Science.gov

Sample records for alleviates chilling injury

  1. Low-temperature conditioning alleviates chilling injury in loquat fruit and regulates glycine betaine content and energy status.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Timin; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-04-15

    The influence of low-temperature conditioning (LTC) treatment on chilling injury, glycine betaine content, and energy metabolism in loquat fruit at 1 °C storage was investigated. The results indicated that LTC treatment significantly reduced chilling injury index, ion leakage, and malondialdehyde content in loquat fruit. Betaine aldehyde hydrogenase (BADH) activity and endogenous glycine betaine (GB) content in loquats treated with LTC were significantly higher than those in control fruit. Moreover, LTC treatment induced activities of energy metabolism-associated enzymes, including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase. LTC treatment triggered obviously higher levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and energy charge in loquat fruit. These results showed that LTC possibly alleviated chilling injury and enhanced chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by enhancing endogenous GB content and energy status.

  2. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  3. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  4. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. PMID:25529719

  5. The mechanism by which NaCl treatment alleviates PSI photoinhibition under chilling-light treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Zi-shan; Gao, Hui-yuan; Fan, Xing-li; Liu, Mei-jun; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-11-01

    The effects of chilling-light stress combined with additional stress on PSI and PSII photoinhibition and their interrelationship have not been known. To explore whether NaCl affects the PSI and PSII photoinhibition and their interrelationship under chilling-light treatment, the PSI and PSII activities were studied under chilling-light with or without NaCl treatment. The results showed that the extent of PSI and PSII photoinhibition both increased under chilling-light, while NaCl aggravated PSII photoinhibition and severely damaged cytochrome b₆/f complex but alleviated PSI photoinhibition. Moreover, DCMU had a similar effect as NaCl in this study, which indicates that NaCl alleviated PSI photoinhibition through reducing electrons transported to PSI. It was also showed that the increased damage to PSII by NaCl did not depend on the inhibition of PSII repair and PSI electron transportation. In conclusion, NaCl alleviated PSI photoinhibition by inhibiting electron transport from PSII under chilling-light conditions. In addition, PSII photoinhibition was not affected by PSI photoinhibition because of a full inhibition of PSII repair by chilling-light treatment. We also speculate that NaCl aggravates PSII photoinhibition by enhancing the damage instead of inhibiting the repair of it under chilling-light conditions.

  6. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hongyang'). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  7. Concurrent effects of cold and hyperkalaemia cause insect chilling injury.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath A; Baatrup, Erik; Overgaard, Johannes

    2015-10-22

    Chilling injury and death are the ultimate consequence of low temperature exposure for chill susceptible insects, and low temperature tolerance is considered one of the most important factors determining insect distribution patterns. The physiological mechanisms that cause chilling injury are unknown, but chronic cold exposure that causes injury is consistently associated with elevated extracellular [K(+)], and cold tolerant insects possess a greater capacity to maintain ion balance at low temperatures. Here, we use the muscle tissue of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) to examine whether chill injury occurs during cold exposure or following return to benign temperature and we specifically examine if elevated extracellular [K(+)], low temperature, or a combination thereof causes cell death. We find that in vivo chill injury occurs during the cold exposure (when extracellular [K(+)] is high) and that there is limited capacity for repair immediately following the cold stress. Further, we demonstrate that that high extracellular [K(+)] causes cell death in situ, but only when experienced at low temperatures. These findings strongly suggest that that the ability to maintain ion (particularly K(+)) balance is critical to insect low temperature survival, and highlight novel routes of study in the mechanisms regulating cell death in insects in the cold.

  8. Concurrent effects of cold and hyperkalaemia cause insect chilling injury.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath A; Baatrup, Erik; Overgaard, Johannes

    2015-10-22

    Chilling injury and death are the ultimate consequence of low temperature exposure for chill susceptible insects, and low temperature tolerance is considered one of the most important factors determining insect distribution patterns. The physiological mechanisms that cause chilling injury are unknown, but chronic cold exposure that causes injury is consistently associated with elevated extracellular [K(+)], and cold tolerant insects possess a greater capacity to maintain ion balance at low temperatures. Here, we use the muscle tissue of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) to examine whether chill injury occurs during cold exposure or following return to benign temperature and we specifically examine if elevated extracellular [K(+)], low temperature, or a combination thereof causes cell death. We find that in vivo chill injury occurs during the cold exposure (when extracellular [K(+)] is high) and that there is limited capacity for repair immediately following the cold stress. Further, we demonstrate that that high extracellular [K(+)] causes cell death in situ, but only when experienced at low temperatures. These findings strongly suggest that that the ability to maintain ion (particularly K(+)) balance is critical to insect low temperature survival, and highlight novel routes of study in the mechanisms regulating cell death in insects in the cold. PMID:26468241

  9. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis ‘Hongyang’). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate–glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  10. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature < or = 5.0 degrees C and more than 3 days was used to indicate the climatic risk of chilling injury during the whole growth season, and an integrated climatic index with the background of climate change was constructed. The maps of geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for each grade chilling injury, and of integrated climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  11. Assay of Chilling Injury in Wild and Domestic Tomatoes Based on Photosystem Activity of the Chilled Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Smillie, Robert M.; Nott, Robyn

    1979-01-01

    Tomato leaves were detached and stored at 0 C for various periods of time. Chloroplasts were isolated from the leaves and their photoreductive activities were determined. Comparisons were made between two altitudinal forms of the wild tomato Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. (a tropical lowlands form and a highlands form adapted to growth at 3,100 meters), and two cultivars of the domestic tomato L. esculentum Mill. In each case the capacity of the isolated chloroplasts to photoreduce ferricyanide declined linearly with time of storage of the leaves at 0 C, but not at 10 C. This injury developed more slowly in the high altitudinal form of the wild tomato compared with the low altitudinal form and the two domestic cultivars indicating an enhanced resistance toward chilling injury in the tomato from 3,100 meters. Chloroplast activity declined in green tomato fruit held at 0 C, at about the same rate as in the chilled leaves. Measurements of photochemical activities in the isolated chloroplasts and in vivo measurements of cytochrome-554 photooxidation in chilled leaves showed that the site of action of the chilling effect was water donation to photosystem II. The chilling-induced impairment of photoreductive activity in chloroplasts provides a useful assay for detecting and measuring differences in the susceptibility of plants to chilling injury. PMID:16660815

  12. Nondestructive detection of chilling injury in cucumber fruit using hyperspectral imaging with feature selection and supervised classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling injury, as a physiological disorder in cucumbers, occurs after the fruit has been subjected to low temperatures. It is thus desirable to detect chilling injury at early stages and/or remove chilling injured cucumbers during sorting and grading. This research was aimed to apply hyperspectral...

  13. Tomato chilling injury threshold defined by the volatile profiles of pink harvested tomato fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh tomato fruit show visible symptoms of chilling injury (CI) when stored at temperatures lower than the reported chilling threshold of 12.5°C. However, their sensitivity has been reported to decrease as they ripen. Volatile profiles change during ripening and are affected by physiological change...

  14. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  15. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  16. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  17. Overexpression of a tomato carotenoid ε-hydroxylase gene alleviates sensitivity to chilling stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Deng, Yong-Sheng; Kong, Fan-Ying; Li, Bin; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Chilling is one of the most serious environmental stresses that disrupt the metabolic balance of cells and enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lutein plays important roles in dissipating excess excitation energy and eliminating ROS to maintain the normal physiological function of cells. A tomato carotenoid epsilon-ring hydroxylase gene (LeLUT1) was isolated, and the LeLUT1-GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression of LeLUT1 was the highest in the leaves and was down-regulated by various abiotic stresses in tomato. The transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing LeLUT1 had higher lutein content, which was decreased in cold condition. Under chilling stress, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values were higher in the transgenic plants than in the wild type (WT) plants. Compared with the WT plants, the transgenic plants showed lower levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radical (O2(·-)), relative electrical conductivity, and malondialdehyde content (MDA), and relatively higher values of maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), oxidizable P700 of PSI, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Therefore, the transgenic seedlings were less suppressed in growth and lost less cotyledon chlorophyll than the WT seedlings. These results suggested that the overexpression of LeLUT1 had a key function in alleviating photoinhibition and photooxidation, and decreased the sensitivity of photosynthesis to chilling stress. PMID:23796723

  18. Optimum Temperature for Storage of Fruit and Vegetables with Reference to Chilling Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Takao

    Cold storage is an important technique for preserving fresh fruit and vegetables. Deterioration due to ripening, senescence and microbiological disease can be retarded by storage at optimum temperature being slightly above the freezing point of tissues of fruit and vegetables. However, some fruit and vegetables having their origins in tropical or subtropical regions of the world are subject to chilling injury during transportation, storage and wholesale distribution at low temperature above freezing point, because they are usually sensitive to low temperature in the range of 15&digC to 0°C. This review will focus on the recent informations regarding chilling injury of fruit and vegetables, and summarize the optimum temperature for transportation and storage of fruit and vegetables in relation to chilling injury.

  19. Understanding the mechanisms of chilling injury in bell pepper fruits using the proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sánchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Martinez-Madrid, Concepción; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Romojaro, Félix; Olmos, Enrique; Estrella, Emilio; Bolarín, Maria C; Flores, Francisco Borja

    2012-09-18

    In order to advance in the understanding of CI in pepper fruits, the cell ultrastructure alterations induced by CI and the physiological and metabolic changes have been studied along with the proteomic study. When stored at low temperatures bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits exhibited visual CI symptoms and important alterations within the cell ultrastructure, since peroxisomes and starch grains were not detected and the structure of the chloroplast was seriously damaged in chilled tissues. Physiological and metabolic disorders were also observed in chilled fruits, such as higher ethylene production, increased MDA content, changes in sugar and organic acids and enzymatic activities. The comparative proteomic analysis between control and chilled fruits reveals that the main alterations induced by CI in bell pepper fruits are linked to redox homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, protein abundance in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is altered and catalase is down-regulated. Key proteins from glycolysis, Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle are also inhibited in chilled fruits. Enolase and GAPDH are revealed as proteins that may play a key role in the development of chilling injury. This study also provides the first evidence at the protein level that cytosolic MDH is involved in abiotic stress.

  20. Effect of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate pre-treatment on the volatile profile in tomato fruit subjected to chilling temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato fruits exposed to chilling temperatures suffer aroma loss prior to visual chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were reported to alleviate the development of visual CI, however, it is unknown if the treatments alleviate internal CI in t...

  1. Chilling Injury Induces Lipid Phase Changes in Membranes of Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Sharom, M.; Willemot, C.; Thompson, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Wide-angle x-ray diffraction has provided evidence for lipid phase separations in microsomal membranes from chill-injured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Caruso) fruit. Mature-green fruit stored for 20 d at 5[deg]C had not begun to ripen and were essentially free of chilling injury symptoms. Within 4 d of being returned to 25[deg]C, however, the fruit displayed characteristic symptoms of chilling injury, including translucent water-soaked patches, surface pitting, and irregular pigmentation. Membrane damage measured as electrolyte leakage from pericarp discs intensified after the fruit were returned to ambient temperature. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction patterns recorded at 25[deg]C for microsomal membranes isolated from untreated, mature-green fruit indicated that the membrane bilayers were exclusively liquid-crystalline. Diffraction patterns for microsomal membranes from fruit stored for 20 d at 5[deg]C showed only trace amounts of gel phase lipid, but within 4 d of subsequent exposure of the fruit to ambient temperature, there was evidence for a pronounced lateral phase separation of lipids within the membranes that would render them leaky. Inas-much as the phase separations were detectable at 25[deg]C and became pronounced only subsequent to the chilling episode, they appear to be an indirect rather than direct effect of exposure to low temperature. The diffraction data thus support the notion that the lipid phase changes observed here are not directly induced by low temperature but rather reflect subsequent biochemical changes in the bilayers that may contribute to the development of chilling symptoms. PMID:12232203

  2. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics. PMID:21133422

  3. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics.

  4. The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  5. Overexpression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene alleviates photoinhibition of PSII and PSI in tomato during high light and chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Han; Gao, Shan; Li, Bin; Dong, Xin-Chun; Feng, Hai-Long; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2010-02-15

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (LeVDE) was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence of LeVDE showed high identities with violaxanthin de-epoxidase in other plant species. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the mRNA accumulation of LeVDE in the wild-type (WT) was regulated by diurnal rhythm and temperature. RNA and protein gel blot analyses confirmed that the sense LeVDE was transferred into the tomato genome and overexpressed under the control of 35S-CaMV. The ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) and the values of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were higher in transgenic plants than those in WT under high light and chilling stress (4 degrees C). The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased markedly in WT compared to transgenic lines under high light stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic plants decreased more slowly during stresses and recovered faster than that in WT under optimal conditions. The oxidizable P700 in transgenic plants was higher than that in WT under chilling stress. These results suggest that overexpression of LeVDE increased the function of the xanthophyll cycle and alleviated photoinhibition of PSII and PSI in tomato during high light and chilling stress with low irradiance.

