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Sample records for alleviate water scarcity

  1. China's water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  2. Alleviating the water scarcity in the North China Plain: the role of virtual water and real water transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuoying; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain is the most water scarce region in China. Its water security is closely relevant to interregional water movement, which can be realized by real water transfers and/or virtual water transfers. This study investigates the roles of virtual water trade and real water transfer using Interregional Input-Output model. The results show that the region is receiving 19.4 billion m3/year of virtual water from the interregional trade, while exporting 16.4 billion m3/year of virtual water in the international trade. In balance, the region has a net virtual water gain of 3 billion m3/year from outside. Its virtual water inflow is dominated by agricultural products from other provinces, totalling 16.6 billion m3/year, whilst its virtual water export is dominated by manufacturing sectors to other countries, totalling 11.7 billion m3/year. Both virtual water import and real water transfer from South to North Water Diversion Project are important water supplements for the region. The results of this study provide useful scientific references for the establishment of combating strategies to deal with the water scarcity in the future.

  3. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. PMID:26933676

  4. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  5. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    sub-Saharan Africa mainly suffers from water shortage. We used WaterGAP model to simulate the water use and available water resources. WaterGAP was forced with WATCH data. For the past population, we used HYDE dataset. The water scarcity results are plotted in Falkenmark's water scarcity matrix, which combines water stress and water shortage, to illustrate trajectories of how water scarcity develops for different regions. Insights into these trajectories can help to understand possible measures to alleviate water scarcity for different regions and support macro-scale analysis and planning to tackle with the future challenges in terms of water scarcity.

  6. Water access, water scarcity, and climate change.

    PubMed

    Mukheibir, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  7. Perceptions of water scarcity: The case of Genadendal and outstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noemdoe, S.; Jonker, L.; Swatuk, L. A.

    The water resources management regime has shifted from one focusing almost exclusively on augmenting supply to one where ensuring access, equity and sustainability are an integral part of process. It is widely recognized that South Africa will face water scarcity in the near future. But ‘scarcity’, as we show in our case study, is a relative concept. This paper interrogates perceptions of scarcity in the small South African rural community of Greater Genadendal. Using a wide variety of data, we explore the intersection between poverty alleviation and adequate water supply. The results show that notwithstanding sufficient water being available, the community experiences what Mehta [Mehta, L., 2001. The manufacture of popular perceptions of scarcity: dams and water-related narratives in Gujarat, India. World Development 29 (12), 2025-2041] calls ‘manufactured scarcity’. This is due to inadequate infrastructure, institutional incapacity and a history of political inequality. In the case of Greater Genadendal, these forms of scarcity are present simultaneously leading to a very complex situation. Overcoming these types of scarcity, however, require more than just new infrastructure. They require socio-economic and socio-political types of intervention that target the bases for manufactured scarcity: abiding poverty and socio-inequality. However, there appears to be a lack of social capital, in particular the trust that would enable government and local people to work together for improved livelihoods and sustainable water supplies. Joint resource rehabilitation activities may be one way of building social capital and moving toward IWRM in the study area.

  8. Dealing with uncertainty in water scarcity footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001-2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.

  9. Water Scarcity: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    www.csl.army.mil/usacsl/ publications/IP_14_09_FoodSecurity.pdf Bernstein, Lenny, et al. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Geneva...Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2007. 73pp. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/ contents.html Bowser, Steven J. The Jordan...Security Implications of Climate Change . Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008. 237pp. (QC981.8 .C5C43 2008) Castro, Jose Esteban. Water

  10. Transgenic crops coping with water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Cominelli, Eleonora; Tonelli, Chiara

    2010-11-30

    Water scarcity is a serious problem that will be exacerbated by global climate change. Massive quantities of water are used in agriculture, and abiotic stresses, especially drought and increased salinity, are primary causes of crop loss worldwide. Various approaches may be adopted to consume less water in agriculture, one of them being the development of plants that use less water yet maintain high yields in conditions of water scarcity. In recent years several molecular networks concerned with stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated. Consequently, engineering some of the genes involved in these mechanisms promises to enhance plant tolerance to stresses and in particular increase their water use efficiency. Here we review the various approaches used so far to produce transgenic plants having improved tolerance to abiotic stresses, and discuss criteria for choosing which genes to work on (functional and regulatory genes) and which gene expression promoters (constitutive, inducible, and cell-specific) have been used to obtain successful results.

  11. Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    Research scientists claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. While this indicates higher living standards, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently. Dr. Sandra Postel directs the independent Global Water Policy Project, as well as the Center for the Environment at Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called "water-stressed" countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The United Nations declared the years 2005 - 2015 as the "Water for Life" decade. It is also interesting and important to observe that the Oil - Rich Middle - East suffers from water scarcity to the maximum extent. It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. In excess of 10,000 desalination plants operate around the world in more than a hundred countries, but such a process is expensive and may seem prohibitive for developing countries with limited resources. Farmers can cut water usage by adopting the method known as drip irrigation which is known to be highly efficient. Drip Irrigation was pioneered by Israel and the Israeli farmers documented their efficiency by reducing the water used for irrigation by more than 30 percent. Unfortunately the rest of the world has failed to follow the lead set by this Great Jewish Nation. Worldwide, hardly 1percent of irrigated land utilizes efficient drip irrigation techniques. The problem lies in the fact that water is considered to be a free

  12. Where the water is: Mapping global drivers of water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Water scarcity, and its implications for human and ecosystem wellbeing, is well documented. To mitigate activities that exacerbate water scarcity, and to adapt to scarcity when it is unavoidable, we must understand the drivers of water scarcity. Based on data from the new WaterGAP3 model, we analyze patterns of water stress and water use in watersheds globally. Our data include information on multi-sectoral water withdrawal and consumption as well as irrigation data for individual crops. We assess monthly water use and availability as well as annual trends. Of 11,050 basins, about 2.5% are over-extended, with higher levels of water consumption than available water. In most of these basins, irrigated agriculture dominates water withdrawals. In the majority of basins (92%), less than 20% of available water is consumed by human activity. This leaves just 5.5% of basins potentially stressed; they may not be experiencing water limitation at present, but they are highly susceptible. We consider both water availability (supply) and water withdrawals and consumption (demand) as drivers of water stress, finding that over-extended basins are both dry, with about one fifth of the water availability of the lowest stress basins, and heavy water consumers, with more than double the water consumption of moderate-stress basins. Identifying basins likely to experience water stress, and strategies and characteristics of those that are not, will help put all basins on a path toward water sustainability.

  13. Water scarcity: moving beyond indexes to innovative institutions.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, W Todd

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a media darling often times described as a trigger of conflict in arid regions, a by-product of human influences ranging from desertification to climate change, or a combination of natural- and human-induced changes in the water cycle. A multitude of indexes have been developed over the past 20 years to define water scarcity to map the "problem" and guide international donor investment. Few indexes include groundwater within the metrics of "scarcity." Institutional communication contributes to the recognition of local or regional water scarcity. However, evaluations that neglect groundwater resources may incorrectly define conditions as scarce. In cases where there is a perception of scarcity, the incorporation of groundwater and related storage in aquifers, political willpower, new policy tools, and niche diplomacy often results in a revised status, either reducing or even eliminating the moniker locally. Imaginative conceptualization and innovative uses of aquifers are increasingly used to overcome water scarcity.

  14. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiwak, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  15. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    of financial losses experienced by such entities as water utilities, hydropower producers and inland shipping firms as a result of water scarcity, all of which suggest a growing role for financial instruments in managing environmental risk.

  16. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  17. Using probabilistic methods in water scarcity assessments: A first step towards a water scarcity risk assessment framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Globally, water scarcity and its societal consequences is recognized as one of the most important global risks for the present and the near future, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Governments and institutions managing water resources have to adapt constantly to regional water scarcity conditions, which are driven by climate change, climate variability, and changing socioeconomic conditions. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of inter-annual climate variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined impact on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. To address this issue, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity conditions for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios. Using probabilistic methods not only enables us to integrate and evaluate the interactions between the different driving forces of water scarcity, and their influence on current and future water scarcity conditions. It also provides insights in the severity, distribution and impacts (population/GDP exposed) of low probability water scarcity events, events that are not easily studied in the conventional time-series analysis. Within this contribution we present the first insights of our study and discuss the opportunities and added value of a water scarcity risk assessment framework for water managers when evaluating adaptation strategies coping with water resources scarcity. We carried out this assessment through the following steps: (1) Calculated yearly water availability (0.5° x 0.5°) over the period 1971-2099 using daily discharge and run-off fields from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, forced with different

  18. Using Probabilistic Methods in Water Scarcity Assessments: A First Step Towards a Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity -driven by climate change, climate variability, and socioeconomic developments- is recognized as one of the most important global risks, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined effect on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. Therefore, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity risks for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios.

  19. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20(th) century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  20. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  1. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  2. The measurement of water scarcity: Defining a meaningful indicator.

    PubMed

    Damkjaer, Simon; Taylor, Richard

    2017-03-15

    Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful. We argue that measurement of water scarcity (1) be redefined physically in terms of the freshwater storage required to address imbalances in intra- and inter-annual fluxes of freshwater supply and demand; (2) abandons subjective quantifications of human environments and (3) be used to inform participatory decision-making processes that explore a wide range of options for addressing freshwater storage requirements beyond dams that include use of renewable groundwater, soil water and trading in virtual water. Further, we outline a conceptual framework redefining water scarcity in terms of freshwater storage.

  3. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  4. Assessment of global water security: moving beyond water scarcity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Gain, A. K.; Giupponi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies, and the ecosystems on which we depend. Many international river basins are likely to experience 'low water security' over the coming decades. Hence, ensuring water security along with energy and food securities has been recognised as priority goals in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations. This water security is not rooted only in the limitation of physical resources, i.e. the shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. flawed water planning and management approaches, institutional incapability to provide water services, unsustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for assessment of global water scarcity. However, integrating both physical and socio-economic indicators assessment of water security at global level is not available yet. In this study, we present the first global understanding of water security using a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework that goes beyond available water scarcity assessment. For assessing water security at global scale, the term 'security' is conceptualized as a function of 'availability', 'accessibility to services', 'safety and quality', and 'management'. The Water security index is calculated by aggregating the indicators using both simple additive weighting (SAW) and ordered weighted average (OWA).

  5. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual

  6. Wind Power Answer In Times of Water Scarcity (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Reategui, S.

    2010-05-25

    Strategic energy planning is paramount during times of dramatic population growth, global warming, increasing energy demands, and concerns over energy security, food security, and economic development. Recent concerns over water scarcity have moved the energy-water issue to the forefront of energy options discussions. This presentation describes the current water challenges in the United States and presents a case for wind energy as one way to mitigate the problem of water scarcity in several U.S. regions while providing a clean and sustainable economic future for America.

  7. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  8. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  9. Regional water scarcity -- a widely neglected challenge.

    PubMed

    Falkenmark, M

    1993-01-01

    Most of the world's population growth is taking place in developing countries. Thus, it is important to address the problem of meeting the subsequent growing demand for food. Fresh water and food are required for sustaining human life. To produce food requires considerable amounts of water. Water-scarce countries have 5 obstacles: period wet and dry seasons, most of the year is dry, recurrent droughts, erodible or impenetrable soils resulting in desiccation, and low recharge of aquifers and rivers. These conditions hinder their ability to become self-reliant in food production. Developing countries need to adopt an approach to water supply problems of finding how much water moves in and out of the ground and of the atmosphere and then determine how to best benefit from it, specifically an integrated approach to land and water. Decision makers must consider that forestry and land use practices affect the runoff of water. For example, tree growth and crop production consume rainwater, including returning water to the atmosphere via photosynthesis, leaving less water to recharge aquifers and rivers. Water takes on soluble pollutants as it moves through the environment and the atmosphere. Water storage is needed in arid areas, but construction of dams and reservoirs stirs conflict between human rights of local people adversely affected by construction and those of the people in drought-prone areas who would benefit from this construction. Population growth in urban areas requires bringing more water from ever more distant sources, reducing the amount needed for irrigation. For example, Coimbatore district in India is diverting irrigation water from the Bhavani River system to support industrial growth, Further, the untreated waste of growing urban populations jeopardizes the groundwater and rivers. Inadequate rural development is fueling the population explosion in urban areas. Countries need to take actions to improve rural living conditions, such as job creation and

  10. Drivers And Uncertainties Of Increasing Global Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity threatens ecosystems and human health and hampers economic development. It generally depends on the ratio of water consumption to availability. We calculated global, spatially explicit water stress indices (WSIs) which describe the vulnerability to additional water consumption on a scale from 0 (low) to 1 (high) and compare them for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Input data are obtained from a multi-model ensemble at a resolution of 0.5 degrees. The variability among the models was used to run 1000 Monte Carlo simulations (latin hypercube sampling) and to subsequently estimate uncertainties of the WSIs. Globally, a trend of increasing water scarcity can be observed, however, uncertainties are large. The probability that this trend is actually occurring is as low as 53%. The increase in WSIs is rather driven by higher water use than lower water availability. Water availability is only 40% likely to decrease whereas water consumption is 67% likely to increase. Independent from the trend, we are already living under water scarce conditions, which is reflected in a consumption-weighted average of monthly WSIs of 0.51 in the recent decade. Its coefficient of variation points with 0.8 to the high uncertainties entailed, which might still hide poor model performance where all models consistently over- or underestimate water availability or use. Especially in arid areas, models generally overestimate availability. Although we do not traverse the planetary boundary of freshwater use as global water availability is sufficient, local water scarcity might be high. Therefore the regionalized assessment of WSIs under uncertainty helps to focus on specific regions to optimise water consumption. These global results can also help to raise awareness of water scarcity, and to suggest relevant measures such as more water efficient technologies to international companies, which have to deal with complex and distributed supply chains (e.g. in food production).

  11. Reflections on food security under water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elías; Orgaz, Francisco; Gonzalez-Dugo, Victoria

    2011-08-01

    Forecasts on population growth and economic development indicate that there will be substantial increases in food demand for the forthcoming decades. We focus here on the water requirements of food production, on the issue of whether there would be enough water to produce sufficient food in the future, and we offer options to face this challenge based on recent trends observed in some agricultural systems. Given the competition for water faced by the agricultural sector, and the uncertainties associated with climate change, improving the efficiency of water use in both rain-fed and irrigated systems is the main avenue to face the challenge. In rain-fed agriculture, managing the risk associated with rainfall variability is a promising option to increase productivity. In irrigated systems, a case study on the improvements in water productivity in Andalusia, Spain, is used to illustrate some of the opportunities to make progress. Progress in reducing irrigation water use in recent decades has been substantial, but decreasing the consumptive use of crops is a much more difficult challenge. The need for more research and technology transfer on improving water-limited crop production is highlighted, and emphasis is placed on interdisciplinary approaches to gain the insight needed to achieve new breakthroughs that would help in tackling this complex problem.

  12. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-08-01

    Ancient civilizations may have dispersed or collapsed under extreme dry conditions. There are indications that the same may hold for modern societies. However, hydroclimatic change cannot be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water-scarce regions. This paper focuses on technological change as a factor that may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. We study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, and model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on many factors intrinsic to coupled human-water dynamics. We do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but assume that it results from societal actions. While the proposed model is a rather simple model of a coupled human-water system, it is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity, but typically it does so only to a certain extent. In general we find that endogenous technology change under increasing water scarcity helps to delay the peak of population size before it inevitably starts to decline. We also analyze the case when water remains constant over time and find that co-evolutionary trajectories can never grow at a constant rate; rather the rate itself grows with time. Thus our model does not predict a co-evolutionary trajectory of a socio-hydrological system where technological innovation harmoniously provides for a growing population. It allows either for an explosion or an eventual dispersal of population. The latter occurs only under increasing water scarcity. As a result, we draw the conclusion that declining consumption per capita despite technological advancement and increase in aggregate production may serve as a useful predictor of upcoming

  13. Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Chapagain, Ashok K; Mathews, Ruth E; Richter, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996-2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity--as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins--can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption.

  14. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

    2013-06-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs) to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency). We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year) while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years). Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management). For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

  15. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses an advanced CGE model (Taheripour et al., 2013) coupled with hydrological projections of future water scarcity and biophysical data on likely crop yields under climate change to examine how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. Climate shocks to rainfed and irrigated yields in 2030 are based on the p-DSSAT crop model, RCP 2.6, as reported under the AgMIP project (Rosenzweig et al., 2013), accessed through GEOSHARE (Villoria et al, 2014). Results show that, when water scarcity is ignored, irrigated areas grow in the wake of climate change as the returns to irrigation rise faster than for rainfed uses of land within a given agro-ecological zone. When non-agricultural competition for future water use, as well as anticipated supply side limitations are brought into play (Rosegrant et al., 2013), the opportunity cost of water rises across all river basins, with the increase ranging from 12% (Luni) to 44% (Brahmaputra). As a consequence, irrigated crop production is curtailed in most regions (Figure 1), with the largest reductions coming in the most water intensive crops, namely rice and wheat. By reducing irrigated area, which tends to have much higher yields, the combined effects of water scarcity and climate impacts require an increase in total cropped area, which rises by about 240,000 ha. The majority of this area expansion occurs in the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmari river basins. Overall crop output falls by about 2 billion, relative to the 2030 baseline, with imports rising by about 570 million. The combined effects of climate change and water scarcity for irrigation also have macro-economic consequences, resulting in a 0.28% reduction in GDP and an increase in the consumer price index by about 0.4% in 2030, compared the baseline. The national welfare impact on India amounts to roughly 3 billion (at 2007 prices) in 2030. Assuming a 3% social discount rate, the net present value of the

  16. Multimodel assessment of water scarcity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Schewe, Jacob; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Arnell, Nigel W; Clark, Douglas B; Dankers, Rutger; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs M; Colón-González, Felipe J; Gosling, Simon N; Kim, Hyungjun; Liu, Xingcai; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Portmann, Felix T; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik; Albrecht, Torsten; Frieler, Katja; Piontek, Franziska; Warszawski, Lila; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-03-04

    Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models and the latest greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources. We show that climate change is likely to exacerbate regional and global water scarcity considerably. In particular, the ensemble average projects that a global warming of 2 °C above present (approximately 2.7 °C above preindustrial) will confront an additional approximate 15% of the global population with a severe decrease in water resources and will increase the number of people living under absolute water scarcity (<500 m(3) per capita per year) by another 40% (according to some models, more than 100%) compared with the effect of population growth alone. For some indicators of moderate impacts, the steepest increase is seen between the present day and 2 °C, whereas indicators of very severe impacts increase unabated beyond 2 °C. At the same time, the study highlights large uncertainties associated with these estimates, with both global climate models and GHMs contributing to the spread. GHM uncertainty is particularly dominant in many regions affected by declining water resources, suggesting a high potential for improved water resource projections through hydrological model development.

  17. Multimodel assessment of water scarcity under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Schewe, Jacob; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Arnell, Nigel W.; Clark, Douglas B.; Dankers, Rutger; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs M.; Colón-González, Felipe J.; Gosling, Simon N.; Kim, Hyungjun; Liu, Xingcai; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Portmann, Felix T.; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik; Albrecht, Torsten; Frieler, Katja; Piontek, Franziska; Warszawski, Lila; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models and the latest greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources. We show that climate change is likely to exacerbate regional and global water scarcity considerably. In particular, the ensemble average projects that a global warming of 2 °C above present (approximately 2.7 °C above preindustrial) will confront an additional approximate 15% of the global population with a severe decrease in water resources and will increase the number of people living under absolute water scarcity (<500 m3 per capita per year) by another 40% (according to some models, more than 100%) compared with the effect of population growth alone. For some indicators of moderate impacts, the steepest increase is seen between the present day and 2 °C, whereas indicators of very severe impacts increase unabated beyond 2 °C. At the same time, the study highlights large uncertainties associated with these estimates, with both global climate models and GHMs contributing to the spread. GHM uncertainty is particularly dominant in many regions affected by declining water resources, suggesting a high potential for improved water resource projections through hydrological model development. PMID:24344289

  18. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-11-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  19. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Ertsen, Maurits; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-05-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  20. Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity

  1. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2013-07-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water abstraction and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Abstraction to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water abstraction from a river divided by the daily consumption-based potential water demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071-2100 the population living under severely water-stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588-2793 × 106 (39-42% of total population), 3966-4298 × 106 (46-50%), 5334-5643 × 106 (52-55%), 3427-3786 × 106 (40-45%), 3164-3379 × 106 (46-49%) respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate) global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present-day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic activity in developing

  2. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water withdrawal and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Withdrawal to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from a river over the potential daily water consumption demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071-2100 the population living under severely water stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588-2793 × 106 (39-42% of total population), 3966-4298 × 106 (46-50%), 5334-5643 × 106 (52-55%), 3427-3786 × 106 (40-45%), 3164-3379 × 106 (46-49%), respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate) global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic activity in developing countries, and

  3. Growing sensitivity of maize to water scarcity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingfeng; Chen, Xinping; Lobell, David B; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Haishun; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-25

    Climate change can reduce crop yields and thereby threaten food security. The current measures used to adapt to climate change involve avoiding crops yield decrease, however, the limitations of such measures due to water and other resources scarcity have not been well understood. Here, we quantify how the sensitivity of maize to water availability has increased because of the shift toward longer-maturing varieties during last three decades in the Chinese Maize Belt (CMB). We report that modern, longer-maturing varieties have extended the growing period by an average of 8 days and have significantly offset the negative impacts of climate change on yield. However, the sensitivity of maize production to water has increased: maize yield across the CMB was 5% lower with rainfed than with irrigated maize in the 1980s and was 10% lower (and even >20% lower in some areas) in the 2000s because of both warming and the increased requirement for water by the longer-maturing varieties. Of the maize area in China, 40% now fails to receive the precipitation required to attain the full yield potential. Opportunities for water saving in maize systems exist, but water scarcity in China remains a serious problem.

  4. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many ancient civilizations such as the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions. Even contemporary societies such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin, Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Skeptics of hydroclimatic determinism have often cautioned against the use of hydroclimatic change as the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions by suggesting that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity. We here develop a simple overlapping generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. It models technological change not as an exogenous random sequence of events but as an endogenous process (as is widely accepted in contemporary literature) that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the endogenous diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, individuals' patience in terms of its present consumption versus future consumption, the production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of these factors. The population growth rate is modeled to decline once consumption per capita crosses a ';survival' threshold. The model demonstrates that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but only to a certain extent in many cases. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water society, leading to an exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require that the rate of success of investment in technological advancement is high. In other more realistic cases of technological success, we find that endogenous technology change has an effect delaying the peak of population before it starts to decline. While the model is a rather simple model of societal growth, it is capable of replicating (not to scale) patterns of technological

  5. Multi-model assessment of water scarcity under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, J.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Haddeland, I.; Arnell, N. W.; Clark, D. B.; Dankers, R.; Eisner, S.; Fekete, B. M.; Colon-Gonzalez, F. J.; Gosling, S. N.; KIM, H.; Liu, X.; Masaki, Y.; Portmann, F. T.; Satoh, Y.; Stacke, T.; Tang, Q.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; albrecht, T.; Frieler, K.; Piontek, F.; Warszawski, L.; Kabat, P.

    2013-12-01

    Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. In the framework of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models (GCMs) and the latest greenhouse--gas concentration scenarios (RCPs) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources. We show that climate change is likely to exacerbate regional and global water scarcity considerably. In particular, the ensemble average projects that up to a global warming of 2°C above present (approx. 2.7°C above pre--industrial), each additional degree of warming will confront an additional approx. 7% of the global population with a severe decrease in water resources; and that climate change will increase the number of people living under absolute water scarcity (<500m3/capita/year) by another 40% (according to some models, more than 100%) compared to the effect of population growth alone. For some indicators of moderate impacts, the steepest increase is seen between present--day and 2°C, while indicators of very severe impacts increase unabated beyond 2°C. At the same time, the study highlights large uncertainties associated with these estimates, with both GCMs and GHMs contributing to the spread. GHM uncertainty is particularly dominant in many regions affected by declining water resources, suggesting a high potential for improved water resource projections through hydrological model development. Relative change in annual discharge at 2°C compared to present-day, under RCP8.5, from an ensemble of 11 global hydrological models (GHMs) driven by five

  6. Future hydrological drought in the context of water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Wanders, Niko

    2013-04-01

    Observations show that droughts and water scarcity have increased over the last decades in Europe. In particular summer low flows show downward trends in vast areas (only in Scandinavia wetting trends occur). The lower water availability and the enhanced water demands led to growing water scarcity and increasing challenges for water management to assess future water resources and to develop a pro-active approach. A key element in the assessment is how drought will develop, i.e. will drought become more severe (frequency, intensity, spatial scale, location). Hydrological drought (groundwater and streamflow) development is the most relevant among drought types for water resources assessment. This study presents the likely change of hydrological droughts characteristics in the 21st century as a result of climate change across the world. Magnitude and directionality of these changes and their dependency on climatology and catchment characteristics, is largely unknown. A conceptual hydrological model was forced with downscaled and bias-corrected outcome from three General Circulation Models (GCM forced models), A2 emission scenario The same hydrological model was also forced with the WATCH Forcing re-analysis dataset (reference model). The variable threshold level method was applied to identify hydrological drought occurrence, duration and severity in time series of simulated discharge. Results for the control period (1971-2000) show that the drought characteristics of the GCM forced models reasonably agree with the reference model implying that the climate models produce realistic outcome for global drought analyses. For the near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) the GCM forced models project a global average decrease in drought occurrence (67-74% end of 21st century), indicating that the number of drought days per year will become lower. However, all three GCM forced models project a substantial increase of both average drought duration (43-57%) and

  7. MARSOL: Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demonstration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.

  8. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  9. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  10. Behavioural modelling of irrigation decision making under water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Providing effective policy solutions to aquifer depletion caused by abstraction for irrigation is a key challenge for socio-hydrology. However, most crop production functions used in hydrological models do not capture the intraseasonal nature of irrigation planning, or the importance of well yield in land and water use decisions. Here we develop a method for determining stochastic intraseasonal water use that is based on observed farmer behaviour but is also theoretically consistent with dynamically optimal decision making. We use the model to (i) analyse the joint land and water use decision by farmers; (ii) to assess changes in behaviour and production risk in response to water scarcity; and (iii) to understand the limits of applicability of current methods in policy design. We develop a biophysical model of water-limited crop yield building on the AquaCrop model. The model is calibrated and applied to case studies of irrigated corn production in Nebraska and Texas. We run the model iteratively, using long-term climate records, to define two formulations of the crop-water production function: (i) the aggregate relationship between total seasonal irrigation and yield (typical of current approaches); and (ii) the stochastic response of yield and total seasonal irrigation to the choice of an intraseasonal soil moisture target and irrigated area. Irrigated area (the extensive margin decision) and per-area irrigation intensity (the intensive margin decision) are then calculated for different seasonal water restrictions (corresponding to regulatory policies) and well yield constraints on intraseasonal abstraction rates (corresponding to aquifer system limits). Profit- and utility-maximising decisions are determined assuming risk neutrality and varying degrees of risk aversion, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the formulation of the production function has a significant impact on the response to water scarcity. For low well yields, which are the major concern

  11. Environmental and human impacts on Bangalore's regional water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arkavathy River Basin adjacent to Bangalore, India, faces a multitude of challenges driven by water demands from urbanization and intensification of agriculture. In the Arkavathy Basin, the two major reservoirs that historically supplied water to Bangalore now receive little to no inflow. Recent research has resulted in multiple plausible hypotheses attributing streamflow reductions in the Arkavathy to (1) increased evapotranspiration due to a boom in eucalyptus plantations and irrigated agriculture, and (2) increased deep drainage from surface soils due to long-term, excessive groundwater extraction. Current knowledge of Bangalore's water scarcity is largely based on anecdotal evidence and the sparse environmental data for this region is insufficient to definitively test these hypotheses. To bridge the gap between provincial and academic knowledge and better understand the nature of regional water resource depletion, we utilize a range of methods to integrate information across spatial and temporal scales. We use the full history of Landsat satellite imagery to approximate post-monsoon water storage in tanks and construct a spatially-explicit, historical record of surface water. We combine stable isotope mixing models, traditional field methods, and kite photography to build a deeper understanding of rainfall-runoff processes. Remote-sensing results confirm reductions of surface water in many of the tanks in the upper reaches of the watershed. We also observe an increase in surface water availability downstream of Bangalore, where imported water results in large waste flows. Field methods reveal considerable contributions of Hortonian overland flow due to soils with low hydraulic conductivity, mitigating changes in the subsurface water balance. We conclude that surface water availability is strongly related to spatial patterns of urban and agricultural water demand overlaid on a template defined by topography, soil, and climate.

  12. Towards a global water scarcity risk assessment framework: using scenarios and risk distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have led to increased water scarcity problems. A large number of studies have shown that these water scarcity conditions will worsen in the near future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based assessments of water scarcity, a framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist at the global scale. This study provides a first step towards such a risk-based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change projections and socioeconomic scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk increases given all future scenarios, up to >56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity in terms of Expected Annual Exposed Population, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels. Covering hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, risk-based methods are well-suited to assess water scarcity adaptation. Completing the presented risk framework therefore offers water managers a promising perspective to increase water security in a well-informed and adaptive manner.

  13. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  14. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J. F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2015-11-01

    Research on water scarcity has mainly focussed on blue water (ground- and surface water), but green water (soil moisture returning to the atmosphere through evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing lands, forestry and terrestrial ecosystems are all sustained by green water. The implicit distribution or explicit allocation of limited green water resources over competitive demands determines which economic and environmental goods and services will be produced and may affect food security and nature conservation. We need to better understand green water scarcity to be able to measure, model, predict and handle it. This paper reviews and classifies around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity, and discusses the way forward to develop operational green water scarcity indicators that can broaden the scope of water scarcity assessments.

  15. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J. F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Research on water scarcity has mainly focused on blue water (surface- and groundwater), but green water (soil moisture directly returning to the atmosphere as evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing lands, forestry and terrestrial ecosystems are all sustained by green water. The implicit distribution or explicit allocation of limited green water resources over competitive demands determines which economic and environmental goods and services will be produced and may affect food security and nature conservation. We need to better understand green water scarcity to be able to measure, model, predict and handle it. This paper reviews and classifies around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity and discusses the way forward to develop operational green water scarcity indicators that can broaden the scope of water scarcity assessments.

  16. A generic hydroeconomic model to assess future water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    the maximization of water benefits, over time and space. A parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach is used. This gives a projection of future water scarcity in the different locations and an estimation of the associated direct economic losses from unsatisfied demands. This generic hydroeconomic model can be easily applied to large-scale regions, in particular developing regions where little reliable data is available. We will present an application to Algeria, up to the 2050 horizon.

  17. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  18. Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security.

    PubMed

    Falkenmark, Malin

    2013-11-13

    As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems.

  19. Sensitivity of Water Scarcity Events to ENSO-Driven Climate Variability at the Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Eisner, S.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consumptive water use and, in some regions, climate change. Although it is well-known that El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects patterns of precipitation and drought at global and regional scales, little attention has yet been paid to the impacts of climate variability on water scarcity conditions, despite its importance for adaptation planning. Therefore, we present the first global-scale sensitivity assessment of water scarcity to ENSO, the most dominant signal of climate variability. We show that over the time period 1961-2010, both water availability and water scarcity conditions are significantly correlated with ENSO-driven climate variability over a large proportion of the global land area (> 28.1 %); an area inhabited by more than 31.4% of the global population. We also found, however, that climate variability alone is often not enough to trigger the actual incidence of water scarcity events. The sensitivity of a region to water scarcity events, expressed in terms of land area or population exposed, is determined by both hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Currently, the population actually impacted by water scarcity events consists of 39.6% (CTA: consumption-to-availability ratio) and 41.1% (WCI: water crowding index) of the global population, whilst only 11.4% (CTA) and 15.9% (WCI) of the global population is at the same time living in areas sensitive to ENSO-driven climate variability. These results are contrasted, however, by differences in growth rates found under changing socioeconomic conditions, which are relatively high in regions exposed to water scarcity events. Given the correlations found between ENSO and water availability and scarcity

  20. The impact of water scarcity on environmental health in selected residential areas in Bulawayo City, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyemba, Anesu; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Masango, Sijabuliso; Musasiwa, Simon

    This paper assesses the extent of water scarcity at household level and the resultant environmental health impacts in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe’s second largest city. The paper is based on two separate surveys that were undertaken in low and high income suburbs between June 2007 and January 2008. The first survey investigated the extent and impacts of water scarcity at household level. Data was collected by means of a household questionnaire, key informant interviews, review of clinic records and physical observation. The second survey assessed microbial levels in the main water sources and was complemented by examining water-related disease profiles. Water scarcity was found to be more severe in low income than in high income suburbs. This was a consequence of the city’s skewed water distribution policy which favoured the former and failure by residents of the latter to invest in safer water alternatives. Per capita water consumption in both suburbs was below internationally recommended levels. Microbial assessment indicated presence of coliforms in water obtained from the tap and alternative sources at levels above WHO and Zimbabwean standards. Water scarcity resulted in an increase in the incidence of water-related diseases and environmental contamination. The evidence suggests that water scarcity in Bulawayo represents a huge cost to residents and the environment.

