down exercises. Results A non-significant positive difference in all SF36 domains in the exercising group was observed. The results of the study showed a statistically significant higher QoL in the exercising group compared to the control group after 12-week training in two domains: vitality and mental health. The improvement in the quality of life in the study group was 0.19 points (role limits – physical domain, least change) and 4.96 (vitality domain, most change). Conclusions Controlled and regular exercise for 12 weeks was significantly correlated with a positive change in vitality and mental health. Sedentary women should consider modification of their lifestyle to include physical activity as it leads to improvement of their quality of life. PMID:27095954

  5. Plasma Metabolic Profiles in Women are Menopause Dependent.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chaofu; Hou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhang, Fan; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Ying; Li, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is an endocrinological transition that greatly affects health and disease susceptibility in middle-aged and elderly women. To gain new insights into the metabolic process of menopause, plasma metabolic profiles in 115 pre- and post-menopausal women were systematically analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Metabolic signatures revealed considerable differences between pre- and post-menopausal women, and clear separations were observed between the groups in partial least-squares discriminant analysis score plots. In total, 28 metabolites were identified as potential metabolite markers for menopause, including up-regulated acylcarnitines, fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and down-regulated pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. These differences highlight that significant alterations occur in fatty acid β-oxidation, phospholipid metabolism, hormone metabolism and amino acid metabolism in post-menopausal women. In conclusion, our plasma metabolomics study provides novel understanding of the metabolic profiles related to menopause, and will be useful for investigating menopause-related diseases and assessing metabolomic confounding factors.

  6. Life history evolution: what does a menopausal killer whale do?

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Hal

    2015-03-16

    Menopause evolved in humans and whales, presumably because older females can help their kin. But how do they help? New research shows that post-menopausal female killer whales lead foraging groups. This leadership is most significant when food is scarce.

  7. Counseling Women in Midlife: An Integrative Approach to Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that counselors who use an integrative approach to menopause can not only provide accurate biomedical information but also conceptualize menopause as a normative midlife transition. Provides a foundation in biomedical issues and considers how these in interaction with cultural and psychosocial factors influence the experience of…

  8. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  9. Genitourinary syndrome of the menopause--dawn of a new era?

    PubMed

    Panay, N

    2015-01-01

    Many millions of postmenopausal women continue to suffer in silence from symptoms resulting from estrogen-deficient atrophy of the vulva, vagina and urinary tract whilst the medical profession continues to debate what the condition should be called, how it should be assessed and whether it should be universally treated. It is high time that a unified approach was adopted by all medical societies to reach a consensus on definitions, recognition and management. With the development of the nomenclature for genitourinary syndrome of the menopause (GSM), advances in GSM assessment tools and quality-of-life questionnaires and novel therapeutic interventions, the signs are positive that a new era is finally dawning.

  10. Why is cardiovascular health important in menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Simon, T

    2006-09-01

    Since endogenous estrogen shows some preventative benefits against cardiovascular risk factors in premenopausal women, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is often considered a male disease. However, CVD is the biggest cause of death in women, especially after menopause when endogenous estrogen withdrawal has detrimental effects on cardiovascular physiology and whole-body metabolism. Despite this, awareness of the risk of CVD is low in both women and in doctors; this needs rectifying. Women are under-represented in most clinical studies of CVD. Following diagnosis of CVD, the prognosis for women is not systematically similar to that for men. Furthermore, from the few comparisons conducted, gender differences in response to pharmacological interventions are evident, so that results obtained in wholly or largely male-based studies cannot be systematically extrapolated to women. Women with CVD should be afforded equivalent investigations and treatment to men, and it is vital that women be included in clinical trials in sufficient numbers to allow sub-group analyses and subsequent development of appropriate therapies. Since CVD is usually advanced by the time symptoms appear, prevention is the key; health management advice might include smoking cessation, adoption of a healthy diet, and incorporation of physical activity into the lifestyle.

  11. Menopausal hot flashes: Randomness or rhythmicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Fredi

    1991-10-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are episodes of flushing, increased heart rate, skin blood flow and skin temperature, and a sensation of heat. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular concomitants of hot flashes are associated with peaks in the levels of various hormones and neurotransmitters in the peripheral circulation. Although hot flashes affect about 75% of women, and are the primary reason that women at menopause seek medical attention, the mechanism of hot flashes is still not understood. Hot flashes vary in frequency and intensity both within and between individuals, and have been thought of as occurring randomly. Yet, some women report that their hot flashes are worse at a particular time of day or year. Initial examination of subjects' recordings of their hot flashes showed diurnal patterns of hot flash occurrence. There also seems to be a diurnal rhythm of hot flash intensity. Continuous physiological monitoring of hot flashes is facilitating the analysis of these patterns, which is revealing circadian and ultradian periodicities. The occurrence of hot flashes can be modulated by external and internal factors, including ambient temperature and fever. Rhythms of thermoregulatory and endocrine functions also may influence hot flash patterns. Examination of the interrelationships between the various systems of the body involved in hot flashes, and a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of hot flash patterns, will aid our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  12. Association Between Hypertension, Menopause, and Cognition in Women.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Judith M; Cerezo, Gustavo H; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vicario, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive state in women and its relation to menopause and hypertension (HTN). The authors included 1034 women aged 47.13±15.71 years. The prevalence of HTN was 47.1%, with 67.8% of patients treated and 48.6% controlled. Cognitive impairment was higher among hypertensive menopausal (mini-Boston Naming Test: 7.4±3.1 vs 8.5±2.4, P<.001; Clock-Drawing Test: 5.2±2 vs 5.6±1.6, P<.01). Using logistic regression adjusted by age and education level, statistical differences were found in the results from the mini-Boston Naming Test between menopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.07; P=.021), and no difference between nonmenopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.57; P=.697). The P interaction between both groups was significant (P=.038). The possibility of alteration in cortical functions in menopausal hypertensive woman showed a relative increment of 48% (P=.021). The association between HTN and menopause increases the possibility of compromising the semantic memory by 50%.

  13. Environment, human reproduction, menopause, and andropause.

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, A

    1993-01-01

    As the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator is an integrator of hormonal, metabolic, and neural signals, it is not surprising that the function of the hypothalamogonadal axis is subject to the influence of a large array of environmental factors. Before puberty, the central nervous system (CNS) restrains the GnRH pulse generator. Undernutrition, low socioeconomic status, stress, and emotional deprivation, all delay puberty. During reproductive life, among peripheral factors that effect the reproductive system, stress plays an important role. Stress, via the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), eventually triggered by interleukin 1, inhibits GnRH release, resulting in hypogonadism. Effects of CRF are probably mediated by the opioid system. Food restriction and underweight (anorexia nervosa), obesity, smoking, and alcohol all have negative effects on the GnRH pulse generator and gonadal function. Age and diet are important determinants of fertility in both men and women. The age-associated decrease in fertility in women has as a major determinant chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte, with uterine factors playing a subsidiary role. Age at menopause, determined by ovarian oocyte depletion, is influenced by occupation, age at menarche, parity, age at last pregnancy, altitude, smoking, and use of oral contraceptives. Smoking, however, appears to be the major determinant. Premature menopause is most frequently attributable to mosaicism for Turner Syndrome, mumps ovaritis, and, above all, total hysterectomy, which has a prevalence of about 12-15% in women 50 years old. Premature ovarian failure with presence of immature follicles is most frequently caused by autoimmune diseases or is the consequence of irradiation or chemotherapy with alkylating cytostatics. Plasma estrogens have a physiological role in the prevention of osteoporosis. Obese women have osteoporosis less frequently than women who are not overweight. Early menopause

  14. Menoprogen, a TCM Herbal Formula for Menopause, Increases Endogenous E2 in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause by Reducing Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Ma, Hong; Lu, Ye; Tan, B. J.; Xu, L.; Lawal, Temitope O.; Mahady, Gail B.; Liu, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Menoprogen (MPG) on ovarian granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis was investigated in vitro and in vivo in an aged rat model of menopause. Intragastric administration of Menoprogen or estradiol valerate to 14-month-old senile female rats for eight weeks increased plasma E2 levels, as well as the weight of both ovarian and uterine tissues. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis of isolated GCs from MPG-treated aged rats showed reductions in the G0/G1 ratio and apoptotic peaks. Isolated GCs also exhibited an increase in cell size and the number of cytoplastic organelles and intracellular gap junctions, the reappearance of secretory granules, and a lack of apoptotic bodies as determined by TEM. Results from a TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed a reduction in TUNEL-positive GCs after MPG treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a downregulation of proapoptotic Bax proteins and an upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The addition of MPG-medicated serum to the media of cultured GCs also reduced cadmium chloride-induced apoptosis and downregulated caspase-3 protein expression. This work demonstrates that Menoprogen inhibits GC apoptosis in aged female rats and thereby increases E2 production. This represents a novel mechanism of action for this herbal medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26981526

  15. Symptom control.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Ingham, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Symptom control has become increasingly recognized as an important goal in patient care. In this article, advances in symptom assessment, and various definitions of symptom improvement are reviewed. Theoretical concepts underlying symptom control and clinically significant change are presented, as well as the role of symptom control as an endpoint in clinical trials. Symptom control is then surveyed in two broad categories for selected symptoms. The first area is therapy related symptoms, secondary to chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapy, and surgery. Symptoms reviewed include chemotherapy related mucositis, emesis, fatigue; hot flashes; and radiation related dermatitis, xerostomia, and mucositis. The second area is palliative oncologic approaches to disease-related symptoms. Results in palliative chemotherapy, palliative radiation therapy, cancer pain, and lack of appetite are summarized. Areas requiring further research are noted. Findings are presented in both a clinical and research context to help guide the reader with interpreting symptom control studies.

  16. Safety and efficacy of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    During the menopausal transition, women experience a number of symptoms due to declining estrogen levels, including vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Unlike vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, the main symptoms of VVA, typically worsen without treatment and can significantly impact the quality of life. Up to 60% of postmenopausal women may be affected by VVA, but many women unfortunately do not seek treatment due to embarrassment or other factors. After 20+ years in development, ospemifene (Osphena™) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013 for treatment of moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause. As the first non-hormonal alternative to estrogen-based products for this indication, the approval of ospemifene represents a significant milestone in postmenopausal women's health. Ospemifene is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), from the same chemical class as the breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and toremifene. Unlike other selective estrogen receptor modulators, ospemifene exerts a strong, nearly full estrogen agonist effect in the vaginal epithelium, making it well suited for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. Results of Phase III clinical trials showed that ospemifene significantly improved the vaginal maturation index (decreased parabasal cells and increased superficial cells), decreased vaginal pH, and decreased severity of the self-identified most bothersome symptom (dyspareunia or vaginal dryness) compared to placebo. Long-term safety studies revealed that 60 mg ospemifene given daily for 52 weeks was well tolerated and was not associated with any endometrium or breast-related safety concerns. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause and provides an overview of

  17. Marital status and age at natural menopause: considering pheromonal influence.

    PubMed

    Sievert, L L; Waddle, D; Canali, K

    2001-01-01

    Married women generally report a later mean age at menopause. The results reported here, from a study carried out in Greene County, New York, are no exception. Married and widowed women report a later mean age at natural menopause compared to single and divorced women (P < 0.05). To better understand the relationship between marital status and age at menopause, possible mechanistic and confounding variables are examined, in particular parity, sexual activity, smoking habits, level of education, and income. Parity and income 10 years prior to interview are significant factors, along with marital status, that explain part of the variation in age at natural menopause. An alternative explanation is the pheromonal influence of a male in the household. This would explain the consistency of results across populations. This pilot study supports further biochemical investigation.

  18. Lisdexamfetamine Effects on Executive Activation and Neurochemistry in Menopausal Women with Executive Function Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Shanmugan, Sheila; Loughead, James; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Elliott, Mark; Hariharan, Hari; Appleby, Dina; Kim, Deborah; Ruparel, Kosha; Reddy, Ravinder; Brown, Thomas E; Epperson, C Neill

    2017-01-01

    Many women with no history of executive dysfunction report difficulties in this domain during the menopause transition. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) has been suggested to be a safe and effective treatment option for these women. However, the mechanism by which LDX improves executive functioning in these women is not known. Here we investigated the effects of LDX on brain activation and neurochemistry, hypothesizing that LDX would be associated with increased activation and decreased glutamate in executive regions. Fourteen women underwent multimodal neuroimaging at 7T at three time points in this baseline-corrected, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Effects of LDX on symptom severity, blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) glutamate+glutamine (Glx) were measured using a clinician-administered questionnaire, fMRI during performance of a fractal n-back task, and (1)H-MRS, respectively. The effect of treatment (LDX minus baseline vs placebo minus baseline) on these behavioral and neural markers of executive function was examined using repeated measures mixed effects models. LDX treatment was associated with decreased symptom severity, increased activation in the insula and DLPFC, and decreased DLPFC Glx. In addition, the magnitude of LDX-induced improvement in symptom severity predicted both direction and magnitude of LDX-induced change in insular and DLPFC activation. Moreover, symptom severity was positively correlated with Glx concentration in the left DLPFC at baseline. These findings provide novel evidence that the neural mechanisms by which LDX acts to improve self-reported executive functioning in healthy menopausal women with midlife onset of executive difficulties include modulation of insular and DLPFC recruitment as well as decrease in DLPFC Glx concentration.

  19. Kappa Agonists as a Novel Therapy for Menopausal Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Amy E.; Steiner, Robert A.; Chavkin, Charles; Clifton, Donald K.; Ferrara, Laura K.; Reed, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Postmenopausal hot flash etiology is poorly understood, making it difficult to develop and target ideal therapies. A network of hypothalamic estrogen-sensitive neurons producing Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, and Dynorphin (KNDy neurons), located adjacent to the thermoregulatory center, regulate pulsatile secretion of GnRH and LH. Dynorphin may inhibit this system by binding kappa opioid receptors within the vicinity of KNDy neurons. We hypothesize that hot flashes are reduced by KNDy neuron manipulation. Methods A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluated the effect of a kappa agonist (KA).Hot flash frequency was the primary outcome. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women with moderate-severe hot flashes, ages 48-60 years, were randomized. Eight women with sufficient baseline hot flashes for statistical analysis completed all 3 interventions: placebo, standard Pentazocine/Naloxone (50/0.5 mg) or low-dose Pentazocine/Naloxone (25/0.25 mg). In an inpatient research setting, each participant received the 3 interventions, in randomized order, on 3 separate days. On each day, an intravenous catheter was inserted for luteinizing hormone (LH) blood sampling, and skin conductance and Holter monitors were placed. Subjective hot flash frequency and severity were recorded. Results Mean hot flash frequency 2-7 hours following therapy initiation was lower than that for placebo (KA standard-dose: 4.75 ± 0.67; KA low-dose: 4.50 ± 0.57; and placebo: 5.94 ± 0.78 hot flashes/5 hours; p =0.025). Hot flash intensity did not vary between interventions. LH pulsatility mirrored objective hot flashes in some, but not all women. Conclusions This pilot suggests that kappa agonists may affect menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25988798

  20. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  1. Influence of SULT1A1 genetic variation on age at menopause, estrogen levels, and response to hormone therapy in recently postmenopausal white women

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Ann M.; de Andrade, Mariza; Weinshilboum, Richard M.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Onset and symptoms of menopause, and response to hormone therapy (HT) show large interindividual variability. SULT1A1 encodes for a highly expressed enzyme that metabolizes estrogens. We evaluated the relationship between genetic variation in SULT1A1, menopause age, symptoms, and response to HT. Methods: Women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study at Mayo Clinic were randomized to 48 months of treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogen (n = 34), transdermal 17β-estradiol (E2) (n = 33), or placebo (n = 35). Linear regression models and ANOVA were used to test for association of SULT1A1 copy number, rs3760091, rs750155, and rs9282861 (SULT1A1∗2), with age at menopause and symptoms, levels of estrogens (estrone [E1], estrone sulfate [E1S], E2, and estradiol sulfate [E2S]), before and after HT. Results: SULT1A1 gene copy number affected the minor allele frequency for each single nucleotide polymorphisms tested. Before administration of exogenous hormones, increasing number of G alleles at rs9282861 was associated with earlier age at menopause (P = 0.014), lower frequency of night sweats (P = 0.009), and less severe insomnia (P = 0.046). After 48 months of treatment, SULT1A1 genotype was not associated with the presence of menopausal symptoms. In women randomized to oral conjugated equine estrogen, increasing number of the A allele at rs750155 was associated with lower E1S and E2S (P = 0.004 and 0.017), whereas increasing number of the C allele at rs3760091 was associated with lower E2S/E2 (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Interindividual variability in onset of menopause and symptoms before initiation of HT is explained in part by genetic variation in SULT1A1 and may represent a step toward individualizing HT treatment decisions. PMID:27300114

  2. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters ... on the face, neck, arms, or hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort ...