  6. Hypobaric Treatment Effects on Chilling Injury, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and the Ascorbate-Glutathione (AsA-GSH) Cycle in Postharvest Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Wang, Jinhua; Shafi, Mohammad; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jiasheng; Wu, Aimin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, hypobaric treatment effects were investigated on chilling injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in peach fruit stored at 0 °C. Internal browning of peaches was dramatically reduced by applying 10-20 kPa pressure. Hypobaric treatment markedly inhibited membrane fluidity increase, whereas it kept mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) concentration and cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity relatively high in mitochondria. Similarly, 10-20 kPa pressure treatment reduced the level of decrease observed in AsA and GSH concentrations, while it enhanced ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) activities related to the AsA-GSH cycle. Furthermore, comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the metabolism of glutathione, ascorbate, and aldarate were up-regulated in peaches treated with 10-20 kPa for 30 days at 0 °C. Genes encoding GR, MDHAR, and APX were identified and exhibited higher expression in fruits treated with low pressure than in fruits treated with normal atmospheric pressure. Our findings indicate that the alleviation of chilling injury by hypobaric treatment was associated with preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and triggering the AsA-GSH cycle by the transcriptional up-regulation of related enzymes. PMID:27195461

  7. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. Results The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Conclusions Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being differentially accumulated

  8. Effect of temperature on enzymatic and physiological factors related to chilling injury in carambola fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tello, G O; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Briceño-Torres, B O; Martinez-Tellez, M A

    2001-10-01

    Three groups of carambola fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.) were stored at 2 and 10 degrees C (85-90% relative humidity). The major physicochemical, physiological, and enzymatic responses of fruit were measured in each group over a 30-day period: chilling injury index (CII), decay (%), intracuticular waxes, cuticle permeability, pulp firmness, weight loss, sucrose, fructose and glucose contents, ion electrolyte leakage in pulp (%), ethylene and carbon dioxide production rates, and the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzymes. CII values were statistically different at 2 and 10 degrees C, showing high significance with respect to sucrose content and weight loss (P < 0.05). Chilling injury included darkened ribs and skin desiccation. According to the CI symptom development, a possible relationship of POD and PPO activities was found at 2 degrees C. A significant sucrose content increase was observed at 10 degrees C. CI symptoms were associated with POD and PAL activities.

  9. Differential Metabolic Rearrangements after Cold Storage Are Correlated with Chilling Injury Resistance of Peach Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Claudia A.; Monti, Laura L.; Gabilondo, Julieta; Scossa, Federico; Valentini, Gabriel; Budde, Claudio O.; Lara, María V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Drincovich, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp, and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI. PMID:27746802

  10. Assessment of volatile profile as potential marker of chilling injury of basil leaves during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Pace, Bernardo; Cefola, Maria; Martignetti, Antonella; Stocchero, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-12-15

    The volatile profile of three sweet basil cultivars, "Italico a foglia larga", "Cammeo" and "Italiano classico", packaged in air at 4 or 12°C until 9days, was monitored by solid phase microextraction with GC-MS. Chilling injury (CI) score and electrolyte leakage were also assessed. In total, 71 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of basil samples. A preliminary principal component analysis highlighted the dominant effect of the cultivar on VOCs profiles. Data analysis by post-transformation of projection to latent structures regression (ptPLS2) clarified the role played by time and temperature of storage. Temperature influenced the emission of volatiles during storage, with much lower total volatile emissions at 4°C compared to 12°C. Finally, a ptPLS2 regression model performed on VOCs and the two CI parameters allowed selection of 10 metabolites inversely correlated to both CI parameters, which can be considered potential markers of CI in basil leaves. PMID:27451192

  11. Ergosterol Alleviates Kidney Injury in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li; Yuguang, Liu; Liying, Wang; Shuying, Zhang; Liting, Xu; Shumin, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Ergosterol (ERG) has been widely used in the development of novel drugs due to its unique physiological function. However, little is known about the protective effects of ERG on diabetes. Hence, the current study was designed to evaluate the positive role of ergosterol on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out to assess blood glucose level. Biochemical parameters such as uric acid, creatinine, serum insulin, triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) were also measured. Pathological condition of kidney was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, NF-κBp65, p-NF-κBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα were analyzed by western blot. ERG significantly reduced the concentrations of blood glucose, uric acid, creatinine, TG, and TC. Serum insulin was elevated with ERG treatment. In addition, renal pathologic changes of diabetes mice were also alleviated by ERG. Obtained data revealed that ERG restored the levels of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling-related proteins in comparison with diabetes mice. Above all, it could be assumed that ERG might play a positive role in regulating STZ-induced diabetes through suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway. PMID:26664454

  12. Beneficial roles of dietary oleum cinnamomi in alleviating intestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Zhao, Di; Wang, Zhongxing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Gong, Joshua; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon is a traditional herb used for treatment of many human diseases. The most important chemical compounds of the essential oil are cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Oleum cinnamomi (OCM, cinnamon oil) is increasingly used as a feed additive to animal diets. Beneficial effects of OCM in protecting tissues from inflammation and injury by endogenous and exogenous agents (such as hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) may result, in part, from its action on regulating amino acid metabolism in cells to favor the synthesis of glutathione (a major low-molecular-weight antioxidant) from cysteine, glycine and glutamate. In support of this notion, results of recent studies indicate that supplementing OCM (50 mg/kg diet) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet for piglets weaned at 21 days of age enhances intestinal anti-oxidative capacity and reduces the incidence of diarrhea. Additionally, dietary supplementation with OCM ameliorates LPS-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction and mucosal damage in the small intestine. OCM holds great promise for protecting the gut from injury under conditions of inflammation, infections, and oxidative stress.

  13. Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of chilling injury in cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Wang, C. Y.; Chan, D. E.; Kim, Moon S.

    2004-11-01

    Hyperspectral images of cucumbers were acquired before and during cold storage treatments as well as during subsequent room temperature (RT) storage to explore the potential for the detection of chilling induced damage in whole cucumbers. Region of interest (ROI) spectral features of chilling injured areas, resulting from cold storage treatments at 0°C or 5°C, showed a reduction in reflectance intensity during multi-day post chilling periods of RT storage. Large spectral differences between good-smooth skins and chilling injured skins occurred in the 700-850 nm visible/NIR region. A number of data processing methods, including simple spectral band algorithms, second difference, and principal component analysis (PCA), were attempted to discriminate the ROI spectra of good cucumber skins from those of chilling injured skins. Results revealed that using either a dual-band ratio algorithm (Q811/756) or a PCA model from a narrow spectral region of 733-848 nm could detect chilling injured skins with a success rate of over 90%. Furthermore, the dual-band algorithm was applied to the analysis of images of cucumbers at different conditions, and the resultant images showed more correct identification of chilling injured spots than other processing methods.

  14. Reduction in mitochondrial iron alleviates cardiac damage during injury.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Wu, Rongxue; Shang, Meng; Sato, Tatsuya; Chen, Chunlei; Shapiro, Jason S; Liu, Ting; Thakur, Anita; Sawicki, Konrad T; Prasad, Sathyamangla V N; Ardehali, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Excess cellular iron increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and causes cellular damage. Mitochondria are the major site of iron metabolism and ROS production; however, few studies have investigated the role of mitochondrial iron in the development of cardiac disorders, such as ischemic heart disease or cardiomyopathy (CM). We observe increased mitochondrial iron in mice after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and in human hearts with ischemic CM, and hypothesize that decreasing mitochondrial iron protects against I/R damage and the development of CM. Reducing mitochondrial iron genetically through cardiac-specific overexpression of a mitochondrial iron export protein or pharmacologically using a mitochondria-permeable iron chelator protects mice against I/R injury. Furthermore, decreasing mitochondrial iron protects the murine hearts in a model of spontaneous CM with mitochondrial iron accumulation. Reduced mitochondrial ROS that is independent of alterations in the electron transport chain's ROS producing capacity contributes to the protective effects. Overall, our findings suggest that mitochondrial iron contributes to cardiac ischemic damage, and may be a novel therapeutic target against ischemic heart disease. PMID:26896449

  15. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  16. Oral Supplementation of Glucosamine Fails to Alleviate Acute Kidney Injury in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Marc; Späth, Martin Richard; Denzel, Martin S; Göbel, Heike; Kubacki, Torsten; Hoyer, Karla Johanna Ruth; Hinze, Yvonne; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Antebi, Adam; Burst, Volker; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in the ageing population. Proteotoxic stress response pathways have been suggested to contribute to the development of acute renal injury. Recent evidence suggests that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway as well as feeding of animals with aminosugars produced in the hexosamine pathway may increase stress resistance through reducing proteotoxic stress and alleviate pathology in model organisms. As feeding of the hexosamine pathway metabolite glucosamine to aged mice increased their life expectancy we tested whether supplementation of this aminosugar may also protect mice from acute kidney injury after renal ischemia and reperfusion. Animals were fed for 4 weeks ad libitum with standard chow or standard chow supplemented with 0.5% N-acetylglucosamine. Preconditioning with caloric restriction for four weeks prior to surgery served as a positive control for protective dietary effects. Whereas caloric restriction demonstrated the known protective effect both on renal function as well as survival in the treated animals, glucosamine supplementation failed to promote any protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. These data show that although hexosamine pathway metabolites have a proven role in enhancing protein quality control and survival in model organisms oral glucosamine supplementation at moderate doses that would be amenable to humans does not promote protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury of the kidney. PMID:27557097

  17. Oral Supplementation of Glucosamine Fails to Alleviate Acute Kidney Injury in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Marc; Späth, Martin Richard; Denzel, Martin S.; Göbel, Heike; Kubacki, Torsten; Hoyer, Karla Johanna Ruth; Hinze, Yvonne; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Antebi, Adam; Burst, Volker; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in the ageing population. Proteotoxic stress response pathways have been suggested to contribute to the development of acute renal injury. Recent evidence suggests that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway as well as feeding of animals with aminosugars produced in the hexosamine pathway may increase stress resistance through reducing proteotoxic stress and alleviate pathology in model organisms. As feeding of the hexosamine pathway metabolite glucosamine to aged mice increased their life expectancy we tested whether supplementation of this aminosugar may also protect mice from acute kidney injury after renal ischemia and reperfusion. Animals were fed for 4 weeks ad libitum with standard chow or standard chow supplemented with 0.5% N-acetylglucosamine. Preconditioning with caloric restriction for four weeks prior to surgery served as a positive control for protective dietary effects. Whereas caloric restriction demonstrated the known protective effect both on renal function as well as survival in the treated animals, glucosamine supplementation failed to promote any protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. These data show that although hexosamine pathway metabolites have a proven role in enhancing protein quality control and survival in model organisms oral glucosamine supplementation at moderate doses that would be amenable to humans does not promote protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury of the kidney. PMID:27557097

  18. Effects of nanogold on the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Peng; Dai, Zong-Her; Liu, Pan-Chen; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Lee, Kuo-Yang; Lee, Shun-Lai; Chen, Yun-Ju

    2012-10-31

    Gold particles have been used in complementary medicine for decades, and many beneficial effects have been reported. Our present study sought to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nanogold in carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-injured liver of rats. Male SD rats were subjected to liver injury induction by CCl₄, then the rats were fed with zero to high dose (0, 1, 5 or 10 ppm) of nanogold water every day for 4 weeks. Biochemical analyses on liver functions were then performed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nanogold. Our results revealed that gold nanoparticles lowered serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase and exerted serum total protein-recovering effects, which might be partially associated with the elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, serum triglyceride level fell after continuous ingestion of nanogold. Finally, the experimental animals recovered body weight after 4 weeks of nanogold ingestion. This is the first report indicating inflammation alleviating effects of nanogold on hepatic injury.