  1. Water law as an adaptation strategy for global water scarcity in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Endo, T.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity due to climate changes and growing human population is a major concern for the world. Adaptation and mitigation strategies should be developed for water scarcity in the future. Previous studies assessed the future water availability by hard technology (e.g., reservoirs, reclaimed and desalinated water plants) as adaptation strategies. On the other hand, soft path such as water law and policy would also be important for adaptation strategies. Water transfers is reallocation of water among water users. For example, distribution of the amount of available water is often heterogeneous especially during drought periods. If water transfers are permitted in these areas, water can be moved from surplus areas/sections to critical need areas/sections. There are several studies which describe the water transfer at the local scales (i.e., water bank in California), however the factors that determined the establishment of water transfer are not clear. If we can detect the factors, it could be used to estimate in which areas the water transfer would come into existence. This in turn would reduce the water stress. Here, we focus on historical interaction between human activity and water environments. Generally, rules of water use are developed by repeated discussion among water users. The frequency of these discussions would be related with their land use, frequency of drought and water resource sizes. For example, people in rice crop area need to discuss about water allocation compared to wheat crop area. Therefore, we examine the relationship between the permission of water transfer and factors such as water environment and human activity in the world.

  2. A theoretical model of virtual water trade under increasing water scarcity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Lotte; Pande, Saket

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a virtual water trade model to obtain a better understanding of how hydro-climatic change affects societies through changes in virtual water trade. In previous studies it has been shown that global trade patterns can be influenced by water scarcity and vice-versa. The extent to which this relationship holds is still a topic under discussion. With the model introduced in this paper, the dynamics behind these trade patterns are further explored. First, a model is constructed of a society suffering from an increase in water scarcity. This model is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. In order to incorporate the effects of globalization and trade, the model has been extended to a toy model of virtual water trade between two societies. The two societies are represented by overlapping generations models. The individuals of each generation provide the labour needed for the production of the composite goods. In addition to this labour, water and technology are also incorporated as factors of production. There are two goods being produced; one is labour intensive and the other water intensive. Trade emerges from the principle of comparative advantage, with differences in labour-abundance and water resources availability between the two societies. Using this model of two societies interconnected by trade, it is examined how trade of water-intensive commodities alters under changing scarcity conditions. In particular we explore the conditions under which trade emerges, and to what extent. Furthermore, we present the conditions for the sustainable development within these two societies.

  3. Impacts on quality-induced water scarcity: drivers of nitrogen-related water pollution transfer under globalization from 1995 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liyang; Cai, Wenjia; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can

    2016-07-01

    Globalization enables the transfer of impacts on water availability. We argue that the threat should be evaluated not only by decrease of quantity, but more importantly by the degradation of water quality in exporting countries. Grouping the world into fourteen regions, this paper establishes a multi-region input-output framework to calculate the nitrogen-related grey water footprint and a water quality-induced scarcity index caused by pollution, for the period of 1995 to 2009. It is discovered that grey water embodied in international trade has been growing faster than total grey water footprint. China, the USA and India were the three top grey water exporters which accounted for more than half the total traded grey water. Dilemma rose when China and India were facing highest grey water scarcity. The EU and the USA were biggest grey water importers that alleviated their water stress by outsourcing water pollution. A structural decomposition analysis is conducted to study the drivers to the evolution of virtual flows of grey water under globalization during the period of 1995 to 2009. The results show that despite the technical progress that offset the growth of traded grey water, structural effects under globalization including both evolution in the globalized economic system and consumption structure, together with consumption volume made a positive contribution. It is found that the structural effect intensified the pollution-induced water scarcity of exporters as it generally increased all nations’ imported grey water while resulting in increases in only a few nations’ exported grey water, such as Brazil, China and Indonesia. At last, drawing from the ‘cap-and-trade’ and ‘boarder-tax-adjustment’ schemes, we propose policy recommendations that ensure water security and achieve environmentally sustainable trade from both the sides of production and consumption.

  4. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló Cullerés, Damià; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development in Europe; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens. Some stressors, such as water scarcity, can be a stressor on its own because of its structural character, and drive the effects of other stressors. The relevance of water scarcity as a stressor is more important in semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, which are characterized by highly variable river flows and the occurrence of low flows. This has resulted in increases in frequency and magnitude of extreme flow events. Furthermore, in other European regions such as eastern Germany, western Poland and England, water demand exceeds water availability and water scarcity has become an important management issue. Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management, with resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Within this context, GLOBAQUA has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, sociology, engineering and modeling in order to study the interaction of multiple stressors within the frame of strong pressure on water resources. The aim is to achieve a better understanding how current management practices and policies could be improved by identifying the main drawbacks and alternatives.

  5. Water Scarcity as a Catalyst for Instability in the Jordan River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    deforestation, overpopulation , pollution, and salinization have combined with severe drought to destroy many of the world’s oldest Water Scarcity as a... overpopulated and with inadequate food and water resources, may become a breeding ground for instability, leading to extremism and violence.104 The Middle

  6. Quantification of resilience to water scarcity, a dynamic measure in time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, S. P.; Arunkumar, R.

    2016-05-01

    There are practical links between water resources management, climate change adaptation and sustainable development leading to reduction of water scarcity risk and re-enforcing resilience as a new development paradigm. Water scarcity, due to the global change (population growth, land use change and climate change), is of serious concern since it can cause loss of human lives and serious damage to the economy of a region. Unfortunately, in many regions of the world, water scarcity is, and will be unavoidable in the near future. As the scarcity is increasing, at the same time it erodes resilience, therefore global change has a magnifying effect on water scarcity risk. In the past, standard water resources management planning considered arrangements for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and recovery, as well as response. However, over the last ten years substantial progress has been made in establishing the role of resilience in sustainable development. Dynamic resilience is considered as a novel measure that provides for better understanding of temporal and spatial dynamics of water scarcity. In this context, a water scarcity is seen as a disturbance in a complex physical-socio-economic system. Resilience is commonly used as a measure to assess the ability of a system to respond and recover from a failure. However, the time independent static resilience without consideration of variability in space does not provide sufficient insight into system's ability to respond and recover from the failure state and was mostly used as a damage avoidance measure. This paper provides an original systems framework for quantification of resilience. The framework is based on the definition of resilience as the ability of physical and socio-economic systems to absorb disturbance while still being able to continue functioning. The disturbance depends on spatial and temporal perspectives and direct interaction between impacts of disturbance (social, health, economic, and other) and

  7. The Value of Risk Pooling for Mitigating Water Utility Financial Risks Arising From Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R.; Characklis, G. W.; Hughes, J.; Eskaf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water utilities across the United States face growing supply risks as demand growth and extreme weather events make water scarcity more common. As it has become more difficult and expensive to build new supply capacity to accommodate these events, many utility managers respond by either imposing conservation measures, which reduces revenues, or acquiring additional water from other sources, which increases costs. These actions lead to changing financial trends that are difficult to predict and that utilities are currently ill-equipped to manage. As a result, adaptation strategies and tools are being developed to reduce utility vulnerabilities, ensuring both financial stability and continued access to low cost financing, a critical consideration for a capital intensive industry. Previous work in this area has involved the development of utility specific financial hedging tools. However, the time and informational requirements associated with developing these individualized strategies may be a limiting factor for widespread implementation. The objective of this research is to develop more generalized hedging instruments that can be applied simultaneously to multiple utilities across the United States, thereby increasing the potential for widespread implementation. This work first analyzes the financial risks of water scarcity for a large set of water utilities across the country and then proposes a financial hedging solution to mitigate these risks through hydrologic index-based financial insurance. Results provide insights into the most effective indices, the potential for risk pooling to reduce insurance costs, and the performance of these contracts in managing utility financial risk arising from drought.

  8. Population and water scarcity growing concern in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    When the Prime Minister of India opened the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Water Resources, held on December 20-21, 1997, he emphasized developing new technologies in waste management and educating the public about water conservation to avert a future water shortage. The conference was organized by the Indian Association of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (IAPPD) in association with the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD). More than 185 Indian and foreign parliamentarians from Asia and Africa attended the conference. The Secretary General of AFPPD asked legislators to work toward a balance among environment, safe drinking water, and population. He said that, unless population growth was planned, needed resources, such as water, would be unobtainable. Other participants stated that AFPPD had selected population and water resources as the main theme for 1997. This conference culminated the AFPPD campaign.

  9. Water scarcity, market-based incentives, and consumer response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, K.; Chermak, J. M.; Brookshire, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the future viability of many regions will depend in large part on how efficiently resources are utilized. A key factor to this success will be a thorough understanding of consumers and the characteristics that drive their water use. In this research test and find support for the hypothesis that residential water consumers are heterogeneous. We combine experimental and survey responses to test for statistically significant consumer characteristics that are observable factors of demand for water. Significant factors include "stage of life" (i.e., student versus workforce versus retired), as well as various social and cultural factors including age, ethnicity, political affiliation and religious affiliation. Identification of these characteristics allows us to econometrically estimate disaggregated water demand for a sample of urban water consumers in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The results provide unique parameter estimates for different consumer types. Using these results we design an incentive compatible, non-linear pricing program that allows individual consumers to choose a fixed fee/commodity charge from a menu that not only allows the individual to maximize his or her utility, while meeting the conservation goals of the program. We show that this program, with the attention to consumer differences is more efficient than the traditional "one size fits all" programs commonly employed by many water utilities.

  10. Assessment and management of water resources in Egypt to face drought and water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Wouter; El Guindy, Samia; Salah El Deen, Magdy; Roest, Koen; Smit, Robert; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Egypt is one of the countries hardest hit by global and climate change. Challenges include population growth; increased demands for food, water, and energy; as well as changing land use patterns and urbanization. Egypt's part of the Mediterranean is characterized by a very complex hydrological system, as it lacks rainfall (Cairo average 30 mm/year) and it is completely dependent on the Nile river flow. The growth of the Egyptian population and its economy in the near future leads to an increase in the demand for water and the overall water allocation priority basically is: first drinking water, then industry, and whatever is remaining will be available for agriculture and nature. Because the agricultural sector uses more than 80 per cent of available water, the main option available to reduce water scarcity in the priority sectors of the economy is to allocate less to the agriculture sector. Scientifically based advances in facing future drought and water scarcity through innovations increasing yields and food security by measures leading to "more crop per drop" are required. New and modern large- and medium-scale agriculture is being developed in desert areas with participation of the private sector for investments. To prepare the farming community and others elsewhere, for the future situation of water shortages, a paradigm shift is needed. New farming systems under tight water supply conditions are in development to prepare for a future with less water. Egyptian farming systems need a major transition to prevent further marginalization of agriculture, which would also have a major impact on food security. Central to this transition should be the increase of value generated per volume available water, also referred to as "more crop per drop" or "more cash per splash". There is room for the urgently required improvement: the present return on water in agriculture in Egypt is about US 0.25 /m3, where values of over US 1 /m3 are "easily" reached elsewhere. Moreover

  11. An indicators' based approach to Drought and Water Scarcity Risk Mapping in Pinios River Basin, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossida, Maggie; Mimikou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the vulnerability and the associated risk to water scarcity and drought is a complex multi-factor problem. The underlying exposure to climatic stresses may be similar even in quite different conditions, yet the vulnerability and prevailing risk are a function of the socio-economic state, the current policy and institutional setting, the adaptive capacity of the affected area and population, and the response strategies adopted (Kossida et al., 2012). Although flood risk assessment has been elaborated under the EU Floods Directive, there is currently a lack of analytical frameworks for the definition and assessment of drought and water scarcity related risk at European level. This can partially be attributed to the inherent complexity of such phenomena which lie at the crossroads between physical and anthropogenic drivers and pressures, operating on many scales, and with a variety of impacts on many sectors. The quantification of the various components of drought and water scarcity risk is challenging since data present limitations, relevant indicators that can represent or proxy the various components are still not clearly defined, while their relevant weights need to be determined in view of the prevailing regional conditions. The current study in Pinios River Basin, an area highly impacted by drought and water scarcity, proposes a methodology for drought and water scarcity risk assessment using blended indicators. Using the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) as a base drought indicator, relevant sub-indicators reflecting the magnitude, severity, duration and recurrence of drought events from 1980-2011 have been produced. These sub-indicators have been assigned relevant scores and have been blended into a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) using different weights derived from an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The resulting map of DVI has been then blended with additional socio-economic indicators of surface and groundwater exploitation, water deficit

  12. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Expert forecasts and the emergence of water scarcity on public agendas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graffy, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Expert forecasts of worldwide water scarcity depict conditions that call for proactive, preventive, coordinated water governance, but they have not been matched by public agendas of commensurate scope and urgency in the United States. This disconnect can not be adequately explained without some attention to attributes of forecasts themselves. I propose that the institutional fragmentation of water expertise and prevailing patterns of communication about water scarcity militate against the formulation of a common public definition of the problem and encourage reliance on unambiguous crises to stimulate social and policy agenda setting. I do not argue that expert forecasts should drive public agendas deterministically, but if their purpose is to help prevent water crises (not just predict them), then a greater effort is needed to overcome the barriers to meaningful public scrutiny of expert claims and evaluation of water strategies presently in place. Copyright ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Effects of water scarcity and chemical pollution in aquatic ecosystems: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Sánchez, Alba; Rico, Andreu; Vighi, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is an expanding climate and human related condition, which drives and interacts with other stressors in freshwater ecosystems such as chemical pollution. In this study we provide an overview of the existing knowledge regarding the chemical fate, biological dynamics and the ecological risks of chemicals under water scarcity conditions. We evaluated a total of 15 studies dealing with the combined effects of chemicals and water scarcity under laboratory conditions and in the field. The results of these studies have been elaborated in order to evaluate additive, synergistic or antagonistic responses of the studied endpoints. As a general rule, it can be concluded that, in situations of water scarcity, the impacts of extreme water fluctuations are much more relevant than those of an additional chemical stressor. Nevertheless, the presence of chemical pollution may result in exacerbated ecological risks in some particular cases. We conclude that further investigations on this topic would take advantage on the focus on some specific issues. Experimental (laboratory and model ecosystem) studies should be performed on different biota groups and life stages (diapausing eggs, immature stages), with particular attention to those including traits relevant for the adaptation to water scarcity. More knowledge on species adaptations and recovery capacity is essential to predict community responses to multiple stressors and to assess the community vulnerability. Field studies should be performed at different scales, particularly in lotic systems, in order to integrate different functional dynamics of the river ecosystem. Combining field monitoring and experimental studies would be the best option to reach more conclusive, causal relationships on the effects of co-occurring stressors. Contribution of these studies to develop ecological models and scenarios is also suggested as an improvement for the prospective aquatic risk assessment of chemicals in (semi-)arid areas.

  15. Vulnerability and adaptation to water scarcity in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoard, S.; McCallum, S.; Prutsch, A.; Benno Hain, B.; Schauser, I.

    2009-04-01

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) has recently undertaken a project addressing vulnerability and adaptation to water availability in the European Alps. Mountains are indeed one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in Europe (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007).The Alps, in particular, can be presented as the ‘water towers' of Europe (the amount of water delivered by the Alps allocates 40% of EU consumption) where changes in water availability affect all socio-economical sectors. This therefore makes adaptation actions a regional topic with an outstanding European dimension. The specific objectives of the study were to highlight the importance of the Alps in their function as ‘water towers' for Europe and analyse the vulnerability of the Alpine Region with regard to impacts of climate change (but also to global change as a whole) focussing on water availability. Given the EU and regional policy background with regard to adaptation and water issues, the study assessed the possible needs, constraints and opportunities for adaptation to the adverse impacts for various sectors pending on water resources. Findings of this activity expanded the knowledge base, fed into the preparation of European Commission's 2009 White Paper and the Alpine Convention 2009 Report on the State of the Alps, and complemented other recent studies (e.g. OECD 2007, European Parliament Committee on Agriculture & Rural Development 2008). The method used for the study relied on the one hand on findings from recent key publications on climate change impacts (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007) and EU research projects (e.g. ClimChAlp, ProClim); on the other side it was based on selected case studies chosen within the four climatic regions of the eight Alpine countries for which an extensive series of interviews with local and regional stakeholders and decision makers has been undertaken. The interviewees had been directly involved in designing and implementing water availability-related adaptation measures

  16. Definition of efficient scarcity-based water pricing policies through stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, H.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Tilmant, A.

    2015-09-01

    Finding ways to improve the efficiency in water usage is one of the most important challenges in integrated water resources management. One of the most promising solutions is the use of scarcity-based pricing policies. This contribution presents a procedure to design efficient pricing policies based on the opportunity cost of water at the basin scale. Time series of the marginal value of water are obtained using a stochastic hydro-economic model. Those series are then post-processed to define step pricing policies, which depend on the state of the system at each time step. The case study of the Mijares River basin system (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. The results show that the application of scarcity-based pricing policies increases the economic efficiency of water use in the basin, allocating water to the highest-value uses and generating an incentive for water conservation during the scarcity periods. The resulting benefits are close to those obtained with the economically optimal decisions.

  17. Definition of efficient scarcity-based water pricing policies through stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, H.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Tilmant, A.

    2015-01-01

    Finding ways to improve the efficiency in water usage is one of the most important challenges in integrated water resources management. One of the most promising solutions is the use of scarcity-based pricing policies. This contribution presents a procedure to design efficient pricing policies based on the opportunity cost of water at the basin scale. Time series of the marginal value of water are obtained using a stochastic hydro-economic model. Those series are then post-processed to define step pricing policies, which depend on the state of the system at each time step. The case study of the Mijares river basin system (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. The results show that the application of scarcity-based pricing policies increases the economic efficiency of water use in the basin, allocating water to the highest-value uses and generating an incentive for water conservation during the scarcity periods. The resulting benefits are close to those obtained with the economically optimal decisions.

  18. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA.

  19. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  20. The risk of water scarcity at different levels of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, Jacob; Sharpe, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity is a threat to human well-being and economic development in many countries today. Future climate change is expected to exacerbate the global water crisis by reducing renewable freshwater resources different world regions, many of which are already dry. Studies of future water scarcity often focus on most-likely, or highest-confidence, scenarios. However, multi-model projections of water resources reveal large uncertainty ranges, which are due to different types of processes (climate, hydrology, human) and are therefore not easy to reduce. Thus, central estimates or multi-model mean results may be insufficient to inform policy and management. Here we present an alternative, risk-based approach. We use an ensemble of multiple global climate and hydrological models to quantify the likelihood of crossing a given water scarcity threshold under different levels of global warming. This approach allows assessing the risk associated with any particular, pre-defined threshold (or magnitude of change that must be avoided), regardless of whether it lies in the center or in the tails of the uncertainty distribution. We show applications of this method on the country and river basin scale, illustrate the effects of societal processes on the resulting risk estimates, and discuss the further potential of this approach for research and stakeholder dialogue.

  1. Water Scarcity in the Northeast Corridor During the Nineteenth Century and its Correlation to Infrastructure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.; Adams, L. E.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Green, M. B.; Huang, M.; Wilson, J.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential component in the successful development and economic growth within a region. Throughout recorded history, civilizations have been modifying and controlling local environments in the pursuit of maximizing water benefits. These efforts include the creation of large waterworks to reduce the uncertainties caused by adverse climatic circumstances such as droughts or floodings as well as supporting local economies. In this study, we contend that the development of water infrastructure in the Northeastern Corridor of the United States was a direct result of the degree of water scarcity within that particular region. In order to test this hypothesis, we have applied various water scarcity metrics to local historical data for cities including Boston, Philadelphia, and New York in order to characterize interactions between water scarcity and water infrastructure development. These metrics are based upon the ratio of consumer water demand to water supply. Our preliminary results show that a correlation does exist. Additionally, we explore how the water footprint of these cities evolved through time and how they impacted the demand for water. We expect that technological advancement allowed the ‘water footprint’ to expand into the Midwest U.S. and eventually the entire globe, allowing the Eastern Seaboard megalopolis to thrive. The history and development of water related infrastructure in this region could serve as an example allowing us to understand the relationship between humans and hydrologic systems. We contend that sustainability lessons from the past can be applied to developing countries or developing urban areas with the expectation of minimizing or avoiding the variety of mistakes that occurred in already developed regions, thus reducing the negative effects on populations and the environment.

  2. Water scarcity in the Spanish part of the Douro basin: current status and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Vicente, David; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    In general in Europe only 5 % of renewable freshwater resources is abstracted each year however, water availability and populations are unevenly distributed. Except in some northern and sparsely-populated areas that possess abundant resources, water scarcity occurs in many areas of Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. It has been accentuated in the past decades by the increase of drought periods due to climate change. In this regard, the European Policy has addressed both drought (related to natural processes) and water scarcity (influenced by human activity) through several Directives and Communications. These have considered a common water stress indicators such as the Water Exploitation Index (WEI) and its upgraded version WEI+. They quantify the percentage of total freshwater used compared to the total renewable freshwater resources available. Their estimations help the stakeholders identify territories vulnerable to human activity pressure on water resources, and hence prone to suffer problems of water stress. The index WEI+ estimates better than WEI the actual balance between renewable water resources and water consumption, since it include the returns from water uses in its calculation. In addition, the European Community is still working on issues dealing with the temporal and spatial scaling and have suggested to adopt the river basin and monthly temporal resolution instead of the national scale and annual basis considered in the former documents. Within this context, this study assesses the water scarcity in the Spanish part of the Douro basin estimated by the WEI+ index. According to previous studies and depending on the specific period selected, this basin is near 'water stress'. In order to clarify this issue, the WEI+ index has been estimated. A detailed methodology for its calculation is presented which uses information from the water resources management model 'Aquatool' and its simulation module SIMGES which is widely applied in

  3. Towards a global water scarcity risk assessment framework: incorporation of probability distributions and hydro-climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increasingly put pressure on fresh water resources and are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions towards the future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based water scarcity assessments, a global-scale framework that includes UNISDR’s definition of risk does not yet exist. This study provides a first step towards such a risk-based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change and population growth scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk, expressed in terms of expected annual exposed population, increases given all future scenarios, up to >56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels.

  4. Towards a Global Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework: Incorporation of Probability Distributions and Hydro-Climatic Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increasingly put pressure on fresh water resources and are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions towards the future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based water scarcity assessments, a global-scale framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist. This study provides a first step towards such a risk based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change and population growth scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk, expressed in terms of expected annual exposed population, increases given all future scenarios, up to greater than 56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels.

  5. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production potential: a global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

    2014-02-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. Moreover, we assess some options to overcome chronic or sporadic water scarcity. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing data sets over the period 1977-2006, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In doing so, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of food production units (FPUs) to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3000 kcal cap-1 day-1, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere). We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water-scarce FPUs (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of the population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the

  6. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  7. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    PubMed

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  8. Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Amy C; Harhay, Michael O

    2010-06-30

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. APPROACH: Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. RESULTS: Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS: The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses.

  9. Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Amy C.; Harhay, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. Approach Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. Results Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). Conclusion/Recommendations The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses. PMID:21479150

  10. Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2014-05-01

    Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling

  11. AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL WATER RESOURCES BY USING A WATER SCARCITY INDEX CONSIDERING SEASONAL WATER VARIABILITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using a widely accepted index on an annual basis, namely, withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (WWR). Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating sub-annual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index on a daily basis termed the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (CWD) . Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 61% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high irrigation water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe, the change was attributed to the shift in the timing of snowmelt, which occurred a few months earlier than at present, causing water shortages in early summer.

  12. Living in utility scarcity: energy and water insecurity in Northwest Alaska.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Laura Palen

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the links between energy and water insecurity in rural Iñupiaq Eskimo villages in Alaska's Northwest Arctic Borough. High energy costs and the need for fuel-based transportation are 2 significant factors in domestic water access for these communities. Dramatic increases in the costs of energy have led to decreased domestic water access, with adverse effects on household hygiene practices. I traced the ways in which the high costs of energy determine water consumption from production to household acquisition and use. Improving sanitation and access to domestic water requires considering the water-energy nexus: the amount and cost of energy required to treat and distribute water as well as manage waste. I use the term utility scarcity to underscore the relationship between domestic water, energy, and health.

  13. Living in Utility Scarcity: Energy and Water Insecurity in Northwest Alaska

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the links between energy and water insecurity in rural Iñupiaq Eskimo villages in Alaska's Northwest Arctic Borough. High energy costs and the need for fuel-based transportation are 2 significant factors in domestic water access for these communities. Dramatic increases in the costs of energy have led to decreased domestic water access, with adverse effects on household hygiene practices. I traced the ways in which the high costs of energy determine water consumption from production to household acquisition and use. Improving sanitation and access to domestic water requires considering the water–energy nexus: the amount and cost of energy required to treat and distribute water as well as manage waste. I use the term utility scarcity to underscore the relationship between domestic water, energy, and health. PMID:20403886

  14. Definition of scarcity-based water pricing policies through hydro-economic stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest current issues in integrated water resources management is to find and apply efficient and flexible management policies. Efficient management is needed to deal with increased water scarcity and river basin closure. Flexible policies are required to handle the stochastic nature of the water cycle. Scarcity-based pricing policies are one of the most promising alternatives, which deal not only with the supply costs, but also consider the opportunity costs associated with the allocation of water. The opportunity cost of water, which varies dynamically with space and time according to the imbalances between supply and demand, can be assessed using hydro-economic models. This contribution presents a procedure to design a pricing policy based on hydro-economic modelling and on the assessment of the Marginal Resource Opportunity Cost (MROC). Firstly, MROC time series associated to the optimal operation of the system are derived from a stochastic hydro-economic model. Secondly, these MROC time series must be post-processed in order to combine the different space-and-time MROC values into a single generalized indicator of the marginal opportunity cost of water. Finally, step scarcity-based pricing policies are determined after establishing a relationship between the MROC and the corresponding state of the system at the beginning of the time period (month). The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIVth century) rights. A hydro-economic model of the system has been built using stochastic dynamic programming. A reoptimization procedure is then implemented using SDP-derived benefit-to-go functions and historical flows to produce the time series of MROC values. MROC values are then aggregated and a statistical analysis is carried out to define (i) pricing policies and (ii) the relationship between MROC and

  15. Reducing water scarcity possible by 2050: Linking global assessments to policy dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A.; Turetsky, M. R.; Benscoter, B.; Page, S. E.; Rein, G.; van der Werf, G.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is not a problem just for the developing world. In California, legislators are currently proposing a $7.5 billion emergency water plan to their voters; and U.S. federal officials last year warned residents of Arizona and Nevada that they could face cuts in Colorado River water deliveries in 2016. Irrigation techniques, industrial and residential habits combined with climate change lie at the root of the problem. But despite what appears to be an insurmountable problem, it is possible to turn the situation around and significantly reduce water scarcity in over next 35 years. We identify outline strategies in six key areas that they believe can be combined in different ways in different parts of the world in order to effectively reduce water stress. (Water stress occurs in an area where more than 40% of the available water from rivers is unavailable because it is already being used - a situation that currently affects about a third of the global population, and may affect as many as half the people in the world by the end of the century if the current pattern of water use continues). We separate six key strategy areas for reducing water stress into "hard path" measures, involving building more reservoirs and increasing desalination efforts of sea water, and "soft path" measures that focus on reducing water demand rather than increasing water supply thanks to community-scale efforts and decision-making, combining efficient technology and environmental protection. While there are some economic, cultural and social factors that may make certain of the "soft path" measures such as population control difficult, the "soft path" measures offer the more realistic path forward in terms of reducing water stress by 2050.

  16. Reducing water scarcity possible by 2050: Linking global assessments to policy dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Gleeson, T.; Esnault, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity is not a problem just for the developing world. In California, legislators are currently proposing a $7.5 billion emergency water plan to their voters; and U.S. federal officials last year warned residents of Arizona and Nevada that they could face cuts in Colorado River water deliveries in 2016. Irrigation techniques, industrial and residential habits combined with climate change lie at the root of the problem. But despite what appears to be an insurmountable problem, it is possible to turn the situation around and significantly reduce water scarcity in over next 35 years. We identify outline strategies in six key areas that they believe can be combined in different ways in different parts of the world in order to effectively reduce water stress. (Water stress occurs in an area where more than 40% of the available water from rivers is unavailable because it is already being used - a situation that currently affects about a third of the global population, and may affect as many as half the people in the world by the end of the century if the current pattern of water use continues). We separate six key strategy areas for reducing water stress into "hard path" measures, involving building more reservoirs and increasing desalination efforts of sea water, and "soft path" measures that focus on reducing water demand rather than increasing water supply thanks to community-scale efforts and decision-making, combining efficient technology and environmental protection. While there are some economic, cultural and social factors that may make certain of the "soft path" measures such as population control difficult, the "soft path" measures offer the more realistic path forward in terms of reducing water stress by 2050.

  17. Efficacy of adaptation measures to future water scarcity on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply sources for all sector are critically important for agricultural and industrial productivity. The current rapid increase in water use is considered unsustainable and threatens human life. In our previous study (Yoshikawa et al., 2014 in HESS), we estimated the time-varying dependence of water requirements from water supply sources during past and future periods using the global water resources model, H08. The sources of water requirements were specified using four categories: rivers, large reservoirs, medium-size reservoirs, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated ΔNNBW which is defined as an increase in NNBW from the past to the future. From the results, we could require the further development of water supply sources in order to sustain future water use. For coping with water scarcity using ΔNNBW, there is need for adaptation measure. To address adaptation measures, we need to set adaptation options which can be divided between 'Supply enhancement' and 'Demand management'. The supply enhancement includes increased storage, groundwater development, inter-basin transfer, desalination and re-use urban waste water. Demand management is defined as a set of actions controlling water demand by reducing water loss, increasing water productivity, and water re-allocation. In this study, we focus on estimating further future water demand under taking into account of several adaptation measures using H08 model.

  18. The combined water system as approach for tackling water scarcity in Permilovo groundwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The water scarcity accepts now global scales. The depletion of water resources is especially significant for the small stream basins where the water demand is higher than the low-water flow. The application of combined water use is one of the ways to solve this problem. The combined water system (CWS) is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone wells and compensation pumping wells, located inside a single stream basin. The pumping rate of a major well in a CWS is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow (stream flow required for maintenance water budget and for normal living of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems). The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The pumping rate of a compensation well (CW) is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. Short-term groundwater pumping allows the use of aquifer storage instead of stream flow until drawdowns of groundwater levels do reach the edge of the stream. Some hydrogeological problems exist in the determination of the best location for the compensation well: 1) The delayed stream depletion produced by the CW; 2) The draining of storage recovery due to natural processes or artificial recharge; 3) The delayed effects of CW pumping that cause stream flow depletion, which occurs after pumping during high water level periods. Three typical hydraulic cases of combined water systems were classified depending on their the relationship between surface water and groundwater: (a) perfect hydraulic connection between the stream and aquifer; (b) imperfect hydraulic connection between the stream and aquifer; and (c) essentially imperfect hydraulic connection between the stream and the underlying confined aquifer. The numerical model of Permilovo

  19. Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i

  20. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  1. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  2. Modeling water scarcity and droughts for policy adaptation to climate change in arid and semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Dinar, Ariel; Albiac, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Growing water extractions combined with emerging demands for environment protection increase competition for scarce water resources worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. In those regions, climate change is projected to exacerbate water scarcity and increase the recurrence and intensity of droughts. These circumstances call for methodologies that can support the design of sustainable water management. This paper presents a hydro-economic model that links a reduced form hydrological component, with economic and environmental components. The model is applied to an arid and semiarid basin in Southeastern Spain to analyze the effects of droughts and to assess alternative adaptation policies. Results indicate that drought events have large impacts on social welfare, with the main adjustments sustained by irrigation and the environment. The water market policy seems to be a suitable option to overcome the negative economic effects of droughts, although the environmental effects may weaken its advantages for society. The environmental water market policy, where water is acquired for the environment, is an appealing policy to reap the private benefits of markets while protecting ecosystems. The current water management approach in Spain, based on stakeholders' cooperation, achieves almost the same economic outcomes and better environmental outcomes compared to a pure water market. These findings call for a reconsideration of the current management in arid and semiarid basins around the world. The paper illustrates the potential of hydro-economic modeling for integrating the multiple dimensions of water resources, becoming a valuable tool in the advancement of sustainable water management policies.