  3. ESCITALOPRAM TREATMENT OF MENOPAUSAL HOT FLASHES

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Robert R.; Kruger, Michael L.; Tancer, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of 10 mg and 20 mg/day of escitalopram on objectively-recorded hot flashes and on the rectal temperature threshold for sweating. Method Two studies were performed: 16 women received 10 mg/day and 26 women received 20 mg/day escitalopram for eight weeks. They were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive active drug or placebo in double-blind fashion. Hot flash frequency was measured with an ambulatory recorder during the first three weeks and during the eighth week of the study. The rectal temperature threshold for sweating was measured during the first and eighth weeks of the study using published methods. Results In the first study, there were no significant effects whatsoever for any measure. In the second study, the escitalopram group showed an average decline in hot flash frequency of 14.4%, whereas, the placebo group showed an average increase of 6.7% (P < .05). However, there were no significant effects across time for either group. There were no significant effects whatsoever for rectal temperature sweating thresholds. Conclusions Escitalopram at 10 mg or 20 mg/day is not effective in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes. PMID:21540755

  4. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale: A methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Klaas; Ruebig, Alexander; Potthoff, Peter; Schneider, Hermann PG; Strelow, Frank; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Thai, Do Minh

    2004-01-01

    Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a) to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b) to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c) to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages). Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents) from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability) were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9) but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7). This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association has been shown

  5. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?

    PubMed

    Edwards, D; Panay, N

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function can be significant, but is frequently underestimated. Furthermore, barriers exist to treatment-seeking, and this condition is often underreported and undertreated. Greater education about vaginal dryness and the range of available treatments is essential to encourage more women to seek help for this condition. Personal lubricants and moisturizers are effective at relieving discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse for women with mild to moderate vaginal dryness, particularly those who have a genuine contraindication to estrogen, or who choose not to use estrogen. However, there is a distinction between lubricants and moisturizers, and notable differences between commercially available products. Women should be advised to choose a product that is optimally balanced in terms of both osmolality and pH, and is physiologically most similar to natural vaginal secretions. A series of recommendations for the use of vaginal lubricants and moisturizers, either on their own or in combination with systemic or topical hormone replacement therapy, is presented.

  6. Subjective health, aging, and menopause among native and immigrant Jewish women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Remennick, Larissa

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions and practices of health between native Israeli women and recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union. A total of 315 respondents (aged 45-65 years, of Ashkenazi, that is, European, origin and middle-class background) were recruited through their workplaces and completed a structured questionnaire, followed by personal interviews (the latter not reported here). While "objective" health profiles of Russian and native Israeli women were rather similar, immigrant women typically perceived themselves as sicker and reported greater health-related damage to their lives than their native Israeli coworkers. More Russian women also reported mental disturbances and family problems, reflecting their vulnerable condition as immigrants. Israeli women were more aware of the "health promotion" discourse, but did not necessarily pursue healthier lifestyles (e.g., more of them smoked). Israeli-socialized women reported a higher number of perimenopausal symptoms and more often adopted the medicalized view of the menopause. The results imply that health interventions aimed at middle-aged women should be specifically tailored, accounting for different cultural constructions of aging and menopause.

  7. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, D.; Panay, N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function can be significant, but is frequently underestimated. Furthermore, barriers exist to treatment-seeking, and this condition is often underreported and undertreated. Greater education about vaginal dryness and the range of available treatments is essential to encourage more women to seek help for this condition. Personal lubricants and moisturizers are effective at relieving discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse for women with mild to moderate vaginal dryness, particularly those who have a genuine contraindication to estrogen, or who choose not to use estrogen. However, there is a distinction between lubricants and moisturizers, and notable differences between commercially available products. Women should be advised to choose a product that is optimally balanced in terms of both osmolality and pH, and is physiologically most similar to natural vaginal secretions. A series of recommendations for the use of vaginal lubricants and moisturizers, either on their own or in combination with systemic or topical hormone replacement therapy, is presented. PMID:26707589

  8. Informing Women on Menopause and Hormone Therapy: Know the Menopause a Multidisciplinary Project Involving Local Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Serena; Satolli, Roberto; Colombo, Cinzia; Senatore, Sabrina; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Da Cas, Roberto; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Mosconi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Hormone therapy (HT) in the menopause is still a tricky question among healthcare providers, women and mass media. Informing women about hormone replacement therapy was a Consensus Conference (CC) organized in 2008: the project Know the Menopause has been launched to shift out the results to women and healthcare providers and to assess the impact of the cc’s statement. Methods And Findings: The project, aimed at women aged 45-60 years, was developed in four Italian Regions: Lombardy, Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily, each with one Local Health Unit (LHU) as “intervention” and one as “control”. Activities performed were: survey on the press; training courses for health professionals; educational materials for target populations; survey aimed at women, general practitioners (GPs), and gynaecologists; data analysis on HT drugs’ prescription. Local activities were: training courses; public meetings; dissemination on mass media. About 3,700 health professionals were contacted and 1,800 participated in the project. About 146,500 printed leaflets on menopause were distributed to facilitate the dialogue among women and health care professionals. Training courses and educational cascade-process activities: participation ranged 25- 72% of GPs, 17-71% of gynaecologists, 14-78% of pharmacists, 34-85% of midwives. Survey: 1,281 women interviewed. More than 90% believed menopause was a normal phase in life. More than half did not receive information about menopause and therapies. HT prescription analysis: prevalence fell from 6% to 4% in five years. No differences in time trends before-after the intervention. Major limitations are: organizational difficulties met by LHU, too short time for some local activities. Conclusions A huge amount of information was spread through health professionals and women. The issue of menopause was also used to discuss women’s wellbeing. This project offered an opportunity to launch a multidisciplinary, multimodal approach to

  9. Estrogen Deficiency and the Origin of Obesity during Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Fernando; Guzmán, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones strongly influence body fat distribution and adipocyte differentiation. Estrogens and testosterone differentially affect adipocyte physiology, but the importance of estrogens in the development of metabolic diseases during menopause is disputed. Estrogens and estrogen receptors regulate various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism. Disturbances of this metabolic signal lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and a higher cardiovascular risk in women. The absence of estrogens is a clue factor in the onset of cardiovascular disease during the menopausal period, which is characterized by lipid profile variations and predominant abdominal fat accumulation. However, influence of the absence of these hormones and its relationship to higher obesity in women during menopause are not clear. This systematic review discusses of the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in adipocyte differentiation, and its control by the central nervous systemn and the possible role of estrogen-like compounds and endocrine disruptors chemicals are discussed. Finally, the interaction between the decrease in estrogen secretion and the prevalence of obesity in menopausal women is examined. We will consider if the absence of estrogens have a significant effect of obesity in menopausal women. PMID:24734243

  10. A Theory for the Origin of Human Menopause.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mike; Singh, Rama S; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels - ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes - the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing.

  11. Acupuncture and Auricular Acupressure in Relieving Menopausal Hot Flashes of Bilaterally Ovariectomized Chinese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan; Sang, Xisheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Nan, Rui

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of acupuncture and auricular acupressure in relieving menopausal hot flashes of bilaterally ovariectomized Chinese women. Between May 2006 and March 2008, 46 bilaterally ovariectomized Chinese women were randomized into an acupuncture and auricular acupressure group (n = 21) and a hormone replacement therapy (HRT) group (Tibolone, n = 25). Each patient was given a standard daily log and was required to record the frequency and severity of hot flashes and side effects of the treatment felt daily, from 1 week before the treatment started to the fourth week after the treatment ended. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), LH and E2 were detected before and after the treatment. After the treatment and the follow-up, both the severity and frequency of hot flashes in the two groups were relieved significantly when compared with pre-treatment (P <  .05). There was no significant difference in the severity of hot flashes between them after treatment (P >  .05), while after the follow-up, the severity of hot flashes in the HRT group was alleviated more. After the treatment and the follow-up, the frequency of menopausal hot flashes in the HRT group was reduced more (P <  .05). After treatment, the levels of FSH decreased significantly and the levels of E2 increased significantly in both groups (P <  .05), and they changed more in the HRT group (P <  .05). Acupuncture and auricular acupressure can be used as alternative treatments to relieve menopausal hot flashes for those bilaterally ovariectomized women who are unable or unwilling to receive HRT. PMID:19189989

  12. Oral Contraceptives and Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Relative and Attributable Risks of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Other Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, Shari S.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the relative risks (RR) and attributable risks (AR) of major health outcomes associated with use of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (HT). Methods For OCs, measures of association are from meta-analyses of observational studies. For HT, these measures are from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), a large randomized trial of HT for chronic disease prevention in postmenopausal women aged 50-79. Results Current OC use increases risks of venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke. However, women of reproductive age are at low baseline risk, so the AR are small. OC use also increases risk of breast and liver cancer and reduces risk of ovarian, endometrial, and colorectal cancer; the net effect is a modest reduction in total cancer. The WHI results show that HT does not prevent coronary events or overall chronic disease in postmenopausal women as a whole. Subgroup analyses suggest that timing of HT initiation influences the relation between such therapy and coronary risk, as well as its overall risk-benefit balance, with more favorable effects (on a relative scale) in younger or recently menopausal women than in older women or those further past the menopausal transition. However, even if the RR do not vary by these characteristics, the low absolute baseline risks of younger or recently menopausal women translate into low ARs in this group. Conclusion OC and HT can safely be used for contraception and treatment of vasomotor symptoms, respectively, by healthy women at low baseline risk for CVD and breast cancer. PMID:25534509

  13. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia.

  14. Cortical porosity exhibits accelerated rate of change in peri- compared with post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Burt, L A; Bhatla, J L; Hanley, D A; Boyd, S K

    2017-01-10

    The rate of change in bone density was not different between peri- and post-menopausal women. Differences in rate of change were observed in bone microarchitecture, specifically cortical porosity (Ct.Po), where peri-menopausal women increased +9% per year compared with the +6% per year for post-menopausal women.

  15. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  16. Psoriasis: female skin changes in various hormonal stages throughout life--puberty, pregnancy, and menopause.

    PubMed

    Ceovic, Romana; Mance, Marko; Bukvic Mokos, Zrinka; Svetec, Maja; Kostovic, Kresimir; Stulhofer Buzina, Daska

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune mediated skin diseases worldwide. Despite the large prevalence in both men and women, the pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been fully clarified. Nowadays, it is believed that psoriasis is most likely a T helper Th1/Th17 induced inflammatory disease. Stressful life situations are known to cause flare-ups and psoriasis activity may be linked to stress from major life events. We know that stress greatly affects both the hormone and immune systems and that there are many different hormonal phases throughout a woman's lifetime. The severity of psoriasis may fluctuate or be influenced by each phase and this relationship can be seen as disease frequency seems to peak during puberty, postpartum, and menopause when hormone levels fall, while symptoms improve during pregnancy, a state when hormone levels are increased.

  17. Position of the Spanish Menopause Society regarding vaginal health care in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Manubens, Montserrat; Navarro, Maria Concepción; Cancelo, Ma Jesús; Beltrán, Estanislao; Duran, Magda; Orte, Teresa; Baquedano, Laura; Palacios, Santiago; Mendoza, Nicolás

    2014-06-01

    Vaginal health, defined as the vaginal state in which the physiological condition remains stable, being protected from the onset of symptoms and facilitating a satisfying sex life, is one of the most common and less valued concerns in postmenopausal women. Many of the conditions that affect the vagina are related to its trophism and susceptibility to infection by unusual germs, which are phenomena strongly influenced by estrogen impregnation and the microbiota composition, ultimately affecting sexuality and the quality of life. An expert panel of the Spanish Menopause Society met to establish criteria for diagnosing and treating the processes that affect overall vaginal health and to decide the optimal timing and methods based on the best evidence available.

  18. Acute effects of marihuana on luteinizing hormone in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, J H; Cristofaro, P; Ellingboe, J; Benedikt, R; Mello, N K

    1985-11-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were determined under double blind crossover conditions in 10 healthy menopausal adult females prior to and following smoking of a 1-g marihuana cigarette containing 1.83% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a 1-g marihuana placebo cigarette. A significant increase in pulse rate and levels of intoxication occurred after marihuana smoking but not after smoking placebo cigarettes. LH levels determined before administration of marihuana and placebo cigarettes were not significantly different and were within the range of normal values for healthy menopausal women. No significant differences were found between LH levels following marihuana and placebo smoking.

  19. Post-menopausal vaginal angiomyofibroblastoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Laiyemo, Raphael; Disu, Stewart; Vijaya, Gopalar; Wise, B

    2005-12-01

    Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a recently described, rare, benign soft tissue vulvovaginal tumour that occurs mainly but not exclusively in the vulval region of pre-menopausal women (Fletcher et al. in Am J Surg Pathl 16:373; 1992). The first case was diagnosed in 1992. We report a case of a post-menopausal woman with a 2-month history of a rapidly growing painless vaginal tumour and thus drawing the attention of gynaecologist as well as general practitioners to the fact that this rare phenomenon can occur outside the vulva.