  19. Activator- and repressor-type MYB transcription factors are involved in chilling injury induced flesh lignification in loquat via their interactions with the phenylpropanoid pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xue-ren; Zeng, Jiao-ke; Ge, Hang; Song, Min; Xu, Chang-jie; Li, Xian; Ferguson, Ian B.; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-01-01

    Lignin biosynthesis and its transcriptional regulatory networks have been studied in model plants and woody trees. However, lignification also occurs in some fleshy fruit and has rarely been considered in this way. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is one such convenient tissue for exploring the transcription factors involved in regulating fruit flesh lignification. Firmness and lignin content of ‘Luoyangqing’ loquat were fund to increase during low-temperature storage as a typical symptom of chilling injury, while heat treatment (HT) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC) effectively alleviated them. Two novel EjMYB genes, EjMYB1 and EjMYB2, were isolated and were found to be localized in the nucleus. These genes responded differently to low temperature, with EjMYB1 induced and EjMYB2 inhibited at 0 °C. They also showed different temperature responses under HT and LTC conditions, and may be responsible for different regulation of flesh lignification at the transcriptional level. Transactivation assays indicated that EjMYB1 and EjMYB2 are a transcriptional activator and repressor, respectively. EjMYB1 activated promoters of both Arabidopsis and loquat lignin biosynthesis genes, while EjMYB2 countered the inductive effects of EjMYB1. This finding was also supported by transient overexpression in tobacco. Regulation of lignification by EjMYB1 and EjMYB2 is likely to be achieved via their competitive interaction with AC elements in the promoter region of lignin biosynthesis genes such as Ej4CL1. PMID:24860186

  20. Activator- and repressor-type MYB transcription factors are involved in chilling injury induced flesh lignification in loquat via their interactions with the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xue-ren; Zeng, Jiao-ke; Ge, Hang; Song, Min; Xu, Chang-Jie; Li, Xian; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-08-01

    Lignin biosynthesis and its transcriptional regulatory networks have been studied in model plants and woody trees. However, lignification also occurs in some fleshy fruit and has rarely been considered in this way. Loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica ) is one such convenient tissue for exploring the transcription factors involved in regulating fruit flesh lignification. Firmness and lignin content of 'Luoyangqing' loquat were fund to increase during low-temperature storage as a typical symptom of chilling injury, while heat treatment (HT) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC) effectively alleviated them. Two novel EjMYB genes, EjMYB1 and EjMYB2, were isolated and were found to be localized in the nucleus. These genes responded differently to low temperature, with EjMYB1 induced and EjMYB2 inhibited at 0 °C. They also showed different temperature responses under HT and LTC conditions, and may be responsible for different regulation of flesh lignification at the transcriptional level. Transactivation assays indicated that EjMYB1 and EjMYB2 are a transcriptional activator and repressor, respectively. EjMYB1 activated promoters of both Arabidopsis and loquat lignin biosynthesis genes, while EjMYB2 countered the inductive effects of EjMYB1. This finding was also supported by transient overexpression in tobacco. Regulation of lignification by EjMYB1 and EjMYB2 is likely to be achieved via their competitive interaction with AC elements in the promoter region of lignin biosynthesis genes such as Ej4CL1.

  1. Ginkgolide B functions as a determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fugen; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Guojun; Yao, Hongyi; Xu, Chengyun; Xiao, Weiqiang; Wu, Junsong; Wu, Ximei

    2016-07-01

    Ginkgolides are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba extracts, however, the exact constituents of Ginkgolides contributing to their pharmacological effects remain unknown. Herein, we have determined the anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolides mixture (GM) at equivalent dosages against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. RAW 264.7 cell culture model and mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of GB and GM, respectively. In RAW 264.7 cells, GB and GM at equivalent dosages exhibit an identical capacity to attenuate LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression and subsequent NO production. Likewise, GB and GM possess almost the same potency in attenuating LPS-induced expression and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) and subsequent increases in tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. In LPS-induced pulmonary injury, GB and GM at the equivalent dosages have equal efficiency in attenuating the accumulation of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and in improving the histological damage of lungs. Moreover, GB and GM at equivalent dosages decrease the exudation of plasma protein to the same degree, whereas GM is superior to GB in alleviating myeloperoxidase activities. Finally, though GB and GM at equivalent dosages appear to reduce LPS-induced IL-1β mRNA and protein levels and IL-10 protein levels to the same degree, GM is more potent than GB to attenuate the IL-10 mRNA levels. Taken together, this study demonstrates that GB functions as the determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:27261579

  2. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian; Shahzamani, Mehran; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Allahverdi, Amin; Khansari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. Objective This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Methods Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. Conclusion From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model. PMID:26039663

  3. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation. PMID:25945746

  4. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Zhao, Z G; Zhang, L M; Li, S G; Niu, C Y

    2015-07-01

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Zhao, Z G; Zhang, L M; Li, S G; Niu, C Y

    2015-07-01

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation. PMID:25945746

  6. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-05-28

    Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

  7. Membrane Lipid Phase Transition Behavior of Oocytes from Three Gorgonian Corals in Relation to Chilling Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiahsin; Kuo, Fu-Wen; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop

    2014-01-01

    The lipid phase transition (LPT) from the fluid liquid crystalline phase to the more rigid gel structure phase that occurs upon exposure to low temperatures can affect physical structure and function of cellular membranes. This study set out to investigate the membrane phase behavior of oocytes of three gorgonian corals; Junceela fragilis, J. juncea and Ellisella robusta,at different developmental stages after exposure to reduced temperatures. Oocytes were chilled to 5°C for 48, 96 or 144 h, and the LPT temperature (LPTT) was determined with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The J. fragilis oocytes had a higher LPTT (∼23.0–23.7°C) than those of J. juncea and E. robusta oocytes (approximately 18.3–20.3°C). Upon chilling for 96 h at 5°C, the LPTTs of J. juncea and E. robusta oocytes in the early (18.0±1.0 and 18.3±0.6°C, respectively) and late (17.3±0.6 and 17.7±1.2°C, respectively) stages were significantly lower than those of J. fragilis oocytes (20.3±2.1 and 19.3±1.5°C for the early and late stages, respectively). The LPTTs of early stage gorgonian oocytes was significantly lower than those of late stage oocytes. These results suggest that the LPT of three gorgonian oocytes at different developmental stages may have been influenced by the phospholipid composition of their plasma membranes, which could have implications for their low temperature resistance. PMID:24671092

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor alleviates brain injury following global ischemia reperfusion in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; Gan, Jian-xin; Jiang, Guan-yu; Xu, Shan-xiang; Tao, Xiang-luo; Hong, An; Li, Jiao-kun

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on brain injury following global ischemia reperfusion and its mechanisms. Brain injury following global ischemia was induced by four vessels occlusion and systemic hypotension. Twenty-four rabbits were randomized into three groups: group A, only dissection of vessels; group B, intravenous infusion of normal saline after reperfusion for 6 h; group C, 30 μg/kg bFGF injected intravenously at the onset of reperfusion, then infused with 10 μg/(kg·h) for 6 h. Serum neuron specific enolase (NSE), S-100B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured before ischemia, 30 min after ischemia, 0.5, 1, 3, 6 h after reperfusion. Brain water content was determined and cerebral histopathological damages were compared. NSE and S-100B were increased 1 h after reperfusion and reached their peaks 6 h after reperfusion, but were much higher in group B than those in group C 3, 6 h after reperfusion. In groups B and C, TNF-α was increased after ischemia and IL-1 and IL-8 were increased significantly 0.5 h after reperfusion, then reached their peaks 6 h, 3 h, 6 h after reperfusion respectively. TNF-α and IL-8 at the time points of 1 h and 3 h and IL-1 at 3 h and 6 h in group C were correspondingly lower than those in group B. These indices in group A were nearly unchanged. There were less severe cerebral histopathological damages in group C compared with group B, but no difference in brain water content. It could be concluded that bFGF alleviates brain injury following global ischemia and reperfusion by down-regulating expression of inflammatory factors and inhibiting their activities. PMID:15973765

  9. Proteome changes in tomato fruits prior to visible symptoms of chilling injury are linked to defensive mechanisms, uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and protein degradation machinery.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sanchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Sevillano, Laura; Del Carmen Bolarin, Maria; Flores, Francisco B

    2012-02-01

    A comparative proteomic analysis between tomato fruits stored at chilling and non-chilling temperatures was carried out just before the appearance of visible symptoms of chilling injury. At this stage of the stress period it was possible to discriminate between proteins involved in symptoms and proteins implicated in response. To investigate the changes in the tomato fruit proteome under this specific stressful condition, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with spot identification by mass spectrometry was applied. This proteomic approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed proteins which are involved in two main biological functions: (i) defensive mechanisms represented by small heat shock and late embryogenesis proteins; and (ii) reaction to the uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and the protein degradation machinery. One of the first changes observed in chilled fruits is the down-regulation of ATP synthase, 26S proteasome subunit RPN11 and aspartic proteinase, whereas the first responses in order to deal with the stress are mainly multifunctional proteins involved not only in metabolism but also in stress regulation such as glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and invertase. In addition, our data seem to indicate a possible candidate to be used as a protein marker for further studies on cold stress: aldose-1-epimerase, which seems to have an important role in low temperature tolerance. PMID:22227396

  10. Insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: role of ion homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kostál, V; Renault, D; Mehrabianová, A; Bastl, J

    2007-05-01

    Adults of the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus and the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus developed chill-injury slower and survived longer when they were exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs, where periods of low temperature were alternated with periods of higher temperature on a daily basis) rather than to constant low temperatures. The extracellular (haemolymph) concentrations of potassium ions increased with significantly higher rates in the insects exposed to constant low temperatures than in those exposed to FTRs. The concentrations of magnesium and sodium ions were maintained relatively constant or decreased slightly in both thermal regimes. The loss of body water and the increase of haemolymph osmolality contributed to, but could not fully explain, the ion concentration changes, which probably resulted also from impairing the function of an active metabolic component (ion pump) at low temperatures. This explanation was supported by observing (in P. apterus) the return toward normal [K+] during the warm "recovery" period of the FTR. Collectively, the paper stresses the importance of considering the temperature fluctuations in the experimental studies on insect cold tolerance and suggests that the positive effect of the FTR on cold tolerance may consist, at least partially, in allowing the primary ion pumping systems to re-establish the ion gradients across cell membranes and epithelia during the recovery periods at a higher temperature.

  11. Exogenous Melatonin Treatment Increases Chilling Tolerance and Induces Defense Response in Harvested Peach Fruit during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Song, Chunbo; Shao, Jiarong; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2016-06-29

    The effect of exogenous melatonin on chilling injury in peach fruit after harvest was investigated. To explore the optimum concentration of melatonin for chilling tolerance induction, peach fruit were treated with 50, 100, or 200 μM melatonin for 120 min and then stored for 28 days at 4 °C. The results showed that application of melatonin at 100 μM was most effective in reducing chilling injury of peach fruit after harvest. Peaches treated with melatonin at this concentration displayed higher levels of extractable juice rate and total soluble solids than the non-treated peaches. In addition, melatonin treatment enhanced expression of PpADC, PpODC, and PpGAD and consequently increased polyamines and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents. Meanwhile, the upregulated transcripts of PpADC and PpODC and inhibited PpPDH expression resulted in the higher proline content in melatonin-treated fruit compared to the control fruit. Our results revealed that melatonin treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit. The chilling tolerance of harvested peaches induced by melatonin treatment is associated with higher levels of polyamine, GABA, and proline. These data provided here are the first protective evidence of exogenous melatonin in harvested horticultural products in response to direct chilling stress. PMID:27281292

  12. Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Parfitt, Dan E; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

  13. Stress tolerance and stress-induced injury in crop plants measured by chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo: chilling, freezing, ice cover, heat, and high light.

    PubMed

    Smillie, R M; Hetherington, S E

    1983-08-01

    The proposition is examined that measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo can be used to monitor cellular injury caused by environmental stresses rapidly and nondestructively and to determine the relative stress tolerances of different species. Stress responses of leaf tissue were measured by F(R), the maximal rate of the induced rise in chlorophyll fluorescence. The time taken for F(R) to decrease by 50% in leaves at 0 degrees C was used as a measure of chilling tolerance. This value was 4.3 hours for chilling-sensitive cucumber. In contrast, F(R) decreased very slowly in cucumber leaves at 10 degrees C or in chilling-tolerant cabbage leaves at 0 degrees C. Long-term changes in F(R) of barley, wheat, and rye leaves kept at 0 degrees C were different in frost-hardened and unhardened material and in the latter appeared to be correlated to plant frost tolerance. To simulate damage caused by a thick ice cover, wheat leaves were placed at 0 degrees C under N(2). Kharkov wheat, a variety tolerant of ice encapsulation, showed a slower decrease in F(R) than Gatcher, a spring wheat. Relative heat tolerance was also indicated by the decrease in F(R) in heated leaves while changes in vivo resulting from photoinhibition, ultraviolet radiation, and photobleaching can also be measured. PMID:16663118

  14. The mechanism underlying alpinetin-mediated alleviation of pancreatitis-associated lung injury through upregulating aquaporin-1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xingsi; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Biao; Li, Bo; Wei, Yangchao; Zhai, Run; Liang, Zhiqing; He, Songqing; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by its acute onset, critical condition, poor prognosis, and high mortality rate, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause multiple organ failure at its early stage, particularly acute lung injury (ALI). The pathogenesis of ALI is diffuse alveolar damage, including an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, a decrease in compliance, and invasion of many inflammatory cells. Corticosteroids are the main treatment method for ALI; however, the associated high toxicity and side effects induce pain in patients. Recent studies show that the effective components in many traditional Chinese medicines can effectively inhibit inflammation with few side effects, which can decrease the complications caused by steroid consumption. Based on these observations, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of alpinetin, which is a flavonoid extracted from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, on treating lung injury induced by SAP and to explore the mechanism underlying the alpinetin-mediated decrease in the extent of ALI. In this study, we have shown through in vitro experiments that a therapeutic dose of alpinetin can promote human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. We have also shown via in vitro and in vivo experiments that alpinetin upregulates aquaporin-1 and, thereby, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α expression as well as reduces the degree of lung injury. Overall, our study shows that alpinetin alleviates SAP-induced ALI. The likely molecular mechanism includes upregulated aquaporin expression, which inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and, thus, alleviates SAP-induced ALI. PMID:26966354