  3. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  4. The end of scarcity? Water desalination as the new cornucopia for Mediterranean Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Rico-Amorós, Antonio M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we explore the new orientation taken by Spanish water policy since the beginning of the 21st century and very specifically the shift towards desalination as an alternative to other water supply options such as river regulation or inter-basin water transfers. Desalination has been seen as the cure for everything that dams and inter-basin water transfers were unable to solve, including droughts, scarcities, social conflicts, environmental impacts, and political rivalries among the different Spanish regions. Desalination also means a new and powerful element in water planning and management that could provide water for the continuous expansion of the urban and tourist growth machine in Mediterranean Spain and thus relax possible water constraints on this growth. However, by 2012 most new desalination plants along the Mediterranean coast remained almost idle. Focusing on the case of the Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibillla in South-eastern Spain, our aim is to develop a critical, integrated and reflexive perspective on the use of desalination as a source of water for urban and regional growth.

  5. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. C. S.; Galvão, C. O.; Silva, G. N. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES) was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997-2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012-2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  6. Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands

  7. Adaptation strategies to water scarcity in the Mediterranean induce a complexification of hydrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Cirelli, Claudia; Larrue, Corinne; Aubin, David

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean and neighboring countries are already experiencing broad range of natural and man-made threats to water security. According to the latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, the region is at risk due to its pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. Such changes are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and security from an ecological, economic and social angle. This communication asks the question of the relevance of the comparison of the solutions implemented to face water scarcity in two cases a priori not comparable: (i) the Thau coastal lagoon and its catchment in the South of France, (ii) the Rio Mannu catchment in Sardinia, the second Island in the South of Italia. The Thau coastal lagoon on the French coast is caracterised by intensive shellfish farming production in the lagoon waters and summer tourism with regard to the mediterranean coast. Its territory is also supporting industrial and commercial activities concentrated around Frontignan and Sète ports and the expansion of the small villages of the catchment as the consequence of the connexion with the city of Montpellier. The catchment of the Rio Mannu in South Sardinia is part of the Campidano plain of the Sardinia Island in Italy and is located 30 km close to the city of Cagliari, the capital of the Island. The basin is mainly covered by agricultural fields and grassland, while only a small percentage of its area is occupied by forests in the south-east of the basin. The communication aims, by presenting results of the FP7 EU CLIMB project, to think about the degree of complexity of the dynamic of the stakeholders system for water allocation in the Mediterranean Region in the context of climate change. After the presentation of the case studies and the perception of the water uses by stakeholders, a reflexion on the capacity of stakeholders to represent the new hydrosystems limits is carried out

  8. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  9. Environmental Education as a social mobilization strategy to face water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Andrezza de Souza; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Assumpção, Rafaela Facchetti

    2016-03-01

    Article 225 of the Brazilian Constitution establishes that all citizens have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, as a common good that is essential for a healthy life, and that the government and society have the duty to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations. This article outlines a methodology for promoting social mobilization to address water scarcity developed under the National Environmental Education and Social Mobilization for Sanitation Program (PEAMSS, acronym in Portuguese). The main aim of this article is to show the importance of education as a driving force for empowerment for water resources management. It outlines the main concepts of emancipatory environmental education and then goes on to describe the elaboration of a PEAMMS action plan. It concludes that the universalization of the right to safe and clean drinking water and access to sanitation is only possible through democratic and participatory water resources management. Actions are necessary to evaluate the reach of the PEAMSS and define the way ahead for the program.

  10. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  11. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Calvin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community-integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model - namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) - is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5° × 0.5° resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  12. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  13. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  14. FP7 GLOWASIS - A new collaborative project aimed at pre-validation of a GMES Global Water Scarcity Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, R.; Levizzani, V.; Pappenberger, F.; de Roo, A.; Lange, R. D.; Wagner, W.; Bierkens, M. F.; Ceran, M.; Weerts, A.; Sinclair, S.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Langius, E.; Glowasis Team

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of the project GLOWASIS is to pre-validate a GMES Global Service for Water Scarcity Information. It will be set up as a one-stop-shop portal for water scarcity information, in which focus is put on: - monitoring data from satellites and in-situ sensors; - improving forecasting models with improved monitoring data; - linking statistical water data in forecasting; - promotion of GMES Services and European satellites. In European and global pilots on the scale of river catchments it combines hydrological models with in-situ and satellite derived water cycle information, as well as government ruled statistical water demand data. By linking water demand and supply in three pilot studies with existing platforms (European Drought Observatory and PCR-GLOBWB) for medium- and long-term forecasting in Europe, Africa and worldwide, GLOWASIS' information contributes both in near-real time reporting for emerging drought events as well as in provision of climate change time series. By combining complex water cycle variables, governmental issues and economic relations with respect to water demand, GLOWASIS will aim for the needed streamlining of the wide variety of important water scarcity information. More awareness for the complexity of the water scarcity problem will be created and additional capabilities of satellite-measured water cycle parameters can be promoted. The service uses data from GMES Core Services LMCS Geoland2 and Marine Core Service MyOcean (land use, soil moisture, soil sealing, sea level), in-situ data from GEWEX' initiatives (i.e. International Soil Moisture network), agricultural and industrial water use and demand (statistical - AQUASTAT, SEEAW and modelled) and additional water-cycle information from existing global satellite services. In-depth interviews with a.o. EEA and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology are taking place. GLOWASIS will aim for an open source and open-standard information portal on water scarcity and use of modern

  15. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  16. Methodology to Analyse the actual and the future effect of water scarcity on the available water resources in Meguellil watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, I.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Shabou, M.; Zribi, M.; Ben Issa, N.; chakroun, H.; Galafassi, D.; Rathwell, K.; Hoff, H.; Pizzigalli, C.

    2012-04-01

    Scarcity often has its roots in water shortage, and it is in the arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with population growth and economic development, that the problems of water scarcity are most acute. The Merguellil watershed, situated in the center of Tunisia, represents exactly this state of fact where the agriculture is the main consumer with about 80% of the total water resources because of the continuous increase and intensification of irrigated area. The surface water can satisfy a very low portion of this demand; consequently, the groundwater is overexploited. The irrigation sector is divided into public and private. While the public irrigated areas are well known, the private ones are not sufficiently controlled mainly the water volumes pumped from the aquifer. Therefore, a sustainable management of all available water resources and meeting as much as possible all water demands, is crucial. To analyze the actual and future water balance of the Merguellil watershed, and to identify critical trends and thresholds and effective solutions, a WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system) application has been developed. It utilizes a constrained optimization algorithm to allocate water among competing demands in a basin. The year 2009 is considered as the reference one which represents the basic definition of the water system as it currently exists, and forms the foundation of all scenarios analysis. Three scenarios were compared to the reference one. The first combines between the reduction of 10% in precipitation, as it is forseen by the regional climate model RCA (driven by ECHAM5) that provides statistic data of precipitation until 2050, and the increase of 2% per year in irrigated area in the kairouan plain deduced from the land use maps dating from 1991/1992 to 2009/2010 obtained by multi dates remote sensing data. The second scenario is the application of a deficit irrigation that respects the yield

  17. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-à-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhathakurta, Pulak; Saji, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of mean rainfall and its variability of smaller spatial scale are important for the planners in various sectors including water and agriculture. In the present work, long rainfall data series (1901-2006) of districts of Maharashtra in monthly and seasonal scales are constructed and then mean rainfall and coefficient of variability are analyzed to get the spatial pattern and variability. Significant long term changes in monthly rainfall in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. The seasonality index which is the measure of distribution of precipitation throughout the seasonal cycle is used to classify the different rainfall regime. Also long term changes of the seasonality index are identified by the trend analysis. The state Maharashtra which is to the northwest of peninsular India is highly influenced by the southwest monsoon and the state is facing water scarcity almost every year. This study will help to find out possible reason for the increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra.

  18. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  19. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2010-08-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  20. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  1. Water scarcity under various socio-economic pathways and its potential effects on food production in the Yellow River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Liu, Xingcai; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-02-01

    Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the Yellow River (YR) basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Many studies have investigated the changes in renewable water resources under various climate change scenarios, but few have considered the joint pressure from both climate change and socio-economic development. In this study, we assess water scarcity under various socio-economic pathways with emphasis on the impact of water scarcity on food production. The water demands in the 21st century are estimated based on the newly developed shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and renewable water supply is estimated using the climate projections under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The assessment predicts that the renewable water resources would decrease slightly then increase. The domestic and industrial water withdrawals are projected to increase in the next a few decades and then remain at the high level or decrease slightly during the 21st century. The increase in water withdrawals will put the middle and lower reaches in a condition of severe water scarcity beginning in the next a few decades. If 40 % of the renewable water resources were used to sustain ecosystems, a portion of irrigated land would have to be converted to rain-fed agriculture, which would lead to a 2-11 % reduction in food production. This study highlights the links between water, food and ecosystems in a changing environment and suggests that trade-offs should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  2. Todayʼs virtual water consumption and trade under future water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowsky, B.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-07-01

    The populations of most nations consume products of both domestic and foreign origin, importing together with the products the water which is expended abroad for their production (termed ‘virtual water’). Therefore, any investigation of the sustainability of present-day water consumption under future climate change needs to consider the effects of potentially reduced water availability both on domestic water resources and on the trades of virtual water. Here we use combinations of Global Climate and Global Impact Models from the ISI-MIP ensemble to derive patterns of future water availability under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations scenarios. We assess the effects of reduced water availability in these scenarios on national water consumptions and virtual water trades through a simple accounting scheme based on the water footprint concept. We thereby identify countries where the water footprint within the country area is reduced due to a reduced within-area water availability, most prominently in the Mediterranean and some African countries. National water consumption in countries such as Russia, which are non-water scarce by themselves, can be affected through reduced imports from water scarce countries. We find overall stronger effects of the higher GHG concentrations scenario, although the model range of climate projections for single GHG concentrations scenarios is in itself larger than the differences induced by the GHG concentrations scenarios. Our results highlight that, for both investigated GHG concentration scenarios, the current water consumption and virtual water trades cannot be sustained into the future due to the projected patterns of reduced water availability.

  3. Waters Without Borders: Scarcity and the Future of State Interactions over Shared Water Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    24 Alternative energy initiatives such as biofuels and thermal solar are also highly water dependent. 25 Financial Crisis: Overshadowing attempts...filtration or biological and chemical processes, disinfection with ultra-violet light, recovered water through advanced sewage treatment technologies

  4. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level.

  5. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  6. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline underlying socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy while increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food, energy, and land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  7. Using an ensemble of regional climate models to assess climate change impacts on water scarcity in European river basins.

    PubMed

    Gampe, David; Nikulin, Grigory; Ludwig, Ralf

    2016-12-15

    Climate change will likely increase pressure on the water balances of Mediterranean basins due to decreasing precipitation and rising temperatures. To overcome the issue of data scarcity the hydrological relevant variables total runoff, surface evaporation, precipitation and air temperature are taken from climate model simulations. The ensemble applied in this study consists of 22 simulations, derived from different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs) forcing different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) at ~12km horizontal resolution provided through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Four river basins (Adige, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava) are selected and climate change signals for the future period 2035-2065 as compared to the reference period 1981-2010 are investigated. Decreased runoff and evaporation indicate increased water scarcity over the Ebro and the Evrotas, as well as the southern parts of the Adige and the Sava, resulting from a temperature increase of 1-3° and precipitation decrease of up to 30%. Most severe changes are projected for the summer months indicating further pressure on the river basins already at least partly characterized by flow intermittency. The widely used Falkenmark indicator is presented and confirms this tendency and shows the necessity for spatially distributed analysis and high resolution projections. Related uncertainties are addressed by the means of a variance decomposition and model agreement to determine the robustness of the projections. The study highlights the importance of high resolution climate projections and represents a feasible approach to assess climate impacts on water scarcity also in regions that suffer from data scarcity.

  8. Efficient management of municipal water: water scarcity in Taiz City, Yemen - issues and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noaman, A.; Al-Sharjabe, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    The city of Taiz is the third largest city in Yemen, located about 250 km south of Sana'a and about 90 km inland from the Red Sea. Taiz is situated on the foothills and slopes of the Jabal Saber Mountain at elevations between 1100 and 1600 m a.s.l. Its population is rapidly increasing and is expected to grow from about 580 000 in 2012 to over 1 000 000 in 2020. Water supply is the most pressing problem in the city of Taiz today due to the significant shortages of supply (the average consumption is 23 L/d) caused by the depletion of existing water resources and the lack of a clear direction in dealing with the problem. This forces frequent service interruptions (30-40 days) and the service is rarely extended to new users (only 57% of the population are covered). Sanitation is another daunting problem. The (poorly maintained) sewerage network covers only 44% of the population. In several unsewered areas to the north, east and west of the city, raw sewage is disposed of directly into wadis, which causes a health hazard and threatens to contaminate groundwater resources. The proper computation of demand and supply is based on the various fields. It was performed under this study with a particular model: the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). WEAP is supported by a geographical information system (GIS). The available and relevant data on poverty and social indicators, water use and sources, surface runoff, surface and groundwater availability, groundwater depletion and management, crop production areas, soil cover, maps, and meteorological information were gathered from a number of sources. There are only two ways to decrease the water deficit: by increasing water supply or decreasing the water demand. Any adaptation project aims at one of the two. Six projects are proposed, with three in each category (1, 2 and 3 to decrease demand, and 4, 5 and 6 to increase supply): - Project 1: Improvement of

  9. The relationship between HIV and AIDS and water scarcity in Nyamakate resettlements land, north-central Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mbereko, Alexio; Scott, Dianne; John Chimbari, Moses

    2016-12-01

    HIV and AIDS and water variability have been studied separately, yet, they impact on rural households simultaneously in an interactive manner. The study provide narratives on various realities from a study in the Nyamakate community that illustrates the dialectical relationship between HIV and AIDS and water scarcity. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and the following data collection tools were used: semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observations. The study showed that in the Nyamakate area, HIV- and AIDS-affected households utilise more water if there is a bedridden patient. Such households utilise an average of 145 litres per day and reported a water shortage of 103 litres per day. Although community rules and customs stipulate that water should be accessible to everyone, exclusion of HIV- and AIDS-affected households is underlined by cultural issues, scorn at poor levels of hygiene, infectious opportunistic infections and labour shortage, which limited access to water points by households directly affected by HIV and AIDS. In cases where women were overwhelmed with caregiving roles, men fetch water. We conclude that HIV and AIDS and water scarcity are dialectically related and hence should be considered in an interactive manner in order to understand the challenges faced by affected households.

  10. Macro-scale water scarcity requires micro-scale approaches. Aspects of vulnerability in semi-arid development.

    PubMed

    Falkenmark, M; Lundqvist, J; Widstrand, C

    1989-11-01

    4 types of water scarcity exist. Aridity and intermittent droughts consist of the natural types while land desiccation and water stress are man-made types. Climatic aridity, intermittent droughts, land degradation, and population growth link to create growing critical water scarcity conditions. Specifically, in arid lands where only a limited growing season exists anyhow, increased and nonsustaining activities spurred on by population growth degrade soils resulting in interference with water recharge of the root zone. This combination precipitates intermittent droughts upsetting the water supply for plants and people. This occurs now in Africa to the degree that by 2025, 66% of people will experience severe water shortages. Policymakers in developing countries and bilateral and multilateral development agencies providing technical assistance need to understand these relationships. They must develop a new strategy which includes water resource assessments followed by upgraded water plans for optimal use of available water resources and by the creation of best land use criteria. Their challenge is to balance the acute needs of people with conserving the productivity of the resource base. Experience shows that maximizing agricultural production per unit of water instead of per unit of land can increase income and employment. For example, in India, a semiarid area produced, with a given amount of water, as much as 30 times the amount of crops if the crops had a low water demand (e.g., grapes and potatoes) rather than those with a high water demand (e.g., sugarcane). This microscale approach and other such approaches could help semiarid Africa. Yet decision makers must seriously consider the transferability of these approaches to the African cultural and geographical environment. More essential than that, however, is the very high levels of water stress caused by the rapid population growth in famine-prone African countries.

  11. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  12. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  13. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 1: Global water supply and demand under extreme radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model - namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) - is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5° × 0.5° resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9-10% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32-37% by 2095. This results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  14. Inter- and intra-annual variation of water footprint of crops and blue water scarcity in the Yellow River basin (1961-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    The Yellow River Basin (YRB), the second largest river basin of China, has experienced a booming agriculture over the past decades. But data on variability of and trends in water consumption, pollution and scarcity in the YRB are lacking. We estimate, for the first time, the inter- and intra-annual water footprint (WF) of crop production in the YRB for the period 1961-2009 and the variation of monthly scarcity of blue water (ground and surface water) for 1978-2009, by comparing the blue WF of agriculture, industry and households in the basin to the maximum sustainable level. Results show that the average overall green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) WFs of crops in the period 2001-2009 were 14% and 37% larger, respectively, than in the period 1961-1970. The annual nitrogen- and phosphorus-related grey WFs (water required to assimilate pollutants) of crop production grew by factors of 24 and 36, respectively. The green-blue WF per ton of crop reduced significantly due to improved crop yields, while the grey WF increased because of the growing application of fertilizers. The ratio of blue to green WF increased during the study period resulting from the expansion of irrigated agriculture. In the period 1978-2009, the annual total blue WFs related to agriculture, industry and households varied between 19% and 52% of the basin's natural runoff. The blue WF in the YRB generally peaks around May-July, two months earlier than natural peak runoff. On average, the YRB faced moderate to severe blue water scarcity during seven months (January-July) per year. Even in the wettest month in a wet year, about half of the area of the YRB still suffered severe blue water scarcity, especially in the basin's northern part.

  15. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  16. The Human Right to Water--Market Allocations and Subsistence in a World of Scarcity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    More than one billion people do not have access to an adequate water supply. In Gambia and Haiti, people live on less than 4 liters of water per day. By contrast, most toilets in the West use several times that amount of water for a single flush. The global distribution of water is making it increasingly difficult for poor people to access it, and…

  17. Transpirative Deficit Index (TDI) for the management of water scarcity in irrigated areas: development and application in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Anna; Facchi, Arianna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    In Europe, the monitoring and assessment of drought is entrusted to the European Drought Observatory (EDO). EDO indicators are calculated considering rainfed agriculture and delivered on a 5 km grid. However, in southern Europe, irrigation may compensate for potentially severe agricultural droughts and specific water scarcity indicators that explicitly consider irrigation are needed. In the Po River Plain, irrigated crops cover more than 70% of the agricultural land, massive amounts of water are diverted from rivers for irrigation, and surface irrigation methods are largely applied. Nowadays, the region is not a water scarce basin, but irrigation water shortages have occurred with increased frequency during the last two decades. Moreover, a recent EU report shows that the Po River Plain is included among areas in Europe that by 2030 shall be affected by water scarcity. In this context, a study was started to select and develop indicators for the management and prevention of Water Scarcity and Drought (WS&D) based on the synergic use of hydrological modelling and Earth Observation data applied at a spatial scale of interest for end-users (250m grid). These indicators shall be better suited for the assessment of WS&D in Italy as well as in other southern European countries. This work presents the development and the application of the TDI (Transpirative Deficit Index) to a study area, within the Po River Plain. TDI is an agricultural drought index based on the transpiration deficit (TDx, calculated as the difference between potential and actual transpiration), computed by the spatially distributed hydrological model IDRAGRA and cumulated over a period of x days. TDx for each day of a specific year is compared to the long-term TDx probability distribution (e.g., over 20-30 years), which is transformed into a standardized normal distribution. The non-exceedance probability of TDx is finally expressed in terms of unit of standard deviation (TDI), following the approach

  18. A New Global Metric of Water Scarcity Accounting for the Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.; Gaupp, F.; Dadson, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world's 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 680 'basin-country units' (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. We find that, so far, storage capacity in most basins is able to buffer inter- and intra-annual water variability . However, when hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into basin-country units enabled assessment of upstream dependency in trans-boundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardising environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  19. Will water scarcity in semiarid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Nicot, Jean Philippe

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing concern about water constraints limiting oil and gas production using hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions and during droughts. Here we evaluate HF vulnerability by comparing HF water demand with supply in the semiarid Texas Eagle Ford play, the largest shale oil producer globally. Current HF water demand (18 billion gallons, bgal; 68 billion liters, bL in 2013) equates to ˜16% of total water consumption in the play area. Projected HF water demand of ˜330 bgal with ˜62 000 additional wells over the next 20 years equates to ˜10% of historic groundwater depletion from regional irrigation. Estimated potential freshwater supplies include ˜1000 bgal over 20 yr from recharge and ˜10 000 bgal from aquifer storage, with land-owner lease agreements often stipulating purchase of freshwater. However, pumpage has resulted in excessive drawdown locally with estimated declines of ˜100-200 ft in ˜6% of the western play area since HF began in 2009-2013. Non-freshwater sources include initial flowback water, which is ≤5% of HF water demand, limiting reuse/recycling. Operators report shifting to brackish groundwater with estimated groundwater storage of 80 000 bgal. Comparison with other semiarid plays indicates increasing brackish groundwater and produced water use in the Permian Basin and large surface water inputs from the Missouri River in the Bakken play. The variety of water sources in semiarid regions, with projected HF water demand representing ˜3% of fresh and ˜1% of brackish water storage in the Eagle Ford footprint indicates that, with appropriate management, water availability should not physically limit future shale energy production.

  20. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  1. Water scarcity and institutional change: lessons in adaptive governance from the drought experience of Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Y; Brown, R; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    Urban water systems will be increasingly challenged under future climates and global pressures. Meeting challenges by reconfiguring water systems to integrate supplies and deliver multifunctional uses is technically well described. Adjusting the institutions that frame the management of these systems is not well operationalized in practice or conceptualized in theory. This study seeks to address this gap through an institutional analysis of Perth, Australia, a city where drought crisis has put under pressure both management practices and the institutional setting that underlies them. The study found that while trusted practices moderated water scarcity, the stability of the institutional setting may not facilitate a shift toward adaptable institutional configurations suited to future conditions. The results identified three key ingredients for a flexible institutional setting: (i) feedbacks in the system through better information management, (ii) reflexive dialogue and strategic use of projects to generate greater learning opportunities, and (iii) policy level support for sector-wide collaboration through progressive agendas, incentives for innovation and capacity building in stakeholder and community engagement. Further, the results suggest that a deeper understanding of institutional dynamics is needed to enable adaptive governance. The paper provides an analytical framework for diagnosing how greater adaptive capacity might be mobilized through influencing these dynamics.

  2. Hedging the financial risk from water scarcity for Great Lakes shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eliot S.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Brown, Casey; Moody, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, which transports hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Cargo capacity is a function of a ship's draft, the distance between water level and the ship's bottom, and lower water levels force ships to reduce cargo loads to prevent running aground in shallow harbors and locks. Financial risk transfer instruments, such as index-based insurance contracts, may provide an adaptable method for managing these financial risks. In this work, a relationship between water levels and shipping revenues is developed and used in an actuarial analysis of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses. This analysis is used to develop a standardized suite of binary financial contracts, which are indexed to water levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These contracts are then combined to form hedging portfolios with different objectives for the shippers. Results suggest that binary contracts could substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during low lake level periods and at a relatively low cost of only one to three percent of total revenues, depending on coverage level.

  3. Water: Rethinking Management in an Age of Scarcity. Worldwatch Paper 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    This document, which examines various topics and issues related to the management of freshwater supplies, is organized into 6 main sections. These sections include: (1) the water cycle and renewable supplies, providing data on distribution of such supplies by continent and average annual per capita runoff produced in selected countries with…

  4. Addressing water scarcity through limited irrigation cropping: Field experiments and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population growth in urbanizing areas such as the Front Range of Colorado has led to increased pressure to transfer water from agriculture to municipalities. In many cases this has led to complete dry up of productive irrigated lands. An option to complete dry-up is the practice of limited or defi...

  5. Impacts of Water Scarcity on Coast Guard Mission Requirements and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    due to decreased flow; increased sedimentation and/or s,our of stream bed and banks; and increased fish kills due to supersaturation of waters with...recycling by both industry, agriculture and aquaculture 8-2 Lax i * Offshore desalination (conventional and solar- powered) * Onshore solar energy production

  6. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.

  7. Combined effect of fire and water scarcity on vegetation patterns in arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Rulli, M.

    2010-12-01

    In many arid zones around the word, the vegetation spontaneously forms regular patterns to optimize the use of the scarce water resources. The patterns act as early warning signal that fragile ecosystems may suddenly undergo irreversible shifts, thus, interpreting the structural shape of vegetation patterns is crucial to deciphering the ecosystem history and its expected further development. The sudden and irreversible shift of delicate ecosystems as a consequence of minor variation of the climatic forcing has been studied extensively in the past. The attitude of the ecosystem to recover after a catastrophic event, such as fire, did not receive as much attention so far. Here we modelled fire, as a sudden shift of the ecosystem state variables and functionality and evaluated post-fire scenarios under the hypothesis that two major feedbacks shaped the vegetation patterns: a positive feedback between preferential infiltration and plant growth, and a second feedback between infiltration and vegetation burning. A simple model solving a set of partial differential equations for soil moisture, plant biomass, surface water and dead biomass balance predicted significantly diverse post-fire vegetation patterns depending on the fire severity and on the degree of soil water repellency induced by the vegetation burning.

  8. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  9. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Elena

    2013-04-01

    approach is then applied for modelling the streamflow originated in the fourth, ungauged, diversion watershed. Finally, the potential reservoir water availability is estimated, hypothesising to take from the diversion catchments all the streamflow exceeding the minimum flow requirements. The results indicate that modifying the water intake structures might allow a consistent increase in the storage volumes in the reservoir during the water scarcity periods: the water available to the reservoir would in fact - on average - increase of around the 13% of the abstracted annual volume.

  10. Fish habitat regression under water scarcity scenarios in the Douro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Climate change will predictably alter hydrological patterns and processes at the catchment scale, with impacts on habitat conditions for fish. The main goals of this study are to identify the stream reaches that will undergo more pronounced flow reduction under different climate change scenarios and to assess which fish species will be more affected by the consequent regression of suitable habitats. The interplay between changes in flow and temperature and the presence of transversal artificial obstacles (dams and weirs) is analysed. The results will contribute to river management and impact mitigation actions under climate change. This study was carried out in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. A set of 29 Hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were modelled using a water modelling system (MOHID), based on meteorological data recorded monthly between 2008 and 2014. The same variables were modelled considering future climate change scenarios. The resulting variables were used in empirical habitat models of a set of key species (brown trout Salmo trutta fario, barbell Barbus bocagei, and nase Pseudochondrostoma duriense) using boosted regression trees. The stream segments between tributaries were used as spatial sampling units. Models were developed for the whole Douro basin using 401 fish sampling sites, although the modelled probabilities of species occurrence for each stream segment were predicted only for the Tâmega catchment. These probabilities of occurrence were used to classify stream segments into suitable and unsuitable habitat for each fish species, considering the future climate change scenario. The stream reaches that were predicted to undergo longer flow interruptions were identified and crossed with the resulting predictive maps of habitat suitability to compute the total area of habitat loss per species. Among the target species, the brown trout was predicted to be the most sensitive to habitat regression due to the

  11. Water participation for poverty alleviation--the case of Meseta Purépecha, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, M; Kurtycz, A; van der Helm, R

    2003-01-01

    The construction of small water reservoirs has been used in an effort to alleviate poverty in Messeta Purépecha region in Mexico. The programme's rationale can be characterised as incentive-based participation, using both local employment and shared risks concepts. The programme so far has been a relative success. However, in the light of poverty alleviation questions have to be raised about the isolated nature of the programme as well as the role of the incentives used.

  12. Alleviation of Zn toxicity by low water availability.

    PubMed

    Disante, Karen B; Cortina, Jordi; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Fuentes, David; Hernández, Encarni I; Ljung, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination and drought are expected to increase in large areas worldwide. However, their combined effect on plant performance has been scantly analyzed. This study examines the effect of Zn supply at different water availabilities on morpho-physiological traits of Quercus suber L. in order to analyze the combined effects of both stresses. Seedlings were treated with four levels of zinc from 3 to 150 µM and exposed to low watering (LW) or high watering (HW) frequency in hydroponic culture, using a growth chamber. Under both watering regimes, Zn concentration in leaves and roots increased with Zn increment in nutrient solution. Nevertheless, at the highest Zn doses, Zn tissue concentrations were almost twice in HW than in LW seedlings. Functional traits as leaf photosynthetic rate and root hydraulic conductivity, and morphological traits as root length and root biomass decreased significantly in response to Zn supply. Auxin levels increased with Zn concentrations, suggesting the involvement of this phytohormone in the seedling response to this element. LW seedlings exposed to 150 µM Zn showed higher root length and root biomass than HW seedlings exposed to the same Zn dose. Our results suggest that low water availability could mitigate Zn toxicity by limiting internal accumulation. Morphological traits involved in the response to both stresses probably contributed to this response.

  13. Development of a stream-aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Font, Eva; Astui, Oihane; Menció, Anna; Rodríguez-Florit, Agustí; Folch, Albert; Brusi, David; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km(2)) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  14. A combined-water-system approach for tackling water scarcity: application to the Permilovo groundwater basin, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena A.; Baldenkov, Mikhail G.

    2016-03-01

    The suitability of a combined water system (CWS) is assessed for meeting drinking-water demand for the city of Arkhangelsk (northwestern Russian Federation), instead of using the polluted surface water of the Northern Dvina River. An appropriate aquifer system (Permilovo groundwater basin) was found and explored in the 1980s, and there were plans then to operate an abstraction scheme using traditional pumping methods. However, the 1980s planned water system was abandoned due to projected impermissible stream depletion such that complete interception of the cone of depression with the riverbed would cause the riverbed to become dry. The design of a CWS is now offered as an approach to addressing this environmental problem. Several sets of major pumping wells associated with the CWS are located on the banks of Vaymuga River and induce infiltration from the stream. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons is compensated for by pumping from aquifer storage. A numerical model was constructed using MODFLOW-2000. The results of the simulation showed the efficiency of the compensation pumping. The streamflow depletion caused by the CWS is equal to the minimum permissible stream flow and is lower than the depletion projected by the abandoned plan. Application of the CWS in the Permilovo groundwater basin makes it possible to meet water demands during water-limited periods and to avoid environmental problems.

  15. Designing monitoring for conservation impact assessment in water funds in Latin America: an approach to address water-data scarcity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. L.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Ziv, G.; Wolny, S.; Vogl, A. L.; Tallis, H.; Bremer, L.

    2013-12-01

    The risk of water scarcity is a rising threat in a rapidly changing world. Communities and investors are using the new institution of water funds to enact conservation practices in watersheds to bolster a clean, predictable water supply for multiple stakeholders. Water funds finance conservation activities to support water-related ecosystem services, and here we relate our work to develop innovative approaches to experimental design of monitoring programs to track the effectiveness of water funds throughout Latin America. We highlight two examples: the Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG), in Quito, Ecuador, and Water for Life, Agua por la Vida, in Cali, Colombia. Our approach is meant to test whether a) water funds' restoration and protection actions result in changes in water quality and/or quantity at the site scale and the subwatershed scale, and b) the suite of investments for the whole water fund reach established goals for improving water quality and/or quantity at the basin scale or point of use. Our goal is to create monitoring standards for ecosystem-service assessment and clearly demonstrate translating those standards to field implementation in a statistically robust and cost-effective way. In the gap between data-intensive methods requiring historic, long-term water sampling and more subjective, ad hoc assessments, we have created a quantitative, land-cover-based approach to pairing conservation activity with appropriate controls in order to determine the impact of water-fund actions. To do so, we use a statistical approach in combination with open-source tools developed by the Natural Capital Project to optimize water funds' investments in nature and assess ecosystem-service provision (Resource Investment Optimization System, RIOS, and InVEST). We report on the process of identifying micro-, subwatershed or watershed matches to serve as controls for conservation 'impact' sites, based on globally-available land cover, precipitation, and soil data

  16. Estimation of awareness and perception of water scarcity among farmers in the Guanzhong Plain, China, by means of a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2013-09-15

    This paper applies a structural equation model (SEM) to analyze the formation of awareness and perception of water scarcity, based on a cross-sectional dataset of 446 farmers in the Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi Province, China. We find that age, percentage of time spent on farming and social network are the main determinants of awareness. Water price and drought experience are the most important explanatory variables of perception. In addition, awareness and perception strongly interact. The results obtained in this paper are relevant for policymaking, since environmental behavior, which includes efficient use of natural resources, tends to improve if supported by internalization of social norms, which in its turn, is promoted by awareness and perception. From the analysis it follows that spreading information via social networks, rather than via the media, is an important vehicle to enhance awareness and perception and thus to improve irrigation water use efficiency. Special attention should be paid to part-time farmers who are limited in directly perceiving water scarcity. Finally, more use should be made of the price mechanism to strengthen perception and awareness.