  20. Sexual Functioning During Menopause: Schemas, Hormones, and Race

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-08

    Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Hormone Replacement Therapies HRT Human Performance Laboratory HPL Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder HSDD...in reproductive status based on changes in reproductive hormones including estradiol (i.e., estrogen), progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone...Self-Schemas & Menopause 79 (i.e., complications). Blood samples of 20mL from each participant were collected in two test tubes containing a

  1. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in menopausal Argentinian women.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, G S; Ortiz, D; Goya, R G; Sala, C; Panzica, E; Sevillano, A; Dron, N

    1995-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk factor profile was assessed in a population sample consisting of 60 nonmenopausal (control) and 100 menopausal women from different cities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Each subject was individually interviewed and asked to complete a specially designed questionnaire aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors. A clinical general and gynecological examination including blood pressure and anthropometric measurements as well as a Papanicolaou smear were performed. The most prevalent risk factor in the menopausal group was low physical activity (87% of the subjects), followed by nervous complaints (67%), obesity (64%), familial antecedents of cardiovascular disease (CVD; 38%) and hypertension (33%). Other risk factors assessed showed a level of prevalence below 10%. In the control group, a tobacco smoking habit was the CVD risk factor with the highest prevalence (47%). Nervous complaints also showed a high prevalence (48%). Most menopausal patients (77%) had a cardiovascular risk index (RI) level between 1.5 and 4.0, whereas 17% of these subjects had an RI greater than 4.0 (high-risk patients). The present study reveals that, in the studied community, the menopause is associated with increased levels of both estrogen-dependent and psychosocial risk factors for CVD.

  2. Menopause and Physical Activity: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutter, Judy Mahle; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the results of a 1991 pilot study of the characteristics of the menopausal experience for women between the ages of 45 and 55. Specific items reported are physical health data and perceptions of factors affecting health status (diet, health characteristics, stress factors, and life changes). (GLR)

  3. Teaching Taboo Topics: Menstruation, Menopause, and the Psychology of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role…

  4. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  5. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent clinical trials have found an increased risk of health problems in women using menopausal hormone therapy. As a result, women are in search of alternative strategies to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on quali...

  6. Reassuring the Woman Facing Menopause: Strategies and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Janine O'Leary

    1998-01-01

    Women in menopause require reassurance and reliable information. Based on concerns expressed in letters (N=7,000), women in premenopause want to know what to expect, in perimenopause they want to know whether their experiences are normal, and in postmenopause they need help in making sensible decisions about the use of hormone therapy. (Author/EMK)

  7. Manufacturing heterosexuality: hormone replacement therapy and menopause in urban Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    For several decades, hormone replacement therapies have been prescribed to women, not only to prevent disease but to improve the sexual functioning of menopausal women. The medical promotion of continued sexual activity in a woman's post-reproductive years is exported to locations outside of North America and Europe, which provides an opportunity to critically examine the cultural roots that have informed expert biomedical representations. This ethnographic study examined menopause and social class in Oaxaca de Juarez, Mexico using interviews, questionnaires, and textual analysis. The research found that biomedicine in conjunction with the pharmaceutical industry promoted culturally constructed gender hierarchies under the guise of optimal menopausal health. However, women's actual experience of gender and sexuality in mid-life diverged significantly from these expert representations. Themes that emerged in interviews and questionnaires included the importance of motherhood in old age, diminished sexual desire as not problematic, and greater sexual freedom at a post-reproductive age. Ultimately, biomedical discourse was not the sole arbiter of appropriate menopausal womanhood and femininity.

  8. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  9. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  10. Symptom Clusters among MsFLASH Clinical Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nancy Fugate; Hohensee, Chancellor; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee; Ensrud, Kristine; Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Joffe, Hadine; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Otte, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women experience multiple co-occurring symptoms (symptom clusters) during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Although symptom clusters have been identified among community-dwelling midlife women, to date there have been no studies of midlife participants in clinical trials for hot flashes. Our objective was to identify symptom clusters using standardized measures completed by participants in the Menopausal Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers to Symptoms and Health (MsFLASH) clinical trial at baseline including: hot flash interference, and sleep, depressive, anxiety, and pain symptoms. Methods Data from all women randomized to interventions and controls from MsFLASH studies 1, 2, and 3 (N=899) were included; 797 with complete data were used in the analyses. Scores from standardized measures obtained at baseline included: Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ 9) measure of depressed mood, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Brief Pain Inventory PEG scores. Latent class analysis was used to identify symptom clusters using standardized scale scores and their established cut points. Results We identified 5 classes using the BIC and AIC criteria. Women in classes 1 and 2 had high hot flash interference levels relative to the others, and class 1 (10.5% of total) included severe hot flash interference, severe sleep symptoms, and moderately severe pain symptoms (hot flash, sleep, pain). In class 2 (14.1%), severe hot flash interference was paired with the severe sleep symptoms, and moderate to severe depressed and anxious mood symptoms and pain (hot flash, sleep, mood, pain). In class 3 (39.6%) women reported moderately severe sleep symptoms with moderate hot flash interference, and low severity mood and pain symptoms (hot flash, sleep). Those in class 4 (7.0%) reported moderate hot flash interference with severe levels of

  11. Menopause: no support for an evolutionary explanation among historical Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Skjærvø, Gine Roll; Røskaft, Eivin

    2013-04-01

    Life history theory proposes that menopause is either an epiphenomenon or an adaptation. The most recent adaptive hypothesis proposes that menopause in humans has evolved because of conflict between reproducing generations (RCH). Overlapping reproduction between generations may impose fitness costs to older and younger females who co-breed. However, it has yet to be demonstrated by using a measure of evolutionary fitness (i.e. grandchildren). Here, we tested the RCH by using multigenerational life-history data of historical Norwegian women. Our results indicate that both generations seem to experience some fitness benefits with co-breeding (i.e. reproductive overlap and cohabit). This was because both younger and older females who co-bred had more grandchildren than those who did not co-breed. We suggest that younger females may partly had enhanced fitness because they copied behaviour of females of the older generation. Our results do not support the hypothesis that reproductive conflict between generations explains the evolution of menopause in women. Our results, taken together with the growing evidence against several assumptions of the RCH, indicate that 1) the decline in follicle number has no marked increase in women as they reach the age of 38 years; 2) humans do not have an abrupt decline in fertility at mean age of 38 years; 3) menopause is not unique to humans; and 4) there are not high numbers of individuals surviving to older adulthood during our evolutionary past. Finally, we discuss an alternative point of view suggesting that menopause might be understood in the light of both ageing in general as well as our increased lifespan.

  12. A Theory for the Origin of Human Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Mike; Singh, Rama S.; Stone, John

    2017-01-01

    A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels – ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes – the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing. PMID:28111590

  13. Menopausal attitudes, objectified body consciousness, aging anxiety, and body esteem: European American women's body experiences in midlife.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Lyon, Louise Ann

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-four European American women aged 50-68 years completed surveys of menopausal attitudes, appearance aging anxiety, body esteem, body surveillance, and body shame. Hypotheses based on the connections between cultural constructions of femininity and menopause were partially supported. Menopausal attitudes and appearance-related aging anxiety were related to body surveillance. Appearance-related menopausal attitudes were related to both body surveillance and body esteem. Body shame moderated the relationship between appearance-related menopausal attitudes and body esteem.

  14. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Photos ...

  15. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  16. Menopausal hot flushes and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2011-06-01

    Hot flushes are complained of by approximately 75% of all postmenopausal women, and hormone therapy (HT) is the most effective way to alleviate them. Hot flushes are characterized by altered vascular function and sympathetic nervous system activity. Hot flushes occurred more often in women attending large, non-randomized observational studies (e.g. Nurses' Health Study), where HT use protected against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, they were absent (or mild) in randomized HT trials where HT use was accompanied with an elevated risk for CVD. Hot flushes, if a factor for cardiovascular health, could partly explain the conflict between observational and randomized trials. Several cross-sectional studies imply that hot flushes are detrimental to the cardiovascular system. However, the data are not uniform, and hot flushes were recalled retrospectively or during HT use. In our prospective study hot flushes were accompanied with a vasodilatory effect during endothelial testing, and this was related to the severity of hot flushes. Night-time hot flushes were followed with transient rises in ambulatory blood pressure (BP). However, no effect of hot flushes on diurnal BP was detected. The use of estradiol showed no harmful effects on endothelial function in women with hot flushes, but in non-flushing women oral, but not transdermal, estradiol led to vasoconstrictive changes. Estradiol complemented with medroxyprogesterone acetate eliminated the vasoconstrictive effect of sole oral estradiol. Thus, both oral and transdermal estradiol are applicable in flushing women, whereas a transdermal route should be favored in non-flushing women if used e.g. for bone protection.

  17. Chronic vulvar pain in a cohort of post-menopausal women: Atrophy or Vulvodynia?

    PubMed Central

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.; Reed, Barbara D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although postmenopausal vulvar pain is frequently attributed to vaginal atrophy, such symptoms may be due to vulvodynia, a chronic vulvar pain condition. Given the limited research on vulvodynia in postmenopausal women, the objective of this study was to provide preliminary population-based data on the associations of vaginal symptoms, serum hormone levels and hormone use with chronic vulvar pain in a multiethnic sample of post-menopausal women. Methods We used data from 371 participants at the Michigan site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) who participated in the 13th follow-up visit. Women completed a validated screening instrument for vulvodynia and provided information on additional vaginal symptoms as well as demographic characteristics, and hormone use by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained to assess hormone levels. We compared women who screened positive for vulvodynia and women with past or short-duration vulvar pain to women without vulvar pain, using Chi-squared and Fisher’s Exact tests. Relative odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for age, body mass index, and race/ethnicity. Results Current chronic vulvar pain consistent with vulvodynia was reported by 4.0 % of women, while 13.7 % reported past but not current chronic vulvar pain or short-duration vulvar pain symptoms. One quarter of women who reported current chronic vulvar pain did not report vaginal dryness. Women with current chronic and with past/short duration vulvar pain symptoms were more likely to have used hormones during the preceding year than women without vulvar pain symptoms (13.3 %, 17.6 %, 2.0 %, respectively; p < .01). Increased relative odds of current vulvar pain symptoms were associated with each log unit decrease in serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, estradiol and testosterone levels at the previous year’s visit. Conclusion Some women who experience chronic

  18. The Development of a Comprehensive Instrument to Measure Symptom Distress in Women After Treatment for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    completion of adjuvant therapy . Muscle and joint pains, neuropathies, and menopausal symptoms persist in the year after treatment and truly affect... Treatment for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marcia Boehmke Jean K. Brown, Ph.D. Ruth McCorkle M. Tish Knobf Bill Wu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The...0487 Symptoms and Symptom Distress in Women After Treatment for Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Marcia Boehmke Jean K. Brown, Ph.D. Ruth McCorkle M. Tish

  19. The Influence of Early Menopause on Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Emily C; Crowson, Cynthia S; Amin, Shreyasee; Gabriel, Sherine E; Matteson, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early menopause is associated with an increased risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women increases following menopause. Since RA is associated with an increased risk of CVD, this study was undertaken to determine if early menopause affects the risk of developing CVD in women with RA. Methods: A population-based inception cohort of 600 women with RA who fulfilled 1987 ACR criteria for RA between 1955 and 2007 and were age ≥ 45 years at diagnosis was assembled and followed. Age at menopause and duration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), along with occurrence of CVD was ascertained by review of medical records. Cox proportional hazard models compared women who underwent early menopause (natural or artificial menopause at age ≤ 45 years) to those within the cohort who did not undergo early menopause. Results: Of 600 women, 79 exprienced early menopause. Women who underwent early menopause were at significantly higher risk for developing CVD when compared to women who did not (hazard ratio (HR): 1.56; 95% CI: 1.08-2.26). Conclusion: The risk of CVD in women with RA was higher in those who experience early menopause, and like other known risk factors should increase clinician concern for development of CVD in these patients. PMID:24882842

  20. Menopause and metabolic syndrome in obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Barnes, Rachel D; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Menopausal transition has been associated with the emergence of metabolic abnormalities, which may increase risk for chronic medical conditions in women. This study compared metabolic function between premenopausal women (n = 152), postmenopausal women (n = 88), and men (n =9 8) recruited for treatment studies for obesity co-occurring with binge eating disorder (BED), a high-risk population for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Postmenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal women to show elevated total cholesterol (OR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.56-4.80) and poor glycemic control (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.32-6.33) but were more likely to have lower HDL levels (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.68). These became non-significant after adjusting for age. Both pre- and postmenopausal women were less likely than age-matched men to show elevated levels of triglycerides (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.13-0.53 [postmenopausal], OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.16-0.53 [premenopausal]), blood pressure (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.25-0.91 [postmenopausal], OR=0.40; 95% CI = 0.23-0.69 [premenopausal]), and less likely to have MetS (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.21-0.78 [postmenopausal], OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.79 [premenopausal]). Premenopausal women were also less likely to have elevated fasting glucose level (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97) than age-matched men. Among obese women with BED, aging may have a more profound impact on metabolic abnormalities than menopause, suggesting the importance of early intervention of obesity and symptoms of BED. The active monitoring of metabolic function in obese men with BED may also be critical.

  1. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods. 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation (X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results. In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct. PMID:27847825

  2. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods. 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation (X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results. In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct.

  3. Estrogen modulates cognitive and cholinergic processes in surgically menopausal monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Gregory Paul; Voytko, Mary Lou

    2005-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women is associated with changes in physiological processes. The extent to which estrogen loss is associated with cognitive changes noted by postmenopausal women has been more difficult to determine for a variety of reasons. Primate models of menopause are now being used to determine the effects of estrogen loss and replacement on cognitive abilities and to investigate the neural mechanisms by which estrogen may influence cognitive function. The present report presents data from cognitive and neurobiological studies in surgically menopausal monkeys that have examined how estrogen loss and replacement may be affecting cognitive abilities and the cholinergic system; a neural system that is known to influence memory and attention function. These studies are indicating that visuospatial attention function is especially sensitive to estrogen states in young monkeys, but that multiple cognitive domains are sensitive to estrogen states in middle-aged monkeys. In addition, anatomical and functional imaging studies indicate that the primate cholinergic system is modulated by estrogen, and pharmacological studies demonstrate that estrogen uses cholinergic muscarinic receptors to influence visuospatial attention. These studies demonstrate that estrogen influences cognitive abilities in monkey models of menopause and the cholinergic system may be one of the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates cognitive function. Given the current unknowns and concerns regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, continued studies in monkey models of menopause are especially needed to further elucidate the effects of estrogen on cognitive and neurobiological processes, with particular emphasis on studies in middle-aged monkeys, determining the optimal aspects of ERT regimens, and identifying the relationships between estrogen effects on cognitive and neurobiological function.