  15. Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:25206640

  16. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  17. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Yi; Liu, Shih-An; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Su, Hong-Lin; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs) for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model. Methods and Methods This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3–0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague—Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days. Results The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis. Conclusion Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27441756

  18. Danshensu alleviates cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis via activation of mTOR signalling.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guanwei; Yu, Jiahui; Asare, Patrick Fordjour; Wang, Lingyan; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Boli; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2016-10-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu (DSS) has a protective effect on cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the DSS action remain undefined. We investigated the potential role of DSS in autophagy and apoptosis using cardiac I/R injury models of cardiomyocytes and isolated rat hearts. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to 6 hrs of hypoxia followed by 18 hrs of reoxygenation to induce cell damage. The isolated rat hearts were used to perform global ischaemia for 30 min., followed by 60 min. reperfusion. Ischaemia/reperfusion injury decreased the haemodynamic parameters on cardiac function, damaged cardiomyocytes or even caused cell death. Pre-treatment of DSS significantly improved cell survival and protected against I/R-induced deterioration of cardiac function. The improved cell survival upon DSS treatment was associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (as manifested by increased phosphorylation of S6K and S6), which was accompanied with attenuated autophagy flux and decreased expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins (including p62, LC3-II, Beclin-1, Bax, and Caspase-3) at both protein and mRNA levels. These results suggest that alleviation of cardiac I/R injury by pre-treatment with DSS may be attributable to inhibiting excessive autophagy and apoptosis through mTOR activation. PMID:27385290

  19. Berberine alleviates cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting excessive autophagy in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhouqing; Han, Zhihua; Ye, Bozhi; Dai, Zhenyu; Shan, Peiren; Lu, Zhongqiu; Dai, Kezhi; Wang, Changqian; Huang, Weijian

    2015-09-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced autophagy increases the severity of cardiomyocyte injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of berberine, a natural extract from Rhizoma coptidis, on the I/R-induced excessive autophagy in in vitro and in vivo models. Autophagy was increased both in H9c2 myocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury and in mouse hearts exposed to I/R. And the expression level of p-AMPK and p-mTORC2 (Ser2481) were increased during H/R period. In addition, the increased autophagy level was correlated with reduced cell survival in H9c2 myocytes and increased infarct size in mouse hearts. However, berberine treatment significantly enhanced the H/R-induced cell viability and reduced I/R-induced myocardial infarct size, which was accompanied by improved cardiac function. The beneficial effect of berberine is associated with inhibiting the cellular autophagy level, due to decreasing the expression level of autophagy-related proteins such as SIRT1, BNIP3, and Beclin-1. Furthermore, both the level of p-AMPK and p-mTORC2 (Ser2481) in H9c2 myocytes exposed to H/R were decreased by berberine. In summary, berberine protects myocytes during I/R injury through suppressing autophagy activation. Therefore, berberine may be a promising agent for treating I/R-induced cardiac myocyte injury.

  20. Implication of Hypothalamus in Alleviating Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Andrew D.; King, Kevin; Deitermann, Annika; Miranpuri, Gurwattan S.; Resnick, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is common among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, and there remain clinical difficulties in treating NP due to the lack of understanding of underlying mechanisms. Extracellular proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase and β-catenin, have been shown to be activated in the spinal cord regions following an injury, and may play a key role in contributing to NP states. While these extracellular proteins have been used as therapeutic targets in the spinal cord, there has also been evidence of up-regulation in the hypothalamus following a SCI. We hypothesize that the hypothalamus is involved in regulating NP following a SCI, and hence should be researched further to determine if it is a viable target for future therapeutic treatments. PMID:27721586

  1. Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Woo, So-Youn; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Jo, Inho; Park, Joo-Won

    2014-08-01

    Acute liver failure, the fatal deterioration of liver function, is the most common indication for emergency liver transplantation, and drug-induced liver injury and viral hepatitis are frequent in young adults. Stem cell therapy has come into the limelight as a potential therapeutic approach for various diseases, including liver failure and cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) in concanavalin A (ConA)- and acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury. ConA-induced hepatitis resembles viral and immune-mediated hepatic injury, and acetaminophen overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the United States and Europe. Intravenous administration of T-MSCs significantly reduced ConA-induced hepatic toxicity, but not acetaminophen-induced liver injury, affirming the immunoregulatory capacity of T-MSCs. T-MSCs were successfully recruited to damaged liver and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion. T-MSCs expressed high levels of galectin-1 and -3, and galectin-1 knockdown which partially diminished interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor α secretion from cultured T-cells. Galectin-1 knockdown in T-MSCs also reversed the protective effect of T-MSCs on ConA-induced hepatitis. These results suggest that galectin-1 plays an important role in immunoregulation of T-MSCs, which contributes to their protective effect in immune-mediated hepatitis. Further, suppression of T-cell activation by frozen and thawed T-MSCs implies great potential of T-MSC banking for clinical utilization in immune-mediated disease. PMID:24954408

  2. MicroRNA-378 Alleviates Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Negatively Regulating Apoptosis Executioner Caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Zhong, Jie; Han, Song; Li, Yun; Yin, Yanling; Li, Junfa

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs have been linked to many human diseases, including ischemic stroke, and are being pursued as clinical diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Among the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in our previous report using large-scale microarray screening, the downregulation of miR-378 in the peri-infarct region of middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice can be reversed by hypoxic preconditioning (HPC). In this study, the role of miR-378 in the ischemic injury was further explored. We found that miR-378 levels significantly decreased in N2A cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment. Overexpression of miR-378 significantly enhanced cell viability, decreased TUNEL-positive cells and the immunoreactivity of cleaved-caspase-3. Conversely, downregulation of miR-378 aggravated OGD-induced apoptosis and ischemic injury. By using bioinformatic algorithms, we discovered that miR-378 may directly bind to the predicted 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of Caspase-3 gene. The protein level of caspase-3 increased significantly upon OGD treatment, and can be downregulated by pri-miR-378 transfection. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed the binding of miR-378 to the 3′-UTR of Caspase-3 mRNA and repressed its translation. In addition, miR-378 agomir decreased cleaved-caspase-3 ratio, reduced infarct volume and neural cell death induced by MCAO. Furthermore, caspase-3 knockdown could reverse anti-miR-378 mediated neuronal injury. Taken together, our data demonstrated that miR-378 attenuated ischemic injury by negatively regulating the apoptosis executioner, caspase-3, providing a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. PMID:27598143

  3. MicroRNA-378 Alleviates Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Negatively Regulating Apoptosis Executioner Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zhong, Jie; Han, Song; Li, Yun; Yin, Yanling; Li, Junfa

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs have been linked to many human diseases, including ischemic stroke, and are being pursued as clinical diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Among the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in our previous report using large-scale microarray screening, the downregulation of miR-378 in the peri-infarct region of middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice can be reversed by hypoxic preconditioning (HPC). In this study, the role of miR-378 in the ischemic injury was further explored. We found that miR-378 levels significantly decreased in N2A cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment. Overexpression of miR-378 significantly enhanced cell viability, decreased TUNEL-positive cells and the immunoreactivity of cleaved-caspase-3. Conversely, downregulation of miR-378 aggravated OGD-induced apoptosis and ischemic injury. By using bioinformatic algorithms, we discovered that miR-378 may directly bind to the predicted 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Caspase-3 gene. The protein level of caspase-3 increased significantly upon OGD treatment, and can be downregulated by pri-miR-378 transfection. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed the binding of miR-378 to the 3'-UTR of Caspase-3 mRNA and repressed its translation. In addition, miR-378 agomir decreased cleaved-caspase-3 ratio, reduced infarct volume and neural cell death induced by MCAO. Furthermore, caspase-3 knockdown could reverse anti-miR-378 mediated neuronal injury. Taken together, our data demonstrated that miR-378 attenuated ischemic injury by negatively regulating the apoptosis executioner, caspase-3, providing a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. PMID:27598143

  4. Memantine alleviates brain injury and neurobehavioral deficits after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Shan, Yan-Shen; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes brain injury via glutamate excitotoxicity, which leads to an excessive Ca(2+) influx and this starts an apoptotic cascade. Memantine has been proven to reduce brain injury in several types of brain insults. This study investigated the neuro-protective potential of memantine after SAH and explored the underlying mechanisms. An endovascular perforation rat model of SAH was used and Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the neuro-behavioral functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neuronal cell preservation. The mechanisms of action of memantine, with its N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonistic characteristics on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and peroxynitrite formation, were also investigated. The apoptotic cascade after SAH was suppressed by memantine. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression, peroxynitrite formation, and subsequent oxidative/nitrosative stress were also reduced. Memantine effectively preserved BBB integrity, rescued neuronal injury, and improved neurological outcome in experimental SAH. Memantine has neuro-protective potential in experimental SAH and may help combat SAH-induced brain damage in the future.

  5. Post-conditioning through lower limb ischemia-reperfusion can alleviate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shi-Qiu; Gan, Hui-Li; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Feng, Lei; Sun, Jian-Chao; Wang, Sheng-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Operation on the infrarenal aorta could cause ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury in local tissues and remote organs (e.g. the lung). We aim to explore the method of reducing lung ischemia-reperfusion damage after lower limb IR with post conditioning (LIPC). Methods: Bilateral lower limb ischemia was performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and then animals were divided into 4 groups: IR-Sham-operated, IR, post conditioned-IR (LIPC) and bilateral lower limb ischemia (LIR). The serum free radical, histological changes, Wet/Dry (W/D) ratio, levels of TNF-α, IL-6, cytokines and chemokines were tested and compared. Results: Post-conditioning could ameliorate histological injuries in the lung when compared to IR group. The serum free radical is significantly lower in LIPC group than IR groups. W/D ratio in LIPC groups is significantly lower. LIPC also could reduce the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Conclusion: post conditioning could reduce long-term damages of the lung after lower limb ischemic-reperfusion injury. PMID:26628977

  6. Electroacupuncture alleviates cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury via modulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-lu; Li, Peng-fei; Zhang, Chun-bing; Wu, Jin-ping; Feng, Xi-lian; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Mei-hong

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions, but whether the neuroprotective effect of EA against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves modulation of the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is unclear. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. A 30-minute period of EA stimulation was applied to both Baihui (DU20) and Dazhui (DU14) acupoints in each rat (10 mm EA penetration depth, continuous wave with a frequency of 3 Hz, and a current intensity of 1–3 mA) when reperfusion was initiated. EA significantly reduced infarct volume, alleviated neuronal injury, and improved neurological function in rats with MCAO. Furthermore, high mRNA expression of Bax and low mRNA expression of Bcl-2 induced by MCAO was prevented by EA. EA substantially restored total glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. Additionally, Nrf2 and glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) expression levels were markedly increased by EA. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effects of EA were attenuated when ERK1/2 activity was blocked by PD98059 (a specific MEK inhibitor). Collectively, our findings indicate that activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effects of EA. Our study provides a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of EA. PMID:27630691

  7. Electroacupuncture alleviates cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury via modulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Lu; Li, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Bing; Wu, Jin-Ping; Feng, Xi-Lian; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Mei-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions, but whether the neuroprotective effect of EA against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves modulation of the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is unclear. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. A 30-minute period of EA stimulation was applied to both Baihui (DU20) and Dazhui (DU14) acupoints in each rat (10 mm EA penetration depth, continuous wave with a frequency of 3 Hz, and a current intensity of 1-3 mA) when reperfusion was initiated. EA significantly reduced infarct volume, alleviated neuronal injury, and improved neurological function in rats with MCAO. Furthermore, high mRNA expression of Bax and low mRNA expression of Bcl-2 induced by MCAO was prevented by EA. EA substantially restored total glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. Additionally, Nrf2 and glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) expression levels were markedly increased by EA. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effects of EA were attenuated when ERK1/2 activity was blocked by PD98059 (a specific MEK inhibitor). Collectively, our findings indicate that activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effects of EA. Our study provides a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of EA. PMID:27630691

  8. Electroacupuncture alleviates cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury via modulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-lu; Li, Peng-fei; Zhang, Chun-bing; Wu, Jin-ping; Feng, Xi-lian; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Mei-hong

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions, but whether the neuroprotective effect of EA against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves modulation of the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is unclear. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. A 30-minute period of EA stimulation was applied to both Baihui (DU20) and Dazhui (DU14) acupoints in each rat (10 mm EA penetration depth, continuous wave with a frequency of 3 Hz, and a current intensity of 1–3 mA) when reperfusion was initiated. EA significantly reduced infarct volume, alleviated neuronal injury, and improved neurological function in rats with MCAO. Furthermore, high mRNA expression of Bax and low mRNA expression of Bcl-2 induced by MCAO was prevented by EA. EA substantially restored total glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. Additionally, Nrf2 and glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) expression levels were markedly increased by EA. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effects of EA were attenuated when ERK1/2 activity was blocked by PD98059 (a specific MEK inhibitor). Collectively, our findings indicate that activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effects of EA. Our study provides a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of EA.