  17. Water-tunnel investigation of concepts for alleviation of adverse inlet spillage interactions with external stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Rhode, Matthew N.

    1990-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA Langley 16- by 24-Inch Water Tunnel to study alleviation of the adverse interactions of inlet spillage flow on the external stores of a fighter aircraft. A 1/48-scale model of a fighter aircraft was used to simulate the flow environment around the aircraft inlets and on the downstream underside of the fuselage. A controlled inlet mass flow was simulated by drawing water into the inlets. Various flow control devices were used on the underside of the aircraft model to manipulate the vortical inlet spillage flow.

  18. State Strategies to Combat Resource Scarcity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    people, their population‘s quality of life began to plummet. Yet neither weather, nor foreign conquest, nor even natural disaster had intervened. What... nature of resource scarcity. 4 Simply put, the Mayan policy aim was to sustain their quality of life. A scarcity of food stores frustrated this...would agree that water, minerals, and natural gas all constitute resources; but, what about arable land? What about human innovation and talent? Do

  19. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  20. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-01-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents. PMID:26364756

  1. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-14

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  2. Trichoderma spp. alleviate phytotoxicity in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Caporale, Antonio G; Sommella, Alessia; Lorito, Matteo; Lombardi, Nadia; Azam, Shah M G G; Pigna, Massimo; Ruocco, Michelina

    2014-09-15

    The influence of two strains of Trichoderma (T. harzianum strain T22 and T. atroviride strain P1) on the growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with As-contaminated water, and their effect on the uptake and accumulation of the contaminant in the plant roots and leaves, were studied. Accumulation of this non-essential element occurred mainly into the root system and reduced both biomass development and net photosynthesis rate (while altering the plant P status). Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) of both Trichoderma species alleviated, at least in part, the phytotoxicity of As, essentially by decreasing its accumulation in the tissues and enhancing plant growth, P status and net photosynthesis rate. Our results indicate that inoculation of lettuce with selected Trichoderma strains may be helpful, beside the classical biocontrol application, in alleviating abiotic stresses such as that caused by irrigation with As-contaminated water, and in reducing the concentration of this metalloid in the edible part of the plant.

  3. Implications of climate change for water surplus and scarcity and how that affects agricultural sustainability in Hungary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projected impacts of climate change have included, in addition to warmer temperatures, regionally variable effects on precipitation amounts, intensities, and seasonal distribution. Projections downscaled to Hungary and surrounding region were identified and their effects on streamflow, other water r...

  4. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando A; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. The dry season in SRNP lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees C, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. This study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hours of the day, and suggests that they extend their tongues to lower body temperature via evaporative cooling. Seasonal weather patterns and group movement data reported here are based on 940 h of observations on three social groups of capuchins (wet season: 370 h, dry season: 570 h). In the dry season, the proportion of time spent resting increased at higher temperatures whereas the proportion of time spent traveling decreased. Distance traveled between location points taken at half-hour intervals decreased significantly as temperature increased, although the correlation was not strong. Capuchins exposed their tongues during hot, dry, windy conditions, and this behavior was much more frequent in the dry season. Temperature was significantly higher and humidity significantly lower for "tongue-out" events than expected for a random event in the dry season. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered on the remaining permanent water sources. These results suggest that heat stress and water scarcity are significant influences on the behavior of capuchins in hot, dry conditions.

  5. Interception of Vapor Flow near Soil Surface for Water Conservation and Drought Alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid and vapor flow of water in soil and the eventual vaporization of all waters near the soil surface are mechanisms controlling the near-surface evaporation. Interception and prevention of the vapor form of flow is critical for soil water conservation and drought alleviation in the arid and semiarid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China and the central California of USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived and tested based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of a plant is characterized by the plant's water retention curves. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic water movements from the soil surface to ten meters below the surface in an attempt to quantify the maximum depths of water extraction due to different vegetation types and mulching measures at the surface. Results show that condensation is usually formed on soil surface membranes during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The soil temperature becomes stable at 13 Degree Celsius below the 4-meter depth in the Loess Plateau of China thus vapor flow is not likely deriving from deeper layers. However, the liquid flow may move in and out depending on water potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity of the layers. The near-surface vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by various mulching measures including gravel-and-sand cover, plant residue and plastic membranes. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  6. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  7. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile.

    PubMed

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  8. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-27

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management.

  9. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R.; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management. PMID:25583516

  10. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calegar, Deiviane Aparecida; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Santos, Jéssica Pereira Dos; Toma, Helena Keiko; Gomes, Tais Ferreira; Lima, Marli Maria; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.

  11. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calegar, Deiviane Aparecida; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; dos Santos, Jéssica Pereira; Toma, Helena Keiko; Gomes, Tais Ferreira; Lima, Marli Maria; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission. PMID:26841049

  12. Virtual scarce water in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  13. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to Hoekstra (2016) “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The p...

  14. Modelling and experimental verification of a water alleviation system for the NASP. [National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. James

    1992-01-01

    One possible low speed propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane is a liquid air cycle engine (LACE). The LACE system uses the heat sink in the liquid hydrogen propellant to liquefy air in a heat exchanger which is then pumped up to high pressure and used as the oxidizer in a hydrogen liquid air rocket. The inlet airstream must be dehumidified or moisture could freeze on the cryogenic heat exchangers and block them. The main objective of this research has been to develop a computer simulation of the cold tube/antifreeze-spray water alleviation system and to verify the model with experimental data. An experimental facility has been built and humid air tests were conducted on a generic heat exchanger to obtain condensing data for code development. The paper describes the experimental setup, outlines the method of calculation used in the code, and presents comparisons of the calculations and measurements. Cause of discrepancies between the model and data are explained.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Sánchez, J; Nicolás, E; Pedrero, F; Alarcón, J J; Maestre-Valero, J F; Fernández, F

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) on the physiological performance and production of lettuce plants grown under greenhouse conditions and supplied with reclaimed water (RW; urban-treated wastewater with high electrical conductivity; 4.19 dS m(-1)). Four treatments, fresh water, fresh water plus AMF inoculation, RW and RW plus AMF inoculation, were applied and their effects, over time, analyzed. Root mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass, leaf-ion content, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were assessed. Overall, our results highlight the significance of the AMF in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Inoculated plants increased the ability to acquire N, Ca, and K from both non-saline and saline media. Moreover, mycorrhization significantly reduced Na plant uptake. Under RW conditions, inoculated plants also showed a better performance of physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, the high concentration of nutrients already dissolved in reclaimed water suggested that adjustments in the calculation of the fertigation should be conducted by farmers. Finally, this experiment has proved that mycorrhization could be a suitable way to induce salt stress resistance in iceberg lettuce crops as plants supplied with reclaimed water satisfied minimum legal commercial size thresholds. Moreover, the maximum values of Escherichia coli in the reclaimed water were close to but never exceeded the international thresholds established (Spanish Royal Decree 1620/2007; Italian Decree, 2003) and hence lettuces were apt for sale.

  16. Composition of the body mass overshoot in European barn owl nestlings (Tyto alba): insurance against scarcity of energy or water?

    PubMed

    Durant, Joël M; Landys, Meta M; Handrich, Yves

    2008-07-01

    European barn owl chicks (Tyto alba) show a body mass overshoot prior to fledging that has been predicted to serve as an energy reservoir during periods of stochastic food availability. However, the composition of the mass overshoot has heretofore not been directly examined in nestlings of this or any other species displaying a body mass overshoot during growth (e.g., raptors and seabirds). To experimentally determine whether the overshoot in body mass in juvenile European barn owls (Tyto alba) may act as an energy reservoir, we compared the body composition of owl chicks raised on an ad libitum diet to those fed a restricted diet designed to eliminate the overshoot. Chicks raised on the two diets were also compared for differences in maturation of diverse functions (e.g., locomotion) and tissues (e.g., skeletal development). Contrary to expectations, our results on body composition in juvenile barn owls indicate that the mass overshoot prior to fledging is primarily comprised of an increased water compartment. Thus, we suggest that the mass overshoot in owls (and possibly in other species) does not serve as an energy reservoir but, rather, may function as an insurance against dehydration when hot in-nest conditions force chicks to rely on evaporative cooling: temperatures in barn owl nests can reach up to 43 degrees C. We found no significant differences in maturation indexes between diet treatments at the time of fledging.

  17. Rootstock alleviates PEG-induced water stress in grafted pepper seedlings: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Bautista, Alberto San; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Ángeles

    2014-06-15

    nitrate reductase activity in the roots was observed, mainly in plants grafted onto the sensitive rootstocks, as well as the ungrafted plants, and this was associated with the lessened flux to the leaves. This study suggests that PEG-induced water stress can be partially alleviated by using tolerant accessions as rootstocks.

  18. Depleting groundwater resources mitigating surface freshwater scarcity - a trend in the recent past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decades, human water use more than doubled, yet available surface freshwater resources are finite. As a result, water scarcity has become prevalent in many (semi-)arid regions of the world (e.g., India, Pakistan, North East China, the MENA region). In such regions, the demand often exceeds the available surface freshwater resources primarily due to heavy irrigation which requires large volumes of water in a certain time of the year, when groundwater is additionally used to supplement the deficiency. Excessive groundwater pumping, however, often leads to overexploitation, i.e. groundwater abstraction exceeding groundwater recharge. Here, we quantified globally the impact of depleting groundwater resources on mitigating surface freshwater scarcity and the trend between 1960 and 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. We downscaled available country statistics of groundwater abstraction to 0.5 degree, while we simulated groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB at the same spatial resolution considering not only natural groundwater recharge but also artificial recharge, i.e. return flow from irrigation. Water scarcity was estimated by confronting computed water demand for livestock, irrigation, industry and households with simulated surface freshwater availability (PCR-GLOBWB) at 0.5 degree. We thus performed a simulation run with/without groundwater pumping to assess the impact on alleviating surface freshwater scarcity. The results indicated that in many of (semi-)arid regions (e.g., North Wet India, North East Pakistan, North East China, West and Central USA, Central Mexico, North Iran, Central Saudi Arabia) large amounts of groundwater abstraction significantly mitigates the intensity of surface freshwater scarcity, while depleting the resources. Our estimate of global groundwater depletion reached close to 280 km3/yr. In most of the MENA region, the intensity of surface freshwater scarcity was eased by 30% up to 50% as

  19. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·−, MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·− and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets. PMID:28295023

  20. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-03-15

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·(-), MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·(-) and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets.

  1. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  2. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-09-15

    Hydrogen gas (H₂) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H₂ in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H₂ in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  3. Hybrid Analysis of Blue Water Consumption and Water Scarcity Implications at the Global, National, and Basin Levels in an Increasingly Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie

    2016-05-17

    As the fifth global water footprint assessment, this study enhanced previous estimates of national blue water consumption (including fresh surface and groundwater) and main economic activities with (1) improved spatial and sectoral resolution and (2) quantified the impacts of virtual water trade on water use and water stress at both the national and basin level. In 2007, 1194 Gm(3) of blue water was consumed globally for human purposes. The consuming (producing) of primary and manufactured goods and services from the sectors of "Primary Crops and Livestock", "Primary Energy and Minerals", "Processed Food and Beverages", "Non-food Manufactured Products", "Electricity", "Commercial and Public Services", and "Households" accounted for 33% (91%), ∼ 0% (1%), 37% (<1%), 13% (1%), 1% (2%), 15% (3%), and 2% (2%) of the world's total blue water consumption, respectively. The considerable differences in sectoral water consumption accounted for by the two perspectives (consumption- vs production-based) highlight the significance of the water consumed indirectly, upstream in the supply chain (i.e., > 70% of total blue water consumption) while offering additional insights into the water implications of critical interconnected economic activities, such as the water-energy nexus. With 145 Gm(3) (12%) of the blue water consumption embedded in the goods and services traded internationally, 89 countries analyzed were net blue water importers at the national level. On the basin level, the impacts of virtual water trade on water stress were statistically significant for basins across the world and within 104 countries; virtual water trade mitigated water stress for the basins within 85 of the 104 countries, including all of those where there are moderate and greater water stress countrywide (except Italy).

  4. Hydrogen-rich water alleviates aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in alfalfa via decreasing nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Cui, Weiti; Zhu, Kaikai; Xie, Yanjie; Zhang, Chunhua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-02-28

    One of the earliest and distinct symptoms of aluminum (Al) toxicity is the inhibition of root elongation. Although hydrogen gas (H2) is recently described as an important bio-regulator in plants, whether and how H2 regulates Al-induced inhibition of root elongation is largely unknown. To address these gaps, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to investigate a physiological role of H2 and its possible molecular mechanism. Individual or simultaneous (in particular) exposure of alfalfa seedlings to Al, or a fresh but not old nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP), not only increased NO production, but also led to a significant inhibition of root elongation. Above responses were differentially alleviated by pretreatment with 50% saturation of HRW. The addition of HRW also alleviated the appearance of Al toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of seedling growth and less accumulation of Al. Subsequent results revealed that the removal of NO by the NO scavenger, similar to HRW, could decrease NO production and alleviate Al- or SNP-induced inhibition of root growth. Thus, we proposed that HRW alleviated Al-induced inhibition of alfalfa root elongation by decreasing NO production. Such findings may be applicable to enhance crop yield and improve stress tolerance.

  5. Towards more spatially explicit assessments of virtual water flows: linking local water use and scarcity to global demand of Brazilian farming commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flach, Rafaela; Ran, Ylva; Godar, Javier; Karlberg, Louise; Suavet, Clement

    2016-07-01

    Global consumption of farming commodities is an important driver of water demand in regions of production. This is the case in Brazil, which has emerged as one of the main producers of globally traded farming commodities. Traditional methods to assess environmental implications of this demand rely on international trade material flows at country resolution; we argue for the need of finer scales that capture spatial heterogeneity in environmental variables in the regions of production, and that account for differential sourcing within the borders of a country of production. To illustrate this, we obtain virtual water flows from Brazilian municipalities to countries of consumption, by allocating high-resolution water footprints of sugarcane and soy production to spatially-explicit material trade flows. We found that this approach results in differences of virtual water use estimations of over 20% when compared to approaches that disregard spatial heterogeneity in sourcing patterns, for three of the main consumers of the analysed crops. This discrepancy against methods using national resolution in trade flows is determined by national heterogeneity in water resources, and differential sourcing. To illustrate the practical implications of this approach, we relate virtual water flows to water stress, identifying where global demand for water coincides with high levels of water stress. For instance, the virtual water flows for Brazilian sugarcane sourced by China were disproportionally less associated to areas with higher water stress when compared to those of the EU, due to EU’s much higher reliance on sugarcane from water scarce areas in Northeast Brazil. Our findings indicate that the policy relevance of current assessments of virtual water flows that rely on trade data aggregated at the national level may be hampered, as they do not capture the spatial heterogeneity in water resources, water use and water management options.

  6. Role of relative humidity, temperature, and water status in dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening.

    PubMed

    Bazin, J; Batlla, D; Dussert, S; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H; Bailly, C

    2011-01-01

    The effect of various combinations of temperature and relative humidity on dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening was investigated. The rate of dormancy alleviation depended on both temperature and embryo moisture content (MC). Below an embryo MC of 0.1 g H(2)O g(-1) dw, dormancy release was faster at 15 °C than at higher temperatures. This suggests that dormancy release at low MC was associated with negative activation energy, supported by Arrhenius plots, and low Q(10) values. At higher MC, the rate of dormancy alleviation increased with temperature, correlating well with the temperature dependence of biochemical processes. These findings suggests the involvement of two distinct cellular mechanisms in dormancy release; non-enzymatic below 0.1 g H(2)O g(-1) dw and associated with active metabolism above this value. The effects of temperature on seed dormancy release above the threshold MC were analysed using a population-based thermal time approach and a model predicting the rate of dormancy alleviation is provided. Sunflower embryo dormancy release was effective at temperatures above 8 °C (the base temperature for after-ripening, Tb(AR), was 8.17 °C), and the higher the after-ripening temperature above this threshold value, the higher was the rate of dormancy loss. Thermodynamic analyses of water sorption isotherms revealed that dormancy release was associated with less bound water and increased molecular mobility within the embryonic axes but not the cotyledons. It is proposed that the changes in water binding properties result from oxidative processes and can, in turn, allow metabolic activities.

  7. Future Proofing Water Policy and Catchment Management for a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Competing Demands and Water Scarcity in the River Thames and Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Crossman, J.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The River Thames Catchment is the major water supply system in Southern England and supplies all of London's water supply from either the River Lee (a tributary of the Thames) or the main river abstraction site at Teddington (see Figure 1) or from groundwater sources in London. There has been a measurable change in rainfall patterns over the past 250 years with reducing summer rainfall and, hence flows, over the past 40 years. In 1976, following 3 dry winters, the London Reservoirs were more or less empty and the river flow direction was reversed to ensure a supply of water for London. Recent climate change studies in the Thames catchments suggest an increasing threat to water supply and also damage to river water quality and ecology. In addition to a changing climate, population levels in London have risen in recent years and the catchment is increasingly vulnerable to land use change. Since the 1920s changes in land use have increased the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the catchment and this trend is predicted to be exacerbated as climate change reduces freshwater dilution. Also land use is predicted to change as agriculture becomes more intensive as farmers react to higher grain and food prices. At the same time rising water temperatures has exposed the river to the potential for toxic algal blooms, such as cyanobacteria. This doom and gloom story is being managed however using a range of policy instruments, led by central government and public and private organisations such as Thames Water and the Environment Agency. Measures such as new reservoirs, a water transfer scheme from Wales and water metering to reduce demand are all being actively pursued, as are land management measures to control diffuse pollution. In order to assess the effects of climate change on the Thames catchment a major modelling study has been undertaken. The Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) has been set up for the Thames to model flow, nitrogen, phosphorus and ecology. Climate

  8. Recurrent Water Level Fluctuation Alleviates the Effects of Submergence Stress on the Invasive Riparian Plant Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijie; Wang, Renqing; Wang, Xiao; Du, Ning; Ge, Xiuli; Du, Yuanda; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent water level fluctuation and submergence of plants are common in riparian zones. Our study objectives were to test the independent and interactive effects of submergence level and fluctuation frequency on a globally important riparian invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides. To this end, we conducted a greenhouse experiment, in which ramets of the plants, obtained from a wetland in China, were treated with four fluctuation frequencies (0, 3, 6, and 12 cycles over a 96-day experimental period) under three water levels (0, 10, and 30 cm). We found that effects of fluctuation frequency were non-significant, negative, and positive under water levels of 0, 10 and 30 cm, respectively. As fluctuation frequency increased, the effects of increasing water level decreased significantly. When water levels were high, A. philoxeroides allocated greater biomass to shoot production probably in order to elongate and escape from submergence. However, as fluctuation frequency increased, biomass investment in roots and leaves also increased, probably in order to maximize nutrient absorption and photosynthesis, respectively. These results suggest that water level fluctuation may alleviate the effects of submergence on A. philoxeroides. In addition, A. philoxeroides showed significant phenotypic plasticity, adjusting its functional traits, such as number of nodes and leaves per stem, as well as stem diameter and pith cavity diameter, according to recurrent water level fluctuation. We conclude that A. philoxeroides may perform better in shallow water zones under conditions of disturbance that include recurrent water level fluctuation. This ability to adapt to disturbance likely promotes its growth and invasion in disturbed habitats.

  9. Factors involved in alleviating water stress by partial crop removal in pear trees.

    PubMed

    Marsal, Jordi; Mata, Merce; Arbones, Amadeu; Del Campo, Jesus; Girona, Joan; Lopez, Gerardo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the relief of water stress associated with fruit thinning in pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees during drought to determine what mechanisms, other than stomatal adjustment, were involved. Combinations of control irrigation (equal to crop water use less effective rainfall) and deficit irrigation (equal to 20% of control irrigation), fruit load (unthinned and thinned to 40 fruits per tree) and root pruning (pruned and unpruned) treatments were applied to pear (cv. 'Conference') trees during Stage II of fruit development. Daily patterns of midday stem water potential (Psi(stem)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (g(l)) of deficit-irrigated trees differed after fruit thinning. In response to fruit thinning, gl progressively declined with water stress until 30 days after fruit thinning and then leveled off, whereas the effects of decreased fruit load on Psi(stem) peaked 30-40 days after fruit thinning and then tended to decline. Soil water depletion was significantly correlated with fruit load during drought. Our results indicate that stomatal adjustment and the resulting soil water conservation were the factors determining the Psi(stem) response to fruit thinning. However, these factors could not explain differences in daily patterns between g(l) and Psi(stem) after fruit thinning. In all cases, effects of root pruning treatments on Psi(stem) in deficit-irrigated trees were transitory (Psi(stem) recovered from root pruning in less than 30 days), but the recovery of Psi(stem) after root pruning was faster in trees with low fruit loads. This behavior is compatible with the concept that the water balance (reflected by Psi(stem) values) was better in trees with low fruit loads compared with unthinned trees, perhaps because more carbon was available for root growth. Thus, a root growth component is hypothesized as a mechanism to explain the bimodal Psi(stem) response to fruit thinning during drought.

  10. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates oxidative stress of bud seedlings in tomato under water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Yao, Hejin; Wu, Jiawen; Sun, Hao; Gong, Haijun

    2014-05-01

    The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants.

  11. Environmental Scarcity and Global Security. Headline Series No. 300.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer-Dixon, Thomas F.

    This book examines the two global trends of rising population and output on environmental change in the 21st century. These environmental changes can be thought of as "scarcities" of vital resources such as soil, water, and a stable climate and may cause widespread social disorder and violence. Contemporary examples of conflict are featured to…

  12. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race.

    PubMed

    Krosch, Amy R; Amodio, David M

    2014-06-24

    When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis that economic resource scarcity causes decision makers to perceive African Americans as "Blacker" and that this visual distortion elicits disparities in the allocation of resources. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that scarcity altered perceptions of race, lowering subjects' psychophysical threshold for seeing a mixed-race face as "Black" as opposed to "White." In studies 3 and 4, scarcity led subjects to visualize African American faces as darker and more "stereotypically Black," compared with a control condition. When presented to naïve subjects, face representations produced under scarcity elicited smaller allocations than control-condition representations. Together, these findings introduce a novel perceptual account for the proliferation of racial disparities under economic scarcity.

  13. Improvement of the quality of life through safe drinking water & poverty alleviation

    SciTech Connect

    Susheela, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    Fluorosis, a crippling disease caused by ingesting excess fluoride in drinking water, is a public health problem, affecting people in 20 nations in the world. One of the worst public health problems in the history of mankind known to have occurred and reported about 6 decades ago strangely enough the disease continue to be afflicting millions of people in India, Africa and China with all its severity even during the turn of the century. The present report describes the disease characteristics and the devastating manner in which the disease affects children and adults. The need to bring this to the attention of policy, makers, has been attempted.

  14. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  15. Water treatment residual (WTR)-coated wood mulch for alleviation of toxic metals and phosphorus from polluted urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Soleimanifar, Hanieh; Deng, Yang; Wu, Laying; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum-based water treatment residual (WTR)-coated wood mulches were synthesized and tested for removal of heavy metals and phosphorus (P) in synthetic urban stormwater. WTRs are an industrial waste produced from coagulation in water treatment facilities, primarily composed of amorphous aluminum or iron hydroxides. Batch tests showed that the composite filter media could effectively adsorb 97% lead (Pb), 76% zinc (Zn), 81% copper (Cu) and 97% P from the synthetic stormwater (Pb = 100 μg/L, Zn = 800 μg/L, Cu = 100 μg/L, P = 2.30 mg/L, and pH = 7.0) within 120 min, due to the presence of aluminum hydroxides as an active adsorbent. The adsorption was a 2(nd)-order reaction with respect toward each pollutant. Column tests demonstrated that the WTR-coated mulches considerably alleviated the select pollutants under a continuous-flow condition over the entire filtration period. The effluent Pb, Zn, Cu, and P varied at 0.5-8.9%, 33.4-46.7%, 45.8-55.8%, and 6.4-51.9% of their respective initial concentrations with the increasing bed volume from 0 to 50. Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests indicated that leached contaminants were all below the U.S. criteria, suggesting that the release of undesired chemicals under rainfall or landfilling conditions is not a concern during application. This study demonstrates that the WTR-coated mulches are a new, low-cost, and effective filter media for urban stormwater treatment. Equally important, this study provides a sustainable approach to beneficially reuse an industrial waste for environmental pollution control.

  16. Alleviation of water stress effects on MR220 rice by application of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zain, Nurul Amalina Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Mahmood, Maziah; Puteh, Adam; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz

    2014-02-05

    The use of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization may enhance rice tolerance to drought stress and improve the crop's instantaneous water use efficiency without much yield reduction. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different periodical water stress combined with potassium fertilization regimes on growth, yield, leaf gas exchanges and biochemical changes in rice grown in pots and compare them with standard local rice grower practices. Five treatments including (1) standard local grower's practice (control, 80CF = 80 kg K2O/ha + control flooding); (2) 120PW15 = 120 kg K2O/ha + periodical water stress for 15 days; (3) 120DS15V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the vegetative stage; (4) 120DS25V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 25 days and (5) 120DS15R = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the reproductive stage, were evaluated in this experiment. Control and 120PW15 treatments were stopped at 100 DAS, and continuously saturated conditions were applied until harvest. It was found that rice under 120PW15 treatment showed tolerance to drought stress evidenced by increased water use efficiency, peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and proline levels, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and lower minimal fluorescence (fo), compared to other treatments. Path coefficient analysis revealed that most of parameters contribute directly rather than indirectly to rice yield. In this experiment, there were four factors that are directly involved with rice yield: grain soluble sugar, photosynthesis, water use efficiency and total chlorophyll content. The residual factors affecting rice yield are observed to be quite low in the experiment (0.350), confirming that rice yield was mostly influenced by the parameters measured during the study.

  17. Mathematical Explorations: Freshwater Scarcity: A Proportional Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Middle school students' mathematical understanding benefits from connecting mathematics to other content areas in the curriculum. This month's activity explores the issue of the scarcity of freshwater, a natural resource (activity sheets are included). This activity concentrates on the critical areas mentioned in the Common Core State…

  18. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis.

  19. Exogenous proline mediates alleviation of cadmium stress by promoting photosynthetic activity, water status and antioxidative enzymes activities of young date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    PubMed

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, Ch; Zorrig, W; Elloumi, N; Rabhi, M; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2016-06-01

    The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract cadmium (Cd) inhibitory effects in young date palm plants (Phoenix dactylifera L. cv Deglet Nour) was investigated. Two-year-old date palm plants were subjected for five months at different Cd stress levels (0, 10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil) whether supplied or not with exogenous proline (20mM) added through the irrigation water. Different levels of Cd stress altered plant growth, gas exchanges and chlorophyll content as well as water status, but at different extent among them. In contrast, an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities of Cd-treated plants in association with high amounts of proline content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage (EL) were observed. Interestingly, exogenous proline mitigated the adverse effects of Cd on young date palm. Indeed, it alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation and established better levels of plant growth, water status and photosynthetic activity. Moreover, proline-treated plants showed high antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxydase) in roots and leaves as compared to Cd-treated plants.

  20. C-SWAT: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool with consolidated input files in alleviating computational burden of recursive simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temptation to include model parameters and high resolution input data together with the availability of powerful optimization and uncertainty analysis algorithms has significantly enhanced the complexity of hydrologic and water quality modeling. However, the ability to take advantage of sophist...

  1. Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Arias, Alberto; Cuesta, Jose A; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos; Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar

    2015-01-15

    In the Mediterranean-climate zone, recurrent drought events and increasing water demand generally lead to a decrease in freshwater input to estuaries. This water scarcity may alter the proper function of estuaries as nursery areas for marine species and as permanent habitat for estuarine species. A 12-year data set of the aquatic macrofauna (fish, decapod and mysid crustaceans) in a Mediterranean estuary (Guadalquivir estuary, South Spain) was analysed to test if water scarcity favours the nursery function of regional estuaries to the detriment of permanent estuarine inhabitants. Target species typically displayed a salinity-related distribution and estuarine salinisation in dry years resulted in a general upstream community displacement. However, annual densities of marine species were neither consistently higher in dry years nor estuarine species during wet years. Exceptions included the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer and the marine shrimp Crangon crangon, which were more abundant in wet and dry years, respectively. High and persistent turbidity, a collateral effect of water scarcity, altered both the structural (salinity-related pattern) and functional (key prey species and predator density) community characteristics, chiefly after the second drought period of the analysis. The observed high inter-year environmental variability, as well as species-specific effects of water scarcity, suggests that exhaustive and long-term sampling programmes will be required for rigorously monitoring the estuarine communities of the Mediterranean-climate region.

  2. Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yao, Xiaoqin; Cai, Kunzheng; Chen, Jining

    2011-07-01

    Drought is a major constraint for rice production in the rainfed lowlands in China. Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance to environmental stress. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), w-14 (drought susceptible) and w-20 (drought resistant), were selected to study the effects of exogenous Si application on the physiological traits and nutritional status of rice under drought stress. In wet conditions, Si supply had no effects on growth and physiological parameters of rice plants. Drought stress was found to reduce dry weight, root traits, water potential, photosynthetic parameters, basal quantum yield (F(v)/F(0)), and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) in rice plants, while Si application significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pr), transpiration rate (Tr), F(v)/F(0), and F(v)/F(m) of rice plants under drought stress. In addition, water stress increased K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe content of rice plants, but Si treatment significantly reduced these nutrient level. These results suggested that silicon application was useful to increase drought resistance of rice through the enhancement of photochemical efficiency and adjustment of the mineral nutrient absorption in rice plants.

  3. Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Brown, James H; Burger, Joseph R; Burnside, William R; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Hammond, Sean T; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G

    2014-04-01

    The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to scarcity of critical resources. Our macroecological studies highlight the role in the economy of energy and natural resources: oil, gas, water, arable land, metals, rare earths, fertilizers, fisheries, and wood. As the modern industrial technological-informational economy expanded in recent decades, it grew by consuming the Earth's natural resources at unsustainable rates. Correlations between per capita GDP and per capita consumption of energy and other resources across nations and over time demonstrate how economic growth and development depend on "nature's capital". Decades-long trends of decreasing per capita consumption of multiple important commodities indicate that overexploitation has created an unsustainable bubble of population and economy.

  4. Quantum game application to spectrum scarcity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaleta, O. G.; Barrangú, J. P.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent spectrum-sharing research has produced a strategy to address spectrum scarcity problems. This novel idea, named cognitive radio, considers that secondary users can opportunistically exploit spectrum holes left temporarily unused by primary users. This presents a competitive scenario among cognitive users, making it suitable for game theory treatment. In this work, we show that the spectrum-sharing benefits of cognitive radio can be increased by designing a medium access control based on quantum game theory. In this context, we propose a model to manage spectrum fairly and effectively, based on a multiple-users multiple-choice quantum minority game. By taking advantage of quantum entanglement and quantum interference, it is possible to reduce the probability of collision problems commonly associated with classic algorithms. Collision avoidance is an essential property for classic and quantum communications systems. In our model, two different scenarios are considered, to meet the requirements of different user strategies. The first considers sensor networks where the rational use of energy is a cornerstone; the second focuses on installations where the quality of service of the entire network is a priority.

  5. [Biomedical research from philanthropy to scarcity.

    PubMed

    Addis, Antonio; De Fiore, Luca; Traversa, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Some huge information technology companies have increased investment in biomedical research: recently Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. The latter presented the ambitious Zuckerberg-Chan Initiative involving three major Californian universities: UC San Francisco, Berkeley and Stanford. These important private investments arouse reflections. First, investing in scientific research improves the corporate image of the most generous companies and it is a great marketing strategy. Second, the availability of private funds is surely useful, especially if these funds are directed to relevant projects, and produce studies conducted and disseminated in a transparent way. Third, private funding should not replace public ones, representing an integration that will not likely affect the determination of the research agenda, which should remain the prerogative of public institutions. Fourth, the researchers involved in public funded projects should benefit from the margin of freedom that private industry promises, both in the decision of research pathways and in their course. Finally, the scarcity of resources is likely to divert energy and attention of the public researchers and this aspect should be considered by decision makers when determining size and recipients of research funding.

  6. Measuring natural resource scarcity under common property environment and uncertainty: an interpretive analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    In order to extract and use a natural resource (e.g., coal) the environment (air, water, etc.) must also be used as a repository of the discharged wastes (e.g., sulfur oxides, nitrous oxides, particulates, etc.). Moreover, if there is a mandated level of the environmental resource (e.g., clean air) that has to be maintained, then certain additional costs must be borne by society (firms utilizing the resource). Thus, in evaluating the scarcity of an extractible resource, the relative position of the environmental resource also must be evaluated. This study incorporated such jointness in the evaluation of the measure of resource scarcity, something earlier studies did not address. The theoretical model was developed in an optimal-control framework. It was analytically shown that this new measure of resource scarcity would indicate a different trend compared to earlier ones. The measure of resource scarcity developed in this study captures previous measures as special cases. In an uncertain world, when the impacts of use of an extractible resource on the environment is not known, the stock size of the environmental resource becomes uncertain.