  4. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  5. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  6. Alleviation of Communication Apprehension: An Individualized Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    Communication apprehension (CA) affects from 15% to 20% of the college population, indicating inherent problems of negative cognitive appraisal, conditioned anxiety, or skills deficits. Use of an individualized approach to the alleviation of CA has been shown to increase students' class interaction and to improve their verbal skills. During an…

  7. Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes with 5-Hydroxytryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Much recent research has focused on nonhormonal treatments for menopausal hot flashes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of 5-Hydroxytroptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor of serotonin, upon menopausal hot flashes. Selective, serotonergic, reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), which increase the amount of serotonin in the synaptic gap, have shown some promise in the amelioration of hot flashes. Methods We administered 5-HTP or placebo, in double-blind fashion, to 24 postmenopausal women reporting frequent hot flashes. Treatment outcome was measured using a miniature, electronic, hot flash recorder. Results No significant effects of 150 mg/day 5-HTP upon hot flash frequency were found. The 5-HTP group had 23.8 ± 5.7 (SD) hot flashes/24 hours prior to treatment and 18.5 ± 9.6 at the end of treatment. The placebo group had 18.5 ± 9.6 before treatment and 22.6 ± 12.4 at treatment completion. Conclusions At the dose given, 5-HTP does not significantly ameliorate frequency of menopausal hot flashes, as measured objectively with an electronic recorder. Given the small size, this study must be considered preliminary in nature. PMID:20031347

  8. Effects of antidepressants and soybean association in depressive menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Rose E Nina; Landa, Adriana I; Lafuente, José Vicente; Gargiulo, Pascual A

    2014-01-01

    Depression in menopausal women has been widely described for many years ago and is related to hormonal decrease, mainly estrogens. The use of soy has been proposed as a possible coadjutant alternative to treat menopausal depressive disorder. In the present pilot clinical trial the effect of soybean, antidepressants and the association of soybean with antidepressants was studied in 40 depressive menopausal women for three months. Patients were divided in four groups of 10 women: fluoxetine (10 mg), soybean (100 mg), sertraline (50 mg), and sertraline (50 mg) plus soybean (100 mg). The Hamilton and Zung Depression Scales were used to measure the treatment effects. Values at the beginning and at the end of the study were compared. In all cases a significant difference was observed when the treated groups were compared vs. their untreated situation in both scales (p < 0.001). When a comparison between pre- minus post-treatment Zung scale scores was done, the effect induced by the association of sertraline and soybean was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). These effects were also seen using the Hamilton scale scores, showing significant differences between the association vs. soybean (p < 0.05) and setraline (p < 0.05) groups, but not vs. fluoxetine group. We conclude that soybean has an antidepressant effect per se, and the association of soybean and antidepressants increases their effects.

  9. Relationship of Neurocognitive Function to Breast Cancer Treatment and Induced Menopause

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0528 TITLE: Relationship of Neurocognitive Function to Breast Cancer Treatment and Induced Menopause PRINCIPAL...Neurocognitive Function (NCF) to Breast Cancer Treatment and Induced Menopause. The grant has a training component and a research component. The training...April 8, 2005. * Relationship of Neurocognitive Function to Breast Cancer Treatment and Induced Menopause, University of Connecticut Health Center

  10. Effects of Estrogen or Venlafaxine on Menopause Related Quality of Life in Healthy Postmenopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Caan, Bette; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Newton, Katherine; Reed, Susan; Rexrode, Kathy; Shifren, Jan; Sternfeld, Barbara; Ensrud, Kris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (ET) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy peri- and postmenopausal women with hot flashes. METHODS A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol 0.5-mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75-mg/day, vs. identical placebo was conducted among 339 women ages 40–62 years with ≥2 (mean 8.07, SD 5.29) daily VMS recruited at 3 clinical sites from November 2011 to October 2012. The primary trial outcome, reported previously, was the frequency of VMS at 8 weeks. Here, we report on secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and measures of pain (PEG), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and perceived stress (PSS). RESULTS Treatment with both estradiol and venlafaxine resulted in significantly greater improvement in quality of life, as measured by total MENQOL scores compared to placebo (mean difference for ET at 8 weeks of −0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.7 to −0.2; p<0.001 and for venlafaxine of −0.2; 95% CI −0.5 to 0.0; p 0.04). Quality of life (QOL) domain analyses revealed that ET had beneficial treatment effects in all domains of the MENQOL except psychosocial, while venlafaxine benefits were observed only in the psychosocial domain. Neither ET nor venlafaxine improved pain, anxiety or depressive symptoms, although baseline symptom levels were low. Modest benefits were observed for perceived stress with venlafaxine. CONCLUSIONS Both low-dose estradiol and venlafaxine are effective pharmacologic agents for improving menopause-related quality of life in healthy women with vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25405571

  11. Turning Anxiety into Creativity: Using Postmodern Principles to Alleviate Anxiety and Stress through the Art Curriculum and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, Lisa Marie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study is to help students alleviate their anxiety and stress symptoms using activities based on Olivia Gude's postmodern principles. The activities included are the participants own take-along visual art journal kit and classroom projects. Professional learning outcomes include the knowledge to equip teachers…

  12. Early Menopause in Type 2 Diabetes – A Study from a South Indian Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, T.V.D. Sasi; Rahman, Arifa; Adapa, Satya Sahi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Menopause marks the end of ovarian function and it is called ‘early’ or ‘premature’ if it occurs before 45 years. Very little is known about the menopause transition in Diabetic women. Metabolic disorders like diabetes will accelerate the reproductive ageing and determine premature ovarian failure by various mechanisms. Early menopause along with diabetes has a synergistic effect over the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and other illnesses. There is no data regarding menopausal age in Indian population. Hence, present study was aimed at understanding the age of menopause in diabetic Indian women. Materials and Methods This study was carried out at a tertiary care, teaching hospital in Southern India. Post-menopausal women who attended the Department of Medicine during August 2013 to August 2014, were included in the study. Six hundred patients were recruited by a systematic random sampling, 300 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic after obtaining their consents. They were all non-smokers, took mixed diet and other somatometric variables were similar in both the groups. Results Average age of menopause among diabetic women was 44.65 years which is much earlier than the menopause in non-diabetic women (48.2 years). Out of the 600 women, 212 women had an early menopause (<45 yrs.). Among them, 54 were non-diabetic and 158 were diabetic. Present study also revealed a higher BMI among the diabetics than the non-diabetic women. This may be due to the changes in body composition and increase in abdominal fat after menopause. This change is more in diabetics due to the disturbances in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Conclusion The present study confirms that Type 2 Diabetes increases the risk of early menopause. The study reinforces the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes for a long term well being of a woman. PMID:26557555

  13. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  14. Effects of red clover on hot flash and circulating hormone concentrations in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadijeh; mousavi bazaz, Mojtaba; abdolahian, Somayeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To critically evaluate the effect of red clover on hot flash, endometrial thickness, and hormones status in postmenopausal and peri- and post-menopausal women. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to July 2014), Scopus (1990 to July 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2014) were searched for published randomized controlled Trials (RCTs). Results: Of 183 relevant publication trials, 11 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The mean hot flashes frequency in red clover was lower than the control groups (MD -1.99; p=0.067). There was larger decrease in FSH (SMD -0.812; CI: -1.93 to 0.312; p=0.157) and SHBG (SMD -0.128; CI-0.425 to 0.170; P=0.4) in red clover group, compared with placebo, which was not however statistically significant. LH (SMD 0.144; CI-0.097 to 0.384, p=0.242), estradiol (SMD 0.240; CI-0.001 to 0.482, p=0.051), testosterone (MD 0.083; CI: -0.560 to 0.726; p=0.901), and endometrial thickness (SDM 0.022; CI: -0.380 to 0.424, p=0.915) showed greater increase in red clover, compared with placebo, although the effect of estradiol was only significant. Conclusion: Red clover had a positive effect of alleviating hot flash in menopausal women. Our data, however, suggested very slight changes in FSH, LH, testosterone, and SHBG and significant effect in estrogen status by red clover consumption. However, the interpretation of results of the current study is limited due to methodological flaws of the included studies, menopause status, and large heterogeneity among them. Further trials are still needed to confirm the current finding. PMID:26693407

  15. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  16. A Multicenter, Prospective Study to Evaluate the Use of Contrast Stress Echocardiography in Early Menopausal Women at Risk for Coronary Artery Disease: Trial Design and Baseline Findings

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoneim, Sahar S.; Bernier, Mathieu; Hagen, Mary E.; Eifert-Rain, Susan; Bott-Kitslaar, Dalene; Wilansky, Susan; Castello, Ramon; Bhat, Gajanan; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Best, Patricia J. M.; Hayes, Sharonne N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims This multisite prospective trial, Stress Echocardiography in Menopausal Women At Risk for Coronary Artery Disease (SMART), aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of contrast stress echocardiography (CSE), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and cardiac biomarkers for prediction of cardiovascular events after 2 and 5 years in early menopausal women experiencing chest pain symptoms or risk factors. This report describes the study design, population, and initial test results at study entry. Methods From January 2004 through September 2007, 366 early menopausal women (age 54±5 years, Framingham risk score 6.51%±4.4 %, range 1%–27%) referred for stress echocardiography were prospectively enrolled. Image quality was enhanced with an ultrasound contrast agent. Tests for cardiac biomarkers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), atrial natriuretic protein (ANP), brain natriuretic protein (BNP), endothelin (ET-1)] and cardiac computed tomography (CT) for CAC were performed. Results CSE (76% exercise, 24% dobutamine) was abnormal in 42 women (11.5%), and stress electrocardiogram (ECG) was positive in 22 women (6%). Rest BNP correlated weakly with stress wall motion score index (WMSI) (r=0.189, p<0.001). Neither hsCRP, ANP, endothelin, nor CAC correlated with stress WMSI. Predictors of abnormal CSE were body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD), and positive stress ECG. Twenty-four women underwent clinically indicated coronary angiography (CA); 5 had obstructive (≥50%), 15 had nonobstructive (10%–49%), and 4 had no epicardial CAD. Conclusions The SMART trial is designed to assess the prognostic value of CSE in early menopausal women. Independent predictors of positive CSE were BMI, diabetes mellitus, family history of premature CAD, and positive stress ECG. CAC scores and biomarkers (with the exception of rest BNP) were not correlated with CSE results. We await the follow-up data. PMID

  17. Association between Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Depression in Post-Menopausal Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho

    2010-01-01

    Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression. PMID:20927313

  18. Pulmonary Artery Pressure, Gender, Menopause, and Pregnancy in Schistosomiasis-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Anderson C.; Bandeira, Ângela M. P.; Correia, Luis C. L.; Melo, Humberto C. O.; Silveira, Carlos A. M.; Albuquerque, Eugênio; Moraes, Jeová C.; Silva, Antônio M. L.; Lima, João A. C.; Sobral, Dário C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH) is a major concern worldwide. However, the role of gender specific contributing factors in SPAH is unknown. Objective We investigated how systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) values and the presence of severe SPAP relate to gender, menopausal status, and pregnancy history in SPAH patients. Methods Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with SPAH from 2000 to 2009 were assessed and 66 were enrolled in the study. Information about age, menopausal status, pregnancy, echocardiography-derived SPAP, and invasive mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was collected from medical records. The relation between values of SPAP and mPAP and their agreement for severe disease were assessed. Regression models assessed the association of gender, menopausal status, and pregnancy history with SPAP values and the presence of severe SPAP. Results Moderate correlation and good agreement for severe disease were found between mPAP and SPAP. Mean SPAP values were similar for men and women. A trend toward higher values of SPAP was found for non-menopausal women compared to men. Higher SPAP values were found for menopausal compared to non-menopausal women; the values were non-significant after adjustment for age. Pregnancy history had no association with SPAP. Menopause and positive pregnancy had no association with severe SPAP. Conclusion In SPAH patients, neither gender, nor menopausal status, nor pregnancy history showed independent correlation with SPAP values assessed by echocardiography. PMID:23821406

  19. Talking "among us": how women from different racial-ethnic groups define and discuss menopause.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather; Byrnes, Mary; Miller, Sara; Rehan, Sonica

    2008-08-01

    Against a backdrop of scant literature on commonalities and differences among diverse groups of menopausal women within the United States, and little attempt by scholars in any country to study the ways in which both privilege and oppression can shape women's ideas and experiences of menopause, in this study, 61 menopausal women of varied racial-ethnic and class locations in a Midwestern state were asked about the different meanings and experiences of menopause. African American women and Chicanas, particularly working-class women, viewed menopause as a positive experience, whereas many middle-class European American women discussed more negative feelings. Women of color were more likely than European Americans to report talking about menopause with same-race, same-sex friends only. While women of color discussed their knowledge of European American women's menopause, the latter lacked knowledge of other women's experiences. Women's lived experiences with privilege and oppression also surfaced in the interviews. The authors argue that when scholars listen to how women discuss menopause experiences, commonalities among women by gender, and differences among women by race, and class are exposed. The presence of racial-ethnic differences in these pilot data suggests the importance of more comparative studies on reproductive aging both in the United States and abroad.

  20. Midlife Women and Menopause: A Challenge for the Mental Health Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed women (n=99) aged 35 to 55 about their medical histories, current menstrual events and symptomatology, and perceptions and experiences with menopause. Discovered menopausal women reported their needs were not being met because clinicians lacked sufficient understanding and because of shortage of information resources. Mental health…

  1. It's All in Your Head: Feminist and Medical Models of Menopause (Strange Bedfellows).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Judith

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the medical model of menopause as it exists in contemporary gynecological textbooks and some popular books written by gynecologists for the general public. The feminist position on menopause is then compared and contrasted with the medical model. (Author/EB)

  2. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  3. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  4. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure.

  5. Menopause and the influence of culture: another gap for Indigenous Australian women?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is great variation in experience of menopause in women around the world. The purpose of this study was to review current understanding of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women’s experiences of menopause. The literature pertaining to the perception, significance and experience of menopause from a number of cultural groups around the world has been included to provide context for why Indigenous women’s experience might be important for their health and differ from that reported in other studies of Australian women and menopause. Methods A search of databases including Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, AUSThealth, AMED, EMBASE, Global Health and PsychINFO was undertaken from January 2011 to April 2011 using the search terms menopause, Indigenous, Aboriginal, attitudes, and perceptions and repeated in September 2012. Results Considerable research shows significant variation across cultures in the menopausal experience. Biological, psychological, social and cultural factors are associated with either positive or negative attitudes, perceptions or experiences of menopause in various cultures. Comparative international literature shows that neither biological nor social factors alone are sufficient to explain the variation in experiences of the menopausal transition. However, a strong influence of culture on the menopause experience can be found. The variation in women’s experience of menopause indicates that different cultural groups of women may have different understandings and needs during the menopausal transition. While considerable literature exists for Australian women as a whole, there has been little investigation of Australian Indigenous women, with only two research studies related to Indigenous women’s experiences of menopause identified. Conclusions Differences in biocultural experience of menopause around the world suggest the importance of biocultural research. For the Indigenous women of Australia

  6. Endometriosis after surgical menopause mimicking pelvic malignancy: surgeons' predicament.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rani A; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-05-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis.

  7. Endometriosis After Surgical Menopause Mimicking Pelvic Malignancy: Surgeons’ Predicament

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani A.; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis. PMID:24936277

  8. Sociodemographic factors and age at natural menopause in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, S M T; Ghaem, H; Ayatollahi, S A R

    2005-01-01

    With increasing life expectancy, menopause is an increasingly important aspect of women's health. We recorded the age at natural menopause among women in a population-based cross-sectional study in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran, in summer 2000. Interviews with 948 randomly selected menopausal women showed the mean (standard deviation) age at menopause was 48.3 (5.3) years (95% CI: 48.0-48.6), median 49 years. The sociodemographic and health behaviour factors that were significantly related to early mean age of menopause were: never married (44.7 years), low income level (47.4 years), low social class (45.8 years), tobacco use (47.9 years) and non-consanguineous husband (48.1 years).