  9. Mulberry Extracts Alleviate Aβ25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against β-amyloid 25–35- (Aβ25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200 μg/mL) for 24 h were treated with Aβ25–35 (20 μmol/L) for another 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent Aβ25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit Aβ25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

  10. Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism alleviates burn-induced multiple organ injury.

    PubMed

    Sener, Göksel; Sehirli, Ozer; Velioğlu-Oğünç, Ayliz; Ercan, Feriha; Erkanli, Gözde; Gedik, Nursal; Yeğen, Berrak C

    2006-09-01

    Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of multiorgan failure after major burn. This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of experimental hypothyroidism in hepatic and gastrointestinal injury induced by thermal trauma. Sprague Dawley rats were administered saline or PTU (10 mgkg(-1) i.p.) for 15 days, and hypothyroidism was confirmed by depressed serum T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Under brief ether anesthesia, shaved dorsum of rats was exposed to 90 degrees C (burn group) or 25 degrees C (control group) water bath for 10s. PTU or saline treatment was repeated at the 12th hour of the burn. Rats were decapitated 24h after injury and tissue samples from liver, stomach and ileum were taken for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen contents. Formation of reactive oxygen species in tissue samples was monitored by using chemiluminescence (CL) technique with luminol and lucigenin probes. Tissues were also examined microscopically. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in serum samples. Severe skin scald injury (30% of total body surface area) caused a significant decrease in GSH level, which was accompanied with significant increases in MDA level, MPO activity, CL levels and collagen content of the studied tissues (p<0.05-0.001). Similarly, serum TNF-alpha and LDH were elevated in the burn group as compared to control group. On the other hand, PTU treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by thermal trauma. Our results suggest that PTU-induced hypothyroidism reduces oxidative damage in the hepatic, gastric and ileal tissues probably due to hypometabolism, which is associated with decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms.

  11. Estrogen receptor agonists alleviate cardiac and renal oxidative injury in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Özdemir Kumral, Zarife Nigâr; Kolgazi, Meltem; Üstünova, Savaş; Kasımay Çakır, Özgür; Çevik, Özge Dağdeviren; Şener, Göksel; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-01-01

    Although endogenous estrogen is known to offer cardiac and vascular protection, the involvement of estrogen receptors in mediating the protective effect of estrogen on hypertension-induced cardiovascular and renal injury is not fully explained. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on oxidative injury, cardiovascular and renal functions of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided as control and RVH groups, and RVH groups had either ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-OVX. Sham-OVX-RVH and OVX-RVH groups received either ERβ agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (1 mg/kg/day) or ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol (1 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks starting at the third week following the surgery. At the end of the 9(th) week, systolic blood pressures were recorded, cardiac functions were determined, and the contraction/relaxation responses of aortic rings were obtained. Serum creatinine levels, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels, and myeloperoxidase activity in heart and kidney samples were analyzed, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was measured in kidney samples. In both sham-OVX and OVX rats, both agonists reduced blood pressure and reversed the impaired contractile performance of the heart, while ERβ agonist improved renal functions in both the OVX and non-OVX rats. Both agonists reduced neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation, and elevated antioxidant levels in the heart, but a more ERβ-mediated protective effect was observed in the kidney. Our data suggest that activation of ERβ might play a role in preserving the function of the stenotic kidney and delaying the progression of renal injury, while both receptors mediate similar cardioprotective effects. PMID:27399230

  12. Ozagrel hydrochloride, a selective thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, alleviates liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overdosed acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) causes severe liver injury. We examined the effects of ozagrel, a selective thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced to ICR male mice by an intraperitoneal injection with APAP (330 mg/kg). The effects of ozagrel (200 mg/kg) treatment 30 min after the APAP injection were evaluated with mortality, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and hepatic changes, including histopathology, DNA fragmentation, mRNA expression and total glutathione contents. The impact of ozagrel (0.001-1 mg/mL) on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in mouse hepatic microsome was examined. RLC-16 cells, a rat hepatocytes cell line, were exposed to 0.25 mM N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a hepatotoxic metabolite of APAP. In this model, the cytoprotective effects of ozagrel (1–100 muM) were evaluated by the WST-1 cell viability assay. Results Ozagel treatment significantly attenuated higher mortality, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels, excessive hepatic centrilobular necrosis, hemorrhaging and DNA fragmentation, as well as increase in plasma 2,3-dinor thromboxane B2 levels induced by APAP injection. Ozagrel also inhibited the hepatic expression of cell death-related mRNAs induced by APAP, such as jun oncogene, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (fos) and C/EBP homologous protein (chop), but did not suppress B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein11 (bim) expression and hepatic total glutathione depletion. These results show ozagrel can inhibit not all hepatic changes but can reduce the hepatic necrosis. Ozagrel had little impact on CYP2E1 activity involving the NAPQI production. In addition, ozagrel significantly attenuated cell injury induced by NAPQI in RLC-16. Conclusions We demonstrate that the TXA2 synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, dramatically alleviates liver injury induced by APAP in mice, and suggest that it is a

  13. Fish oil-supplemented parenteral nutrition could alleviate acute lung injury, modulate immunity, and reduce inflammation in rats with abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhang, Xianxiang; Yang, Enqin; Zhang, Nanyang; Cao, Shougen; Zhou, Yanbing

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to confirm that intravenous fish oil (FO) emulsions could alleviate acute lung injury, modulate immunity, and reduce inflammation in rats with abdominal sepsis and to explore the mechanisms of these effects. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups randomly. Two days after central venous catheterization, rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture to produce abdominal sepsis. Rats were assigned to receive normal saline or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) containing standard soybean oil emulsions or FO-supplemented TPN at the onset of sepsis for 5 days. A sham operation and control treatment were performed in control group rats. Acute lung injury scores, peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, plasma cytokines, and Foxp3 expression in the spleen were determined. Compared with the normal saline and TPN without FO, FO-supplemented TPN beneficially altered the distributions of the T-lymphocyte subsets and downregulated the acute lung injury scores, plasma cytokines, and expression of Foxp3 due to sepsis. Fish oil-supplemented TPN can decrease acute lung injury scores, alleviate histopathology, reduce the bacterial load in the peritoneal lavage fluid, modulate the lymphocyte subpopulation in the peripheral blood, downregulate Foxp3 expression in the spleen, and reduce plasma cytokines, which means that FO-supplemented TPN can alleviate acute lung injury, modulate immunity, and reduce inflammation in rats with abdominal sepsis.

  14. Astragalus extract alleviates nerve injury after cerebral ischemia by improving energy metabolism and inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Ping; Tan, Hua; Chen, Bei-Yang; Deng, Chang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    This aim of this study was to explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of Astragalus extract against cerebral ischemia injury through the energy metabolism and apoptosis pathways of c‑Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction. After the bilateral common carotid artery of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 20 min followed by 1-h reperfusion, the ATP content, total adenine nucleotides (TAN), energy charge (EC), and sodium potassium ATPase (Na(+)-K(+)‑ATPase) activity were decreased markedly in brain tissues. Astragalus extract markedly increased the ATP and ADP levels, EC value, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Twenty-four and 48 h after reperfusion, the neurocyte survival rate decreased and apoptosis rate increased, while the expression of phosphorylated JNK1/2, cytochrome c (Cyt C), and cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease (caspase)-9 and -3 were significantly enhanced in brain tissues. Astragalus extract significantly increased neurocyte survival and decreased the apoptosis rate as well as down-regulated the expression of p-JNK1/2, Cyt C, caspase-9, and caspase-3. These results suggest that Astragalus extract has neuroprotective effects against nerve injury after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with improved cellular energy metabolism, inhibition of JNK signal transduction pathway activation, and then suppression of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae alleviates influenza-induced acute lung injury via limiting NK cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Fengqi; Sun, Rui; Gao, Xiang; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    A protective effect induced by bacterial preinfection upon a subsequent lethal influenza virus infection has been observed, but the underlying immune mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we used a mouse model of Klebsiella pneumoniae preinfection to gain insight into how bacterial preinfection influences the subsequent lethal influenza virus infection. We found that K. pneumoniae preinfection significantly attenuated lung immune injury and decreased mortality during influenza virus infection, but K. pneumoniae-specific immunity was not involved in this cross-protection against influenza virus. K. pneumoniae preinfection limited NK cell expansion, which was involved in influenza-induced immune injury and death. Furthermore, K. pneumoniae preinfection could not control NK cell expansion and death during influenza virus infection in Rag1(-/-) mice, but adoptive transfer of T cells from wild-type mice was able to restore this protective effect. Our data suggest that the adaptive immune response activated by bacterial infection limits the excessive innate immune response induced by a subsequent influenza infection, ultimately protecting mice from death.

  16. Tangeretin Alleviates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hany A.; Mohamed, Wafaa R.; Arab, Hany H.; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its broad applications, cisplatin affords considerable nephro- and hepatotoxicity through triggering inflammatory and oxidative stress cascades. The aim of the current investigation was to study the possible protective effects of tangeretin on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. The impact of tangeretin on cisplatin-evoked hepatic dysfunction and histopathologic changes along with oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers were investigated compared to silymarin. Tangeretin pre-treatment significantly improved liver function tests (ALT and AST), inhibited cisplatin-induced lipid profile aberrations (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and diminished histopathologic structural damage in liver tissues. Tangeretin also attenuated cisplatin-induced hepatic inflammatory events as indicated by suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and enhancement of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Meanwhile, it lowered malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2) levels with restoration of glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, tangeretin attenuated cisplatin-induced increase in phospho-p38, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) in liver tissues. In addition, tangeretin downregulated Bax expression with augmentation of Bcl-2 promoting liver cell survival. Our results highlight the protective effects of tangeretin against cisplatin-induced acute hepatic injury via the concerted modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPKs and apoptotic pathways. PMID:27031695

  17. Pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and hydrogen rich saline alleviates myocardial reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoming; Gao, Song; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lulu; Tan, Hong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Yaoyu; Geng, Yongjian; Lin, Yanliang; Aertker, Benjamin; Sun, Yuanyuan

    2015-04-30

    This study investigated whether pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and hydrogen rich saline can provide benefits similar to that of mechanical postconditioning. To our knowledge, this is the first therapeutic study to investigate the co-administration of lactic acid and hydrogen. SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: Sham, R/I, M-Post, Lac, Hyd, and Lac + Hyd. The left coronary artery was occluded for 45 min. Blood was withdrawn from the right atrium to measure pH. The rats were sacrificed at different time points to measure mitochondrial absorbance, infarct size, serum markers and apoptotic index. Rats in Lac + Hyd group had similar blood pH and ROS levels when compared to the M-Post group. Additionally, the infarct area was reduced to the same extent in Lac + Hyd and M-Post groups with a similar trends observed for serum markers of myocardial injury and apoptotic index. Although the level of P-ERK in Lac + Hyd group was lower, P-p38/JNK, TNFα, Caspase-8, mitochondrial absorbance and Cyt-c were all similar in Lac + Hyd and M-Post groups. The Lac and Hyd groups were able to partially mimic this protective role. These data suggested that pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and hydrogen rich saline nearly replicates the benefits of mechanical postconditioning.