  7. Feasibility assessment of a tunnel-ventilated, water-padded barn on alleviation of heat stress for lactating Holstein cows in a humid area.

    PubMed

    Shiao, T F; Chen, J C; Yang, D W; Lee, S N; Lee, C F; Cheng, W T K

    2011-11-01

    The use of evaporative cooling for mitigating heat stress in lactating cows in humid areas is controversial. In Taiwan, Holstein cow performance is significantly restricted by hot and humid weather. This study investigated the efficacy of using a tunnel-ventilated, water-padded freestall (TP) barn for reducing heat stress in lactating cows. From August to October 2006, 36 cows allocated in a 3×3 Latin square were raised in 3 barn cooling treatments: a conventional freestall barn with fans and sprinklers in the feed line (Fan+SP, control), a TP barn, and a TP barn with sprinkler cooling (TP+SP). Daytime air speeds in the 3 barns were 1.23, 2.38, and 2.06 m/s, respectively. Both TP barns were more efficient than the control in reducing the daytime temperature and temperature-humidity index. The barn temperature was <26°C for an extra 4.2h per day, but the relative humidity was >96% in both TP barns. Cows in both TP barns had higher respiration rates and skin temperatures at 0300 h than cows in the Fan+SP barn. The TP environment increased the cows' serum cholesterol level and the activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase, but blood partial pressure of CO(2) was not affected. Vaginal temperature was persistently high in cows in the TP barn; in the 2 SP barns, it decreased 0.4 to 0.6°C following sprinkling and milking. The intake activity and rumen digestion of cows raised in the 3 environments were similar. Cows in both TP barns ingested more dry matter. Cows in the TP+SP barn tended to produce more milk than those in the Fan+SP barn (25.4 vs. 24.7 kg). Although heat stress was not completely alleviated in these 3 barns, the TP+SP treatment resolved the negative effect of a previous TP barn built in 2004 on intake and milk yield by increasing air speed and using sprinkler cooling. Thus, it is expected that TP+SP barns will be beneficial in regions with high humidity. Adequate air speed and sprinkler cooling are likely to be key factors for

  8. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  9. Effect of climate change and resource scarcity on health care.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Jackson, Bethany; Gill, Jamie-Lee; Sadeghian, Hannah Becky; Hertel, Johannes; Kelsey, Janet

    2014-07-15

    Climate change and resource scarcity pose significant threats to healthcare delivery. Nurses should develop the skills to cope with these challenges in the future. Skills sessions using sustainability scenarios can help nursing students to understand the effect climate change and resource scarcity will have on health care. Involving design students in clinical skills sessions can encourage multidisciplinary working and help to find solutions to promote healthcare sustainability.

  10. Materials in the economy; material flows, scarcity, and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of materials to the economy of the United States is described, including the levels of consumption and uses of materials. The paths (or flows) that materials take from extraction, through processing, to consumer products, and then final disposition are illustrated. Scarcity and environmental issues as they relate to the flow of materials are discussed. Examples for the three main themes of the report (material flows, scarcity, and the environment) are presented.

  11. Global phosphorus scarcity: identifying synergies for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Neset, Tina-Simone S; Cordell, Dana

    2012-01-15

    Global food production is dependent on constant inputs of phosphorus. In the current system this phosphorus is not predominantly derived from organic recycled waste, but to a large degree from phosphate-rock based mineral fertilisers. However, phosphate rock is a finite resource that cannot be manufactured. Our dependency therefore needs to be addressed from a sustainability perspective in order to ensure global food supplies for a growing global population. The situation is made more urgent by predictions that, for example, the consumption of resource intensive foods and the demand for biomass energy will increase. The scientific and societal debate has so far been focussed on the exact timing of peak phosphorus and on when the total depletion of the global reserves will occur. Even though the timing of these events is important, all dimensions of phosphorus scarcity need to be addressed in a manner which acknowledges linkages to other sustainable development challenges and which takes into consideration the synergies between different sustainability measures. Many sustainable phosphorus measures have positive impacts on other challenges; for example, shifting global diets to more plant-based foods would not only reduce global phosphorus consumption, but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce nitrogen fertiliser demand and reduce water consumption.

  12. Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James H.; Burger, Joseph R.; Burnside, William R.; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Hammond, Sean T.; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.

    2013-01-01

    The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to scarcity of critical resources. Our macroecological studies highlight the role in the economy of energy and natural resources: oil, gas, water, arable land, metals, rare earths, fertilizers, fisheries, and wood. As the modern industrial technological-informational economy expanded in recent decades, it grew by consuming the Earth’s natural resources at unsustainable rates. Correlations between per capita GDP and per capita consumption of energy and other resources across nations and over time demonstrate how economic growth and development depend on “nature’s capital”. Decades-long trends of decreasing per capita consumption of multiple important commodities indicate that overexploitation has created an unsustainable bubble of population and economy. PMID:24882946

  13. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  14. Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

    1997-11-01

    Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

  15. THE DEMAND FOR WATER: CONSUMER RESPONSE TO SCARCITY. (R828070)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Evaluation of crop production, trade, and consumption from the perspective of water resources: a case study of the Hetao irrigation district, China, for 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Shikun; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining

    2015-02-01

    The integration of water footprints and virtual water flows allows the mapping of the links between production, trade, and consumption and could potentially help to alleviate water scarcity and improve water management. We evaluated the water footprints and virtual water flows of crop production, consumption, and trade and their influencing factors in the Hetao irrigation district in China for 1960-2010. The water footprint of crop production and the export of virtual water fluctuated but tended to increase during this period and were influenced mainly by agricultural factors such as crop yield, irrigation efficiency, and area sown. The water footprint of crop consumption and the import of virtual water increased during 1960-1979 and decreased during 1980-2010 and were influenced by socio-economic factors such as total population, the retail-price index, and the proportion of the population in urban areas. Most of the water footprint of production was exported to other areas, which added to the pressure on local water systems. The import of virtual water led to a saving of water for the Hetao irrigation district, while its share of the water footprint of consumption has decreased significantly since 1977. An increase in irrigation efficiency can alleviate water scarcity, and its application should be coupled with measures that constrain the continued expansion of agriculture. Full-cost pricing of irrigation water was an effective policy tool for its management. Re-shaping regional water-production and water-trade nexuses by changing crop structures could provide alternative opportunities for addressing the problems of local water scarcity, but the trade-offs involved should first be assessed.

  17. On the history of a reoccurring concept: phosphorus scarcity.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-08-15

    Despite evidence against imminent global phosphate rock depletion, phosphorus (P) scarcity scenarios and the subsequent consequences for global food security continue to be a matter of controversy. We provide a historicizing account to evaluate the degree and relevance of past human experiences with P scarcity. Using more than 80 literature sources, we trace the origin of the P scarcity concept and the first accounts of concerns; we report on three cases of scarcity discourse in the U.S. and revisit the concept of future resources. In addition, we present past evaluations of phosphate rock reserves and lifetime estimates for the world, the U.S., Morocco, and the Western Sahara, as well as past attempts to model phosphorus supply or collect information on phosphate rock. Our results show that current concerns have a long legacy and knowledge base to draw from and that promulgating the notion of depletion is inconsistent with past findings. We find that past depletion concerns were refuted by means of new resource appraisals, indicating that the supply was substantially larger than previously thought. Moreover, recommendations for national P conservation policies and other practices seem to have found little implementation. We demonstrate the merit of historic literacy for social learning and the weakness of the current P sustainability debate because it does not include this past knowledge.

  18. Scarcity, Conflict, and Equity in Allocating Public Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Bo; Danley, Mark

    The conflict between the interests of commercial outfitters and private boaters in the use of whitewater rivers is examined. A discussion is presented on the literature on scarcity, allocation, and conflict among groups. These concepts are applied to the allocation of public resources on whitewater rivers. The conflicting interest groups are…

  19. Rhetorical Scarcity: Spatial and Economic Inflections on Genre Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegarth, Risa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how changes in a key scientific genre supported anthropology's early twentieth-century bid for scientific status. Combining spatial theories of genre with inflections from the register of economics, I develop the concept of "rhetorical scarcity" to characterize this genre change not as evolution but as manipulation that…

  20. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  1. The Mentor Apprentice Program--A Modest Proposal for Alleviating the Scarcity of Clinical Researchers in Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidle, Enid A.

    1985-01-01

    The acute deficiency in the number of clinical dental faculty who are trained to do high-quality research is discussed. There is a paucity of role models for research in dental schools. Students at dental schools have no opportunity to gain first hand knowledge of how dentist-scientists function. (MLW)

  2. The value of variety and scarcity across development.

    PubMed

    Echelbarger, Margaret; Gelman, Susan A

    2017-04-01

    An important task that children face is determining the value of items, and two possible cues to value include scarcity and variety. In three studies with 289 children aged 4-12years and 148 adults, we examined the use of these cues to guide choices when making selections among items. At all ages, participants typically preferred varied sets for themselves and others. In contrast, scarce items were rarely preferred to abundant items. However, when in the context of multiple recipients, participants selected scarce and varied items more when items were maximally scarce. Our results suggest that the preference for variety is early emerging, whereas the preference for scarce items is context dependent.

  3. In Brief: Criticism of U.S. visa restrictions; Mega-cities heighten earthquake concern; Effort to alleviate U.S. water problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Bruce Alberts, president of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, has sharply criticized tightened visa applications for foreign scientists and students to enter the U.S. following the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001. Alberts said the restrictions are a ``dreadful problem,'' during a 28 April address at the Academy's annual meeting in Washington, D.C.Greatly increased populations in mega-cities that are on or near major fault lines could be a recipe for disaster, according to a new study by Roger Bilham, professor of geological sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder.A new effort by the U.S. Interior Department could help to resolve some longstanding and potential water usage problems in western U.S. states, the agency announced on 2 May.

  4. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  5. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  6. Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Mathai, Muthoni; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Trujillo, Antonio; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2017-01-11

    Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Results indicated that slum youth made many sexual decisions considered rational from a traditional economics perspective, such as acquiring more sex when resources were available, maximizing wealth through sex, being price-sensitive to costs of condoms or testing services, and taking more risks when protected from adverse sexual consequences. Youth's engagement in sexual risk behaviors was also motivated by scarcity phenomena explained by behavioral economics, such as compensating for sex lost during scarce periods (risk-seeking), valuing economic gains over HIV risks (tunneling, bandwidth tax), and transacting sex as an investment strategy (internal referencing). When scarcity was alleviated, young women additionally described reducing the number of sex partners to account for non-economic preferences (slack). Prevention strategies should address the traditional and behavioral economics of the HIV epidemic.

  7. Household strategies in the face of resource scarcity in coastal Ghana: are they associated with development priorities?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In many developing regions, women and young girls spend several hours daily in the collection of natural resources. Still the link between these household resource strategies and stakeholder perceptions of development priorities remains unexplored. This project examines this association with survey data representative of the adult population from Ghana’s Coastal Region. Although natural resource scarcity and the sustainability of resource use represent key development challenges, there are others (e.g., energy, sanitation, employment, and educational opportunities). As such, even in the face of natural resource scarcity, individuals may place greater importance on other dimensions of development, especially if household resource strategies are perceived as relatively efficient. The analytical focus here is on water and the results suggest that gender roles shape household water collection strategies, while also shaping these strategies’ perceived opportunity costs. Specifically, Ghanian adults more often see drinking water provision as their primary development need when water sources are distant and/or when male household members collect water (particularly male heads). In the end, I argue that social science inquiry benefits by contextualizing social dynamics within environmental context, particularly within cultural settings in which human subsistence is intimately tied to the state of the natural environment. PMID:21874078

  8. Household strategies in the face of resource scarcity in coastal Ghana: are they associated with development priorities?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lori M

    2006-04-01

    In many developing regions, women and young girls spend several hours daily in the collection of natural resources. Still the link between these household resource strategies and stakeholder perceptions of development priorities remains unexplored. This project examines this association with survey data representative of the adult population from Ghana's Coastal Region. Although natural resource scarcity and the sustainability of resource use represent key development challenges, there are others (e.g., energy, sanitation, employment, and educational opportunities). As such, even in the face of natural resource scarcity, individuals may place greater importance on other dimensions of development, especially if household resource strategies are perceived as relatively efficient. The analytical focus here is on water and the results suggest that gender roles shape household water collection strategies, while also shaping these strategies' perceived opportunity costs. Specifically, Ghanian adults more often see drinking water provision as their primary development need when water sources are distant and/or when male household members collect water (particularly male heads). In the end, I argue that social science inquiry benefits by contextualizing social dynamics within environmental context, particularly within cultural settings in which human subsistence is intimately tied to the state of the natural environment.

  9. Global water resources assessment at a sub-annual timescale: Application to climate change impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using the widely accepted withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (hereafter WWR). This index is defined as the ratio of annual withdrawal to the annual renewable water resources (runoff). The index has also been used widely to assess the impact of climate change on global water resources. Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the mean annual runoff in many parts of the world. Therefore, in these regions, the WWR decreases, by definition. However, water scarcity may not always be alleviated in these regions. Global warming is also projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. These phenomena may increase the temporal gap between water availability and water demand, which might worsen local water scarcity, even if the mean annual runoff is increased. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating subannual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index, the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (hereafter CWD). This index is defined as the ratio of the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from local water resources to the accumulation of daily water demand. To estimate daily water withdrawal and water demand, we used the state-of-the-art H08 global water resources model. Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 52% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and northern Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff increase and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe

  10. The Effects of Time Scarcity on Conflict and Compromise in Computer Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Fraser J. M.; Hards, Rachael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of time scarcity on the way disagreement is managed in synchronous computer conferencing; reports an experiment in which pairs of undergraduates used keyboard-based conferencing software to resolve disputes on two controversial discussion topics under conditions either of time scarcity, or time abundance; and discusses…

  11. Revisiting multi-organ transplantation in the setting of scarcity.

    PubMed

    Reese, P P; Veatch, R M; Abt, P L; Amaral, S

    2014-01-01

    In the setting of organ scarcity, the ethics of multi-organ transplantation (MOT) deserve new examination. MOT offers substantial benefits to certain recipients, including avoiding serial surgeries. However, MOT candidates in the United States commonly receive priority for their nonprimary organ over many individuals who need that organ, which may undermine equity. The absence of standard criteria for MOT eligibility also enables large and unfair regional variation in MOT, such as simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, MOT may also undermine utility (optimal patient and graft survival) in circumstances where providing multiple organs to one person fails to achieve the greater collective benefit attained by providing transplants to multiple people. Policy reforms should include the adoption of minimal clinical criteria for MOT candidacy with the attendant goal of decreasing regional variation in MOT. In the future, these minimal criteria can be revised to accommodate new research about which patients derive the most benefit from MOT. Incentives to perform MOT should also be reduced, such as by including MOT outcomes in center-specific reports. These reforms run the risk that the transplant community could be perceived as abandoning MOT candidates, but offer an opportunity to align transplant practice and ethical principles.

  12. Marine Nematode Taxonomy in Africa: Promising Prospects Against Scarcity of Information.

    PubMed

    Boufahja, Fehmi; Semprucci, Federica; Beyrem, Hamouda; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2015-09-01

    From the late 19th century, Africa has faced heavy exploitation of its natural resources with increasing land/water pollution, and several described species have already become extinct or close to extinction. This could also be the case for marine nematodes, which are the most abundant and diverse benthic group in marine sediments, and play major roles in ecosystem functioning. Compared to Europe and North America, only a handful of investigations on marine nematodes have been conducted to date in Africa. This is due to the scarcity of experienced taxonomists, absence of identification guides, as well as local appropriate infrastructures. A pivotal project has started recently between nematologists from Africa (Tunisia), India, and Europe (Italy) to promote taxonomic study and biodiversity estimation of marine nematodes in the African continent. To do this, as a first step, collection of permanent slides of marine nematodes (235 nominal species and 14 new to science but not yet described) was recently established at the Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte (Tunisia). Capacity building of next generation of African taxonomists have been carried out at level of both traditional and molecular taxonomy (DNA barcoding and next-generation sequencing [NGS]), but they need to be implemented. Indeed, the integration of these two approaches appears crucial to overcome lack of information on the taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity of marine nematodes from African coastal waters.

  13. Marine Nematode Taxonomy in Africa: Promising Prospects Against Scarcity of Information

    PubMed Central

    Boufahja, Fehmi; Semprucci, Federica; Beyrem, Hamouda; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2015-01-01

    From the late 19th century, Africa has faced heavy exploitation of its natural resources with increasing land/water pollution, and several described species have already become extinct or close to extinction. This could also be the case for marine nematodes, which are the most abundant and diverse benthic group in marine sediments, and play major roles in ecosystem functioning. Compared to Europe and North America, only a handful of investigations on marine nematodes have been conducted to date in Africa. This is due to the scarcity of experienced taxonomists, absence of identification guides, as well as local appropriate infrastructures. A pivotal project has started recently between nematologists from Africa (Tunisia), India, and Europe (Italy) to promote taxonomic study and biodiversity estimation of marine nematodes in the African continent. To do this, as a first step, collection of permanent slides of marine nematodes (235 nominal species and 14 new to science but not yet described) was recently established at the Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte (Tunisia). Capacity building of next generation of African taxonomists have been carried out at level of both traditional and molecular taxonomy (DNA barcoding and next-generation sequencing [NGS]), but they need to be implemented. Indeed, the integration of these two approaches appears crucial to overcome lack of information on the taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity of marine nematodes from African coastal waters. PMID:26527841

  14. Fabrication and Water Treatment Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)-Based Composite Membranes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lining; Dong, Xinfa; Chen, Mingliang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Chaoxian; Yang, Fenglin; Dong, Yingchao

    2017-01-01

    Membrane separation technology is widely explored for various applications, such as water desalination and wastewater treatment, which can alleviate the global issue of fresh water scarcity. Specifically, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based composite membranes are increasingly of interest due to the combined merits of CNTs and membrane separation, offering enhanced membrane properties. This article first briefly discusses fabrication and growth mechanisms, characterization and functionalization techniques of CNTs, and then reviews the fabrication methods for CNTs-based composite membranes in detail. The applications of CNTs-based composite membranes in water treatment are comprehensively reviewed, including seawater or brine desalination, oil-water separation, removal of heavy metal ions and emerging pollutants as well as membrane separation coupled with assistant techniques. Furthermore, the future direction and perspective for CNTs-based composite membranes are also briefly outlined. PMID:28335452

  15. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  16. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  17. Analysis of virtual water flows associated with the trade of maize in the SADC region: importance of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, J. M.; Masekoameng, E.; Ashton, P. J.

    2009-10-01

    suggest that, while a national estimate of the virtual water content of a crop may indicate a relatively efficient use of water, an analysis of the virtual water content at smaller scales can reveal inefficient use of water for the same crop. Therefore, analysis of the virtual water content of crops and trading of agricultural products at different spatial scales (i.e. regional, national and WMA) could be an important consideration within the context of water allocation, water use efficiency and alleviation of water scarcity.

  18. Analysis of virtual water flows associated with the trade of maize in the SADC region: importance of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, J. M.; Masekoameng, E.; Ashton, P. J.

    2008-09-01

    Limpopo WMAs). Results suggest that, while a national estimate of the virtual water content of a crop may indicate a relatively efficient use of water, an analysis of the virtual water content at smaller scales can reveal inefficient use of water for the same crop. Therefore, analysis of the virtual water content of crops and trading of agricultural products at different spatial scales (i.e. regional, national and WMA) could be an important consideration within the context of water allocation, water use efficiency and alleviation of water scarcity.

  19. Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

  20. Material scarcity: a reason for responsibility in technology development and product design.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Andreas R

    2013-09-01

    There are warning signs for impending scarcity of certain technology metals that play a critical role in high-tech products. The scarce elements are indispensable for the design of modern technologies with superior performance. Material scarcity can restrain future innovations and presents therefore a serious risk that must be counteracted. However, the risk is often underrated in the pursuit of technological progress. Many innovators seem to be inattentive to the limitations in availability of critical resources and the possible implications thereof. The present shortages in industrial supply with technology metals may be interpreted as a wake-up call for technology developers to tackle the issue with due consideration. The article reviews the materials scarcity phenomenon from the viewpoint of sustainable development ethics. The following questions are discussed: 'Should preventative actions be taken today in order to mitigate resource scarcity in future?' and 'Should technology developers feel responsible to do this?' The discussion presents arguments for industrial designers and engineers to create a sense of responsibility for the proactive mitigation of material scarcity. Being protagonists of the innovation system, they have the opportunity to lead change towards resource-aware technology development. The paper concludes by outlining ideas on how they can pioneer sustainable management of critical materials.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

    PubMed Central

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-01-01

    Background Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. Scope This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. Conclusions The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K+ : Na+ ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na+/H+ antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes. PMID:19815570

  2. Red Ginseng Supplementation More Effectively Alleviates Psychological than Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Young; Woo, Tae Sun; Yoon, Seo Young; Ike Campomayor dela, Peña; Choi, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Lee, Yong Soo; Yu, Gu Yong; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Red ginseng (RG, the extract of Panax ginseng Meyer) has various biological and psychological activities and may also alleviate fatigue-related disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate what kind of fatigue red ginseng alleviate. Animals were orally administered with 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg of RG for 7 days. Before experiments were performed. Physiological stress (swimming, rotarod, and wire test) are behavioral parameters used to represent physical fatigue. Restraint stress and electric field test to a certain degree, induce psychological fatigue in animals. Plasma concentration of lactate and corticosterone (CORT) were also measured after these behavioral assays. RG supplementation (100 mg/kg) increased movement duration and rearing frequency of restrainted mice in comparison with control. 100 and 200 mg/kg of RG increased swimming time in cold water (8±4℃) while at 100 mg/kg, RG increased electric field crossing over frequencies. 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg RG prolonged running time on the rotarod and at 100 mg/kg, it increased balancing time on the wire. RG at those doses also reduced falling frequencies. RG supplementation decreased plasma CORT levels, which was increased by stress. Lactate levels were not significantly altered. These results suggest that RG supplementation can alleviate more the damages induced by psychological than physical fatigue. PMID:23717077

  3. Exploring the energy-water-food-climate nexus for the Indian Economy in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheripour, F.; Hertel, T. W.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    The economy of India is expected to face serious environmental challenges over the coming decades. Population growth, coupled with economic growth of nearly 7%/year to 2030 will translate into strong growth in energy demands - particularly electricity. The electricity sector's claim on total available water could grow from 4% to more than 10% in India in 2030, if the use of wet cooling technologies persists (IGES 2013). Water-saving, dry cooling technologies are available for coal-fired power plants, but this requires significant investment and must be done at the time of construction. Growing water demands from electricity generation, when coupled with industrial, residential and commercial demands, are projected to result in water shortages for irrigation in some key river basins such as Indus, Ganges, Subernarekha, Krishna, and Chotanagpui (Rosegrant et al., 2013). The resulting pressure on agricultural production is likely to be exacerbated by climate change, which itself may increase demands for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to higher temperatures and more variable rainfall (AgMIP, 2013). In this paper we examine the impact of water scarcity on economic growth, food, and energy security in India using an enhanced version of the GTAP-AEZ-WATER model. We find that investments in water-saving technology in the electricity sector are less costly than developing new water supply. However, even when these technologies are implemented, we project shortfalls in water available for irrigated agriculture. These shortfalls result in the contraction of irrigated area and diminished food production relative to the unconstrained baseline. However, trade could help India to mitigate a portion of this pressure by importing more food products from water abundant regions. In addition, allowing for the trading of water within river basins helps to alleviate some of the consequences of water scarcity.

  4. It's about Time: Leading School Reform in an Era of Time Scarcity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.

    Research about the American experience with school reform has underscored time as the major obstacle to change. This book presents a psychosocial perspective of time and the problems it presents for teachers and administrators in an era of time scarcity. Specifically, it explores the effects of five major concepts (time investment portfolios,…

  5. School Dress Codes in Post-Scarcity Japan: Contradictions and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamura, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on dress codes, this article aims at providing a better understanding of current practices of youth socialization in Japanese schools and of cultural consequences of post-scarcity on schools. Since the late 1980s, there has been a national trend among Japanese secondary schools granting students more freedom of individual expression…

  6. Measuring Parent Time Scarcity and Fatigue as Barriers to Meal Planning and Preparation: Quantitative Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. Methods: A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the…

  7. Drought phenomena and groundwater scarcity in Eastern Romania (Siret-Prut region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iulian Catalin, Stanga; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    Droughts are caused essentially by the climatic elements' variability, being the most known recurring phenomena and one of the most frequent natural disasters in many regions of the world. Acting as disturbances of the natural water cycle, the increasing drought frequency and severity has a high impact on water resources having multiple consequences, especially in regions of high population density or scarce water reserves. In this context, the current approach aims to assess the impact of drought phenomena on groundwater, to improve water management in one of the driest regions of Romania. The study area includes the region between Siret and Prut rivers (about 25,000 km2, in Eastern Romania), being characterized by a hilly and plateau relief, a temperate continental climate with excessive tendencies and a dominant vegetation cover specific to steppe, silvo-steppe and forest domains. Water resources are relatively modest in terms of groundwater or river discharge and characterized by a high time variability. Groundwater reserves and dynamics depend mainly on the climatic conditions, but also on the hydrostatic level depth, the reservoir and drainage conditions. Moreover, the last time, the significant human pressure manifests through a very high density of wells and a continuously increasing consumption, which affect the regenerative capacity of aquifers and perpetuate the water scarcity. In the context of the present climatic changes, the increased frequency and the more accentuated intensity of drought and dryness phenomena significantly affect groundwater reserves. Processing a consistent database from meteorological stations and 256 hydrogeological drills from the eastern part of Romania allowed highlighting some significant correlation between the hydro-climatic elements, with the purpose of relieving the degree of drought exposure of the phreatic aquifers. According to the typology of phreatic aquifers (floodplain or terrace alluvia, proluvio-coluvial slope

  8. Future Water Resources Assessment for West African River Basins Under Climate Change, Population Growth and Irrigation Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, D.; Ibrahim, B.; Proussevitch, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    West Africa economies rely on rain-fed agriculture and are extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation. Results from the most recent generation of regional climate models suggest increases in rainy season rainfall variability (delayed rainy season onset, increased probability of dry spells, shorter rainy season duration) despite a moderate increase in rainy season total precipitation. These changes could potentially have detrimental effects on crop yield and food security. Additional pressures on water resources come from increased demand as a result of high population growth rates (~3% per year). Increased water storage and irrigation can help improve crop yields but future assessments of water resources are needed to prioritize irrigation development as an adaptation option. Increased water abstraction, in turn can impact water availability in downstream regions so that an integrated assessment of future water availability and demand is needed. We use a set of 15 RCM outputs from the CORDEX data archive to drive WBMplus, a hydrological model and simulate water availability under climate change. Based on estimated water constraints, we develop scenarios to expand irrigated areas (from the current 1% of all croplands) and calculate the effects on water scarcity, taking into account increased demand for domestic consumption and livestock water demand, at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Results around the 2050's indicate large potential to develop irrigated areas on ground and surface water and increase local water storage without increasing water scarcity downstream for many river basins in the region that could help alleviate pressures on the cropping systems and thereby increase food security.

  9. Making the Economic Concept of Scarcity Oh-so-Sweet: An Activity for the K-12 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Melanie; Davis, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The authors outline an innovative activity that helps teachers make the abstract concepts of scarcity and allocation concrete in the K-12 classroom. Students evaluate the scarcity of chocolate and often determine, incorrectly, that the candy is not scarce because there is enough for each student to have one piece. After students reveal their…

  10. Groundwater Scarcity Impact on Inclusiveness and Women Empowerment: Insights from School Absenteeism of Female Students in Two Watersheds in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kookana, Rai S.; Maheshwari, Basant; Dillon, Peter; Dave, Seema H.; Soni, Prahlad; Bohra, Hakimuddin; Dashora, Yogita; Purohit, Ramesh C.; Ward, John; Oza, Sachin; Katara, Pratibha; Yadav, Kamal K.; Varua, Maria E.; Grewal, Harsharn Singh; Packham, Roger; Jodha, Anand Singh; Patel, Ashishkumar

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted in eight secondary schools located in two watersheds in Gujarat and Rajasthan (semi-arid region of India) to assess students' perceptions about groundwater scarcity issues and the impact of the scarcity on their educational opportunities. Survey responses to a detailed questionnaire by a cohort of students in both…

  11. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  12. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  13. Alleviation of Communication Apprehension: An Individualized Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    Communication apprehension (CA) affects from 15% to 20% of the college population, indicating inherent problems of negative cognitive appraisal, conditioned anxiety, or skills deficits. Use of an individualized approach to the alleviation of CA has been shown to increase students' class interaction and to improve their verbal skills. During an…

  14. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  15. Scarcity, recycling and substitution of potentially critical materials used for vehicular emissions control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This report discusses the scarcity, recycling, and substitution of imported platinum-group metals; palladium, rhodium, chromium, manganese, nickle and titanium that will be used for vehicular emissions control in the United States. Issues discussed include; EPA policymaking, projections of materials consumption for motor vehicle emission control, background information on the platinum-group metals, recycling of such metals from catalytic converters and substitutes for them.

  16. Scarcity discourses and their impacts on renal care policy, practices, and everyday experiences in rural British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brassolotto, Julia; Daly, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a qualitative case study in rural British Columbia, Canada, this paper examines the discourse of kidney scarcity and its impact on renal care policies and practices. Our findings suggest that at different levels of care, there are different discourses and treatment foci. We have identified three distinct scarcity discourses at work. At the macro policy level, the scarcity of transplantable kidneys is the dominant discourse. At the meso health care institution level, we witnessed a discourse regarding the scarcity of health care and human resources. At the micro community level, there was a discourse of the scarcity of health and life-sustaining resources. For each form of scarcity, particular responses are encouraged. At the macro level, renal care and transplant organizations emphasize the benefits of kidney transplantation and procuring more donors. At the meso level, participants from the regional health care system increasingly encourage home hemodialysis and patient-led care. At the micro level, community health care professionals push for rural renal patients to attend dialysis and maintain their care plans. This work contributes to critical, interdisciplinary organ transfer discourse by contextualizing kidney scarcity. It reveals the tension between these discourses and the implications of pursuing kidney donations without addressing the conditions in which individuals experience kidney failure.

  17. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about ‘resource-scarce settings’

    PubMed Central

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks—as it should—why some settings are ‘resource-scarce’ and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  18. The scarcity heuristic impacts reward processing within the medial-frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chad C; Saffer, Boaz Y; McCulloch, Robert B; Krigolson, Olave E

    2016-05-04

    Objects that are rare are often perceived to be inherently more valuable than objects that are abundant - a bias brought about in part by the scarcity heuristic. In the present study, we sought to test whether perception of rarity impacted reward evaluation within the human medial-frontal cortex. Here, participants played a gambling game in which they flipped rare and abundant 'cards' on a computer screen to win financial rewards while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Unbeknownst to participants, reward outcome and frequency was random and equivalent for both rare and abundant cards; thus, only a perception of scarcity was true. Analysis of the electroencephalographic data indicated that the P300 component of the event-related brain potential differed in amplitude for wins and losses following the selection of rare cards, but not following the selection of abundant cards. Importantly, then, we found that the perception of card rarity impacted reward processing even though reward feedback was independent of and subsequent to card selection. Our data indicate a top-down influence of the scarcity heuristic on reward evaluation, and specifically the processing of reward magnitude, within the human medial-frontal cortex.

  19. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  20. USING ECONOMIC LOSS FUNCTIONS TO VALUE URBAN WATER SCARCITY IN CALIFORNIA. (R825285)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-16

    is the second largest wetland in Africa. Accordingly, the environmental concern of draining the wetland now has international attention as a...scenarios where the United States may have to employ armed force in the region in the future, for example in Syria or Iran , it may be best to consider

  2. Web services for ecosystem services management and poverty alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. Here, we present the results of two projects on integrated environmental monitoring and scenario analysis aimed at poverty alleviation in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon. In the upper Andean highlands, farmers are monitoring the water cycle of headwater catchments to analyse the impact of land-use changes on stream flow and potential consequences for downstream irrigation. In the Amazon, local communities are monitoring the dynamics of turtle populations and their relations with river levels. In both cases, the use of online databases and web processing services enable real-time analysis of the data and scenario analysis. The system provides both physical and social indicators to assess the impact of land-use management options on local socio-economic development.

  3. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  4. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  5. Biochar of animal origin: a sustainable solution to the global problem of high-grade rock phosphate scarcity?