  9. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  10. The immune system in menopause: pros and cons of hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    With aging, a general decline in immune function is observed leading to immune-senescence. Several of these changes are gender specific affecting postmenopausal women. Menopause is a normal part of a woman's lifecycle and consists of a series of body changes that can last from one to ten years. It is known that loss of sex hormones due to aging results in a reduction of immune functions. However, there remains a major gap in our understanding regarding the loss of immune functions particularly in the female reproductive tract (FRT) following menopause and the role of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in protecting against immune senescence. The current review presents an overview of changes in the immune system due to aging, focusing on genital tract immunity in menopausal women and the risks and benefits of using MHT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

  11. Minireview: translational animal models of human menopause: challenges and emerging opportunities.

    PubMed

    Diaz Brinton, Roberta

    2012-08-01

    Increasing importance is placed on the translational validity of animal models of human menopause to discern risk vs. benefit for prediction of outcomes after therapeutic interventions and to develop new therapeutic strategies to promote health. Basic discovery research conducted over many decades has built an extensive body of knowledge regarding reproductive senescence across mammalian species upon which to advance animal models of human menopause. Modifications to existing animal models could rapidly address translational gaps relevant to clinical issues in human menopausal health, which include the impact of 1) chronic ovarian hormone deprivation and hormone therapy, 2) clinically relevant hormone therapy regimens (cyclic vs. continuous combined), 3) clinically relevant hormone therapy formulations, and 4) windows of opportunity and optimal duration of interventions. Modifications in existing animal models to more accurately represent human menopause and clinical interventions could rapidly provide preclinical translational data to predict outcomes regarding unresolved clinical issues relevant to women's menopausal health. Development of the next generation of animal models of human menopause could leverage advances in identifying genotypic variations in estrogen and progesterone receptors to develop personalized menopausal care and to predict outcomes of interventions for protection against or vulnerability to disease. Key to the success of these models is the close coupling between the translational target and the range of predictive validity. Preclinical translational animal models of human menopause need to keep pace with changes in clinical practice. With focus on predictive validity and strategic use of advances in genetic and epigenetic science, new animal models of human menopause have the opportunity to set new directions for menopausal clinical care for women worldwide.

  12. Lipid and lipoprotein profile in menopausal transition. Effects of hormones, age and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Mesch, V; Boero, L; Sayegh, F; Prada, M; Royer, M; Muzzio, M L; Schreier, L; Siseles, N; Benencia, H

    2004-04-01

    The behavior of lipoproteins during the menopausal transition and their relationship with sex hormones and body fat distribution is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate atherogenic IDL, LDL, Lp(a) and antiatherogenic HDL lipoproteins in four groups of women: premenopausal (n = 20), menopausal transition women with menstrual bleeding (n = 31), menopausal transition women with 3 to 6 months amenorrhea (n = 36), and postmenopausal women (n = 30). We also measured their FSH, LH and estradiol levels along with BMI and waist circumference. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal women showed higher values of waist circumference (p < 0.0032), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.002), IDL-cholesterol (p < 0.002) and apoprotein B (p < 0.0001) than premenopausal women. Total-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), triglycerides (p < 0.004), IDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) were higher in menopausal transition women with amenorrhea and in postmenopausal women in comparison with premenopausal women. After adjustment according to age and waist circumference, multiple regression analysis showed the increase in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to be linearly associated to menopausal status and estradiol concentration, whereas Lp(a) was only related to menopausal status. Age was found to be an independent variable in relation to apoprotein B concentration changes. The effect of menopausal status on TG levels did not remain in the model when age, waist and BMI were included (beta = 0.05, p = 0.356). HDL-cholesterol levels were the same in all the groups. Menopause, age and the increase in abdominal fat distribution were three independent and significant factors impairing lipoprotein profiles from the beginning of the menopausal transition.

  13. Exploring Black-White Differences in the Relationship Between Inflammation and Timing of Menopause.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; Graves, Katelyn Y

    2016-06-10

    Understanding the biosocial context of menopausal timing offers insight into social and health inequalities. Prior research on inflammatory chronic conditions suggests that inflammation may predict how early women experience menopause. We explore the ability of black race to moderate the overall relationship between chronic inflammation and timing of menopause. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project on inflammation, age of last menstruation, and race as well as relevant social and medical covariates. We conduct event history modeling to predict age at menopause by inflammatory biomarker levels. Using interaction analysis, we investigate whether being black may shape the overall relationship between inflammation status and menopause timing. Our analyses find no significant statistical interactions between black race and inflammation in predicting menopausal onset. However, we do identify independent correlational relationships between inflammation and black race (r = 0.136) and between menopausal timing and black race (r = -0.129) as well as inflammation (r = -0.138) that emerge as significant in corresponding regression models. We conclude that race probably does not moderate associations between inflammation and menopause. Yet, we also note that the original parameter estimate for black race's impact on menopausal onset (HR = 1.29, p < 0.05) becomes non-significant in a model that includes inflammation (HR = 1.06, p < 0.01). To translate our findings into policy and practice implications, we present alternate conceptualizations of black-white disparity in the inflammation-menopause relationship and recommend future research using mediation modeling.

  14. Symptomatic Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor not Otherwise Specified in a Post-Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neha; Desai, Kaniksha; Chindris, Ana-Maria; Lewis, Jason; Dinh, Tri A.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) is a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary and contributes less than 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of tumors occur in pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43 years), in which 56-77% of patients present with virilization due to excess testosterone. An 80-year-old woman with worsening alopecia and excessive growth of coarse hair on abdomen and genital area was found to have elevated serum testosterone level (462 ng/mL). Radiologic studies were consistent with bilateral adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling ruled out the adrenal gland as origin of hormone secretion. A diagnostic and therapeutic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy confirmed steroid cell tumor NOS of the left ovary. Post-operatively, the patient had complete resolution of her symptoms and normalization of testosterone level. Our case emphasizes the importance of a clinical suspicion for an occult testosterone secreting ovarian tumor in a symptomatic patient without obvious ovarian mass on imaging. PMID:27441075

  15. Perceived Control and Hot Flashes in Treatment-seeking Breast Cancer Survivors and Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Janet S.; Wu, Jingwei; Burns, Debra S.; Yu, Menggang

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower perceived control over hot flashes has been linked to fewer coping strategies, more catastrophizing, and greater hot flash severity and distress in midlife women; yet, this important concept has not yet been studied in breast cancer survivors. Objective To explore perceived control over hot flashes and hot flashes in breast cancer survivors compared to midlife women without cancer. Methods 99 survivors and 138 midlife women completed questionnaires and a prospective, electronic hot flash diary. All data were collected at a baseline assessment prior to randomization in a behavioral intervention study. Results Both groups had moderate perceived control over hot flashes. Control was not significantly related to hot flash frequency, but was significantly related to hot flash severity, bother, and interference in both groups. A significantly stronger association between control and hot flash interference was found for survivors than for mid-life women. Survivors using hot flash treatments perceived less control than survivors not using hot flash treatments, whereas the opposite was true in midlife women. Conclusions Findings extend our knowledge of perceived control over hot flashes in both survivors and midlife women. Implications for Practice Findings emphasize the importance of continued menopausal symptom assessment and management, support the importance of continuing nursing care even for survivors who are already using hot flash treatment, and suggest that nursing interventions aimed at improving perceived control over hot flashes may be more helpful for survivors than for midlife women. PMID:21946903

  16. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    PubMed

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  17. Bioidentical Hormones, Menopausal Women, and the Lure of the “Natural” in U.S. Anti-Aging Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Jennifer R.; Flatt, Michael A.; Settersten, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, the Women’s Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women’s risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a “natural” therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body’s “natural” processes. The normative assumption that “natural” is inherently “good” not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients’ embodied experiences and offering a “holistic” solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women’s bodies. PMID:25795991

  18. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies.

  19. Menopause effect on blood Fe and Cu isotope compositions.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Iron (δ(56) Fe) and copper (δ(65) Cu) stable isotope compositions in blood of adult human include a sex effect, which still awaits a biological explanation. Here, we investigate the effect of menopause by measuring blood δ(56) Fe and δ(65) Cu values of aging men and women. The results show that, while the Fe and Cu isotope compositions of blood of men are steady throughout their lifetime, postmenopausal women exhibit blood δ(65) Cu values similar to men, and δ(56) Fe values intermediate between men and premenopausal women. The residence time of Cu and Fe in the body likely explains why the blood δ(65) Cu values, but not the δ(56) Fe values, of postmenopausal women resemble that of men. We suggest that the Cu and Fe isotopic fractionation between blood and liver resides in the redox reaction occurring during hepatic solicitation of Fe stores. This reaction affects the Cu speciation, which explains why blood Cu isotope composition is impacted by the cessation of menstruations. Considering that Fe and Cu sex differences are recorded in bones, we believe this work has important implications for their use as a proxy of sex or age at menopause in past populations.

  20. Menopause increases the iron storage protein ferritin in skin.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Edward; Jian, Jinlong; Zhang, Qi; Muizzuddin, Neelam; Yang, Qing; Dai, Jisen; Maes, Daniel; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Menstruation and desquamation are important routes for humans to excrete iron. Because menstruation is no longer available in postmenopausal women, in the present study, we examined whether iron accumulates more in postmenopausal skin than in premenopausal skin. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from six pre- and six postmenopausal Caucasian women. Iron levels in the form of ferritin were 42% higher, but vascular endothelial growth factor and total antioxidant capacity were 45% and 34% lower in postmenopausal skin (58.8 ± 1.3 years old) than in premenopausal skin (41.6 ± 1.7 years old), respectively. Moreover, in vitro cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes had surprisingly high levels of ferritin when compared to immortalized human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells or human liver HepG2 cancer cells. Our results indicate that skin is a cellular repository of iron and that menopause increases iron in skin and, thus, may contribute to the manifestation of accelerated skin aging and photo aging after menopause.

  1. Pain Management and Symptom-Oriented Drug Therapy in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carsten; Lang, Ute; Bükki, Johannes; Sittl, Reinhard; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Summary Patients with advanced life-limiting disease often suffer from symptoms that considerably impair their quality of life and that of their families. Palliative care aims to alleviate these symptoms by a multidimensional approach. Pharmacotherapy is an essential component. The objective of this review is to give an overview of symptom-oriented drug therapy for the most important symptoms in palliative care. Leading symptoms that affect quality of life include pain, dyspnea, nausea and emesis, weakness and disorientation. Careful examination and history taking help to understand the individual mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Specific pharmacotherapy provides an efficient way to achieve symptom control in the context of palliative care. PMID:21547023

  2. Effect of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion on Patients with Atypical Symptoms Related to Cervical Spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Sun, Yuqing; Yan, Kai; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Shan; Tian, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Background A considerable number of patients with cervical spondylosis complain about one or multiple atypical symptoms such as vertigo, palpitations, headache, blurred vision, hypomnesia, and/or nausea. It remains unclear whether surgical intervention for cervical spondylosis can also effectively alleviate those symptoms. The current study was performed to see if anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) offers such an extra benefit for patients with cervical spondylosis. Objective To investigate if patients who received ACDF for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and/or radiculopathy can also achieve alleviation of certain atypical symptoms associated with cervical spondylosis after the surgery in the long run. Methods Sixty-seven patients who underwent ACDF for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and/or radiculopathy were involved in this study. All these patients also complained about various associated atypical symptoms. They were followed up for 26 to 145 months after the surgery. Severity and frequency scores of the atypical symptoms before the surgery and at last follow-up were compared by paired t tests. Results Most patients reported significantly alleviated symptoms at the last follow-up compared with before the surgery. The severity of vertigo, headache, nausea, and palpitations were significantly alleviated at the last follow-up (with p values of p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.022, p = 0.004, respectively). There were no significant changes in the severity of tinnitus (p = 0.182), blurred vision (p = 0.260), and hypomnesia (p = 0.821). Conclusion ACDF can significantly alleviate vertigo, headache, nausea, and palpitations in most patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and/or radiculopathy, but it is not effective in alleviating symptoms such as tinnitus, blurred vision, and hypomnesia. It can be considered for alleviating atypical symptoms when other treatment options prove

  3. Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  4. Estrogenic and Progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of Menopause and PMS

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, Tracie D.; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J.; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. Study design The aerial parts of Justicia pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonist, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. Main outcome measures The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERβ-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. Results The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC50 4.8µg/ml); bound to both ERα and ERβ (IC50 50 µg/ml and 23.1µg/ml, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERβ-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC50 22.8 µg/ml). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 µg/ml. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Conclusions Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. PMID:20452152

  5. Premature menopause and low back pain. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Adera, T; Deyo, R A; Donatelle, R J

    1994-09-01

    The association between premature menopause and low back pain was examined among 5325 women surveyed in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Nearly 49% of the women were postmenopausal. In a multiple logistic regression model that included age, postmenopausal women were approximately twice as likely to report low back pain compared to premenopausal women (odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.0). Among postmenopausal women, significant positive trends in low back pain were observed with decreasing age at menopause (P = 0.005) and increasing years since menopause (P = 0.004). The prevalence odds ratio for women who had their menopause before the age of 30 was 3.2 (1.8-5.4); and for women who had their menopause for 15 or more years the odds ratio was 3.0 (1.7-5.3). These findings suggest that premature menopause is associated with low back pain. Further studies appear warranted to confirm these findings, assess possible explanations, and examine the circumstances in which premature menopause occurs.

  6. Influence of nutrition on the decline of ovarian reserve and subsequent onset of natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Karma; Tremellen, Kelton

    2016-09-01

    The early loss of ovarian reserve and subsequent menopause has a major impact on fertility potential and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and mortality later in life. While many studies have reported that lifestyle factors such as diet can influence the age of onset of natural menopause, their results are often contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of diet on the onset of natural menopause using a self-reported food frequency questionnaire in a cohort of 1146 pre-menopausal women followed up for an average of 12.5 years. The primary finding was that the age of natural menopause was positively correlated with dietary intake of the micronutrient β-cryptoxanthin (r(2 )=( )0.105, p < 0.001) and fruit (r(2 )=( )0.07, p = 0.01), with these relationships remaining significant even after adjustment for other known co-variants for onset of menopause (parity, BMI, physical activity level, education, smoking, energy and alcohol intake). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed that both β-cryptoxanthin and fruit intake was associated with a significant delay in the onset of natural menopause. While still acknowledging that further research is required, in the interim we would advocate that a diet containing ∼400 mcg of β-cryptoxanthin per day from fruits (mandarins, oranges and peaches) has significant potential to delay ovarian senescence by 1.3 years.