  18. Pharmacological Postconditioning with Lactic Acid and Hydrogen Rich Saline Alleviates Myocardial Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoming; Gao, Song; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lulu; Tan, Hong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Yaoyu; Geng, Yongjian; Lin, Yanliang; Aertker, Benjamin; Sun, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and hydrogen rich saline can provide benefits similar to that of mechanical postconditioning. To our knowledge, this is the first therapeutic study to investigate the co-administration of lactic acid and hydrogen. SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: Sham, R/I, M-Post, Lac, Hyd, and Lac + Hyd. The left coronary artery was occluded for 45 min. Blood was withdrawn from the right atrium to measure pH. The rats were sacrificed at different time points to measure mitochondrial absorbance, infarct size, serum markers and apoptotic index. Rats in Lac + Hyd group had similar blood pH and ROS levels when compared to the M-Post group. Additionally, the infarct area was reduced to the same extent in Lac + Hyd and M-Post groups with a similar trends observed for serum markers of myocardial injury and apoptotic index. Although the level of P-ERK in Lac + Hyd group was lower, P-p38/JNK, TNFα, Caspase-8, mitochondrial absorbance and Cyt-c were all similar in Lac + Hyd and M-Post groups. The Lac and Hyd groups were able to partially mimic this protective role. These data suggested that pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and hydrogen rich saline nearly replicates the benefits of mechanical postconditioning. PMID:25928542

  19. Heterology expression of the sweet pepper CBF3 gene confers elevated tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha; Tang, Xian-Feng; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Li-Yan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2011-10-15

    Various studies have confirmed that the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) family of transcription factors has a key role in regulating many plants' responses to cold stress. Here we isolated CBF3 from sweet pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein of CfCBF3 was targeted to the nucleus of the onion epidermis cell. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that CfCBF3 was expressed in leaves of sweet pepper and the expression was induced by low temperature, drought and salinity stresses but not by ABA. Overexpression of CfCBF3 under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in tobacco induced expression of orthologs of CBF3-targeted genes and increased chilling tolerance without a dwarf phenotype. Indeed it also led to multiple biochemical and physiological changes associated with chilling stress. Higher levels of proline (Pro) and soluble sugars and lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in transgenic plants. Our results demonstrated that the increase in total unsaturated fatty acids, especially in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was detected by overexpression of CfCBF3. During exposure to chilling stress, the transgenic lines were less susceptible to chilling-induced photoinhibition than wild-type (WT) plants. These results suggest that overexpression of CfCBF3 led to modification of the fatty acid unsaturation and alleviated the injuries under chilling stress.

  20. Caspase-1 inhibition alleviates acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Li, Min-Li; Wang, Bin; Guo, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Ren-Min

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of inhibition of caspase-1 on acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls (HC, n = 6), SAP rats treated with saline (SAP-S, n = 18), or SAP rats treated with a caspase-1/interleukin (IL)-1β-converting-enzyme (ICE) inhibitor (SAP-I-ICE, n = 18). SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. HC rats were subjected to identical treatment and surgical procedures without sodium taurocholate. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic saline (SAP-S) or the inhibitor (SAP-ICE-I) at 2 and 12 h after induction of acute pancreatitis. Surviving rats were sacrificed at different time points after SAP induction; all samples were obtained and stored for subsequent analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using automatic methods, and serum IL-1β concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intrarenal expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 mRNAs was detected by RT-PCR. IL-1β protein expression and the pathologic changes in kidney tissues were observed by microscopy after immunohistochemical or hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. RESULTS: The serum levels of BUN and Cr in the SAP-S group were 12.48 ± 2.30 mmol/L and 82.83 ± 13.89 μmol/L at 6 h, 23.53 ± 2.58 mmol/L and 123.67 ± 17.67 μmol/L at 12 h, and 23.60 ± 3.33 mmol/L and 125.33 ± 21.09 μmol/L at 18 h, respectively. All were significantly increased compared to HC rats (P < 0.01 for all). Levels in SAP-ICE-I rats were significantly decreased compared to SAP-S rats both at 12 and 18 h (P < 0.01 for all). Serum IL-1β levels in the SAP-S group were 276.77 ± 44.92 pg/mL at 6 h, 308.99 ± 34.95 pg/mL at 12 h, and 311.60 ± 46.51 pg/mL at 18 h; all significantly higher than those in the HC and SAP-ICE-I groups (P < 0.01 for all

  1. Treatment with curcumin alleviates sublesional bone loss following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; He, Baorong; Liu, Peng; Yan, Liang; Yang, Ming; Li, Dichen

    2015-10-15

    This work aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on sublesional bone loss induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. SCI model in this work was generated in rats by surgical transaction of the cord at the T10-12 level. After the surgery, animals were treated with curcumin (110 mg/kg body mass/day, via oral gavages) for 2 weeks. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin prevented the reduction of bone mass in tibiae and femurs, preserved bone microstructure including trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in proximal tibiae, and preserved mechanical properties of femoral midshaft. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin increased osteoblast surface and reduced osteoclast surface in proximal tibiae. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin increased osteocalcin mRNA expression and reduced mRNA levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and mRNA ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin in distal femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin reduced serum and femoral levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin had no significant effect on serum 25(OH)D, but enhanced mRNA and protein expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in distal femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin enhanced mRNA levels of Wnt3a, Lrp5, and ctnnb1 and upregulated protein expression of β-catenin in distal femurs. In conclusions, treatment with curcumin abated oxidative stress, activated VDR, and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which might explain its beneficial effect against sublesional bone loss following SCI in rats, at least in part.

  2. Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Naderi, Roohangiz; Jannatizadeh, Abbasali; Babalar, Mesbah; Sarcheshmeh, Mohammad Ali Askari; Faradonbe, Mojtaba Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5-20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation. PMID:27135813

  3. Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Naderi, Roohangiz; Jannatizadeh, Abbasali; Babalar, Mesbah; Sarcheshmeh, Mohammad Ali Askari; Faradonbe, Mojtaba Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5-20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation.

  4. DM-2 Chilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    How do you chill down 1.4 million pounds of solid rocket fuel in the hot Utah desert? Lots of air conditioning! Learn how ATK chilled down DM-2, the second Ares first stage development motor in adv...

  5. Blocking Notch signal in myeloid cells alleviates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury by repressing the activation of NF-κB through CYLD

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Heng-Chao; Bai, Lu; Yang, Zhao-Xu; Qin, Hong-Yan; Tao, Kai-Shan; Han, Hua; Dou, Ke-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a major reason of hepatocyte injury during liver surgery and transplantation. Myeloid cells including macrophages and neutrophils play important roles in sustained tissue inflammation and damage, but the mechanisms regulating myeloid cells activity have been elusive. In this study, we investigate the role of Notch signaling in myeloid cells during hepatic I/R injury by using a mouse model of myeloid specific conditional knockout of RBP-J. Myeloid-specific RBP-J deletion alleviated hepatic I/R injury. RBP-J deletion in myeloid cells decreased hepatocytes apoptosis after hepatic I/R injury. Furthermore, myeloid-specific RBP-J deletion led to attenuated inflammation response in liver after I/R injury. Consistently, Notch blockade reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages in vitro. We also found that blocking Notch signaling reduced NF-κB activation and increased cylindromatosis (CYLD) expression and knockdown of CYLD rescued reduction of inflammatory cytokines induced by Notch blockade in macrophages during I/R injury in vitro. On the other hand, activation of Notch signaling in macrophages led to increased inflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation and decreased CYLD expression in vitro. These data suggest that activation of Notch signaling in myeloid cells aggravates I/R injury, by enhancing the inflammation response by NF-κB through down regulation of CYLD. PMID:27680285

  6. Dexamethasone Ameliorates H2S-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Alleviating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chenglei; Chen, Junjie; Zhu, Baoli; Zhang, Hengdong; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the fatal outcomes after exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) especially MMP-2 and MMP-9 are believed to be involved in the development of ALI by degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood-air barrier. However, the roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H2S-induced ALI and the mechanisms of dexamethasone (DXM) in treating ALI in clinical practice are still largely unknown. The present work was aimed to investigate the roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H2S-induced ALI and the protective effects of DXM. In our study, SD rats were exposed to H2S to establish the ALI model and in parallel, A549 cells were incubated with NaHS (a H2S donor) to establish cell model. The lung HE staining, immunohistochemisty, electron microscope assay and wet/dry ratio were used to identify the ALI induced by H2S, then the MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both rats and A549 cells were detected. Our results revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 were obviously increased in both mRNA and protein level after H2S exposure, and they could be inhibited by MMP inhibitor doxycycline (DOX) in rat model. Moreover, DXM significantly ameliorated the symptoms of H2S-induced ALI including alveolar edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells and the protein leakage in BAFL via up-regulating glucocorticoid receptor(GR) to mediate the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, the protective effects of DXM in vivo and vitro study could be partially blocked by co-treated with GR antagonist mifepristone (MIF). Our results, taken together, demonstrated that MMP-2 and MMP-9 were involved in the development of H2S-induced ALI and DXM exerted protective effects by alleviating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Therefore, MMP-2 and MMP-9 might represent novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of H2S and other hazard gases induced ALI. PMID:24722316

  7. Altered distribution of regulatory lymphocytes by oral administration of soy-extracts exerts a hepatoprotective effect alleviating immune mediated liver injury, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Tawfik; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Shabat, Yehudit; Zolotarovya, Lidya; Snir, Ram; Ilan, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the immune-modulatory and the hepatoprotective effects of oral administration of two soy extracts in immune mediated liver injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Two soy extracts, M1 and OS, were orally administered to mice with concanavalin A (ConA) immune-mediated hepatitis, to high-fat diet (HFD) mice and to methionine and choline reduced diet combined with HFD mice. Animals were followed for disease and immune biomarkers. RESULTS: Oral administration of OS and M1 had an additive effect in alleviating ConA hepatitis manifested by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels. Oral administration of the OS and M1 soy derived fractions, ameliorated liver injury in the high fat diet model of NASH, manifested by a decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels, improvement in liver histology, decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides and improved insulin resistance. In the methionine and choline reduced diet combined with the high fat diet model, we noted a decrease in hepatic triglycerides and improvement in blood glucose levels and liver histology. The effects were associated with reduced serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and alteration of regulatory T cell distribution. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of the combination of OS and M1 soy derived extracts exerted an adjuvant effect in the gut-immune system, altering the distribution of regulatory T cells, and alleviating immune mediated liver injury, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. PMID:26139990

  8. Modulating the p66shc signaling pathway with protocatechuic acid protects the intestine from ischemia-reperfusion injury and alleviates secondary liver damage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingfei; Wang, Guangzhi; Chen, Zhao; Li, Zhenlu; Yao, Jihong; Zhao, Haidong; Wang, Shu; Ma, Zhenhai; Chang, Hong; Tian, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious clinical pathophysiological process that may result in acute local intestine and remote liver injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), which has been widely studied as a polyphenolic compound, induces expression of antioxidative genes that combat oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of PCA pretreatment for protecting intestinal I/R-induced local intestine and remote liver injury in mice. Intestinal I/R was established by superior mesenteric artery occlusion for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 90 min. After the reperfusion period, PCA pretreatment markedly alleviated intestine and liver injury induced by intestinal I/R as indicated by histological alterations, decreases in serological damage parameters and nuclear factor-kappa B and phospho-foxo3a protein expression levels, and increases in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, and Bcl-xL protein expression in the intestine and liver. These parameters were accompanied by PCA-induced adaptor protein p66shc suppression. These results suggest that PCA has a significant protective effect in the intestine and liver following injury induced by intestinal I/R. The protective effect of PCA may be attributed to the suppression of p66shc and the regulation of p66shc-related antioxidative and antiapoptotic factors.

  9. Xuebijing injection alleviates cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats through induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ailin; Li, Jing; Bao, Yuhua; Yuan, Dingshan; Huang, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and liver injury are associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. Xuebijing injection, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of sepsis and can contribute to the improvement of patients' health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly illuminated. In the present study, a septic rat model with liver injury was established by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. Histological alterations to the liver, activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), levels of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) in the CLP model rats with and without Xuebijing treatment were determined. The results showed that Xuebijing injection ameliorated the pathological changes in liver tissues caused by sepsis, and reduced the sepsis-induced elevation in serum ALT and AST levels. Furthermore, Xuebijing injection markedly downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6, and upregulated the expression of IL-10. More importantly, SOCS1 expression levels at the protein and mRNA levels were further increased by Xuebijing. These findings demonstrate that Xuebijing injection can significantly alleviate liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats via the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the promotion of SOCS1 expression. The protective effects of Xuebijing injection suggest its therapeutic potential in the treatment of CLP-induced liver injury. PMID:27602076

  10. Xuebijing injection alleviates cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats through induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ailin; Li, Jing; Bao, Yuhua; Yuan, Dingshan; Huang, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and liver injury are associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. Xuebijing injection, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of sepsis and can contribute to the improvement of patients' health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly illuminated. In the present study, a septic rat model with liver injury was established by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. Histological alterations to the liver, activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), levels of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) in the CLP model rats with and without Xuebijing treatment were determined. The results showed that Xuebijing injection ameliorated the pathological changes in liver tissues caused by sepsis, and reduced the sepsis-induced elevation in serum ALT and AST levels. Furthermore, Xuebijing injection markedly downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6, and upregulated the expression of IL-10. More importantly, SOCS1 expression levels at the protein and mRNA levels were further increased by Xuebijing. These findings demonstrate that Xuebijing injection can significantly alleviate liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats via the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the promotion of SOCS1 expression. The protective effects of Xuebijing injection suggest its therapeutic potential in the treatment of CLP-induced liver injury.