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Martos, Eva; Mendes, Gilberto; Martos, Vanessa; Vassileva, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms. However, in soil-plant systems, this nutrient is the most limiting, leading to frequent applications of soluble P fertilisers. Their excessive use provokes alterations in the natural P cycle, soil biodiversity and ecological equilibrium and is the main reason for the eutrophication of water, with consequences on food safety. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using various waste materials as a source of P and, on the other hand, their solubilisation by selected micro-organisms. This review present results on the solubilisation of animal bone char with high phosphate content by micro-organisms to produce organic acids such as lactic acid, citric acid and itaconic acid. All experiments were performed under conditions of liquid submerged and solid state fermentation processes. Freely suspended and immobilised cells of the corresponding microbial cultures were employed using substrates characterised by low cost and abundance. Other alternative technologies are discussed as well in order to stimulate further studies in this field, bearing in mind the progressive increase in P fertiliser prices based on high global P consumption and the scarcity of rock phosphate reserves.

  6. Flight investigation of insect contamination and its alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Fisher, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of leading edge contamination by insects was conducted with a JetStar airplane instrumented to detect transition on the outboard leading edge flap and equipped with a system to spray the leading edge in flight. The results of airline type flights with the JetStar indicated that insects can contaminate the leading edge during takeoff and climbout. The results also showed that the insects collected on the leading edges at 180 knots did not erode at cruise conditions for a laminar flow control airplane and caused premature transition of the laminar boundary layer. None of the superslick and hydrophobic surfaces tested showed any significant advantages in alleviating the insect contamination problem. While there may be other solutions to the insect contamination problem, the results of these tests with a spray system showed that a continouous water spray while encountering the insects is effective in preventing insect contamination of the leading edges.

  7. Organ donation after assisted suicide: a potential solution to the organ scarcity problem.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David M

    2014-08-15

    Switzerland has low deceased organ donation rates. It is also one of the few countries where assisted suicide is decriminalized in some circumstances. If organs donated by Swiss and foreign citizens assisted in committing suicide in Switzerland were used for transplantation, the country could achieve a surplus of organs. There are several practical problems and ethical and legal objections to this proposal, all of which can be overcome. Organ donation after planned death is a potential solution to the organ scarcity problem in any country that permits assisted dying.

  8. Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  9. [Communication and Information Technologies in Public Health: Excess and its Scarcities].

    PubMed

    Castiel, Luis David; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2005-06-01

    A critique of the possible side-effects of the current use of communications and information technologies in health and the implications thereof for Public Health theory and practice. The idea of excess and it scarcities is invoked from the sociological perspectives of Ellul, Illich and Bauman, as a way of monitoring the changes wrought by the general use of technical objects and the communication strategies. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of scientific journalism in the dissemination of biotechnology-related subject matter. Some suggestions are also made for setting out guidelines for regulating this activity. Additionally, under the heading of framing, relevant persuasive dimensions are presented which may interfere with the modern communication-related practices in health. By virtue of the involvement of other aspects within the scope of excess and its scarcities in Public Health, such as in the case of nutrition or the emerging diseases, emphasis is placed on the role played by public health specialists in studying health-related matters from this viewpoint as perhaps one of the ways of contributing toward a global epidemiology.

  10. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  11. Experimental evidence that women's mate preferences are directly influenced by cues of pathogen prevalence and resource scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthony J.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2011-01-01

    When choosing a mate, women are thought to face a trade-off between genetic and parental quality. Recent research suggests that this trade-off is influenced by environmental factors such as pathogen prevalence and resource scarcity, which affect the relative value of genetic and parental quality to offspring fitness. To further investigate these findings, the current study primed 60 women with pathogen prevalence, resource scarcity or an irrelevant threat, before administering a forced trade-off task that assessed mate preferences for traits thought to be indicative of genetic or parental quality. Women primed with pathogen prevalence revealed greater preferences for traits indicative of genetic quality at the expense of traits indicative of parental quality. The reverse was found for women primed with resource scarcity. These findings suggest that environmental factors may directly influence women's mate preferences owing to evolved plasticity, such that mate preferences are flexible in response to environmental factors. PMID:21697166

  12. The argument for property rights in body parts: scarcity of resources.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to answer two basic questions. First, can body parts be the subject of property rights? This requires us to start with a definition of property rights, and this is set out in the first section. In the second section, it will be argued that rights in relation to body parts can come within this definition of property rights. However, as explained in the third section, the fact that body parts can be the subject of property rights does not mean that they should. To answer the question of whether body parts should be the subject of property rights we need to consider policy arguments. This article will develop an argument in favour of the recognition of property rights in body parts which focuses on the notion of scarcity of resources.

  13. Running Out of Numbers: Scarcity of IP Addresses and What to Do about It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, Benjamin

    The Internet’s current numbering system is nearing exhaustion: Existing protocols allow only a finite set of computer numbers (“IP addresses”), and central authorities will soon deplete their supply. I evaluate a series of possible responses to this shortage: Sharing addresses impedes new Internet applications and does not seem to be scalable. A new numbering system (“IPv6”) offers greater capacity, but network incentives impede transition. Paid transfers of IP addresses would better allocate resources to those who need them most, but unrestricted transfers might threaten the Internet’s routing system. I suggest policies to facilitate an IP address “market” while avoiding major negative externalities - mitigating the worst effects of v4 scarcity, while obtaining price discovery and allocative efficiency benefits of market transactions.

  14. Resource Scarcity and Prescriptive Attitudes Generate Subtle, Intergenerational Older-Worker Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Prior work describes specific, prescriptive resource tensions between generations, comprising active Succession, passive Consumption, and symbolic Identity (SCI; North & Fiske, 2013a, 2013b). The current paper focuses on how these domains potentially drive intergenerational exclusion in work-related networking and training spheres. Studies 1a–1c—each focusing on a different SCI domain—manipulated perceived resource availability between generations, then introduced a professional networking opportunity. Across studies, scarcity reduced the likelihood of young participants’ networking engagement with older workers who violated SCI resource expectations. Study 2 impelled participants to allocate scarce training resources among three similarly qualified but different-aged employees (younger, middle-aged, and older). Older workers received the lowest such investment, particularly among younger participants—an effect driven by Succession beliefs, per mediation analyses. Overall, the findings emphasize resource tensions in driving older workers’ subtle exclusion by younger generations; minimizing such tensions will be critical for aging, increasingly intergenerational workplaces. PMID:27499555

  15. Public Health and Medicine in an Age of Energy Scarcity: The Case of Petroleum

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Hess, Jeremy; Frumkin, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum supplies have heretofore been abundant and inexpensive, but the world petroleum production peak is imminent, and we are entering an unprecedented era of petroleum scarcity. This fact has had little impact on policies related to climate, energy, the built environment, transportation, food, health care, public health, and global health. Rising prices are likely to spur research and drive efficiency improvements, but such innovations may be unable to address an increasing gap between supply and demand. The resulting implications for health and the environment are explored in the articles we have selected as additional contributions in this special issue. Uncertainty about the timing of the peak, the shape of the production curve, and decline rates should not delay action. The time for quick, decisive, comprehensive action is now. PMID:21778506

  16. Public health and medicine in an age of energy scarcity: the case of petroleum.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian S; Parker, Cindy L; Hess, Jeremy; Frumkin, Howard

    2011-09-01

    Petroleum supplies have heretofore been abundant and inexpensive, but the world petroleum production peak is imminent, and we are entering an unprecedented era of petroleum scarcity. This fact has had little impact on policies related to climate, energy, the built environment, transportation, food, health care, public health, and global health. Rising prices are likely to spur research and drive efficiency improvements, but such innovations may be unable to address an increasing gap between supply and demand. The resulting implications for health and the environment are explored in the articles we have selected as additional contributions in this special issue. Uncertainty about the timing of the peak, the shape of the production curve, and decline rates should not delay action. The time for quick, decisive, comprehensive action is now.

  17. Impact of seasonal scarcity on energy balance and body composition in peasant adolescents from Calakmul, Campeche Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, José A Alayón; García, Francisco D Gurri

    2007-01-01

    A time allocation and anthropometric study were performed on 46 male and 38 female adolescents from 16 peasant households from two different adaptive strategies in the municipio of Calakmul, Campeche Mexico to see if they could maintain energy balance during the annual scarcity season. These strategies were called: "household subsistence agricultural strategy" (HSA) and "household commercial agricultural strategy" (HCA). Each month, from June 2001 to May 2002, adolescents were measured and followed for 24 h. Their activities were recorded at 15 min intervals. Weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A), body mass index (BMI), arm muscle area, arm fat area, total energy expenditure (TEE), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were estimated and the data compared between seasons using a repeated measurements analysis of variance. The results suggest that HCA offers their adolescents better buffering against seasonal scarcity, and that HSA males are better protected than females. HCA adolescents didn't show significant losses of weight, and HCA females lost body fat during the scarcity season. HSA vulnerability was observed in W/A and BMI z score reductions during the scarcity season. It also reflected itself in stunted adolescent males and adolescent females with fewer fat reserves. HSA adolescents reduced their BMR to down regulate their energy expenditure during the scarcity season without reducing TEE and physical activity levels. HSA females lost muscle mass during the scarcity season while HSA males didn't. This difference was associated with a more demanding work schedule throughout the year for females.

  18. Hydrologic Modeling and Parameter Estimation under Data Scarcity for Java Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanto, M.; Livneh, B.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kasprzyk, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian island of Java is routinely subjected to intense flooding, drought and related natural hazards, resulting in severe social and economic impacts. Although an improved understanding of the island's hydrology would help mitigate these risks, data scarcity issues make the modeling challenging. To this end, we developed a hydrological representation of Java using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate the hydrologic processes of several watersheds across the island. We measured the model performance using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) at monthly time step. Data scarcity and quality issues for precipitation and streamflow warranted the application of a quality control procedure to data ensure consistency among watersheds resulting in 7 watersheds. To optimize the model performance, the calibration parameters were estimated using Borg Multi Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (Borg MOEA), which offers efficient searching of the parameter space, adaptive population sizing and local optima escape facility. The result shows that calibration performance is best (NSE ~ 0.6 - 0.9) in the eastern part of the domain and moderate (NSE ~ 0.3 - 0.5) in the western part of the island. The validation results are lower (NSE ~ 0.1 - 0.5) and (NSE ~ 0.1 - 0.4) in the east and west, respectively. We surmise that the presence of outliers and stark differences in the climate between calibration and validation periods in the western watersheds are responsible for low NSE in this region. In addition, we found that approximately 70% of total errors were contributed by less than 20% of total data. The spatial variability of model performance suggests the influence of both topographical and hydroclimatic controls on the hydrological processes. Most watersheds in eastern part perform better in wet season and vice versa for the western part. This modeling framework is one of the first attempts at comprehensively simulating the hydrology in this maritime, tropical

  19. Influence of cobalamin scarcity on diatom molecular physiology and identification of a cobalamin acquisition protein.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Erin M; Allen, Andrew E; Dupont, Christopher L; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Bai, Jing; Valas, Ruben E; Saito, Mak A

    2012-06-26

    Diatoms are responsible for ~40% of marine primary production and are key players in global carbon cycling. There is mounting evidence that diatom growth is influenced by cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) availability. This cobalt-containing micronutrient is only produced by some bacteria and archaea but is required by many diatoms and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Despite its potential importance, little is known about mechanisms of cobalamin acquisition in diatoms or the impact of cobalamin scarcity on diatom molecular physiology. Proteomic profiling and RNA-sequencing transcriptomic analysis of the cultured diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana revealed three distinct strategies used by diatoms to cope with low cobalamin: increased cobalamin acquisition machinery, decreased cobalamin demand, and management of reduced methionine synthase activity through changes in folate and S-adenosyl methionine metabolism. One previously uncharacterized protein, cobalamin acquisition protein 1 (CBA1), was up to 160-fold more abundant under low cobalamin availability in both diatoms. Autologous overexpression of CBA1 revealed association with the outside of the cell and likely endoplasmic reticulum localization. Cobalamin uptake rates were elevated in strains overexpressing CBA1, directly linking this protein to cobalamin acquisition. CBA1 is unlike characterized cobalamin acquisition proteins and is the only currently identified algal protein known to be implicated in cobalamin uptake. The abundance and widespread distribution of transcripts encoding CBA1 in environmental samples suggests that cobalamin is an important nutritional factor for phytoplankton. Future study of CBA1 and other molecular signatures of cobalamin scarcity identified here will yield insight into the evolution of cobalamin utilization and facilitate monitoring of cobalamin starvation in oceanic diatom communities.

  20. Research policy and review 26: where does the United States stand in the global resource scarcity debate?

    PubMed

    Mackellar, F L; Vining, D R

    1988-12-01

    "U.S. policy on world resources and population underwent a drastic shift between the 1970s and 1980s. Underlying this shift were deep and persistent divisions among social scientists and policy scientists who are students of the global resource scarcity hypothesis. This article consists of a brief review of the history of the debate between those who believe that resources are becoming increasingly scarce and those who do not. Major focuses include the ambiguities of scarcity measures, and economic literature such as The Limits to Growth, Global 2000, the critique of Julian Simon, and The Resourceful Earth."

  1. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  2. Estimating the impacts of a reservoir for improved water use in irrigation in the Yarabamba region, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiech, Theoclea; Ertsen, Maurits W.; Pererya, Carlos Machicao

    The pressure on irrigation is increasing worldwide, not only because of - perceived or real - high water consumption in the irrigated sector, but also because an increased world population puts stress on food production. Numerous irrigated areas around the world face similar issues of water scarcity, disparity in water distribution and deficient infrastructure. As a result, farmers are typically restricted in their production strategies. A general strategy in the irrigation sector is the introduction of so-called modern techniques in existing irrigation systems, with the aim to increase agricultural production. This paper discusses such a modernization effort in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, Arequipa, Peru, in which a reservoir is being constructed to improve water use and stimulate economic development. Based on fieldwork, including interviews and scenario modeling with WEAP, the relationships between water users, their irrigation systems and the water balances in the basin were studied. Scenario studies showed that the reservoir might alleviate the current water shortages in the sub-basin, but that restrictions in the current infrastructure and management of irrigation may be of more importance than the reservoir. Especially existing interests and actions of upstream and downstream areas appear to be important factors; these will not be automatically solved with the new reservoir.

  3. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.

  4. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  6. Alleviating spatial conflict between people and biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Imhoff, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Human settlements are expanding in species-rich regions and pose a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. We quantify the degree to which this threat manifests itself in two contrasting continents, Australia and North America, and suggest how it can be substantially alleviated. Human population density has a strong positive correlation with species richness in Australia for birds, mammals, amphibians, and butterflies (but not reptiles) and in North America for all five taxa. Nevertheless, conservation investments could secure locations that harbor almost all species while greatly reducing overlap with densely populated regions. We compared two conservation-planning scenarios that each aimed to represent all species at least once in a minimum set of sampling sites. The first scenario assigned equal cost to each site (ignoring differences in human population density); the second assigned a cost proportional to the site's human population density. Under the equal-cost scenario, 13–40% of selected sites occurred where population density values were highest (in the top decile). However, this overlap was reduced to as low as 0%, and in almost all cases to <10%, under the population-cost scenario, when sites of high population density were avoided where possible. Moreover, this reduction of overlap was achieved with only small increases in the total amount of area requiring protection. As densely populated regions continue to expand rapidly and drive up land values, the strategic conservation investments of the kind highlighted in our analysis are best made now. PMID:14681554

  7. Why May Allopregnanolone Help Alleviate Loneliness?

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, S.; Cacioppo, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. PMID:26365247

  8. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  9. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  10. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are present in drinking water impoundments and groundwater wells in desert environments.

    PubMed

    Chatziefthimiou, Aspassia D; Metcalf, James S; Glover, W Broc; Banack, Sandra A; Dargham, Soha R; Richer, Renee A

    2016-05-01

    Desert environments and drylands experience a drastic scarcity of water resources. To alleviate dependence on freshwater for drinking water needs, countries have invested in infrastructure development of desalination plants. Collectively, the countries of the Arabian Gulf produce 45% of the world's desalinated water, which is stored in dams, mega-reservoirs and secondary house water tanks to secure drinking water beyond daily needs. Improper storage practices of drinking water in impoundments concomitant with increased temperatures and light penetration may promote the growth of cyanobacteria and accumulation of cyanotoxins. To shed light on this previously unexplored research area in desert environments, we examined drinking and irrigation water of urban and rural environments to determine whether cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are present, and what are the storage and transportation practices as well as the environmental parameters that best predict their presence. Cyanobacteria were present in 80% of the urban and 33% of the rural water impoundments. Neurotoxins BMAA, DAB and anatoxin-a(S) were not detected in any of the water samples, although they have been found to accumulate in the desert soils, which suggests a bioaccumulation potential if they are leached into the aquifer. A toxic BMAA isomer, AEG, was found in 91.7% of rural but none of the urban water samples and correlated with water-truck transportation, light exposure and chloride ions. The hepatotoxic cyanotoxin microcystin-LR was present in the majority of all sampled impoundments, surpassing the WHO provisional guideline of 1 μg/l in 30% of the urban water tanks. Finally, we discuss possible management strategies to improve storage and transportation practices in order to minimize exposure to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and actions to promote sustainable use of limited water resources.

  11. A passive gust alleviation system for a light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesch, P.; Harlan, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A passive aeromechanical gust alleviation system was examined for application to a Cessna 172. The system employs small auxiliary wings to sense changes in angle of attack and to drive the wing flaps to compensate the resulting incremental lift. The flaps also can be spring loaded to neutralize the effects of variations in dynamic pressure. Conditions for gust alleviation are developed and shown to introduce marginal stability if both vertical and horizontal gusts are compensated. Satisfactory behavior is realized if only vertical gusts are absorbed; however, elevator control is effectively negated by the system. Techniques to couple the elevator and flaps are demonstrated to restore full controllability without sacrifice of gust alleviation.

  12. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity. PMID:27832171

  13. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  14. Kinship and seasonal migration among the Aymara of southern Peru: human adaptation to energy scarcity

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The people of the southern Peruvian highlands have adapted to a condition of energy scarcity through seasonal migration to lowland areas. In the disrict of Sarata (a fictitious name for a real district on the northeastern shore of Lake Titicaca) people spend three to seven months of every year growing coffee in the Tambopata Valley of the eastern Andes. This migratory pattern, which is hundreds of years old, provides the context for an investigation of human adaptive processes. This study presents models of the flow of energy through high-altitude households and shows that energy is a limiting factor for the population. There are two periods when energy subsidies from lowland regions become crucial to the continued survival of highland households. These are the periods of peak growth and reproduction experienced by households early in their developmental cycles, and times of sharply lowered productivity caused by environmental crises such as drought or killing frosts. Seasonal migration provides the subsidies that households rely on during these periods.

  15. Ore grade decrease as life cycle impact indicator for metal scarcity: the case of copper.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marisa D M; Goedkoop, Mark J; Storm, Per; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-12-04

    In the life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, the increasing scarcity of metal resources is currently addressed in a preliminary way. Here, we propose a new method on the basis of global ore grade information to assess the importance of the extraction of metal resources in the life cycle of products. It is shown how characterization factors, reflecting the decrease in ore grade due to an increase in metal extraction, can be derived from cumulative ore grade-tonnage relationships. CFs were derived for three different types of copper deposits (porphyry, sediment-hosted, and volcanogenic massive sulfide). We tested the influence of the CF model (marginal vs average), mathematical distribution (loglogistic vs loglinear), and reserve estimate (ultimate reserve vs reserve base). For the marginal CFs, the statistical distribution choice and the estimate of the copper reserves introduce a difference of a factor of 1.0-5.0 and a factor of 1.2-1.7, respectively. For the average CFs, the differences are larger for these two choices, i.e. respectively a factor of 5.7-43 and a factor of 2.1-3.8. Comparing the marginal CFs with the average CFs, the differences are higher (a factor 1.7-94). This paper demonstrates that cumulative grade-tonnage relationships for metal extraction can be used in LCA to assess the relative importance of metal extractions.

  16. Effect of Load-Alleviating Structure on the Landing Behavior of a Reentry-Capsule Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Effect of Load-Alleviating Structure on the Landing Behavior of a Reentry-Capsule Model. Model tests have been made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a parachute-supported reentry capsule that had a compliable metal structure as a load-alleviating device. A 1/6-scale dynamic model having compliable aluminum-alloy legs designed to give a low onset rate of acceleration on impact was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees (vertical) and 35 degrees, at a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), and at contact attitudes of 0 degrees and +/-30 degrees. Landings were made on concrete, sand, and water. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030968. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  17. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  18. Stratification Requirements for Seed Dormancy Alleviation in a Wetland Weed

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Louis G.; Bradford, Kent J.; Fischer, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence. PMID:24039714

  19. Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Louis G; Bradford, Kent J; Fischer, Albert J

    2013-01-01

    Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence.

  20. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water. PMID:27029309

  1. Dietary clays alleviate diarrhea of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Liu, Y; Soares, J A; Che, T M; Osuna, O; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-01-01

    , kaolinite, and zeolite individually and all possible combinations to total 0.3% of the diet)] were used. The clay treatments did not affect growth rate of the pigs. In the E. coli challenged group, the clay treatments reduced DS for the overall period (1.63 vs. 3.00; P < 0.05), RHT on d 9 (0.32 vs. 0.76; P < 0.05) and d 12 (0.13 vs. 0.39; P = 0.094), and total WBC on d 6 (15.2 vs. 17.7 × 10(3)/μL; P = 0.069) compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, dietary clays alleviated diarrhea of weaned pigs.

  2. The global water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  3. Rural Clinician Scarcity and Job Preferences of Doctors and Nurses in India: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna D.; Ryan, Mandy; Shroff, Zubin; Vujicic, Marko; Ramani, Sudha; Berman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable

  4. Rural clinician scarcity and job preferences of doctors and nurses in India: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Ryan, Mandy; Shroff, Zubin; Vujicic, Marko; Ramani, Sudha; Berman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable

  5. Pollinator scarcity drives the shift to delayed selfing in Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying-Ze; Fang, Qiang; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetics have indicated that American mayapple (mainly self-incompatible, SI) and Himalayan mayapple, which was considered to be self-compatible (SC), are sister species with disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We test a hypothesis that the persistence of this early spring flowering herb in the Himalayan region is attributable to the transition from SI to SC, the capacity for selfing in an unpredictable pollination environment. Pollinator observations were conducted in an alpine meadow with hundreds of Himalayan mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle) individuals over 2 years. To examine autogamy, seed set under different pollination treatments was compared. To clarify whether automatic self-pollination is achieved by movement of the pistil as a previous study suggested, we measured incline angles of the pistil and observed flower movement during anthesis using video. Floral visitors to the nectarless flowers were very rare, but solitary bees and honeybees could be potential pollinators. Seed set of bagged flowers was not significantly different from that of open-pollinated, self- or cross-pollinated flowers. However, removal of petals or stamens lowered seed yield. The angles of inclination of pistils did not change during the process of pollination. Automatic self-pollination was facilitated by petals closing and stamens moving simultaneously to contact the stigma. Stigmatic pollen load increased little during the day time, in contrast to a sharp increase when the flowers closed during the night-time. These observations indicated that Himalayan mayapple was SC and delayed self-pollination was facilitated by the movement of petals rather than the pistil. Compared with SI American mayapple, no obvious inbreeding depression in SC Himalayan mayapple may contribute its existence in the uplifting zone. A scarcity of pollinators may have driven the shift to delayed selfing in P. hexandrum.

  6. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tracy TL; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise TD

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to promote better consumption choices. Results indicate that consumers low in self-control especially benefited and selected more healthy choices when marketed as “scarce” (Study 1), and that a demand (vs supply) scarcity heuristic was most effective in promoting utilitarian products (Study 2) suggests low self-control involves both an enhanced reward orientation and increased tendency to conform to descriptive norms. PMID:28070377

  7. Seeking sustainability: Israel's evolving water management strategy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2006-08-25

    The water management policies adopted to address Israel's chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future.

  8. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  9. Mode of consumption plays a role in alleviating hunger and thirst.

    PubMed

    Martens, Mieke J I; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-03-01

    While studying the effect of structure on satiety, effects of mode of consumption, additional water to drink, and thirst have been neglected. The objective was to assess effects of structure, mode of consumption of food, and additional drinking of water on fullness and thirst. In study 1, 20 subjects (BMI 22.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2); age 21.4 ± 3 years) underwent consumption conditions; SEW: solids to eat + 750 ml water to drink; LEW: liquefied soup to eat including 500 ml water + 250 ml water separately to drink; LDW: the same as LEW but served as drinks; SE, LE, and LD: the same as previous but without water to drink. In study 2, a subset of subjects underwent consumption conditions: solid carbohydrate, solid protein, solid fat: the same as SEW, but for each macronutrient separately; liquefied carbohydrate, liquefied protein, liquefied fat: the same as LEW, but for each macronutrient separately. Appetite, insulin concentration, glucose concentration, and ghrelin concentration were measured. Eating, independent of structure, suppressed desire to eat more than drinking (P < 0.01). Drinking water separately vs. water consumption in the food suppressed thirst more (P < 0.001). Regarding protein, satiety was higher in the solid vs. liquefied condition, while blood parameters were not significantly different. Only after drinking a meal most subjects (80%) wanted to consume more of the same meal, in order to alleviate hunger (63%) or quench thirst (37%). We conclude that mode of consumption plays a role in alleviating hunger and thirst. Subjects required further consumption after drinking the meal, motivated by hunger or thirst, showing that drinking a meal causes confusion that may imply a risk of overconsumption.

  10. Control concepts for the alleviation of windshears and gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynaski, E. G.; Govindaraj, K. S.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic control system design methods for gust and shear alleviation were studied. It is shown that automatic gust/shear alleviation systems can be quite effective if both throttle and elevator are used in harmony to produce the forces and moments required to counter the effects of the windshear. Regulation with respect to ground speed or airspeed results in very similar system designs. The application of the NASA total energy probe in the detection of windshear and criteria for alleviation is considered. The theory and application of robust output observers is extended. Design examples show how implementation of the control laws can be accomplished using observers, and thereby resulting in less complex control system configurations.

  11. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuwang; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ + α)/(α + β) and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. PMID:25254242

  12. Effect of Load-Alleviating Structure on the Landing Behavior of a Reentry-Capsule Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; McGhee, J. R.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1961-01-01

    Model tests have been made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a parachute-supported reentry capsule that had a compliable metal structure as a load-alleviating device. A 1/6-scale dynamic model having compliable aluminum-alloy legs designed to give a low onset rate of acceleration on impact was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees (vertical) and 35 degrees, at a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), and at contact attitudes of 0 degrees and +/-30 degrees. Landings were made on concrete, sand, and water.

  13. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  14. Dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for aircraft gust alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yang; Wan, Xiaopeng; Li, Aijun

    2008-10-01

    A dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for MIMO system is presented in this paper. The dynamic inversion method is used to decouple the multivariable system. The nonlinear control method is used to overcome the poor decoupling effect when the system model is inaccurate. The nonlinear control method has correcting function and is expressed in analytic form, it is easy to adjust the parameters of the controller and optimize the design of the control system. The method is used to design vertical transition mode of active control aircraft for gust alleviation. Simulation results show that the designed vertical transition mode improves the gust alleviation effect about 34% comparing with the normal aircraft.

  15. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  16. Integrating Economic Models with Biophysical Models in the Willamette Water 2100 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, W. K.; Plantinga, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper highlights the human system modeling components for Willamette Water 2100, a comprehensive, highly integrated study of hydrological, ecological, and human factors affecting water scarcity in the Willamette River Basin (WRB). The project is developing a spatiotemporal simulation model to predict future trajectories of water scarcity, and to evaluate mitigation policies. Economic models of land use and water use are the main human system models in WW2100. Water scarcity depends on both supply and demand for water, and varies greatly across time and space (Jaeger et al., 2013). Thus, the locations of human water use can have enormous influence on where and when water is used, and hence where water scarcity may arise. Modeling the locations of human uses of water (e.g., urban versus agricultural) as well as human values and choices, are the principal quantitative ways that social science can contribute to research of this kind. Our models are empirically-based models of human resource allocation. Each model reflects private behavior (choices by households, farms, firms), institutions (property rights, laws, markets, regulations), public infrastructure (dams, canals, highways), and also 'external drivers' that influence the local economy (migration, population growth, national markets and policies). This paper describes the main model components, emphasizing similarities between human and biophysical components of the overall project, and the model's linkages and feedbacks relevant to our predictions of changes in water scarcity between now and 2100. Results presented include new insights from individual model components as well as available results from the integrated system model. Issues include water scarcity and water quality (temperature) for out-of-stream and instream uses, the impact of urban expansion on water use and potential flood damage. Changes in timing and variability of spring discharge with climate change, as well as changes in human uses of

  17. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  18. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study.

  19. Energy's thirst for water in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Beiming; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing

    2014-10-21

    Water scarcity and uneven water distribution pose significant challenges to sustainable development and energy production in China. Based on the International Energy Agency (IEA)'s energy strategy scenarios for China, we evaluated the water withdrawal for energy production from 2011 to 2030. The results show that the amount of water withdrawal will be increased by 77% in 2030, which will aggravate China's water scarcity risk under current energy strategy. We also observed that 67% of the energy production in China occurs in areas that are facing water scarcity. Moreover, China's 12th Five-Year Plan of Energy Development does not change the existing energy strategies, and the planned total energy production is much higher than the IEA's projection, which will result in an increased demand for water resources. However, if China were to apply broad policies to reduce CO2 emissions, the amount of water withdrawal would also decline compared with current energy strategy. Thus, reforming China's energy structure and reducing energy usage are not only urgent because of climate challenges and air pollution but also essential to reducing the pressure of water scarcity.

  20. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation.

  1. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  2. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  3. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural

  4. The Impact of Water Scarcity on Egyptian National Security and on Regional Security in the Nile River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    and the electricity to support the growth of the American metropolitan west. The cities that rely in one way or another, on the resources of the...85Ibid. 86Ibid. 70 In 2005, the first meeting of Ministers of Electricity from all of the Nile Basin countries was held

  5. Clemson University Awarded $1 Million Grant from EPA for Research to Respond to Water Scarcity, Drought and Extreme Events

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a $1 million award to Clemson University for research addressing extreme weather events and climate change which impact the frequency and severity of droughts, subsequent wildf

  6. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  7. Sex ratio and women's career choice: does a scarcity of men lead women to choose briefcase over baby?

    PubMed

    Durante, Kristina M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Cantú, Stephanie M; Tybur, Joshua M

    2012-07-01

    Although the ratio of males to females in a population is known to influence behavior in nonhuman animals, little is known about how sex ratio influences human behavior. We propose that sex ratio affects women's family planning and career choices. Using both historical data and experiments, we examined how sex ratio influences women's career aspirations. Findings showed that a scarcity of men led women to seek high-paying careers and to delay starting a family. This effect was driven by how sex ratio altered the mating market, not just the job market. Sex ratios involving a scarcity of men led women to seek lucrative careers because of the difficulty women have in finding an investing, long-term mate under such circumstances. Accordingly, this low-male sex ratio produced the strongest desire for lucrative careers in women who are least able to secure a mate. These findings demonstrate that sex ratio has far-reaching effects in humans, including whether women choose briefcase over baby.

  8. Use of wastewater : challenge against scarcity,enhancement of crop disease and environment damage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El Hajjaji, Souad; El Makhoukhi, Fadoua

    2015-04-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture is a potential alternative to face shortage in water resources mainly in arid regions. Morocco is among countries that have experienced long and severe period of drought associated with shortage in water resources. Though the large efforts deployed in providing water supplies to different regions, this resource remains sufficiently available in northern part of the country only. This situation has pushed growers to use non treated wastewater for irrigation without any environmental or health cautions. Trials with waste water for irrigation have demonstrated net increase in production of irrigated crops, good improvement of soil texture and availability of nutrients. However interactions with pesticides remain neglected. Actually this interaction could be associated with an improvement or reduction of the efficacy of a given pesticide. On environmental point of view, it could improve or reduce adsorption, mobility of soil applied pesticides toward groundwater. Laboratory test with a selected fungicide showed net reduction of the efficacy of the pesticide against the target fungus. Comparison between growing species in medium spiked with pesticide/ wastewater and pesticide only shoed net increase of the growth in presence of wastewater. In the column of soil, low mobility herbicide showed net increase in mobility after percolation with water spiked with wastewater under laboratory conditions. .