  7. Assessment of Questionnaire Measuring Quality of Life in Menopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Hazavehei, Seyyed M.M.; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a natural part of the aging process in women and is defined as occurring 12 months after the last menstrual period marking the end of menstrual cycles. Menopause has a negative impact on the quality of life (QoL). Various generic and specific questionnaires have been used for assessing different dimensions of QoL in menopausal women. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify those general and specific instruments, and to determine the factors that affect QoL in menopausal women. We assessed eight specific and three general tools and found that some general and specific instruments, such as the 36-item short form (SF-36) and the Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL), were mostly used for assessment. The specific tools available were diverse. Employment status and a high educational level in menopausal women were considered to be protective factors in improving QoL. Identification of predicting factors of QoL, such as body mass index, race, age, duration of menopause, and social and occupational variables can help to improve the QoL of these women allowing planning of psychological consultations and practical interventions. PMID:26171119

  8. 2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Panay, N; Fenton, A

    2016-04-01

    The International Menopause Society (IMS) has produced these new 2016 recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy (MHT) to help guide health-care professionals in optimizing their management of women in the menopause transition and beyond. The term MHT has been used to cover therapies including estrogens, progestogens and combined regimens. For the first time, the 2016 IMS recommendations now include grades of recommendations, levels of evidence and 'good practice points', in addition to section-specific references. Where possible, the recommendations are based on and linked to the evidence that supports them, unless good-quality evidence is absent. Particular attention has been paid to published evidence from 2013 onwards, the last time the IMS recommendations were updated. Databases have been extensively searched for relevant publications using key terms specific to each specialist area within menopause physiology and medicine. Information has also been drawn from international consensus statements published by bodies such as the IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society and the North American Menopause Society. The recommendations have been produced by experts derived mainly from the IMS, with the assistance of key collaborators where deemed advantageous. In preparing these international recommendations, experts have taken into account geographical variations in medical care, prevalence of diseases, and country-specific attitudes of the public, medical community and health authorities towards menopause management. The variation in availability and licensing of MHT and other products has also been considered.

  9. Web-based interventions for menopause: A systematic integrated literature review.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2017-01-01

    Advances in computer and Internet technologies have allowed health care providers to develop, use, and test various types of Web-based interventions for their practice and research. Indeed, an increasing number of Web-based interventions have recently been developed and tested in health care fields. Despite the great potential for Web-based interventions to improve practice and research, little is known about the current status of Web-based interventions, especially those related to menopause. To identify the current status of Web-based interventions used in the field of menopause, a literature review was conducted using multiple databases, with the keywords "online," "Internet," "Web," "intervention," and "menopause." Using these keywords, a total of 18 eligible articles were analyzed to identify the current status of Web-based interventions for menopause. Six themes reflecting the current status of Web-based interventions for menopause were identified: (a) there existed few Web-based intervention studies on menopause; (b) Web-based decision support systems were mainly used; (c) there was a lack of detail on the interventions; (d) there was a lack of guidance on the use of Web-based interventions; (e) counselling was frequently combined with Web-based interventions; and (f) the pros and cons were similar to those of Web-based methods in general. Based on these findings, directions for future Web-based interventions for menopause are provided.

  10. Does Inflammation Mediate Relationships Between Racial Identity and Onset of Menopause Among US Adults?

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; Graves, Katelyn Y

    2016-12-06

    We assess how well differences in ethnoracial background may predict timing of menopause among females in the USA and whether or not inflammatory biomarker levels appear to mediate these overall associations. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) to model apparent net effects from race on menopausal onset, as well as possible mediating influences from the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Using continuous time event history analysis, we assess and frame overall relationships between race and menopausal age. We use structural equation modeling to assess potential mediating effects from CRP and to estimate direct and indirect components of these apparent effects. Our findings suggest that on average, black females experience menopause earlier than their peers of other racial backgrounds, and have higher inflammatory biomarker levels. Both black race and higher CRP have negative and significant direct associations with menopausal age. CRP appears to partially mediate the overall association between black race and earlier menopause. This apparent mediation persists with statistical controls for income, education, and body mass index. Our study concludes with recommendations for future research on racial identity, inflammation, and menopausal onset. We focus our recommendations on intersectional forms of inequality that may affect black females in later life.

  11. Association of diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, C; Takatsuka, N; Kawakami, N; Shimizu, H

    2000-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted in Takayama, Gifu, Japan, to evaluate the association between diet and the onset of menopause. A total of 1,130 female residents aged 35-54 years who were premenopausal and completed a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1992 were contacted by mail with a follow-up questionnaire in 1998 to update information on menopause. Onset of menopause was defined as a woman's age at the last menstrual period prior to stopping menstruation for 12 months. During the 6-year study period, 296 women experienced natural menopause. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios of the onset of menopause after controlling for age, total energy, body mass index, years of smoking, and age at which regular menstrual cycle began. The authors found that green and yellow vegetable intake was significantly inversely associated with the 6-year incidence of menopause (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.95 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake, p for trend = 0.02). Association of carotene intake with the incidence of menopause was of borderline significance (hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 1.04, p for trend = 0.07).

  12. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Azam; Davari, Tayebe; Asadi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fateme; Foruhari, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin) in treatment of vaginal atrophy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid). The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS) and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (P<0.001). Dyspareunia in Premarin (P<0.05) and hyaluronic acid (P<0.001) decreased compared with pre-treatment. Urinary incontinence only showed improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P<0.05). Improvement in urinary incontinence, dryness, maturation index (P<0.05) and composite score of vaginal symptoms (P<0.001) in the hyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013022712644N1 PMID:26793732

  13. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Methods: Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause <40 yr. Results: Overall, menopause prior to age 40 was reported by approximately 1.5 per cent of women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, ‘scheduled caste’ status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Interpretation & conclusions: Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function. PMID:28139535

  14. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  15. Menopause Mayhem | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The symptoms can make women feel like their bodies and minds are malfunctioning." "I became irritable and fatigued and ... The symptoms can make women feel like their bodies and minds are malfunctioning," Giblin says. She tells women to " ...

  16. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes. PMID:20853216

  17. Menopausal status and adjuvant hormonal therapy for breast cancer patients: a practical guideline.

    PubMed

    De Vos, F Y F L; van Laarhoven, H W M; Laven, J S E; Themmen, A P N; Beex, L V A M; Sweep, C G J; Seynaeve, C; Jager, A

    2012-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy amongst women in the developed world. For patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer eligible for adjuvant hormonal therapy, it is important to know if the ovaries are (still) functional or not. Indeed, the choice for a specific adjuvant hormonal treatment depends on the menopausal status of an individual woman. The currently available measures to determine the menopausal status are conflicting. Until better measures become available, we propose a practical guideline enabling an optimal choice of adjuvant hormonal therapy for women with a hormone receptor positive breast cancer taking into account uncertainties about their menopausal status.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with menopause: a multi-ethnic, qualitative study in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra; Teo, Stephanie Swee Hong; Dramusic, Vesna; Lee, Hwee Khim; Boughton, Maureen

    2014-05-01

    We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals.

  19. Effect of menopausal hormone therapy on components of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lovre, Dragana; Lindsey, Sarah H; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2016-05-27

    The world population is aging, and women will spend an increasing share of their lives in a postmenopausal state that predisposes to metabolic dysfunction. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women is likely to increase dramatically. This article summarizes the effects of menopause in predisposing to components of MetS including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension (HTN). We also summarize the effects of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in reversing these metabolic alterations and discuss therapeutic advances of novel menopausal treatment on metabolic function.

  20. Menopause, menstrual and reproductive history, and bone density in northern Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Parazzini, F; Bidoli, E; Franceschi, S; Schinella, D; Tesio, F; La Vecchia, C; Zecchin, R

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship between menstrual and reproductive factors and the risk of low bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: This was a population based screening programme carried out between 1991 and 1993 among 1373 perimenopausal women in northern Italy by means of dual photon absorptiometry at the lumbar spine. MAIN RESULTS: BMD was strongly related to the age at menopause. In comparison with women reporting menopause below 45 years of age, the odds ratios (OR) of being in the lowest compared with the highest BMD tertile were 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3,1.5) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1,0.8), respectively, in those with menopause at age 45-49 and above 50 years: the trend in risk was significant. Likewise, the risk of being in the lowest tertile increased with years since the menopause. Compared with women who reported they had undergone the menopause less than two years before interview, the OR of being in the lowest BMD tertile were 2.1 (95% CI 1.1,4.3), 2.3 (95% CI 1.1, 5.0), and 5.7 (95% CI 2.5,12.9) respectively in women who reported menopause 2-5, 6-9, and > or = 10 years earlier. The protective effect on bone density of late age at menopause was observed in different strata of years since menopause. Likewise, the increasing risk of a low BMD with increasing years since the menopause was evident in strata of different age at menopause. No relationships were observed between BMD and the age at menarche, characteristics of menstrual cycles, and the duration of menses. Likewise, no association emerged between reproductive history, including parity and age at first pregnancy, and BMD. CONCLUSIONS: In this Italian population the risk of being in the lowest BMD tertile decreased with increasing age at menopause and increased with years since menopause. No relationships emerged between BMD and other menstrual characteristics or reproductive factors. PMID:8944857

  1. Sensory symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Eric P; Stornelli, Jennifer L; O'Rourke, Julia A; Koesterer, Karmen; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature regarding abnormalities in sensory functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including evidence regarding the neurobiological basis of these symptoms, their clinical correlates, and their treatment. Abnormalities in responses to sensory stimuli are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. The underlying neurobiology of these symptoms is unclear, but several theories have been proposed linking possible etiologies of sensory dysfunction with known abnormalities in brain structure and function that are associated with ASD. In addition to the distress that sensory symptoms can cause patients and caregivers, these phenomena have been correlated with several other problematic symptoms and behaviors associated with ASD, including restrictive and repetitive behavior, self-injurious behavior, anxiety, inattention, and gastrointestinal complaints. It is unclear whether these correlations are causative in nature or whether they are due to shared underlying pathophysiology. The best-known treatments for sensory symptoms in ASD involve a program of occupational therapy that is specifically tailored to the needs of the individual and that may include sensory integration therapy, a sensory diet, and environmental modifications. While some empirical evidence supports these treatments, more research is needed to evaluate their efficacy, and other means of alleviating these symptoms, including possible psychopharmacological interventions, need to be explored. Additional research into the sensory symptoms associated with ASD has the potential to shed more light on the nature and pathophysiology of these disorders and to open new avenues of effective treatments.

  2. [Is the cardioprotective effect of estrogens useful in menopause?].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Vargas, César G; Padilla-Ríos, Victoria; Meza-Flores, Alicia

    2002-03-01

    Tendency of coronary mortality to occur about 10 years later in women than in men is a well known fact. This difference has been attributed to the presence of estrogens in women. Despite the performance of many experimental and observational studies on the heart-protecting effect of estrogens, there are a lot of methodological limitations which make it difficult to obtain definitive results. This revision, shows the experimental studies where it has been demonstrated that estrogens do not increase cardiovascular protection. Emphasis is focused on adverse effects, such as the development of breast and endometrial cancer. It is also emphasized that during menopause, a series of life style modifications can be implemented, such as exercising, stop smoking and loosing weight. Undoubtedly, the results will be cardiovascular health benefits, with minimum integral health risks.

  3. [Effects on health of soy in menopausic women].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Sagrado, J

    2006-04-01

    Phystestrogens are organic compounds produced by a large variety of plants with protective function against the invasion of them by microorganisms. Phystestrogens, and among them isoflavones, have a great similarity with estradiol, principal endogenous estrogen. Those known most for their estrogenic activity are daidzeine and genisteine. Due to the existence of contradictory data on the effects of soy isoflavones on the most outstanding health disorders of menopause such as osteoporosis and hot flushes, and its ineffective role in the improvement of the lipid profile, it is recommendable to continue choosing hygienic-dietary and conventional drug treatments. However, we could introduce soy and soy derived products within a balanced, varied and adequate diet for these women.

  4. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  5. Activity of Wedelia calendulacea Less. in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Annie, Shirwaikar; Prabhu, R G; Malini, S

    2006-01-01

    Wedelia calendulacea Less., a perennial herb containing isoflavanoids, is used in liver disorders, uterine hemorrhage and menorrhagia. Osteoporosis in women occurs mainly due to estrogen deficiency following menopause. Studies indicate that isoflavones are estrogenic enough to promote bone formation. Our study was aimed to investigate the antiosteoporotic effect of the ethanol extract of W. calendulacea in the ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg/body wt. day. The findings, assessed on the basis of biomechanical and biochemical parameters, showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite protective effect. This was further supported by the histopathological studies. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of isoflavones and wedelolactone, which are known to act as phytoestrogens and may be responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity.

  6. Telomere length and telomerase activity in the context of menopause.

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2013-12-01

    Telomere length is a marker of cell aging, since shorter telomeres and a higher rate of telomere shortening with time are associated with poorer health status and survival. Various factors may determine telomere length and the function of the telomere maintenance system, including the hereditary load and several modifiable variables such as diet and lifestyle. Telomere length and telomerase activity were investigated extensively in a variety of diseases, such as malignancies (i.e. breast and colon cancer), cardiovascular disease and its related metabolic risk factors, cognitive, mental and psychiatric conditions, and many others. Some evidence points at an association between longer endogenous estrogen exposure (length of reproductive years of life) and greater telomere length and lower telomerase activity. However, there is probably no correlation in regard to menopause per se or the use of hormone therapy. Changing the nutrition and implementing healthy lifestyles may improve the telomere/telomerase parameters in postmenopausal women, but better understanding of this system is still needed.

  7. Reproductive Conflict and the Evolution of Menopause in Killer Whales.

    PubMed

    Croft, Darren P; Johnstone, Rufus A; Ellis, Samuel; Nattrass, Stuart; Franks, Daniel W; Brent, Lauren J N; Mazzi, Sonia; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Ford, John K B; Cant, Michael A

    2017-01-23

    Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9]). Using a unique long-term dataset on wild resident killer whales, where females can live decades after their final parturition, we provide the first test of this hypothesis in a non-human animal. First, we confirm previous theoretical predictions that local relatedness increases with female age up to the end of reproduction. Second, we construct a new evolutionary model and show that given these kinship dynamics, selection will favor younger females that invest more in competition, and thus have greater reproductive success, than older females (their mothers) when breeding at the same time. Third, we test this prediction using 43 years of individual-based demographic data in resident killer whales and show that when mothers and daughters co-breed, the mortality hazard of calves from older-generation females is 1.7 times that of calves from younger-generation females. Intergenerational conflict combined with the known benefits conveyed to kin by post-reproductive females can explain why killer whales have evolved the longest post-reproductive lifespan of all non-human animals.