  11. The chilling of carcasses.

    PubMed

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  12. Tissue Kallikrein Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the B2R-ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kunxiong; Hu, Bin; Sang, Hongfei; Xie, Yi; Xu, Lili; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Lingling; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Renliang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially increases the risk of ischemic stroke and reduces the tolerance to ischemic insults. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in orthoglycemic model by activating the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). Considering the differential effects of B2R or bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) on cardioprotection and neuroprotection in I/R with or without diabetes, this study was designed to investigate the role of TK during cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Intravenous injection of TK inhibited apoptosis in neurons, alleviated edema and inflammatory reactions after focal cerebral I/R, significantly reduced the infarct volume, and improved functional recovery. These beneficial effects were accompanied by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and Bcl-2 signal proteins. Inhibition of the B2R or ERK1/2 pathway abated the effects of TK, whereas an antagonist of B1R enhanced the effects. These findings reveal that the neuroprotective effect of TK against cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats mainly involves the enhancement of B2R and ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 signaling pathway activity. PMID:27446506

  13. Tissue Kallikrein Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the B2R-ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kunxiong; Hu, Bin; Sang, Hongfei; Xie, Yi; Xu, Lili; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Lingling; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Renliang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially increases the risk of ischemic stroke and reduces the tolerance to ischemic insults. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in orthoglycemic model by activating the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). Considering the differential effects of B2R or bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) on cardioprotection and neuroprotection in I/R with or without diabetes, this study was designed to investigate the role of TK during cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Intravenous injection of TK inhibited apoptosis in neurons, alleviated edema and inflammatory reactions after focal cerebral I/R, significantly reduced the infarct volume, and improved functional recovery. These beneficial effects were accompanied by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and Bcl-2 signal proteins. Inhibition of the B2R or ERK1/2 pathway abated the effects of TK, whereas an antagonist of B1R enhanced the effects. These findings reveal that the neuroprotective effect of TK against cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats mainly involves the enhancement of B2R and ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 signaling pathway activity.

  14. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H₂O₂ content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  15. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviated brain injury via down-regulation of interleukin-1β in focal cerebral ischemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yansong; Wang, Xiaoli; Dong, Peng; Xu, Qinyan; Ma, Ze; Mu, Qingjie; Sun, Xihe; Jiang, Zhengchen; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays an important role in brain injury after focal ischemia, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are capable of reducing the expression of IL-1β, we investigated the effects of BMSCs transplantation on brain edema and cerebral infarction as well as the underlying mechanisms via IL-1β. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Normal + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) + PBS, Normal + BMSCs, MCAO + BMSCs and MCAO + IL-1ra (an antagonist of IL-1β). BMSCs were transplanted 24 hours after MCAO, and brain edema was evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain water content method after BMSCs transplantation. The expression of NeuN and AQP4 was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Protein level of AQP4 and IL-1β was detected by western blot analysis 48 hours after transplantation. The results showed that BMSCs transplantation reduced brain edema by measurement of brain water content and ADC Value of MRI, as well as the expression of AQP4 and IL-1β. It was also found that BMSCs transplantation could alleviate the cerebral infarction volume and neuronal damage. Both the brain edema and the cerebral infarction were associated with IL-1β expression. In conclusion, BMSCs transplantation was capable of alleviating brain edema as well as reducing cerebral infarction via down-regulation of IL-1β expression, thus repair the injured brain in focal cerebral ischemic rats. PMID:27186280

  16. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  17. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

    2012-02-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG-LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG-LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

  18. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  19. Tomato flavor changes at chilling and non-chilling temperatures as influenced by controlled atmospheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest temperatures recommended as safe to avoid chilling injury (CI) based on lack of visible symptoms suppress tomato aroma development. We investigated how temperatures at or above the putative CI threshold of 12.5°C affected aroma of pink ‘Tasti Lee’ tomatoes and if controlled atmosphere (C...

  20. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhen-Hui; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68%) showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32%) showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control) plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress. PMID:23825555

  1. Deficiency of adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein alleviates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Bao, Yuqian; Li, Haobo; Pan, Yong; Shu, Lingling; Xia, Zhengyuan; Wu, Donghai; Lam, Karen S L; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Xu, Aimin; Jia, Weiping; Hoo, Ruby L-C

    2015-10-01

    Clinical evidence shows that circulating levels of adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP) are elevated in patients with diabetes and closely associated with ischaemic heart disease. Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. The experiments in the present study investigated the role of A-FABP in MI/R injury with or without diabetes. Non-diabetic and diabetic (streptozotocin-induced) A-FABP knockout and wild-type mice were subjected to MI/R or sham intervention. After MI/R, A-FABP knockout mice exhibited reductions in myocardial infarct size, apoptotic index, oxidative and nitrative stress, and inflammation. These reductions were accompanied by an improved left ventricular function compared with the relative controls under non-diabetic or diabetic conditions. After diabetes induction, A-FABP knockout mice exhibited a preserved cardiac function compared with that in wild-type mice. Endothelial cells, but not cardiomyocytes, were identified as the most likely source of cardiac A-FABP. Cardiac and circulating A-FABP levels were significantly increased in mice with diabetes or MI/R. Diabetes-induced superoxide anion production was significantly elevated in wild-type mice, but diminished in A-FABP knockout mice, and this elevation contributed to the exaggeration of MI/R-induced cardiac injury. Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) were enhanced in both diabetic and non-diabetic A-FABP knockout mice after MI/R injury, but diminished in wild-type mice. The beneficial effects of A-FABP deficiency on MI/R injury were abolished by the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Thus, A-FABP deficiency protects mice against MI/R-induced and/or diabetes-induced cardiac injury at least partially through activation of the eNOS/NO pathway and reduction in superoxide anion production.

  2. Asparagus cochinchinensis Extract Alleviates Metal Ion-Induced Gut Injury in Drosophila: An In Silico Analysis of Potential Active Constituents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiyu; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions and sulfate are components of atmospheric pollutants that have diverse ways of entering the human body. We used Drosophila as a model to investigate the effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (A. cochinchinensis) extracts on the gut and characterized gut homeostasis following the ingestion of metal ions (copper, zinc, and aluminum). In this study, we found that the aqueous A. cochinchinensis extract increased the survival rate, decreased epithelial cell death, and attenuated metal ion-induced gut morphological changes in flies following chronic exposure to metal ions. In addition, we screened out, by network pharmacology, six natural products (NPs) that could serve as putative active components of A. cochinchinensis that prevented gut injury. Altogether, the results of our study provide evidence that A. cochinchinensis might be an effective phytomedicine for the treatment of metal ion-induced gut injury. PMID:27123034

  3. Asparagus cochinchinensis Extract Alleviates Metal Ion-Induced Gut Injury in Drosophila: An In Silico Analysis of Potential Active Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiyu; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions and sulfate are components of atmospheric pollutants that have diverse ways of entering the human body. We used Drosophila as a model to investigate the effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (A. cochinchinensis) extracts on the gut and characterized gut homeostasis following the ingestion of metal ions (copper, zinc, and aluminum). In this study, we found that the aqueous A. cochinchinensis extract increased the survival rate, decreased epithelial cell death, and attenuated metal ion-induced gut morphological changes in flies following chronic exposure to metal ions. In addition, we screened out, by network pharmacology, six natural products (NPs) that could serve as putative active components of A. cochinchinensis that prevented gut injury. Altogether, the results of our study provide evidence that A. cochinchinensis might be an effective phytomedicine for the treatment of metal ion-induced gut injury. PMID:27123034

  4. Activation of NRF2/ARE by isosilybin alleviates Aβ25-35-induced oxidative stress injury in HT-22 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chao, Gao; Li, YuLei; Wu, Min; Zhong, ShuZhi; Feng, ZunYong

    2016-10-01

    Aβ-mediated oxidative stress damage is considered a direct cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, drugs that have been developed to block oxidative stress are considered effective for AD treatment. Isosilybin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Silybum marianum, and it has been confirmed to have many pharmacological activities. This study aimed to verify that isosilybin could alleviate the Aβ25-35-induced oxidative stress damage in HT-22 hippocampal cells and to investigate the specific targets of isosilybin. A non-toxic dose of isosilybin significantly inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the release of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the Aβ25-35-stimulated reduction in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Subsequent studies showed that isosilybin significantly increased the protein and mRNA expression of antioxidases, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C2 (AKR1C2). Moreover, isosilybin stimulated the activity of an antioxidant-response element (ARE)-driven luciferase reporter gene. Further studies showed that isosilybin induced the expression of NFR-2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner and promoted its translocation to the nucleus. This result indicated that the antioxidant function of isosilybin might be achieved through the activation of NRF2/ARE signalling. Subsequent studies showed that the NRF2-specific agonist t-BHQ effectively inhibited ROS, MDA and LDH release and T-AOC reduction under Aβ25-35 stimulation. In addition, t-BHQ induced the expression of HO-1, GST, and AKR1C2, as well as the activity of ARE luciferase reporter plasmids. NRF2 siRNA blocked the antioxidative stress damage function of isosilybin. Therefore, NRF2 is likely to be a key mediator of isosilybin's anti-Aβ25-35-mediated oxidative stress damage function. Overall, our results confirmed that isosilybin regulates the expression of HO-1, GST, and AKR1C2 through

  5. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge.

  6. Fisetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang; Jiang, Ze-yu; Sun, Bo; Fu, Jie; Li, Tian-zuo

    2016-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), a common component of systemic inflammatory disease, is a life-threatening condition without many effective treatments. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, was reported to have wide pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the potential mechanism. Fisetin was injected (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Our results showed that fisetin effectively reduced the inflammatory cytokine release and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), decreased the lung wet/dry ratios, and obviously improved the pulmonary histology in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, fisetin inhibited LPS-induced increases of neutrophils and macrophage infiltration and attenuated MPO activity in lung tissues. Additionally, fisetin could significantly inhibit the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and the activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Our data indicates that fisetin has a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI via suppression of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways, and fisetin may be a promising candidate for LPS-induced ALI treatment.

  7. Hydrogen Gas Alleviates the Intestinal Injury Caused by Severe Sepsis in Mice by Increasing the Expression of Heme Oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Li, Qi; Chen, Hongguang; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lingling; Wang, Guolin; Xie, Keliang; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects and may have beneficial effects in severe sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying these protective effects. Male Institute for Cancer Research mice were randomized into 6 groups: sham; sham + H2; severe sepsis; severe sepsis + H2; severe sepsis + zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor; and severe sepsis + H2 + ZnPPIX. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis. Mice in the H2 groups received inhaled 2% H2 for 1 h at 1 h and 6 h after CLP or sham operation. Mice in the ZnPPIX groups received 40-mg/kg ZnPPIX by intraperitoneal injection 1 h before CLP. Tin protoporphyrin IX (TinPPIX), another HO-1 inhibitor, was also used in part for this study. Mice in the TinPPIX groups received 50-mg/kg TinPPIX through subcutaneous injection 6 h before CLP. The levels of biochemical markers, oxidative products, inflammatory mediator, the number of intestinal apoptotic cells, and the colony-forming unit numbers in the peritoneal lavage fluid were much higher in the severe sepsis group compared with the sham group. Intestinal injury in animals with severe sepsis was worse than that in animals in the sham group. H2 therapy in the animals with severe sepsis was associated with reduced intestinal injury, decreased numbers of colony-forming unit and apoptotic cells, reduced levels of biochemical markers, oxidative products, and high-mobility group box 1 protein. The protective effects of H2 were reversed by ZnPPIX and TinPPIX. Protein and messenger RNA expressions of HO-1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the intestine were increased in the severe sepsis group compared to the sham group, and H2 further increased their expressions in the severe septic mice. Zinc protoporphyrin IX and TinPPIX inhibited the expression of HO-1 protein. Hydrogen has the capacity to protect mice from organ injury in

  8. Glycyrrhizin Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury via Alleviating Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Yagai, Tomoki; Chai, Yingying; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Xie, Cen; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jun; Che, Yuan; Li, Feiyan; Wu, Yuzheng; Brocker, Chad N.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in Western countries. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a potent hepatoprotective constituent extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine liquorice, has potential clinical use in treating APAP-induced liver failure. The present study determined the hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of action of GL and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Various administration routes and pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics analyses were used to differentiate the effects of GL and GA on APAP toxicity in mice. Mice deficient in cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme (CYP2E1) or receptor interacting protein 3 (RIPK3) and their relative wild-type littermates were subjected to histologic and biochemical analyses to determine the potential mechanisms. Hepatocyte death mediated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)/caspase was analyzed by use of human liver-derived LO2 cells. The pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics analysis using various administration routes revealed that GL but not GA potently attenuated APAP-induced liver injury. The protective effect of GL was found only with intraperitoneal and intravenous administration and not with gastric administration. CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation and RIPK3-mediated necroptosis were unrelated to GL’s protective effect. However, GL inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis via interference with TNFα-induced apoptotic hepatocyte death. These results demonstrate that GL rapidly attenuates APAP-induced liver injury by directly inhibiting TNFα-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. The protective effect against APAP-induced liver toxicity by GL in mice suggests the therapeutic potential of GL for the treatment of APAP overdose. PMID:26965985