  9. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquifeŕs reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering

  10. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  11. Omeprazole Alleviates Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianmei; Zhang, Hongbing; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Tian, Jingzhuo; Zhang, Yushi; Wei, Xiaolu; Gao, Yue; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is a member of the Aristolochiaceae family and is a well-known cause of aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the potential of omeprazole (OM) to alleviate AMK-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that OM reduced mouse mortality caused by AMK and attenuated AMK-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. OM enhanced hepatic Cyp 1a1/2 and renal Cyp 1a1 expression in rats, as well as CYP 1A1 expression in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HKCs). HKCs with ectopic CYP 1A1 expression were more tolerant to AA than the control cells. Therefore, OM may alleviate AMK-mediated acute nephrotoxicity through induction of CYP 1A1. We suggest that the coadministration of OM might be beneficial for reducing of AA-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27716846

  12. Alleviating α quenching by solar wind and meridional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, D.; Moss, D.; Tavakol, R.; Brandenburg, A.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic α-quenching in mean field dynamos in two-dimensional spherical wedge domains. Methods: Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider α^2Ω mean field models with a dynamical α quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow ("solar wind") and meridional circulation. Results: We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  13. Damage in the dorsal striatum alleviates addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Muskens, J B; Schellekens, A F A; de Leeuw, F E; Tendolkar, I; Hepark, S

    2012-01-01

    The ventral striatum has been assigned a major role in addictive behavior. In addition, clinical lesion studies have described involvement of the insula and globus pallidus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of alleviation of alcohol and nicotine addiction after a cerebrovascular incident in the dorsal striatum. The patient was still abstinent from alcohol and nicotine at follow-up. This observation suggests that the dorsal striatum may play a critical role in addiction to alcohol and nicotine.

  14. Aircraft Dynamic Load Alleviation Using Smart Actuation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    is under the auspices of the International Follow - On Structural Test Program ( IFOSTP ) funded by the US Air Force with the primary objective to...Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel," presented at the CEAS International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural ...Next, a fast Fourier transform is used to compute the pressure time history, p(t) at all known data points on the structural surface. f.., i~n(2-15) p(t

  15. Alleviation of chromium toxicity by hydrogen sulfide in barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafaqat; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Abbasi, G H; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to examine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in alleviating chromium (Cr) stress in barley. A 2-factorial design with 6 replications was selected, including 3 levels of NaHS (0 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) and 2 levels of Cr (0 μM and 100 μM) as treatments. The results showed that NaHS addition enhances plant growth and photosynthesis slightly compared with the control. Moreover, NaHS alleviated the inhibition in plant growth and photosynthesis by Cr stress. Higher levels of NaHS exhibited more pronounced effects in reducing Cr concentrations in roots, shoots, and leaves. Ultrastructural examination of plant cells supported the facts by indication of visible alleviation of cell disorders in both root and leaf with exogenous application of NaHS. An increased number of plastoglobuli, disintegration, and disappearance of thylakoid membranes and starch granules were visualized inside the chloroplast of Cr-stressed plants. Starch accumulation in the chloroplasts was also noticed in the Cr-treated cells, with the effect being much less in Cr + NaHS-treated plants. Hence, it is concluded that H2 S produced from NaHS can improve plant tolerance under Cr stress.

  16. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  17. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  18. A study of helicopter gust response alleviation by automatic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two control schemes designed to alleviate gust-induced vibration are analytically investigated for a helicopter with four articulated blades. One is an individual blade pitch control scheme. The other is an adaptive blade pitch control algorithm based on linear optimal control theory. In both controllers, control inputs to alleviate gust response are superimposed on the conventional control inputs required to maintain the trim condition. A sinusoidal vertical gust model and a step gust model are used. The individual blade pitch control, in this research, is composed of sensors and a pitch control actuator for each blade. Each sensor can detect flapwise (or lead-lag or torsionwise) deflection of the respective blade. The acturator controls the blade pitch angle for gust alleviation. Theoretical calculations to predict the performance of this feedback system have been conducted by means of the harmonic method. The adaptive blade pitch control system is composed of a set of measurements (oscillatory hub forces and moments), an identification system using a Kalman filter, and a control system based on the minimization of the quadratic performance function.

  19. How Do You Get Your Water? Structural Violence Pedagogy and Women's Access to Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie; Bousalis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of the less developed world it is women and girls who are expected to provide water for their family. Frequently, young girls are unable to complete school or get jobs because water scarcity means they are forced to walk miles daily to obtain this most basic need. Since the creation of the United Nations Millennium Goals, progress…

  20. Hydrodynamic Impact-Load Alleviation with a Penetrating Hydro-Ski

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, Philip M., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A penetrating hydro-ski was mounted below a model tested previously in the study reported in NACA Technical Note 4401, and a series of impacts were made in the Langley impact basin to determine load alleviation with this type of hydro-ski. The hydro-ski was designed to penetrate through seaway irregularities with a minimum of drag and with small impact loads. The penetrating hydro-ski was small (beam-loading coefficient of 111) and of a streamline shape with the bottom designed for flush retraction into the main model. A series of impacts at fixed trim angles of 8, 16, and 30 deg were made in smooth water and at a fixed trim angle of 8 deg in rough water. The loads and motions of the model were recorded, and photographic observations of the flow and cavities generated in the water by the penetrating hydro-ski were made. The data are presented and the maximum impact loads and maximum drafts of the model with the penetrating hydro-ski are compared with those of the model obtained without the penetrating hydro-ski. Maximum load reductions of 30 to 70 percent in smooth water and of 50 to 80 percent in rough water are indicated. Cavity and flow generation by the penetrating hydro-ski are discussed, and it is indicated that the penetrating hydro-ski moved smoothly through the water and generated deep cavities which are shown by stereophotographs.

  1. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  2. Alleviation of Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Betaine Supplementation in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Meng-Tsz; Chen, Ching-Yi; Pan, Yu-Hui; Wang, Siou-Huei; Mersmann, Harry J.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is a food component with well-reported hepatoprotection effects. However, the effects and mechanisms of betaine on liver fibrosis development are still insufficient. Because metabolic functions of chicken and human liver is similar, we established a chicken model with carbon Tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced fibrosis for studying antifibrotic effect of betaine in vivo and in vitro. Two-week-old male chicks were supplemented with betaine (1%, w/v) in drinking water for 2 weeks prior to the initiation of CCl4 treatment (i.p.) until sacrifice. Primary chicken hepatocytes were treated with CCl4 and betaine to mimic the in vivo supplementation. The supplementation of betaine significantly alleviated liver fibrosis development along with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, hepatic inflammation cytokine, and transforming growth factor-β1 expression levels. These inhibitive effects were also accompanied with the attenuation of hepatic stellate cell activation. Furthermore, our in vitro studies confirmed that betaine provides antioxidant capacity for attenuating the hepatocyte necrosis by CCl4. Altogether, our results highlight the antioxidant ability of betaine, which alleviates CCl4-induced fibrogenesis process along with the suppression of hepatic stellate cells activation. Since betaine is a natural compound without toxicity, we suggest betaine can be used as a potent nutritional or therapeutic factor for reducing liver fibrosis. PMID:26491462

  3. Poverty alleviation strategies in eastern China lead to critical ecological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Dearing, John A; Dawson, Terence P; Dong, Xuhui; Yang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-02-15

    Poverty alleviation linked to agricultural intensification has been achieved in many regions but there is often only limited understanding of the impacts on ecological dynamics. A central need is to observe long term changes in regulating and supporting services as the basis for assessing the likelihood of sustainable agriculture or ecological collapse. We show how the analyses of 55 time-series of social, economic and ecological conditions can provide an evolutionary perspective for the modern Lower Yangtze River Basin region since the 1950s with powerful insights about the sustainability of modern ecosystem services. Increasing trends in provisioning ecosystem services within the region over the past 60 years reflect economic growth and successful poverty alleviation but are paralleled by steep losses in a range of regulating ecosystem services mainly since the 1980s. Increasing connectedness across the social and ecological domains after 1985 points to a greater uniformity in the drivers of the rural economy. Regime shifts and heightened levels of variability since the 1970s in local ecosystem services indicate progressive loss of resilience across the region. Of special concern are water quality services that have already passed critical transitions in several areas. Viewed collectively, our results suggest that the regional social-ecological system passed a tipping point in the late 1970s and is now in a transient phase heading towards a new steady state. However, the long-term relationship between economic growth and ecological degradation shows no sign of decoupling as demanded by the need to reverse an unsustainable trajectory.

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2 (∙-)) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2∙−) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation. PMID:27594971

  6. A fundamental shift. For most countries in the world, the principal threat to security will not be military aggression, but food scarcity.

    PubMed

    Brown, L M

    1995-01-01

    There has been enormous growth in world population over the last several decades. 90 million people are currently added to the world's population every year. That amounts to 250,000 people per day, or 10,000 per hour. However, the Earth is a finite body with finite resources. For the first time, the human population is beginning to push against some of the Earth's limits at the global level. The author cites the example of the stagnation in growth of the world fish catch. The world fish catch grew from 22 million tons in 1950 to 100,000 million tons by 1990. In 1950, the average person consumed 9 kg of seafood; by 1990, average per capita consumption had increased to 19 kg. Japan alone in 1994 consumed almost 10 million tons of seafood. Most marine biologists believe that oceanic fisheries cannot sustain a catch of more than 100 million tons of seafood per year. Indeed, 6 years have passed since we hit that limit and the catch has not increased. The per capita seafood catch has therefore declined by 7% and will continue to decline until world population size is stabilized. Already expensive, seafood will grow increasingly more costly as demand rises. Available water supplies and cropland are also declining. It has even been determined that there are limits to the amount of fertilizer crops can use. The author considers the rising consumerism in China as it becomes increasingly industrialized and urges Japan to continue to expand its financial support of international family planning programs, especially in the context of US budget cuts to family planning expenditures. For most countries in the world, the main threat to security will not be military aggression, but food scarcity.

  7. ``Virtual water'': An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zehnder, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    In its broadest sense, virtual water refers to the water required for the production of food commodities. Issues relating to virtual water have drawn much attention in scientific communities and the political sphere since the mid 1990s. This paper provides a critical review of major research issues and results in the virtual water literature and pinpoints the remaining questions and the direction of research in future virtual water studies. We conclude that virtual water studies have helped to raise the awareness of water scarcity and its impact on food security and to improve the understanding of the role of food trade in compensating for water deficit. However, the studies so far have been overwhelmingly concerned with the international food trade, and many solely quantified virtual water flows associated with food trade. There is a general lack of direct policy relevance to the solutions to water scarcity and food insecurity, which are often local, regional, and river basin issues. The obscurity in the conceptual basis of virtual water also entails some confusion. The methodologies and databases of the studies are often crude, affecting the robustness and reliability of the results. Looking ahead, future virtual water studies need to enhance the policy relevance by strengthening their linkages with national and regional water resources management. Meanwhile, integrated approaches taking into consideration the spatial and temporal variations of blue and green water resources availability and the complexity of natural, socioeconomic, and political conditions are necessary in assessing the trade-offs of the virtual water strategy in dealing with water scarcity. To this end, interdisciplinary efforts and quantitative methods supported by improved data availability are greatly important.

  8. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1–2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle. PMID:27911777

  9. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Rene M; Mende, Daniel R; Hawco, Nicholas J; McIlvin, Matthew R; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Saito, Mak A; Sedwick, Peter N; DeLong, Edward F; Repeta, Daniel J

    2016-12-13

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1-2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  10. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1–2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  11. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Leung, L. Ruby

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of irrigation on global water resources by performing and analyzing Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) simulations driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs). For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were performed: (1) a CTRL experiment in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an IRRIG experiment in which the irrigation module is activated using surface water (SW) to feed irrigation; and (3) a PUMP experiment in which a groundwater pumping scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater (GW) for irrigation. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping are calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based water use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major effects: SW (GW) depletion in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW (GW), respectively. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions, suggesting increased vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century, combined effect of increased irrigation water demand and amplified temporal-spatial variability of water supply may lead to severe local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate/alleviate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although such effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our study highlights the need to account for irrigation effects and sources in assessing regional climate change impacts.

  12. Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  13. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  14. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources.

  15. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  16. Population, poverty alleviation issues considered at 50th commission session.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    ESCAP's (UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) work program has focused on poverty alleviation through economic growth and social development. A paper was issued on this theme as a follow-up to the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development and as regional preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development. A meeting on April 5-13, 1994, in New Delhi stressed the new philosophy on development. The emphasis was on empowerment of individuals and growth of individuals' independence and self-sufficiency. ESCAP's programs have targeted women, disabled persons, human resource development, and population growth.

  17. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1975-01-01

    Application of the aerodynamic energy approach to some problems of flutter suppression and gust alleviation were considered. A simple modification of the control-law is suggested for achieving the required pitch control in the use of a leading edge - trailing edge activated strip. The possible replacement of the leading edge - trailing edge activated strip by a trailing edge - tab strip is also considered as an alternate solution. Parameters affecting the performance of the activated leading edge - trailing edge strip were tested on the Arava STOL Transport and the Westwind Executive Jet Transport and include strip location, control-law gains and a variation in the control-law itself.

  18. Alleviating stress in the workplace: advice for nurses.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    Stress is an inherent and arguably essential aspect of the nurse's role, with ongoing challenges associated with providing care for patients and their families. However, the level of stress currently being experienced in health care exceeds the capacity of many nurses, resulting in ill health and burnout. This stress can undermine the care and compassion nurses are able to give, a vital concern in health care which was highlighted by the Francis inquiry. This article explores the factors that contribute to stress and the strategies that can be used to alleviate the stresses inherent in nursing.

  19. Independent Clinical Research May Alleviate Disparities in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zwitter, Matjaz

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in cancer care are a reality of the modern world. Unfortunately, current clinical research is in the hands of for-profit pharmaceutical companies and of researchers from the developed world. Problems specific to cancer care in developing countries and among deprivileged populations are ignored. Independent clinical research can offer new valuable knowledge and identify affordable and cost-effective treatments. As such, research not depending on commercial sponsors should become one of the important avenues to alleviate the problem of cancer disparities. PMID:28083547

  20. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-05-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in line with government initiatives for poverty reduction. Many Ganokendras implement programmes geared towards income-generating activities and establish linkages with other service providers, both governmental and non-governmental. As is shown, one particularly successful strategy for facilitating women's economic empowerment involves co-ordinating micro-credit available through other agencies.

  1. A progress report on the Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, E.R.; Havens, J.S.

    1965-01-01

    At Malaga Bend on the Pecos River in Eddy County, New Mexico, a brine aquifer about 1950 feet below the stream channel has a pressure head about 10 feet above the river bed. This aquifer normally discharges about 430 tons of dissolved minerals daily into the river of which about 370 tons was sodium chloride. The Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1958, Public Law 85-333,is an attempt to determine if the salinity content of the Pecos River below Malaga Bend can be decreased by reducing the inflow of saline water into the river at Malaga Bend by pumping from the brine aquifer. Construction for the project was supervised by the Bureau of Reclamation, and the collection of data and its interpretation were the responsibility cooperatively of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Pecos River Commission.

  2. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance.

  3. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  4. Examining issues with water quality model configuration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex watershed–scale, water quality models require a considerable amount of data in order to be properly configured, especially in view of the scarcity of data in many regions due to temporal and economic constraints. In this study, we examined two different input issues incurred while building ...

  5. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-In; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50=0.164 mg/mL). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. PMID:27752493

  6. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  7. Alleviating cancer patients' suffering: whose responsibility is it?

    PubMed

    Grau, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    In medicine, we have historically been better at learning about the body and disease than we have at understanding the human beings who come to us with the ailments. We have acted to relieve pain, consoling patients and families as a complement, but done little to understand and alleviate suffering as a fundamental part of our practice. In fact, only in more recent decades has "suffering" been conceptualized as something apart from pain, associated with distress and its causes. It was Eric T. Cassell, in his ground-breaking work in the 1980s, who posed the need to consider alleviation of suffering and treatment of illness as twin-and equally important-obligations of the medical profession. Suffering is defined as a negative, complex emotional and cognitive state, characterized by feeling under constant threat and powerless to confront it, having drained the physical and psycho-social resources that might have made resistance possible. This unique depletion of personal resources is key to understanding suffering.

  8. Dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Xiangkai; Chang, Cong; Jia, Dongfeng; Wei, Zhiwei; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, ion homeostasis and the response to salinity in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Both hydroponics and field-pot experiments were conducted under saline conditions. Salt-stressed plants had reduced growth and a marked decline in their net photosynthetic rates, values for Fv /Fm and chlorophyll contents. However, pretreatment with 100 or 200 μM dopamine significantly alleviated this inhibition and enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity. In addition to changing stomatal behavior, supplementation with dopamine positively influenced the uptake of K, N, P, S, Cu and Mn ions but had an inhibitory effect on Na and Cl uptake, the balance of which is responsible for managing the response to salinity by Malus plants. Dopamine pretreatment also controlled the burst of hydrogen peroxide, possibly through direct scavenging and by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. We also investigated whether dopamine might regulate salt overly sensitive pathway genes under salinity. Here, MdHKT1, MdNHX1 and MdSOS1 were greatly upregulated in roots and leaves, which possibly contributed to the maintenance of ion homeostasis and, thus, improved salinity resistance in plants exposed earlier to exogenous dopamine. These results support our conclusion that dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by regulating other mechanisms of ion homeostasis.

  9. Alleviating rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    El Sherbini, A A

    1986-02-01

    This analysis of rural poverty and hunger in Africa discusses the intertemporal and cross-sectional dimensions of poverty as an aid to policies and programs to alleviate hunger. Since nutritional adequacy of diets varies according to season, seasonality is an important cause of poverty especially in countries with 1 major harvest. In agricultural communities the wet season brings on food shortages and high prices, requiring assistance programs to concentrate on alleviating hunger at this time of year. Drought places a similar demand on resources. People may be poorer in 1 section of a country than another if they have no access to the existing power system, depriving them of services and assistance. There are forgotten regions of Africa where people are poor due to physical isolation, increasing the risk of drought and impeding emergency relief. Production in these areas may be low because there are no consumer goods to buy with surplus. It is important to identify target groups for financial assistance which will change with time and environmental conditions.

  10. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 μg/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′, 7′-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. Results HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. Conclusions GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:24580748

  11. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  12. Assessing the impacts of climate change in Mediterranean catchments under conditions of data scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Swen; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    According to current climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. While there is scientific consensus that climate induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean regions are presently occurring and are projected to amplify in the future, very little knowledge is available about the quantification of these changes, which is hampered by a lack of suitable and cost effective hydrological monitoring and modeling systems. The European FP7-project CLIMB is aiming to analyze climate induced changes on the hydrology of the Mediterranean Basins by investigating 7 test sites located in the countries Italy, France, Turkey, Tunisia, Gaza and Egypt. CLIMB employs a combination of novel geophysical field monitoring concepts, remote sensing techniques and integrated hydrologic modeling to improve process descriptions and understanding and to quantify existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. The Rio Mannu Basin, located in Sardinia; Italy, is one test site of the CLIMB project. The catchment has a size of 472.5 km2, it ranges from 62 to 946 meters in elevation, at mean annual temperatures of 16°C and precipitation of about 700 mm, the annual runoff volume is about 200 mm. The physically based Water Simulation Model WaSiM Vers. 2 (Schulla & Jasper (1999)) was setup to model current and projected future hydrological conditions. The availability of measured meteorological and hydrological data is poor as common to many Mediterranean catchments. The lack of available measured input data hampers the calibration of the model setup and the validation of model outputs. State of the art remote sensing techniques and field measuring techniques were applied to improve the quality of hydrological input parameters. In a field campaign about 250 soil samples were collected and lab-analyzed. Different geostatistical regionalization methods were tested to improve the

  13. Narrating health and scarcity: Guyanese healthcare workers, development reformers, and sacrifice as solution from socialist to neoliberal governance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexis

    2017-02-01

    In oral history interviews, Guyanese healthcare workers emphasize continuity in public health governance throughout the late twentieth century, despite major shifts in broader systems of governance during this period. I argue that these healthcare workers' recollections reflect long-term scarcities and the discourses through which both socialist politicians and neoliberal reformers have narrated them. I highlight the striking similarities in discourses of responsibility and efficiency advanced by socialist politicians in 1970s Guyana and by World Bank representatives designing the country's market transition in the late 1980s, and the ways these discourses have played out in Guyana's health system. Across diverging ideologies, politicians and administrators have promoted severe cost-control as the means to a more prosperous future, presenting short-term pains as necessary to creating new, better, leaner ways of life. In the health sector this has been enacted through a focus on self-help, and on nutrition as a tool available without funds dedicated for pharmaceuticals, advanced medical technologies, or a fully staffed public health system. I argue that across these periods Guyanese citizens have been offered a very similar recipe of ongoing sacrifice. I base my analysis on oral histories with forty-six healthcare workers conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Guyana in Regions 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10, as well as written records from World Bank and Guyanese national archives; I analyze official discourses as well as recollections and experiences of public health governance by those working in Guyana's health system.

  14. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Benjamin; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  15. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually.

  16. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water.

  17. Drawdown II: Water quality and ecological responses to a managed hydrologic drawdown during autumn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water drawdown of Roundaway Lake, a tributary of the Big Sunflower River, was initiated in mid-autumn to alleviate critical low river flow. While water releases have been demonstrated to alleviate critical low flows, effects of these releases on water quality in contributing tributaries is necessa...

  18. Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions.

  19. Significant alleviation of Darier's disease with fractional CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Benmously, Rym; Litaiem, Noureddine; Hammami, Houda; Badri, Talel; Fenniche, Samy

    2015-04-01

    Darier's disease (DD) is a dominantly inherited genodermatosis with highly variable expression. It is characterized by symmetrical hyperkeratotic papules affecting seborrheic areas and extremities. The existence of unsightly lesions could lead to discomfort and social handicap. Conventional treatment consists of topical and systemic steroids and/or retinoids alleviating DD. Ablative lasers also have been used to treat these conditions with variable results and side effects. To the best of our knowledge, fractional CO2 laser has never been used to treat DD. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with verrucous and hyperkeratotic plaques of the forehead significantly improved after two sessions of fractional CO2 laser treatment. Neither scars nor pigmentary disorders were noted.

  20. Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731

  1. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  2. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems.

  3. Statins alleviate experimental nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang Qun; Lim, Tony K Y; Lee, Seunghwan; Zhao, Yuan Qing; Zhang, Ji

    2011-05-01

    The statins are a well-established class of drugs that lower plasma cholesterol levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase. They are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the prevention of coronary heart disease. Recent studies suggest that statins have anti-inflammatory effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. We sought to investigate whether statins could affect neuropathic pain by mediating nerve injury-associated inflammatory responses. The effects of hydrophilic rosuvastatin and lipophilic simvastatin were examined in the mouse partial sciatic nerve ligation model. Systemic daily administration of either statin from days 0 to 14 completely prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. When administered from days 8 to 14 after injury, both statins dose-dependently reduced established hypersensitivity. After treatment, the effects of the statins were washed out within 2 to 7 days, depending on dose. Effects of both statins in alleviating mechanical allodynia were further confirmed in a different injury-associated neuropathic pain model, mental nerve chronic constriction, in rats. Both statins were able to abolish interleukin-1β expression in sciatic nerve triggered by nerve ligation. Additionally, quantitative analysis with Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acid protein immunoreactivity demonstrated that rosuvastatin and simvastatin significantly reduced the spinal microglial and astrocyte activation produced by sciatic nerve injury. The increase of interleukin-1β mRNA in the ipsilateral side of spinal cords was also reduced by the treatment of either statin. We identified a potential new application of statins in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The pain-alleviating effects of statins are likely attributable to their immunomodulatory effects.

  4. Wake vortex alleviation using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalanis, Claude G.

    All bodies that generate lift also generate circulation. The circulation generated by large commercial aircraft remains in their wake in the form of trailing vortices. These vortices can be hazardous to following aircraft due to their strength and persistence. To account for this, airports abide by spacing rules which govern the frequency with which aircraft can use their runways when operating in instrument flight rules. These spacing rules are the limiting factor on increasing airport capacity. We conducted an experimental and computational study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation. Wind tunnel tests were performed on a half-span model NACA 0012 wing equipped with an array of 13 independent MITE pairs. The chord-based Reynolds number was around 350,000. Each MiTE could extend 0.015 chord lengths perpendicular to the freestream on the pressure side of the wing. Pressure profiles and a five-hole probe survey in the near wake were used to examine the influence that the MiTEs had upon the wing aerodynamics and the vortex rollup process. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure the static and time-dependent response of the vortex in the intermediate wake to various MiTE actuation schemes. These results were used to form complete initial conditions for vortex filament computations of the far wake evolution. Results from these computations showed that the perturbations created by MiTEs could be used to excite a variety of three-dimensional inviscid vortex instabilities. Finally, the research performed on MiTEs led to the invention of a more practical wake alleviation device: the spanwise actuating Gurney flap. Prototype tests showed that this device could produce similar perturbations to the MiTEs.

  5. Appropriateness of Recommended Agricultural Water-Management Technologies as Perceived by the Personnel of Research and Extension System: A Study in the Eastern Region of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Souvik; Verma, H. N.; Chandra, Dinesh; Nanda, P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to agricultural development in the eastern region of India, where problems of excess water and water scarcity coexist, is the scientific management of water resources with the adoption of recommended water-management technologies. A vast networking of infrastructure for the development and dissemination of water-management technologies…

  6. Strategies to reduce water stress in Euro-Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Garrote, Luis; Granados, Alfredo; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-02-01

    A portfolio of water management strategies now exists to contribute to reach water demand and supply targets. Among them, integrated water resource management has a large potential for reducing water disagreement in water scarcity regions. Many of the strategies are based on well tested choices and technical know-how, with proven benefits for users and environment. This paper considers water management practices that may contribute to reduce disagreement in water scarcity areas, evaluating the management alternatives in the Mediterranean basins of Europe, a region that exemplifies other water scarcity regions in the world. First, we use a model to compute water availability taking into account water management, temporal heterogeneity, spatial heterogeneity and policy options, and then apply this model across 396 river basins. Second, we use a wedge approach to illustrate policy choices for selected river basins: Thrace (Greece), Guadalquivir, Ebro, Tagus and Duero (Spain), Po (Italy) and Rhone (France). At the wide geographical level, the results show the multi-determinant complexities of climate change impacts and adaptation measures and the geographic nature of water resources and vulnerability metrics. At the local level, the results show that optimisation of water management is the dominating strategy for defining adaptation pathways. Results also show great sensitivity to ecological flow provision, suggesting that better attention should be paid to defining methods to estimate minimum ecological flows in water scarcity regions. For all scales, average water resource vulnerability computed by traditional vulnerability indicators may not be the most appropriate measure to inform climate change adaptation policy. This has large implications to applied water resource studies aiming to derive policy choices, and it is especially interesting in basins facing water scarcity. Our research aims to contribute to shape realistic water management options at the regional

  7. A Scarcity of Organs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areen, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Resistance to organ donation and the continuing shortage of donated organs is discussed and four legal approaches to organ acquisition are examined. A fifth, based on the principle of supported individual autonomy, is proposed. (MSE)

  8. Rice Water use efficiency and yield under continuous and intermittent irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is predominantly grown using continuous fl ood irrigation, which requires large quantities of fresh water. Due to increasing scarcity and demand for water, modern agricultural systems need to produce more food with less water. Th e ...

  9. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  10. Water Scarcity and Increased Instability - How Israel’s Policies and Actions Since the Creation of the National Water Carrier Have Adversely impacted the Jordan River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    and groundwater with the oil spill that ensued, the southern part 20 of Lebanon did not have power. Their lack of power also prevented the pumping...Nabulus. • The Dead Sea is salty brine that sits 400 meters below sea level. The flow into the Lower Jordan River varies between fifty to two...14 3 Groundwater . A larger quantity of freshwater exists as groundwater in the Israel-Palestine trans boundary. The groundwater comes naturally to

  11. Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hafeez, Farhan; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem

    2017-04-03

    Drought and salt stress negatively affect soil fertility and plant growth. Application of biochar, carbon-rich material developed from combustion of biomass under no or limited oxygen supply, ameliorates the negative effects of drought and salt stress on plants. The biochar application increased the plant growth, biomass, and yield under either drought and/or salt stress and also increased photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and modified gas exchange characteristics in drought and salt-stressed plants. Under drought stress, biochar increased the water holding capacity of soil and improved the physical and biological properties of soils. Under salt stress, biochar decreased Na(+) uptake, while increased K(+) uptake by plants. Biochar-mediated increase in salt tolerance of plants is primarily associated with improvement in soil properties, thus increasing plant water status, reduction of Na(+) uptake, increasing uptake of minerals, and regulation of stomatal conductance and phytohormones. This review highlights both the potential of biochar in alleviating drought and salt stress in plants and future prospect of the role of biochar under drought and salt stress in plants.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide modulates cadmium-induced physiological and biochemical responses to alleviate cadmium toxicity in rice

    PubMed Central

    Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Rahman, Anisur; Ansary, Md. Mesbah Uddin; Watanabe, Ayaka; Fujita, Masayuki; Phan Tran, Lam-Son

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which H2S mitigates the cadmium stress in rice. Results revealed that cadmium exposure resulted in growth inhibition and biomass reduction, which is correlated with the increased uptake of cadmium and depletion of the photosynthetic pigments, leaf water contents, essential minerals, water-soluble proteins, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Excessive cadmium also potentiated its toxicity by inducing oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased levels of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde. However, elevating endogenous H2S level improved physiological and biochemical attributes, which was clearly observed in the growth and phenotypes of H2S-treated rice plants under cadmium stress. H2S reduced cadmium-induced oxidative stress, particularly by enhancing redox status and the activities of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal detoxifying enzymes. Notably, H2S maintained cadmium and mineral homeostases in roots and leaves of cadmium-stressed plants. By contrast, adding H2S-scavenger hypotaurine abolished the beneficial effect of H2S, further strengthening the clear role of H2S in alleviating cadmium toxicity in rice. Collectively, our findings provide an insight into H2S-induced protective mechanisms of rice exposed to cadmium stress, thus proposing H2S as a potential candidate for managing toxicity of cadmium, and perhaps other heavy metals, in rice and other crops. PMID:26361343

  13. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population. PMID:27680288

  14. Effect of limited amplitude and rate of flap motion on vane-controlled gust alleviation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Crawford, D. J.; Sparrow, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    An airplane (light transport type) is assumed to be in level flight (no pitching) through atmospheric turbulence which has a mean-square vertical gust intensity of 9.3 (m/sec)sq. The power spectral density of the vertical acceleration due to gusts is examined with and without a gust-alleviation system in operation. The gust-alleviation system consisted of wing flaps that were used in conjunction with a vane mounted ahead of the airplane to sense the vertical gust velocity. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the change in the effectiveness of the gust-alleviation system when the flap motion is limited in amplitude and rate. The alleviation system was very effective if no restrictions were placed on flap motion (rate and amplitude). Restricting the flap amplitude to 0.5 radian did not appreciably change the effectiveness. However, restricting the flap rate did reduce the gust alleviation, and restricting the flap rate to 0.25 rad/sec actually caused the alleviation system to increase the vertical acceleration above that for the no-alleviation situation. Based upon this analysis, rate limiting appears to be rather significant in gust-alleviation systems designed for passenger comfort.

  15. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-07

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000.

  16. Alleviating bias leads to accurate and personalized recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Recommendation bias towards objects has been found to have an impact on personalized recommendation, since objects present heterogeneous characteristics in some network-based recommender systems. In this article, based on a biased heat conduction recommendation algorithm (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target objects, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the heterogeneity of the source objects into account. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present better recommendation in both the accuracy and diversity than two benchmark algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC algorithm also elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold-start problem. Eigenvalue analyses show that, the HHC algorithm effectively alleviates the recommendation bias towards objects with different level of popularity, which is beneficial to solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma.

  17. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  18. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  19. Wake Vortex Alleviation Using Rapidly Actuated Segmented Gurney Flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalanis, Claude; Eaton, John

    2006-11-01

    A study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation is conducted using a half-span model wing with NACA 0012 shape and an aspect ratio of 4.1. All tests are performed with the wing at an 8.9 degree angle of attack and chord based Reynolds number around 350,000. The wing is equipped with an array of 13 MiTE pairs. Each MiTE has a flap that in the neutral position rests behind the blunt trailing edge of the wing, and in the down position extends 0.015 chord lengths perpendicular to the freestream on the pressure side of the wing. Dynamic PIV is used to measure the time dependent response of the vortex in the intermediate wake to various MiTE actuation schemes that deflect the vortex in both the spanwise and liftwise directions. A maximum spanwise deflection of 0.041 chord lengths is possible while nearly conserving lift. These intermediate wake results as well as pressure profile, five-hole probe, and static PIV measurements are used to form complete, experimentally-based initial conditions for vortex filament computations that are used to compute the far wake evolution. Results from these computations show that the perturbations created by MiTEs can be used to excite vortex instability.

  20. Gust alleviation of highly flexible UAVs with artificial hair sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weihua; Reich, Gregory W.