  8. Breast cancer and post-menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; Bosman, A

    2003-03-01

    From the introduction of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) there has been great concern that HRT could possibly increase the risk of breast cancer. Prolonged exposure to endogenous oestrogens undeniably increases the risk of breast cancer. Questions that are important and until now only partly answered, are the following. Are oestrogens tumour promoters, as they induce mitosis, lead to proliferation and, therefore, accelerated growth of clinically occult pre-existing tumours? In addition to this, are they genotoxic mutagenic carcinogens, or could they initiate tumours by way of accumulation of incessant DNA-replication damage mechanism? Opinions vary as to the effect of the addition of a progestogen. There is a multitude of different progestogens which could bind with differing affinity to progesterone receptor PR-A or PR-B, and which have different physiological functions via differential gene regulation. The action of a progestogen on the oestrogen-induced cellular mitotic activity could be synergistic or antagonistic (by different pathways: oestrogen receptor downregulation, activating of metabolic pathways within the breast or stimulation of apoptosis)? Over 60 observational studies and two randomized trials provide evidence that the small but significant increase in risk appears with long-term current post-menopausal hormone use. The addition of a progestogen does not decrease the risk as seen with oestrogens alone and might increase the risk further. It is not clear whether there is a difference in risk with sequentially combined versus continuously combined HRT. Many questions nevertheless still remain. Is the risk increase limited to lean women only? What about risk-modifying factors such as alcohol use and a positive family history for breast cancer? Are tumours detected under HRT less aggressive, is there a better prognosis and is the mortality not increased while morbidity is? And is HRT contraindicated for women with a positive family

  9. Hydrogen-rich water alleviates aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in alfalfa via decreasing nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Cui, Weiti; Zhu, Kaikai; Xie, Yanjie; Zhang, Chunhua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-02-28

    One of the earliest and distinct symptoms of aluminum (Al) toxicity is the inhibition of root elongation. Although hydrogen gas (H2) is recently described as an important bio-regulator in plants, whether and how H2 regulates Al-induced inhibition of root elongation is largely unknown. To address these gaps, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to investigate a physiological role of H2 and its possible molecular mechanism. Individual or simultaneous (in particular) exposure of alfalfa seedlings to Al, or a fresh but not old nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP), not only increased NO production, but also led to a significant inhibition of root elongation. Above responses were differentially alleviated by pretreatment with 50% saturation of HRW. The addition of HRW also alleviated the appearance of Al toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of seedling growth and less accumulation of Al. Subsequent results revealed that the removal of NO by the NO scavenger, similar to HRW, could decrease NO production and alleviate Al- or SNP-induced inhibition of root growth. Thus, we proposed that HRW alleviated Al-induced inhibition of alfalfa root elongation by decreasing NO production. Such findings may be applicable to enhance crop yield and improve stress tolerance.

  10. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  11. [Peculiarities of metabolic syndrome and nonalcogolic fatty liver disease in menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Antelava, N A; Antelava, A V; Gongadze, M V; Okudzhava, M V; Pachkoriia, K Z; Gogolauri, M I

    2012-07-01

    Correlation between menopause metabolic syndrome and nonalcogolic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is reviewed. NAFLD refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple fatty liver (steatosis), to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, to cirrhosis. The causes and pathogenetic factors of the disease are still under investigation. The risk of development of NAFLD during menopause is twice higher in comparison with fertile age and abdominal obesity and insulin resistances is more apparent. This feature is associated with deficit of estrogens during menopause, as risk of development of NAFLD is diminished with substitutive hormonotherapy. The obesity, particularly in the period of menopause, is discussed as additive, independent risk factor of metabolic syndrome and of diseases of hepatobiliare and cardiovascular systems.

  12. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder involving a combination of cardiovascular risk factors. Menopausal transition can be a key factor in the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition, using a systematic review. Three reviewers conducted an article search in PubMed. The articles' quality was evaluated according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Based on the selected studies, prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases in the post-menopausal (as compared to pre-menopausal) period, regardless of the population and study design. The change was more significant for waist circumference and blood pressure, suggesting that these components have the greatest influence on prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: • Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. • Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast

  14. Fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane in relation to menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Tworek; Muti; Micheli; Krogh; Riboli; Berrino

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Menopausal status effects female anatomical functioning at a variety of system-wide and cellular levels, including cellular membrane composition. This study analyzed a nested case-control ORDET data set of 433 pre and post-menopausal breast cancer controls to examine the effects of menopausal status on the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane.METHODS: ORDET is a prospective cohort study conducted in Italy to investigate the etiologic role of hormones and diet in breast cancer development. The fatty acid composition was measured and analyzed by gas chromotography, comparing retention time with standard measurement. Twenty-two individual fatty acids were measured, recorded, and categorized into four fatty acid groups: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated n-6 (PUFA n-6), and polyunsaturated (PUFA n-3) fatty acids.RESULTS: Post-menopausal women had consistently lower mean values for all four fatty acid categories and all individual fatty acids. Statistically significant mean differences, by menopausal status, were observed for three of the four fatty acid categories: saturated fatty acids (p = 0.006), PUFA n-6 acids (p = 0.001), and PUFA n-3 acids (p = 0.000). The biggest statistically significant differences in mean values among individual fatty acids for each category were observed for Palmitic acid (p = 0.009), Oleic acid (p = 0.040), Linoleic acid (p = 0.000), and Docosahexaenoic acid (p = 0.000). Individual fatty acids were also less highly correlated among post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: There was an observed relationship between menopausal status and the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane that warrants further study. This relationship may contribute to the physiological and psychological changes that occur during and after menopause, and may have far-reaching implications for women's health.

  15. Diosgenin-caused changes of the adrenal gland histological parameters in a rat model of the menopause.

    PubMed

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Jarić, Ivana; Miler, Marko; Filipović, Branko; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ristić, Nataša; Milenkovic, Dragan; Milošević, Verica

    2017-01-01

    Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin of natural origin, has demonstrated benefits when it comes to the treatment of malignancies, cardiovascular issues and menopausal symptoms. In this study, we investigated the histological changes of the adrenal gland after diosgenin application in a rat model of the menopause. Middle-aged, acyclic female Wistar rats were divided into control (C; n=6) and diosgenin treated (D; n=6) groups. Diosgenin (100mg/kg b.w./day) was orally administered for four weeks, while C group received the vehicle alone. A histological approach included design-based stereology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The adrenal cortex volume decreased in D females by 15% (p<0.05) while the volume of adrenal medulla increased (p<0.05) by 64%, compared to the same parameters in C group. Volume density of the zona glomerulosa (expressed per absolute adrenal gland volume) in D rats increased (p<0.05) by 22% in comparison with C animals. Diosgenin treatment decreased (p<0.05) the volume density of the zona fasciculata (expressed per volume of adrenal cortex) by 15% when compared to C females. Absolute volume of the zona reticularis in D group decreased (p<0.05) by 38% in comparison with the same parameter in C rats. Also, after diosgenin application, the volume density of the zona reticularis (expressed per volume of adrenal cortex) and the zona reticularis cell volume were decreased by 51% and 20% (p<0.05) respectively, compared to C animals. Our results, reflecting a decrease in many stereological parameters of the adrenal cortex, indicate that diosgenin took over the role of corticosteroid precursors and became incorporated into steroidogenesis.

  16. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lomagno, Karla A.; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Byrne, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder associated with the menopausal transition: a preliminary open trial

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Marlene P.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Silver, Michael; Hirschberg, April M.; Wang, Betty; Yule, Amy M.; Petrillo, Laura F.; Pascuillo, Erica; Economou, Nicole I.; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We sought to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder associated with the menopausal transition. Secondary outcomes were assessed for vasomotor symptoms (or hot flashes). Methods After a single-blind placebo lead-in, participants received 8 weeks of treatment with open-label omega-3 fatty acid capsules (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 2 g/d). The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was the primary outcome measure. Hot flashes were monitored prospectively using daily diaries and the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale. Blood samples for plasma pretreatment and post treatment essential fatty acid assays were obtained. Because of the small sample size, data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques. Results Of 20 participants treated with omega-3 fatty acids, 19 (95%) completed the study. None discontinued because of adverse effects. The pretreatment and final mean MADRS scores were 24.2 and 10.7, respectively, reflecting a significant decrease in MADRS scores (P G 0.0001). The response rate was 70% (MADRS score decrease of Q50%), and the remission rate was 45% (final MADRS score of e7). Responders had significantly lower pretreatment docosahexaenoic acid levels than nonresponders did (P = 0.03). Hot flashes were present in 15 (75%) participants. Among those with hot flashes at baseline, the number of hot flashes per day improved significantly from baseline (P = 0.02) and Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale scores decreased significantly (P = 0.006). Conclusions These data support further study of omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder and hot flashes in women during the menopausal transition. PMID:21037490

  18. Menopause causes vertebral endplate degeneration and decrease in nutrient diffusion to the intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Griffith, James F

    2011-07-01

    The vasculature in the outer annulus supplies only the periphery of the disc so that nutrition to the bulk of the disc, including all the inner annulus and nucleus pulposus, is derived from the vertebral epiphyseal end arteries where nutrients diffuse across the cartilaginous endplate to reach the disc. In this regard the vertebral endplate plays an important role in disc nutrition. Compromise of diffusion of nutrients to the disc cells may play a large part in the progression or even initiation of disc degeneration. Increasing evidence suggests that estrogen deficiency also influence the severity of disc degeneration in post-menopausal females. Structural disorganization of the vertebral endplate occurs with disc degeneration, with the most common endplate changes observed clinically being Schmorl's node. Schmorl's node is more commonly seen in post-menopausal women than younger women. Osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis and fibrosis associated with Schmorl's nodes can impede nutrient diffusion into the disc as well as removal of metabolites from the disc. We hypothesize that menopause negatively affects vertebral endplate quality and induces endplate degeneration. This endplate degeneration decreases nutrients diffusion from vertebral body into discs, and also impedes removal of metabolites, leads to further disc degeneration. To confirm our hypothesis, a cross-sectional post-contrast MRI study can be performed in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. If the hypothesis is confirmed, then low dose hormone replacement treatment may retard disc degeneration in post menopausal women and thereby limit the consequences associated with disc degeneration such as low back pain.

  19. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR.

  20. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  1. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  2. Menopause occurs late in life in the captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Herndon, James G; Paredes, Jamespaul; Wilson, Mark E; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Walker, Margaret L

    2012-10-01

    Menopause in women occurs at mid-life. Chimpanzees, in contrast, continue to display cycles of menstrual bleeding and genital swelling, suggestive of ovulation, until near their maximum life span of about 60 years. Because ovulation was not confirmed hormonally, however, the age at which chimpanzees experience menopause has remained uncertain. In the present study, we provide hormonal data from urine samples collected from 30 female chimpanzees, of which 9 were old (>30 years), including 2 above the age of 50 years. Eight old chimpanzees showed clear endocrine evidence of ovulation, as well as cycles of genital swelling that correlated closely with measured endocrine changes. Endocrine evidence thus confirms prior observations (cyclic anogenital swelling) that menopause is a late-life event in the chimpanzee. We also unexpectedly discovered an idiopathic anovulation in some young and middle-aged chimpanzees; this merits further study. Because our results on old chimpanzees validate the use of anogenital swelling as a surrogate index of ovulation, we were able to combine data on swelling and urinary hormones to provide the first estimates of age-specific rates of menopause in chimpanzees. We conclude that menopause occurs near 50 years of age in chimpanzees as it does in women. Our finding identifies a basic difference between the human and chimpanzee aging processes: female chimpanzees can remain reproductively viable for a greater proportion of their life span than women. Thus, while menopause marks the end of the chimpanzee's life span, women may thrive for decades more.

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity and General Health among Menopausal Women in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Nasibeh; Jalili, Lida; Khazaeian, Somayeh; nia, Anvar-sadat Nayebi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Most women experience significant changes in their general health status during menopause, which negatively affects their quality of life. Physical activity has also been shown to enhance quality of life. However, little is known about the effect of physical activity on women’s health during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between physical activity and general health among menopausal women in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out on 600 menopausal women using cluster random sampling during 2013–2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; women’s demographic characteristics, the Goldenberg’s questionnaire, and International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS version 19. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Results There was a significant relationship between the total score of physical activity and physical health, social functioning, anxiety and depression (p<0.05), but no significant relationship was found between subscales related to physical activity and general health (p>0.05). Conclusion Physical activity is effective in improving general health in menopausal women. Proper training and effective interventions for regular physical activity can be important steps to promote the general health of menopausal women. PMID:28243418

  4. Baculovirus-mediated interferon alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis symptoms in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Y; Kaneko, H; Suzuki, H; Abe, T; Matsuura, Y; Takaku, H

    2008-07-01

    The wild-type baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) infects a range of mammalian cell types in vitro but does not replicate in these cells. The current study investigated the in vivo effect of AcMNPV in the mouse model of liver cirrhosis induced by the mutagen dimethylnitrosamine. Intraperitoneal injection of AcMNPV induced an immune response. The baculovirus was taken up by the liver and spleen where it suppressed liver injury and fibrosis through the induction of interferons. This study presents the first evidence of the feasibility of using baculovirus to treat liver cirrhosis.

  5. The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in the Alleviation of Asthma Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberholzer, H. M.; Pretorius, E.

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus in managing asthma is the control of inflammation, as asthma is an inflammatory disease. Because of this chronic airway inflammation, the lungs of asthmatic patients are exposed to oxidative stress due to the generation of reactive oxygen- and nitrogen species (ROS and NOS). Oxidative stress therefore plays an important role in…

  6. Depression during the menopause transition: impact on quality of life, social adjustment, and disability.

    PubMed

    Wariso, Bathsheba A; Guerrieri, Gioia M; Thompson, Karla; Koziol, Deloris E; Haq, Nazli; Martinez, Pedro E; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    The impact of depression on quality of life (QOL) and social support has neither been well characterized in clinical samples of women with perimenopausal depression (PMD) nor have the relative contributions of depression and other menopausal symptoms (e.g., hot flushes) to declining QOL been clarified. In this study, we compared QOL measures, social support, and functional disability in PMD and non-depressed perimenopausal women. We evaluated women aged 40-60 years who presented with menstrual cycle irregularity, elevated plasma FSH levels, and met criteria for perimenopause. A structured clinical interview was administered to determine the presence or absence of major and minor depression. Outcome measures included the Quality of Life Enjoyment Scale Questionnaire, the Sheehan Disability Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, the Social Adjustment Scale, and the Duke Social Support Index. Kruskal-Wallis tests and ANOVAs were used to compare outcome measures. Ninety women with PMD and 51 control women participated in this study. Women with PMD reported significantly decreased QOL, social support, and adjustment and increased disability compared with non-depressed perimenopausal women. Neither perimenopausal reproductive status alone nor the presence of hot flushes had a significant negative impact on QOL measures. PMD is accompanied by significant reductions in QOL, social support, and disability similar to depression in women at other stages of life. PMD may also contribute to decreased QOL in community- or clinic-based samples of perimenopausal women. It remains unclear whether the clinical characteristics we identified reflect pre-existing risk factors for depression during the perimenopause or the effects of a current depression. Future clinical and treatment studies in perimenopausal women should distinguish depressed women when outcome measures include QOL.

  7. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.

  8. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  10. Alleviating spatial conflict between people and biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Imhoff, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Human settlements are expanding in species-rich regions and pose a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. We quantify the degree to which this threat manifests itself in two contrasting continents, Australia and North America, and suggest how it can be substantially alleviated. Human population density has a strong positive correlation with species richness in Australia for birds, mammals, amphibians, and butterflies (but not reptiles) and in North America for all five taxa. Nevertheless, conservation investments could secure locations that harbor almost all species while greatly reducing overlap with densely populated regions. We compared two conservation-planning scenarios that each aimed to represent all species at least once in a minimum set of sampling sites. The first scenario assigned equal cost to each site (ignoring differences in human population density); the second assigned a cost proportional to the site's human population density. Under the equal-cost scenario, 13–40% of selected sites occurred where population density values were highest (in the top decile). However, this overlap was reduced to as low as 0%, and in almost all cases to <10%, under the population-cost scenario, when sites of high population density were avoided where possible. Moreover, this reduction of overlap was achieved with only small increases in the total amount of area requiring protection. As densely populated regions continue to expand rapidly and drive up land values, the strategic conservation investments of the kind highlighted in our analysis are best made now. PMID:14681554

  11. Increased blood oxidative stress in experimental menopause rat model: the effects of vitamin A low-dose supplementation upon antioxidant status in bilateral ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Menopause has been reported to be associated with increased oxidative stress and metabolic disorders among women worldwide. Disarrangements in the redox state similar to those observed in women during the decline of ovarian hormonal activity can be obtained experimentally through rat bilateral ovariectomy. The search for alternative treatments to improve life quality in postmenopausal woman is really important. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and oxidative stress parameters that distinguish sham-operated female rats from Wistar rats bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Additionally, we have also investigated the effects of retinol palmitate (a vitamin A supplement) low-dose supplementation (500 or 1500 IU/kg/day, during 30 days) upon blood and plasma antioxidant status in OVX rats. Ovariectomy caused an increase in body weight gain, pronounced uterine atrophy, decreased plasma triglycerides and increased total cholesterol levels, and reduced acid uric content. Moreover, we found increased blood peroxidase activities (catalase and glutathione peroxidase), decreased plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses total reactive antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity, decreased protein and non-protein SH levels, accompanied by increased protein oxidative damage (carbonyl). In addition, vitamin A low-dose supplementation was capable to ameliorate antioxidant status in OVX rats, restoring both enzymatic and non-enzymatic defenses, promoting reduction in plasma SH content, and decreasing protein oxidative damage levels. This is the first work in the literature showing that vitamin A at low dose may be beneficial in the treatment of menopause symptoms. Further studies will be made to better understand the effects of vitamin A supplementation in menopause rat model.

  12. Contrasting effects of increased and decreased dopamine transmission on latent inhibition in ovariectomized rats and their modulation by 17beta-estradiol: an animal model of menopausal psychosis?

    PubMed

    Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

    2010-06-01

    Women with schizophrenia have later onset and better response to antipsychotic drugs (APDs) than men during reproductive years, but the menopausal period is associated with increased symptom severity and reduced treatment response. Estrogen replacement therapy has been suggested as beneficial but clinical data are inconsistent. Latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to ignore irrelevant stimuli, is a measure of selective attention that is disrupted in acute schizophrenia patients and in rats and humans treated with the psychosis-inducing drug amphetamine and can be reversed by typical and atypical APDs. Here we used amphetamine (1 mg/kg)-induced disrupted LI in ovariectomized rats to model low levels of estrogen along with hyperfunction of the dopaminergic system that may be occurring in menopausal psychosis, and tested the efficacy of APDs and estrogen in reversing disrupted LI. 17beta-Estradiol (50, 150 microg/kg), clozapine (atypical APD; 5, 10 mg/kg), and haloperidol (typical APD; 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg) effectively reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in sham rats, but were much less effective in ovariectomized rats; 17beta-estradiol and clozapine were effective only at high doses (150 microg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively), whereas haloperidol failed at both doses. Haloperidol and clozapine regained efficacy if coadministered with 17beta-estradiol (50 microg/kg, an ineffective dose). Reduced sensitivity to dopamine (DA) blockade coupled with spared/potentiated sensitivity to DA stimulation after ovariectomy may provide a novel model recapitulating the combination of increased vulnerability to psychosis with reduced response to APD treatment in female patients during menopause. In addition, our data show that 17beta-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity.

  13. In vitro and in vivo effects of ethanol extract combined with Curcumae Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on menopausal metabolic disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Park, InSil; Ryuk, JinAh; Lee, HyeWon; Go, Hiroe; Ko, ByoungSeob

    2015-01-01

    Curcumae Radix (CR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GR) extracts have been used as health supplements in traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of combined CR and GR extracts (CR+GR) on metabolic complications related menopausal symptoms. We found a significant results that CR+GR extracted using ethanol stimulated the growth of MCF-7 cells in estrogen activity and was attenuated in lipid deposition of HepG2 cells treated with MβCD compared to CR and GR treatments each. To investigate the situation, an experimental menopause rat model with dyslipidemia was induced by surgical bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet in female rats. OVX rats fed HFHC (OVX-HFHC) showed a shift in weight gain, elevated serum cholesterol, altered liver enzymatic parameters and enhanced liver injury compared to the NC and HFHC groups. However, administration of CR+GR, in particular 200 or 450 mg/kg/day, inhibited the increase in body weight gain and lipid metabolic disturbances, lowering total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to the OVX-HFHC group. Furthermore, CR+GR (200 or 450 mg/kg/day) ameliorated the serum levels of the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) compared to the OVX-HFHC group. Moreover, CR+GR (200 or 450 mg/kg/day) attenuated not only hepatic steatosis but also larger adipocytes. Our study demonstrated that combined treatment with CR and GR attenuated metabolic complications induced by OVX and HFHC diet, suggesting that this effect may regulate and prevent the acceleration of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after menopause. PMID:26628991

  14. Suppression of volatile production in tomato fruit exposed to chilling temperature and alleviation of chilling injury by a pre-chilling heat treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling exposure of tomato fruit to 5 °C for less than 5 days at mature green stage does not cause visual symptom of chilling injury (CI), however, it is unknown whether such conditions would impact flavor quality (internal CI) after ripening, and if a pre-chilling heat treatment could alleviate in...

  15. Can house dust mite-triggered atopic dermatitis be alleviated using acaricides?

    PubMed

    Cameron, M M

    1997-07-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most important triggers for atopic dermatitis. Reducing exposure to these allergens may alleviate clinical symptoms. Chemicals with acaricidal activity have been used to treat upholstered furniture, carpets and bedding with the aim to reduce HDM allergen exposure. These chemicals, by reducing HDM, can decrease the concentration of mite allergens in dust but improvements in clinical symptoms are not always apparent. Clinical improvement is more likely to occur if bedding has been treated rather than carpets and upholstery. Future control strategies should be aimed at treating bedding. Permethrin is a very efficient killer of mites. It is used topically to treat scabies and head lice and is impregnated in bed nets to prevent mosquito bites. Even when applied to the skin in high concentrations, it has a very low toxicity in humans and other mammals. Permethrin-impregnated bedding may prove to be the best control method in the treatment of HDM allergen-triggered atopic conditions.

  16. Conceptual models for women's health research: reclaiming menopause as an exemplar of nursing's contributions to feminist scholarship.

    PubMed

    Andrist, L C; MacPherson, K I

    2001-01-01

    An examination of women's transition through menopause provides a remarkable example of nursing's contributions to feminist scholarship. The predominant biomedical model perpetuates the idea that menopause is a deficiency disease, whereas feminist and nurse scholars have deconstructed this paradigm and have reclaimed menopause as a part of midlife women's developmental stage. We begin this chapter with a review of the birth of women's health scholarship as it is the foundation for theory that undergirds feminist nursing research. We then discuss the tenets of feminist scholarship. The historical context of menopause is reviewed briefly to highlight the ways in which menopause was transformed from a normal physiological event to a disease. Using this as a backdrop, we reviewed nursing studies in two emerging bodies of knowledge. We reviewed 10 studies in the area of "women reclaiming menopause" and found that over all women believe the menopausal transition is a normal developmental stage. The second area of new research looks at "menopause across cultures." The studies of Korean, Indian, and Thai women reviewed demonstrate that similar to other health issues, the experience of Western women cannot be universalized, and most important, researchers must take into consideration the social, political, economic, and cultural forces that impact women's experience of the menopause transition.

  17. Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhai; Jia, Aijun; Ning, Tangyuan; Xu, Jialin; Li, Zengjia; Jiang, Gaoming

    2008-09-29

    A sand culture experiment was conducted to answer the question whether or not exogenous KNO(3) can alleviate adverse effects of salt stress in winter wheat by monitoring plant growth, K(+)/Na(+) accumulation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Seeds of two wheat cultivars (CVs), DK961 (salt-tolerant) and JN17 (salt-sensitive), were planted in sandboxes and controls germinated and raised with Hoagland nutrient solution (6 mM KNO(3), no NaCl). Experimental seeds were exposed to seven modified Hoagland solutions containing increased levels of KNO(3) (11, 16, 21 mM) or 100 mM NaCl in combination with the four KNO(3) concentrations (6, 11, 16 and 21 mM). Plants were harvested 30 d after imbibition, with controls approximately 22 cm in height. Both CVs showed significant reduction in plant height, root length and dry weight of shoots and roots under KNO(3) or NaCl stress. However, the combination of increased KNO(3) and NaCl alleviated symptoms of the individual salt stresses by improving growth of shoots and roots, reducing electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The salt-tolerant cultivar accumulated more K(+) in both shoots and roots compared with the higher Na(+) accumulation typical for the salt-sensitive cultivar. Soluble sugar content and activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be more stable in the salt-tolerant cultivar. Our findings suggest that the optimal K(+)/Na(+) ratio of the nutrient solution should be 16:100 for both the salt-tolerant and the salt-sensitive cultivar under the experimental conditions used, and that the alleviation of NaCl stress symptoms through simultaneously applied elevated KNO(3) was more effective in the salt-tolerant than in the salt-sensitive cultivar.

  18. Symptom clusters at midlife: A four-country comparison of checklist and qualitative responses

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and clustering of somatic symptoms as reported by women aged 45-55 years in four countries, to compare women's responses to open-ended questions with those derived from structured checklists, and to assess the extent to which bodily symptoms grouped with emotional complaints. Methods The Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) recruited 1,193 women from the general population in Beirut, Lebanon; Rabat, Morocco; Madrid, Spain; and central Massachusetts. Women participated in semi-structured interviews about health, menopause, and bodily changes at midlife. Women's responses to symptom checklists and their statements in response to open-ended questions were analyzed through factor analysis and textual analysis. Results There was considerable consistency between the frequencies of quantitative and qualitative responses, and the analyses of qualitative data illustrate the extent to which women associate somatic and emotional complaints. In open-ended responses, women in Massachusetts and Spain did not often cluster somatic symptoms together with emotional symptoms. In Morocco, dizziness, fatigue, and headaches were clustered with emotional symptoms. Women in Lebanon explicitly associated shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, dizziness, fatigue, gastro-intestinal complaints, headaches, and, to a lesser extent, joint pain and numbness with emotional symptoms. Conclusions The number of volunteered symptom responses was small because respondents were relatively healthy; however, the extent and pattern of association between somatic and emotional symptoms varied across sites. Certain somatic symptoms may be more likely to communicate psychosocial distress in particular cultures. These results have implications for patterns of health care utilization. PMID:22042326

  19. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bin Lan, B; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  20. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  1. Consumption of Low-Fat Dairy Products May Delay Natural Menopause123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Willett, Walter C.; Michels, Karin B.

    2013-01-01

    Later menopause is a risk factor for breast and endometrial cancer, yet few studies have investigated dietary predictors of this potentially modifiable event. In particular, dairy contains hormones and growth factors that could potentially affect menopausal timing. We therefore assessed the association between regular consumption of dairy foods and related nutrients and age at natural menopause. We conducted a prospective analysis with up to 20 y of follow-up in 46,059 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who were premenopausal in 1980. We observed 30,816 events of natural menopause over 401,754 person-years. In the total population, the estimated mean age at natural menopause was 51.5 y for women who consumed no low-fat dairy and 51.5, 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8 y for women who consumed 0.1–1.0, 1.1–2.0, 2.1–3.0, and >3 servings of low-fat dairy daily, respectively. Premenopausal women <51 y of age consuming >3 servings of low-fat dairy per day were 14% less likely (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96; P-trend < 0.0001) to report natural menopause in the next month relative to those consuming 0.1–1 servings/d. Similar results were obtained for skim milk (for >6 servings/wk vs. 0–1 servings/mo: HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.97; P-trend < 0.0001) but not for total high-fat dairy or whole milk. Dairy foods were not associated with age at menopause among women ≥51 y of age. These findings support the growing body of literature on the hormonally active nature of milk and dairy foods. PMID:23946341

  2. Consumption of low-fat dairy products may delay natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B

    2013-10-01

    Later menopause is a risk factor for breast and endometrial cancer, yet few studies have investigated dietary predictors of this potentially modifiable event. In particular, dairy contains hormones and growth factors that could potentially affect menopausal timing. We therefore assessed the association between regular consumption of dairy foods and related nutrients and age at natural menopause. We conducted a prospective analysis with up to 20 y of follow-up in 46,059 participants in the Nurses' Health Study who were premenopausal in 1980. We observed 30,816 events of natural menopause over 401,754 person-years. In the total population, the estimated mean age at natural menopause was 51.5 y for women who consumed no low-fat dairy and 51.5, 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8 y for women who consumed 0.1-1.0, 1.1-2.0, 2.1-3.0, and >3 servings of low-fat dairy daily, respectively. Premenopausal women <51 y of age consuming >3 servings of low-fat dairy per day were 14% less likely (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96; P-trend < 0.0001) to report natural menopause in the next month relative to those consuming 0.1-1 servings/d. Similar results were obtained for skim milk (for >6 servings/wk vs. 0-1 servings/mo: HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.97; P-trend < 0.0001) but not for total high-fat dairy or whole milk. Dairy foods were not associated with age at menopause among women ≥51 y of age. These findings support the growing body of literature on the hormonally active nature of milk and dairy foods.

  3. Early menopause: A hazard to a woman's health

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Angeles, Claudio; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2016-01-01

    Early menopause or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common cause of infertility in women and affects about one per cent of young women. This disorder has significant psychological sequelae and major health implications. Its relevance has increased in recent years due to the fact that age of motherhood is being delayed in developed countries, with the risk of having either primary ovarian insufficiency or less possibilities of pregnancy. The main characteristics are absence of ovulation, amenorrhoea and high levels of serum gonadothropins (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). Although the aetiology remains uncertain in most cases, several rare specific causes have been elucidated. Potential causes for POI are iatrogenic (ovarian surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy), environmental factors, viral infections, metabolic and autoinmune diseases, and genetic alterations. Because of the association with other autoimmune diseases, close follow up is recommended in patients with POI. The traditional indicators to evaluate ovarian ageing are age, serum hormonal levels, anti-Mullerian hormone, antral follicle count, and ultrasonography of ovaries. Hormone replacement therapy remains the mainstay of treatment, and the best chance of achieving a pregnancy is through oocyte donation. This article aims to present an overview of potential causes, clinical manifestations, and treatment options of POI. PMID:27377497

  4. The menopause transition: interview with Ellen W Freeman.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen W

    2015-07-01

    Ellen W Freeman is a Research Professor in the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology and the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia (PA, USA). She directs the PMS research program and is co-director of the Human Behavior and Reproduction unit in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. She received her AB in history in Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts and her MS and PhD in social research from Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. She has published more than 200 scientific articles, book chapters, reviews and abstracts on premenstrual syndromes, perimenopause, adolescent pregnancy, infertility and related topics as well as a book on teenage pregnancy. In addition, she has lectured extensively worldwide on mood disorders and menopause in women. She is also a member of the editorial boards of Medscape, Archives of Women's Mental Health and Mental Fitness: Psychiatry, OB/GYN, Primary Care and is a Fellow in the College of Physicians of Philadelphia.

  5. Why May Allopregnanolone Help Alleviate Loneliness?

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, S.; Cacioppo, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. PMID:26365247

  6. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  7. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years o