    2015-04-01

    Artificial hair sensors (AHS) have been recently developed in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using carbon nanotube (CNT). The deformation of CNT in air flow causes voltage and current changes in the circuit, which can be used to quantify the dynamic pressure and aerodynamic load along the wing surface. AFRL has done a lot of essential work in design, manufacturing, and measurement of AHSs. The work in this paper is to bridge the current AFRL's work on AHSs and their feasible applications in flight dynamics and control (e.g., the gust alleviation) of highly flexible aircraft. A highly flexible vehicle is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with finite-state inflow aerodynamics. A feedback control algorithm for the rejection of gust perturbations will be developed. A simplified Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller will be implemented based on the state-space representation of the linearized system. All AHS measurements will be used as the control input, i.e., wing sectional aerodynamic loads will be defined as the control output for designing the feedback gain. Once the controller is designed, closed-loop aeroelastic simulations will be performed to evaluate the performance of different controllers with the force feedback and be compared to traditional controller designs with the state feedback. From the study, the feasibility of AHSs in flight control will be assessed. The whole study will facilitate in building a fly-by-feel simulation environment for autonomous vehicles.

  1. Methylene blue alleviates nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities in progeria.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Choi, Ji Young; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Haoyue; Tariq, Zeshan; Wu, Di; Ko, Eunae; LaDana, Christina; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cao, Kan

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a fatal premature aging disease, is caused by a single-nucleotide mutation in the LMNA gene. Previous reports have focused on nuclear phenotypes in HGPS cells, yet the potential contribution of the mitochondria, a key player in normal aging, remains unclear. Using high-resolution microscopy analysis, we demonstrated a significantly increased fraction of swollen and fragmented mitochondria and a marked reduction in mitochondrial mobility in HGPS fibroblast cells. Notably, the expression of PGC-1α, a central regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was inhibited by progerin. To rescue mitochondrial defects, we treated HGPS cells with a mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant methylene blue (MB). Our analysis indicated that MB treatment not only alleviated the mitochondrial defects but also rescued the hallmark nuclear abnormalities in HGPS cells. Additional analysis suggested that MB treatment released progerin from the nuclear membrane, rescued perinuclear heterochromatin loss and corrected misregulated gene expression in HGPS cells. Together, these results demonstrate a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in developing the premature aging phenotypes in HGPS cells and suggest MB as a promising therapeutic approach for HGPS.

  2. Fasudil alleviates traumatic optic neuropathy by inhibiting Rho signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianglong; Lan, Shiying; Wang, Ruijia; Maier, Aba; Luan, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study is to investigate the pathological changes in rabbits with traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), as well as the effect of fasudil on the lesions. Methods: A total of 144 New Zealand rabbits were successfully established as TON models. Twelve hours after surgery, the rabbits in control, dexamethasone, and fasudil groups were administrated with saline, dexamethasone, and fasudil via ear veins, respectively. Then, retinas of the rabbits were obtained at 72 h and on days 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. The pathological changes in retina and optic nerves were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression levels of Rho-associated genes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In control group, the axons were swelling, and mitochondria showed vacuolation after optic nerve crush. Mitochondria were swelled slightly in dexamethasone group. By contrast, nerves in fasudil group were repaired. Retinal ganglion cells in control group were reduced significantly due to optic nerve crush. The loss of retinal ganglion cells was alleviated in fasudil group. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of Rho-associated genes were down-regulated. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that fasudil inhibits the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and ameliorates damages of optic nerves in traumatic optic neuropathy. PMID:26550269

  3. ATF3 deficiency in chondrocytes alleviates osteoarthritis development.

    PubMed

    Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Inoue, Makoto; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Muneta, Takeshi; Takeda, Shu; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Yuki; Horie, Tetsuhiro; Yoneda, Yukio; Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-08-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer and inflammation, as well as in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the involvement of Atf3 in developmental skeletogenesis and joint disease has not been well studied to date. Here, we show that Atf3 is a critical mediator of osteoarthritis (OA) development through its expression in chondrocytes. ATF3 expression was markedly up-regulated in the OA cartilage of both mice and humans. Conditional deletion of Atf3 in chondrocytes did not result in skeletal abnormalities or affect the chondrogenesis, but alleviated the development of OA generated by surgically inducing knee joint instability in mice. Inflammatory cytokines significantly up-regulated Atf3 expression through the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway, while cytokine-induced interleukin-6 (Il6) expression was repressed, in ATF3-deleted murine and human chondrocytes. Mechanistically, Atf3 deficiency decreased cytokine-induced Il6 transcription in chondrocytes through repressing NF-kB signalling by the attenuation of the phosphorylation status of IkB and p65. These findings suggest that Atf3 is implicated in the pathogenesis of OA through modulation of inflammatory cytokine expression in chondrocytes, and the feed-forward loop of inflammatory cytokines/NF-kB/Atf3 in chondrocytes may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment for OA. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies.

  5. Emodin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ruijuan; Zhao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xia; Song, Nana; Guo, Yuhong; Yan, Xianxia; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Wenjing; Shen, Linlin

    2016-11-16

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease with few treatment options and poor prognosis. Emodin, extracted from Chinese rhubarb, was found to be able to alleviate bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of emodin on the inflammation and fibrosis of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mechanism involved in rats. Our results showed that emodin improved pulmonary function, reduced weight loss and prevented death in BLM-treated rats. Emodin significantly relieved lung edema and fibrotic changes, decreased collagen deposition, and suppressed the infiltration of myofibroblasts [characterized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)] and inflammatory cells (mainly macrophages and lymphocytes). Moreover, emodin reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β1 and heat shock protein (HSP)-47 in the lungs of BLM-treated rats. In vitro, emodin profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced α-SMA, collagen IV and fibronectin expression in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 and STAT3 activation, indicating that Smad2/3 and STAT3 inactivation mediates emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. These results suggest that emodin can exert its anti-fibrotic effect via suppression of TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently inhibition of inflammation, HSP-47 expression, myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition.

  6. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  7. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of active controls on the suppression of flutter and gust alleviation of two different types of subsonic aircraft (the Arava, twin turboprop STOL transport, and the Westwind twin-jet business transport) are investigated. The active controls are introduced in pairs which include, in any chosen wing strip, a leading-edge (LE) control and a trailing-edge (TE) control. Each control surface is allowed to be driven by a combined linear-rotational sensor system, located on the activated strip. The control law, which translates the sensor signals into control surface rotations, is based on the concept of aerodynamic energy. The results indicate the extreme effectiveness of the active systems in controlling flutter. A single system spanning 10% of the wing semispan made the Arava flutter-free, and a similar active system, for the Westwind aircraft, yielded a reduction of 75% in the maximum bending moment of the wing and a reduction of 90% in the acceleration of the cg of the aircraft. Results for simultaneous activation of several LE - TE systems are presented. Further work needed to bring the investigation to completion is also discussed.

  8. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  9. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sackett, Tara E.; Thomas, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction), and in the water leachates (through direct injection). Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species-specific patterns of plant

  10. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  11. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nigel V; Sackett, Tara E; Thomas, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction), and in the water leachates (through direct injection). Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species-specific patterns of plant

  12. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  13. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. Allocating more flow to the environment though can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows can vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydro-economic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse river basin in Eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10 to 15% loss in economic benefits.

  14. Tadalafil alleviates muscle ischemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Barresi, Rita; Byrne, Barry J; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Scott, Bryan L; Walker, Ashley E; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Anene, Francine; Elashoff, Robert M; Thomas, Gail D; Victor, Ronald G

    2012-11-28

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the muscle sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), which requires certain spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin to be targeted to the sarcolemma. When healthy skeletal muscle is subjected to exercise, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived NO attenuates local α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thereby optimizing perfusion of muscle. We found previously that this protective mechanism is defective-causing functional muscle ischemia-in dystrophin-deficient muscles of the mdx mouse (a model of DMD) and of children with DMD, in whom nNOSμ is mislocalized to the cytosol instead of the sarcolemma. We report that this protective mechanism also is defective in men with BMD in whom the most common dystrophin mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ. In these men, the vasoconstrictor response, measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation, to reflex sympathetic activation is not appropriately attenuated during exercise of the dystrophic muscles. In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial, we show that functional muscle ischemia is alleviated and normal blood flow regulation is fully restored in the muscles of men with BMD by boosting NO-cGMP (guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling with a single dose of the drug tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitor. These results further support an essential role for sarcolemmal nNOSμ in the normal modulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising human skeletal muscle and implicate the NO-cGMP pathway as a putative new target for treating BMD.

  15. Alleviation of Podophyllotoxin Toxicity Using Coexisting Flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Sun, Hua; Jin, Lu; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Chong-Yi; Ding, Ke; Luo, Cheng; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a lignan-type toxin existing in many herbs used in folk medicine. Until now, no effective strategy is available for the management of POD intoxication. This study aims to determine the protective effects of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) on POD-induced toxicity. In Vero cells, both flavonoids protected POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering alleviating G2/M arrest, decreasing ROS generation and changes of membrane potential, and recovering microtubule structure. In Swiss mice, the group given both POD and flavonoids group had significantly lower mortality rate and showed less damages in the liver and kidney than the group given POD alone. As compared to the POD group, the POD plus flavonoids group exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde levels, and increases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. Histological examination of the liver and kidney showed less pathological changes in the treatment of POD plus flavonoids group. The protective mechanisms were due to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids against the oxidative stress induced by POD and the competitive binding of flavonoids against POD for the same colchicines-binding sites. The latter binding was confirmed by the tubulin assembly assay in combination with molecular docking analyses. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that the coexisting flavonoids have great protective effects against the POD toxicity, and results of this study highlighted the great potential of searching for effective antidotes against toxins based on the pharmacological clues. PMID:23991049

  16. Cellular Recycling of Proteins in Seed Dormancy Alleviation and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Oracz, Krystyna; Stawska, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well-documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant’s photosynthetic tissues have been well-characterized since many years, but in non-photosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is discussed. Based on the

  17. PARP-1 inhibition alleviates diabetic cardiac complications in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Esraa M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F; Ali, Abdelmoneim A

    2016-11-15

    Cardiovascular complications are the major causes of mortality among diabetic population. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 enzyme (PARP-1) is activated by oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. We investigated the implication of PARP-1 in diabetic cardiac complications. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by high fructose-high fat diet and low streptozotocin dose. PARP inhibitor 4-aminobenzamide (4-AB) was administered daily for ten weeks after diabetes induction. At the end of study, surface ECG, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were studied. PARP-1 activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite contents were assessed in heart muscle. Fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured in serum. Finally, histological examination and collagen deposition detection in rat ventricular and aortic sections were carried out. Hearts isolated from diabetic animals showed increased PARP-1 enzyme activity compared to control animals while significantly reduced by 4-AB administration. PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AB alleviated cardiac ischemia in diabetic animals as indicated by ECG changes. PARP-1 inhibition also reduced cardiac inflammation in diabetic animals as evidenced by histopathological changes. In addition, 4-AB administration improved the elevated blood pressure and the associated exaggerated vascular contractility, endothelial destruction and vascular inflammation seen in diabetic animals. Moreover, PARP-1 inhibition decreased serum levels of TNF-α and cardiac nitrite but increased cardiac GSH contents in diabetic animals. However, PARP-1 inhibition did not significantly affect the developed hyperglycemia. Our findings prove that PARP-1 enzyme plays an important role in diabetic cardiac complications through combining inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis mechanisms.

  18. Nesfatin-1 alleviates extrahepatic cholestatic damage of liver in rats

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Ali; Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Erçetin, Candaş; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Yavuz, Erkan; Arıcı, Sinan; Erzik, Can; Zengi, Oğuzhan; Demirtürk, Pelin; Çelik, Atilla; Çelebi, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice (OJ) can be defined as cessation of bile flow into the small intestine due to benign or malignant changes. Nesfatin-1, recently discovered anorexigenic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 in hypothalamic nuclei, was shown to have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. This study is aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nesfatin-1 on OJ in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham (n = 8), control (n = 8), and nesfatin (n = 8). After bile duct ligation, the study groups were treated with saline or nesfatin-1, for 10 days. Afterward, blood and liver tissue samples were obtained for biochemical analyses, measurement of cytokines, determination of the oxidative DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, and histopathologic analyses. Alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were decreased after the nesfatin treatment; however, these drops were statistically non-significant compared to control group (p = 0.345, p = 0.114). Malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in nesfatin group compared to control group (p = 0.032). Decreases in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels from the liver tissue samples were not statistically significant in nesfatin group compared to control group. The level of oxidative DNA damage was lower in nesfatin group, however this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.75). DNA fragmentation results of all groups were similar. Histopathological examination revealed that there was less neutrophil infiltration, edema, bile duct proliferation, hepatocyte necrosis, basement membrane damage, and parenchymal necrosis in nesfatin compared to control group. The nesfatin-1 treatment could alleviate cholestatic liver damage caused by OJ due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:27524109

  19. N-Butylphthalide Alleviates Blood–Brain Barrier Impairment in Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Mingjun; Zhang, Mingwei; Guo, Dadong; Bi, Weikang; Liu, Bin; Zou, Yong; Li, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most important health concerns and may result in neuropathologic changes and neurologic sequelae. However, few studies have addressed the correlation between CO poisoning and blood–brain barrier (BBB) impairment. In this study, we investigated the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5 and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) proteins in a CO poisoning rat model. The results indicated that the brain water content was obviously increased, and the tight junctions between endothelial cells were disrupted, resulting in significant cerebral edema and BBB dysfunction in a rat model of CO poisoning. Meanwhile, the ultrastructure of endothelial cells and pericytes was seriously damaged, and the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 were decreased at an early stage (<7 days). NBP treatment could efficiently maintain the ultrastructural and functional integrity of BBB, alleviate cerebral edema. Besides, NBP could also markedly increase the levels of both ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins compared with those in rats exposed to CO (P < 0.05), whereas NBP had no apparent regulatory effect on AQP-4 expression. Taken together, this study highlights the importance of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins in maintaining BBB ultrastructure and function after CO poisoning. NBP, as a novel treatment approach, may effectively inhibit the down-regulation of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins (but not AQP-4), thereby preserving the barrier function and reducing cerebral edema after CO poisoning. PMID:27833554

  20. Targeted mRNA oxidation regulates sunflower seed dormancy alleviation during dry after-ripening.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Jérémie; Langlade, Nicolas; Vincourt, Patrick; Arribat, Sandrine; Balzergue, Sandrine; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    After-ripening is the mechanism by which dormant seeds become nondormant during their dry storage after harvest. The absence of free water in mature seeds does not allow detectable metabolism; thus, the processes associated with dormancy release under these conditions are largely unknown. We show here that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed alleviation of dormancy during after-ripening is associated with mRNA oxidation and that this oxidation is prevented when seeds are maintained dormant. In vitro approaches demonstrate that mRNA oxidation results in artifacts in cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphim analysis and alters protein translation. The oxidation of transcripts is not random but selective, and, using microarrays, we identified 24 stored mRNAs that became highly oxidized during after-ripening. Oxidized transcripts mainly correspond to genes involved in responses to stress and in cell signaling. Among them, protein phosphatase 2C PPH1, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1, and phenyl ammonia lyase 1 were identified. We propose that targeted mRNA oxidation during dry after-ripening of dormant seeds could be a process that governs cell signaling toward germination in the early steps of seed imbibition.

  1. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  2. Activating Autophagy in Hippocampal Cells Alleviates the Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jingrui; He, Lei; Li, Xiangpen; Li, Mei; Zhang, Xiaoni; Venesky, Jacob; Li, Yi; Peng, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Morphine abuse in treating severe and chronic pain has become a worldwide problem. But, chronic morphine exposure can cause memory impairment with its mechanisms not fully elucidated by past research sstudies which all focused on the harmful effects of morphine. Autophagy is an important pathway for cells to maintain survival. Here we showed that repeated morphine injection into C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 15 mg/kg per day for 7 days activated autophagic flux mainly in the hippocampi, especially in neurons of hippocampal CA1 region and microglia, with spatial memory impairment confirmed by Morris water maze test. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine obviously aggravates this morphine-induced memory impairment, accompanied with increased cell deaths in stratum pyramidale of hippocampal CA1, CA3, and DG regions and the activation of microglia to induce inflammation in hippocampus, such as upregulated expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS, as well as NF-κB' s activation, while morphine alone promoted microglial immunosuppression in hippocampus with autophagy activation which was also confirmed in primary microglia. Taken together, our data indicates that autophagy activating in hippocampal cells can alleviate the memory impairment caused by morphine, by decreasing neuronal deaths in hippocampus and suppressing inflammation in hippocampal microglia, implying that modulating the activation of autophagy might be a promising method to prevent or treat the memory impairment caused by morphine.

  3. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28–0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes. PMID:28322258

  4. Polyhydroxyfullerene Binds Cadmium Ions and Alleviates Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Arunava; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Seena, Sahadevan; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble polyhydroxyfullerene (PHF) is a functionalized carbon nanomaterial with several industrial and commercial applications. There have been controversial reports on the toxicity and/or antioxidant properties of fullerenes and their derivatives. Conversely, metals have been recognized as toxic mainly due to their ability to induce oxidative stress in living organisms. We investigated the interactive effects of PHF and cadmium ions (Cd) on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exposing cells to Cd (≤5 mg liter−1) in the absence or presence of PHF (≤500 mg liter−1) at different pHs (5.8 to 6.8). In the absence of Cd, PHF stimulated yeast growth up to 10.4%. Cd inhibited growth up to 79.7%, induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and promoted plasma membrane disruption in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. The negative effects of Cd on growth were attenuated by the presence of PHF, and maximum growth recovery (53.8%) was obtained at the highest PHF concentration and pH. The coexposure to Cd and PHF decreased ROS accumulation up to 36.7% and membrane disruption up to 30.7% in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. Two mechanisms helped to explain the role of PHF in alleviating Cd toxicity to yeasts: PHF decreased Cd-induced oxidative stress and bound significant amounts of Cd in the extracellular medium, reducing its bioavailability to the cells. PMID:25038095

  5. Rapamycin alleviates brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Feng, Guoying; Miao, Yanying; Liu, Guixiang; Xu, Chunsheng

    2014-06-01

    Brain edema is a major consequence of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. However, few effective therapeutic options are available for retarding the brain edema progression after cerebral ischemia. Recently, rapamycin has been shown to produce neuroprotective effects in rats after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Whether rapamycin could alleviate this brain edema injury is still unclear. In this study, the rat stroke model was induced by a 1-h left transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. The effects of rapamycin (250 μg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal; i.p.) on brain edema progression were evaluated. The results showed that rapamycin treatment significantly reduced the infarct volume, the water content of the brain tissue and the Evans blue extravasation through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rapamycin treatment could improve histological appearance of the brain tissue, increased the capillary lumen space and maintain the integrity of BBB. Rapamycin also inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression. These data imply that rapamycin could improve brain edema progression after reperfusion injury through maintaining BBB integrity and inhibiting MMP9 and AQP4 expression. The data of this study provide a new possible approach for improving brain edema after cerebral ischemia reperfusion by administration of rapamycin.

  6. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28–0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  7. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  8. World Water Resources Assessment for 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Agata, Y.; Kanae, S.; Musiake, K.; Saruhashi, T.

    2003-04-01

    nticipated water scarcity in the first half of this century is one of the most concerned international issues to be assessed adequately. However, even though the issue has an international impact and world wide monitoring is critical, there are limited number of global estimates at present. In this study, annual water availability was derived from annual runoff estimated by land surface models using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) with 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree longitude/latitude resolution globally. Global distribution of water withdrawal for each sector in the same horizontal spatial resolution was estimated based on country-base statistics of municipal water use, industrial water use, and agricultural intake, using global geographical information system with global distributions of population and irrigated crop land area. The total population under water stress estimated for 1995 corresponded very well with former estimates, however, the number is highly depend on how to assume the ratio how much water from upstream of the region can be considered as ``available'' water resources within the region. It suggests the importance of regional studies evaluating the the water quality deterioration in the upper stream, the real consumption of water resources in the upper stream, and the accessibility to water. The last factor should be closely related to how many large scale water withdrawal schemes are implemented in the region. Further studies by an integrated approach to improve the accuracy of future projections on both the natural and social sides of the water resources should be promoted. About the future projection of the global water resources assessment, population growth, climatic change, and the increase of water consumption per capita are considered. Population growth scenario follows the UN projection in each country. Change in annual runoff was estimated based on the climatic simulation by a general circulation model by the Center of Climate System

  9. Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase-producing fluorescent pseudomonads, to alleviate salinity stress on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Farzad; Khavazi, Kazem; Pazira, Ebrahim; Nejati, Alireza; Rahmani, Hadi Asadi; Sadaghiani, Hasan Rasuli; Miransari, Mohammad

    2009-04-01

    Salinity stress is of great importance in arid and semi-arid areas of the world due to its impact in reducing crop yield. Under salinity stress, the amount of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a precursor for ethylene production in plants, increases. Here, we conducted research under the hypothesis that isolated ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida can alleviate the stressful effects of salinity on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth. The experiments were conducted in the Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran. Seven experimental stages were conducted to isolate and characterize ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and to determine factors enhancing their growth and, consequently, their effects on the germination of canola seeds. Under salinity stress, in 14% of the isolates, ACC deaminase activity was observed, indicating that they were able to utilize ACC as the sole N-source. Bacterial strains differed in their ability to synthesize auxin and hydrogen cyanide compounds, as well as in their ACC deaminase activity. Under salinity stress, the rate of germinating seeds inoculated with the strains of ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and seedling growth was significantly higher. These results indicate the significance of soil biological activities, including the activities of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in the alleviation of soil stresses such as salinity on plant growth.

  10. Effect of a Load-Alleviating Structure on the Landing Behavior of a Reentry-Capsule Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward L.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; McGehee, John R.

    1961-01-01

    Model tests have been made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a parachute-supported reentry capsule that had a compliable metal structure as a load-alleviating device. A 1/6-scale dynamic model having compliable aluminum-alloy legs designed to give a low onset rate of acceleration on impact was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees ( vertical ) and 35 deg, at a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec ( full scale), and at contact attitudes of 0 deg and +/-30 deg. Landings were made on concrete, sand, and water. The maximum acceleration encountered was approximately 35g and the maximum onset rate was 2,000 g/sec. on concrete a t the 55 deg flight-path, f30 contact-attitude conditions; therefore, load-alleviating devices on the canister end of the model would be required. To evaluate the scaling characteristics of compliable metal structures, models were tested with 1/4.1-scale and full-scale aluminum-alloy legs. The maximum vertical accelerations and strokes obtained from tests of the 1/4.1-scale and full-scale legs were the same within the recording accuracy of the equipment. Acceleration time histories for the 90 degree flight-path, 0 deg contact-attitude condition were computed and are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Ischemic Postconditioning Alleviates Brain Edema After Focal Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats Through Down-Regulation of Aquaporin-4.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Sun, Miao; He, Ping-Ping; Wen, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Hong; Feng, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral edema is a serious complication associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays a role in generating postischemic edema after reperfusion. Recently, ischemic postconditioning (Postcond) has been shown to produce neuroprotective effects and reduce brain edema in rats after cerebral I/R. It is unclear if ischemic Postcond alleviates brain edema injury through regulation of AQP4. In this study, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats by filament insertion for 2 h following 24-h reperfusion: ischemic Postcond treatment was performed before reperfusion in the experimental group. We used the wet-dry weight ratio and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate brain edema after 24 h of reperfusion. We used immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses to evaluate the distribution and expression of AQP4. Ischemic Postcond significantly reduced the water content of the brain tissue and swelling of the astrocytic foot processes. AQP4 expression increased in the I/R and Postcond groups compared to the sham group, but it decreased in the Postcond group compared to the I/R group. The results of our study suggest that ischemic Postcond effectively reduces brain edema after reperfusion by inhibiting AQP4 expression. The data in this study support the use of ischemic Postcond for alleviating brain edema after cerebral I/R.

  12. A Blue/Green Water-based Accounting Framework for Assessment of Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Gupta, H. V.; Mendiondo, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, including provisioning and support for freshwater ecosystem services, water footprint, water scarcity, and water vulnerability, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) flows defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here, we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provisioning and demand (in terms of water footprint) for BW and GW ecosystem services can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 sq.km) within the Cantareira water supply system in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision-making, we compute the BW provision using three different hydrological-based methods for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs) for 23 year-period. The current BW-Footprint was defined using surface water rights for reference year 2012. Then we analyzed the BW- and GW-Footprints against long-term series of monthly values of freshwater availability. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin, and help to distinguish between human and natural reasons (drought) for conditions of insecurity. The Blue/Green water-based accounting framework developed here can be benchmarked at a range of spatial scales, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise. Future investigation will be necessary to better understand the intra-annual variability of blue water demand and to evaluate the impacts of uncertainties associated with a) the water rights database, b) the effects of climate change projections on blue and green freshwater provision.

  13. DOD/COCOM Water Security Program Strategy Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    in alignment with USG foreign policy objectives? The following discussion and appendices provide a framework to facilitate this process for DOD...USG foreign policy objectives? The following discussion and appendices provide a framework to facilitate this process for DOD. DOD/COCOM Water...technology, etc. Because water resources often cross political boundaries on a regional scale, focusing water scarcity initiatives on this level

  14. Consumption of Pistacia lentiscus foliage alleviates coccidiosis in young goats.

    PubMed

    Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y

    2012-05-25

    Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major

  15. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  16. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  17. Dracaena arborea alleviates ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a common complication in diabetic men and experimental animals, mainly due to loss of germ cells by apoptotic cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dracaena arborea in streptozotocin-induced ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in Wistar rats. Methods Diabetic animals were orally treated with Millipore water (10 ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1.44 mg/kg) or Dracaena arborea aqueous (500 mg/kg) and ethanol (100 mg/kg) extracts for three weeks. A group of non diabetic rats received Millipore water (10 ml/kg) and served as healthy control group. Blood glucose was monitored at the beginning and the end of the study. One day after the last treatment, animals were sacrificed and the testes immediately removed were morphologically observed and prepared for electron microscopy analysis of spermatogenesis. Results Our results showed that Dracaena arborea was devoid of any anti-hyperglycemic activity. In the untreated diabetic rats, hyperglycemia severely damaged the testes morphology as well as the spermatogenic process as evidenced by the: thickness of basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule; mitochondria alteration; abnormal spermatocyte cells displaying polymorphous nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis; and disorganization and degeneration of sperm germ cells. Administration of sildenafil citrate and Dracaena arborea extracts to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, the impairment of spermatogenesis; this alleviating effect was more pronounced in animals treated with the aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) of Dracaena arborea. Conclusion Dracaena arborea improves testes morphology and restores spermatogenesis in type 1 diabetic rats, without having major anti-hyperglycemic properties. These effects could be attributed to saponins, flavonoids, phenols and sterols revealed in this plant, which could be a useful component

  18. Genistein Alleviates Neuroinflammation and Restores Cognitive Function in Rat Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Husain, Mohammad

    2017-02-21

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from acute liver failure. Previously, we demonstrated hepatoprotective effects of genistein in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). In this study, we evaluated behavioural and neuroprotective effects of genistein in rat model of HE. HE was induced by intraperitonial administration of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 30 days Genistein was given as co-treatment through oral gavage daily at dose of 5 mg/kg BW. D-GalN administration significantly resulted in acute liver failure which was further associated with hyperammonemia, neurological dysfunction, as evident from behavioural and functional impairment and reduced learning ability in Morris water maze. Genistein significantly alleviated behavioural and functional impairment and restored learning ability in Morris water maze. Considerable histopathological changes, including portal inflammation, sinusoidal dilation, necrotic lesions and swelled astrocytes with pale nuclei, were seen in the liver and brain sections of D-GalN-challenged rats while genistein co-treated rats revealed normal cellular and morphological architecture as no pathological features were seen. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory markers (interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IL-1β and TNF-α) and membrane expression of subunits α1 of GABAA receptor and GluR2 of AMPA marked significant increase, while subunits GluR1 of AMPA receptors showed reduced expression in D-GalN-challenged rats leading to neuroinflammation and dysregulated neurotransmission. Genistein significantly normalized altered expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and membrane receptor of GABA and GluR. Our study suggests strong therapeutic potential of genistein in animal model of HE. Genistein can be used a strong anti-oxidant to attenuate neurotoxic effects of xenobiotics.

  19. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  20. Chronic MPTP treatment produces hyperactivity in male mice which is not alleviated by concurrent trehalose treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Law, C Delbert; Sarkar, Sumit

    2015-10-01

    The chronic MPTP+probenecid treatment paradigm has been used to successfully model the neurochemical, neuropathological, and behavioral effects associated with Parkinson's disease. Here, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were injected ip with 25 mg/kg MPTP and 250 mg/kg probenecid (MPTPp) or saline twice weekly for a total of 10 injections. Behavioral assessments included motor coordination, grip strength, spatial learning/memory, locomotor activity, and anhedonia. Those assessments were repeated up to 8 weeks post-treatment. In a subsequent experiment, adult male mice were treated with saline or MPTPp as described above. One-half of each group was allowed access to 1% trehalose in the water bottle. Trehalose intake averaged 1.90-2.34 g/kg. Behavioral assessments included locomotor activity, olfaction, motor coordination, grip strength, and exploratory behavior. Those assessments were repeated 4 weeks post-treatment. The strongest MPTPp effect was hyperactivity as exhibited in the open field. This increased activity was apparent in both experiments and occurred at all time points post-treatment. Assessments of grip strength, water maze performance, olfaction, and exploratory behavior did not indicate MPTPp-related alterations. When the specifications for the motor coordination test were made somewhat easier in the second experiment, there were deficits exhibited by the MPTPp group, the MPTPp+trehalose group and the trehalose group. The addition of trehalose did not alleviate any of the MPTPp-induced behavioral alterations; however, trehalose treatment significantly attenuated the striatal decreases in DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA. These results provide a more comprehensive description of the behavioral alterations resulting from the chronic MPTPp treatment regimen and suggest that trehalose at this concentration does not act as a complete neuroprotectant.

  1. Sustainability and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  2. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, C G

    2000-01-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems. PMID:10656867

  3. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  4. [Study of effect of Humifuse Euphorbia Herb on alleviating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model KK-Ay mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-lin; Fu, Hong; Li, Wei-wei; Song, Fang-jiao; Song, Yi-xiang; Yu, Qian; Liu, Geng-xin; Wang, Xue-mei

    2015-05-01

    [To explore the effect of Humifuse Euphorbia Herb ( HEH) on alleviating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. Totally 40 KK-Ay mice fed with high-fat diet were divided into four groups: the metformin group, the model group, the HEH low-dose group and the HEH high-dose group, and orally administrated with metformin hydrochloride (250 mg x kg(-1)), distilled water, humifuse euphorbia herb 1 g x kg(-1) and 2 g x kg(-1). Besides, C57BL/6J mice with ordinary feed were taken as the normal control group and orally administrated with equal distilled water. The oral administration for the five groups lasted for eight weeks. Before and after the experiment, weight, fasting glucose and insulin tolerance were determined. The morphological changes in pancreas were observed through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining on pancreatic tissue sections. The serum insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin (ADPN) and leptin (LEP) were detected by ELISA. The results showed that HEH could reduce weight and fasting glucose in KK-Ay mice, alleviate hyperinsulinemia, reduce blood glucose-time AUC, increase 30-min blood glucose decline rate, relieve insulin resistance, significantly ameliorate the pathomorphological changes in pancreas in each group, decrease serum TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin levels in KK-Ay mice and rise serum ADPN level. This study proved that humifuse euphorbia herb can ameliorate the insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice, and its mechanism may be related to the effect on inflammatory factors and adipocytokines.

  5. Weak microwave can alleviate water deficit induced by osmotic stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Jia, Jing-Fen; Han, Xiao-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the effect of microwave pretreatment of wheat seeds on the resistance of seedlings to osmotic stress. Changes in biophysical, physiological and biochemical characters were measured. The results showed: (1) The magnetic field intensity and seeds temperature increased progressively with microwave pretreatments of 5, 10, 15, 20 s and 25 s compared with controls. Although each microwave pretreatment resulted in an increase in alpha-amylase activity and photon emission intensity, the increase of alpha-amylase activity and photon emission intensity was maximal at a microwave pretreatment of 10 s. (2) Osmotic stress induced by PEG treatment enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde, while decreasing the activities of nitricoxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentration of nitric oxide, ascorbic acid, glutathione in the seedlings compared with controls. However, compared to osmotic stress alone, in the seedlings treated with microwave irradiation plus osmotic stress the concentration of malondialdehyde decreased, while the activities of nitricoxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentration of nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione increased. These results suggest that a suitable dose of microwave radiation can enhance the capability to eliminate free radicals induced by osmotic stress in wheat seedlings resulting in