  9. Glycyrrhizin Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury via Alleviating Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Yagai, Tomoki; Chai, Yingying; Krausz, Kristopher W; Xie, Cen; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jun; Che, Yuan; Li, Feiyan; Wu, Yuzheng; Brocker, Chad N; Gonzalez, Frank J; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-05-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in Western countries. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a potent hepatoprotective constituent extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine liquorice, has potential clinical use in treating APAP-induced liver failure. The present study determined the hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of action of GL and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Various administration routes and pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analyses were used to differentiate the effects of GL and GA on APAP toxicity in mice. Mice deficient in cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme (CYP2E1) or receptor interacting protein 3 (RIPK3) and their relative wild-type littermates were subjected to histologic and biochemical analyses to determine the potential mechanisms. Hepatocyte death mediated by tumor necrosis factorα(TNFα)/caspase was analyzed by use of human liver-derived LO2 cells. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using various administration routes revealed that GL but not GA potently attenuated APAP-induced liver injury. The protective effect of GL was found only with intraperitoneal and intravenous administration and not with gastric administration. CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation and RIPK3-mediated necroptosis were unrelated to GL's protective effect. However, GL inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis via interference with TNFα-induced apoptotic hepatocyte death. These results demonstrate that GL rapidly attenuates APAP-induced liver injury by directly inhibiting TNFα-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. The protective effect against APAP-induced liver toxicity by GL in mice suggests the therapeutic potential of GL for the treatment of APAP overdose. PMID:26965985

  10. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood or amniotic epithelial stem cells alleviates mechanical allodynia after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Min-Soo; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Park, Sang-Bum; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), and a variety of different stem cell types have been grafted into humans suffering from spinal cord trauma or into animal models of spinal injury. Although several studies have reported functional motor improvement after transplantation of stem cells into injured spinal cord, the benefit of these cells for treating SCI-induced neuropathic pain is not clear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of transplanting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) or amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) on SCI-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) in T13 spinal cord hemisected rats. Two weeks after SCI, hUCB-MSCs or hAESCs were transplanted around the spinal cord lesion site, and behavioral tests were performed to evaluate changes in SCI-induced MA and TH. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were also performed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects on SCI-induced inflammation and the nociceptive-related phosphorylation of the NMDA NR1 receptor subunit. While transplantation of hUCB-MSCs showed a tendency to reduce MA, transplantation of hAESCs significantly reduced MA. Neither hUCB-MSC nor hAESC transplantation had any effect on SCI-induced TH. Transplantation of hAESCs also significantly reduced the SCI-induced increase in NMDA receptor NR1 subunit phosphorylation (pNR1) expression in the spinal cord. Both hUCB-MSCs and hAESCs reduced the SCI-induced increase in spinal cord expression of the microglial marker, F4/80, but not the increased expression of GFAP or iNOS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the transplantation of hAESCs into the injured spinal cord can suppress mechanical allodynia, and this effect seems to be closely associated with the modulation of spinal cord microglia activity and NR1 phosphorylation.

  11. Duloxetine Inhibits Microglial P2X4 Receptor Function and Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shota; Zhang, Jiaming; Kometani, Miho; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Kohno, Keita; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) are a family of ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2X4R in spinal microglia is crucial for neuropathic pain, a highly debilitating chronic pain condition, suggesting that P2X4R is a potential therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. Thus, the identification of a compound that has a potent inhibitory effect on P2X4R is an important clinical challenge. In the present study, we screened a chemical library of clinically approved drugs and show for the first time that duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has an inhibitory effect on rodent and human P2X4R. In primary cultured microglial cells, duloxetine also inhibited P2X4R-, but not P2X7R-, mediated responses. Moreover, intrathecal administration of duloxetine in a model of neuropathic pain produced a reversal of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of neuropathic pain. In rats that were pretreated with a serotonin-depleting agent and a noradrenaline neurotoxin, the antiallodynic effect of duloxetine was reduced, but still remained. Based on these results, we suggest that, in addition to duloxetine’s primary inhibitory action on serotonin and noradrenaline transporters, an inhibitory effect on P2X4R may be involved at least in part in an antiallodynic effect of intrathecal duloxetine in a model of neuropathic pain. PMID:27768754

  12. miR-30b inhibits autophagy to alleviate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury via decreasing the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Peng; He, Jin-Dan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Yao; Fu, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role and potential mechanism of miR-30b regulation of autophagy in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: An animal model of hepatic IRI was generated in C57BL/6 mice. For in vitro studies, AML12 cells were immersed in mineral oil for 1 h and then cultured in complete Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM)/F12 to simulate IRI. Mice and cells were transfected with miR-30b agomir/mimics or antagomir/inhibitor to examine the effect of miR-30b on autophagy to promote hepatic IRI. The expression of miR-30b was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Apoptotic cells were detected by terminal uridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and cell viability was detected by methylthiazole tetrazolium assay. The expression of light chain 3, autophagy-related gene (Atg)12, Atg5, P62, and caspase-3 were detected by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: miR-30b levels were significantly downregulated after hepatic IRI, and the numbers of autophagosomes were increased in response to IRI both in vivo and in vitro. These findings demonstrate that low levels of miR-30b could promote hepatic IRI. Furthermore, we found that miR-30b interacted with Atg12-Atg5 conjugate by binding to Atg12. Overexpression of miR-30b diminished Atg12 and Atg12-Atg5 conjugate levels, which promoted autophagy in response to IR. In contrast, downregulation of miR-30b was associated with increased Atg12-Atg5 conjugate levels and increased autophagy. CONCLUSION: miR-30b inhibited autophagy to alleviate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury via decreasing the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate. PMID:27182160

  13. PA-X-associated early alleviation of the acute lung injury contributes to the attenuation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiao; Mo, Yiqun; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Liang, Yanyan; Cheng, Xin; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxing; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-01

    PA-X is a novel discovered accessory protein encoded by the PA mRNA. Our previous study demonstrated that PA-X decreases the virulence of a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 in mice. However, the underlying mechanism of virulence attenuation associated with PA-X is still unknown. In this study, we compared two PA-X-deficient mutant viruses and the parental virus in terms of induction of pathology and manipulation of host response in the mouse lung, stimulation of cell death and PA nuclear accumulation. We first found that down-regulated PA-X expression markedly aggravated the acute lung injury of the infected mice early on day 1 post-infection (p.i.). We then determined that loss of PA-X expression induced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and complement-derived peptides (C3a and C5a) in the lung, especially at early time point's p.i. In addition, in vitro assays showed that the PA-X-deficient viruses enhanced cell death and increased expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. Moreover, we also found that PA nuclear accumulation of the PA-X-null viruses accelerated in MDCK cells. These results demonstrate that PA-X decreases the level of complement components, ROS, cell death and inflammatory response, which may together contribute to the alleviated lung injury and the attenuation of the virulence of H5N1 virus in mice.

  14. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol alleviates early brain injury by modulating oxidative stress and Akt and nuclear factor-κB pathways in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    FU, PENG; HU, QUAN

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, present in olive oil and in the wastewater generated during olive oil processing. DOPET has various biological and pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to determine whether DOPET alleviates early brain injury (EBI) associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) through suppression of oxidative stress and Akt and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham group, SAH group, SAH + vehicle group and SAH + DOPET group. Mortality, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain water content were assessed. Oxidative stress, Akt, NF-κB p65 and caspase-3 assays were also performed. DOPET induced a reduction in brain water content, and decreased the BBB permeability of SAH model rats. Furthermore, DOPET effectively controlled oxidative stress, NF-κB p65 and caspase-3 levels, in addition to significantly increasing Akt levels in the cortex following SAH. These results provide evidence that DOPET attenuates apoptosis in a rat SAH model through modulating oxidative stress and Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:27168841

  15. [Peoniflorin activates Nrf2/ARE pathway to alleviate the Abeta(1-42)-induced hippocampal neuron injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shu-Zhi; ma, Shi-Ping; Hong, Zong-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of peoniflorin on the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream signal molecules in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats for exploring the mechanism of peoniflorin protecting hippocampal neurons. AD model rats were established by bilateral intrahippocampal injection of beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) and divided randomly into 3 groups: AD model group, peoniflorin low-dose (15 mg x kg(-1)) group and peoniflorin high-dose (30 mg x kg(-1)) group. The vehicle control rats were given bilateral intrahippocampal injection of solvent with the same volume. After peoniflorin or saline was administered (ip) once daily for 14 days, the hippocampuses of all animals were taken out for measuring the expressions of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthethase (gamma-GCS) mRNA by reverse transcription PCR, determining the contents of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (CP) using colorimetric method, and for assaying the expressions of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and Caspase-3 by immunohistochemical staining method. The results showed that peoniflorin markedly increased the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and gamma-GCS mRNA, enhanced the level of GSH and decreased the contents of MDA and CP in the hippocampus, as compared with the model group. Peoniflorin also improved the NAIP expression and reduced the Caspase-3 expression in the hippocampus neurons. In conclusion, peoniflorin protects against the Abeta(1-42)-mediated oxidative stress and hippocampal neuron injury in AD rats by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID:24187848

  16. A Chilling Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knill, George; Fawcett, George

    1982-01-01

    Wind chill is detailed and noted as an estimate of how cold the wind makes a person feel in cold weather. A worksheet master that provides a table of temperatures and wind speeds is provided along with a set of problems. Answers to the brief question set are provided. (MP)

  17. Chilling requirement of Ribes cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hamlyn G.; Gordon, Sandra L.; Brennan, Rex M.

    2015-01-01

    It is usually thought that adequate winter chill is required for the full flowering of many temperate woody species. This paper investigates the sensitivity of blackcurrant bud burst and flowering to natural weather fluctuations in a temperate maritime climate, and compares a range of chill models that have been proposed for assessing the accumulation of winter chill. Bud break for four contrasting cultivars are compared in an exceptionally cold and in a mild winter in Eastern Scotland. The results confirm the importance of chilling at temperatures lower than 0°C and demonstrate that no single chilling function applies equally to all blackcurrant cultivars. There is a pressing need for further model development to take into account the relationship between chilling temperatures and warming temperatures occurring both during and after the chill accumulation period. PMID:25610448

  18. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with plumbagin alleviates spinal cord injury by affecting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wencheng; Yang, Yan; Yang, Jian-Yi; Liang, Ming; Song, Jiangtao

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect exerted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in combination with plumbagin on spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore the mechanism behind this protective effect. Firstly, BMSCs were extracted from male Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured in vitro, and identified by hematoxylin. Sprague-Dawley rats were then randomly divided into a control group, SCI model group, BMSC-treated group, a plumbagin-treated group, and a BMSC and plumbagin-treated group. After treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin, a Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test was carried out and the spinal cord water content was examined in order to analyze the effect of BMSCs combined with plumbagin on SCI. The myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also detected. Moreover, nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p-)Akt, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein expression levels were measured using western blot analysis. Treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin significantly improved locomotor recovery and reduced the spinal cord water content after SCI. The increased MPO, MDA, NF-κB p65 and TNF-α levels were significantly suppressed and the decreased SOD was significantly increased in SCI rats. The suppression of Nrf2, p-Akt and p-ERK, as well as the promotion of p-p38 MAPK, were reversed by treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin. These effects suggest that treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin alleviates SCI through its effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:26936518

  19. Chilling-Induced Lipid Degradation in Cucumber (Cucumis sativa L. cv Hybrid C) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Parkin, K L; Kuo, S J

    1989-07-01

    Chilling at 4 degrees C in the dark induced lipid degradation in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) fruit upon rewarming at 14 degrees C. Rates of ethane evolution by fruits rewarmed after 3 days of chilling were up to four-fold higher than those evolved by unchilled (14 degrees C) fruits (0.02-0.05 picomoles gram fresh weight(-1) hour(-1)). This potentiation of lipid peroxidation occurred prior to irreversible injury (requiring 3 to 7 days of chilling) as indicated by increases in ethylene evolution and visual observations. Decreases in unsaturation of peel tissue glycolipids were observed in fruits rewarmed after 3 days of chilling, indicating the plastids to be the site of the early phases of chilling-induced peroxidation. Losses in unsaturation of tissue phospholipids were first observed only after chilling for 7 days. Phospholipase D activity appeared to be potentiated in fruits rewarmed after 7 days of chilling as indicated by a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (and secondarily phosphatidylethanolamine) with a corresponding increase in phosphatidic acid. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation may have a role in conferring chilling injury.

  20. Dormancy release and chilling requirement of buds of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula and B. pubescens.

    PubMed

    Myking, T; Heide, O M

    1995-11-01

    Bud burst and dormancy release of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. from Denmark ( approximately 56 degrees N), mid-Norway ( approximately 64 degrees N) and northern Norway ( approximately 69 degrees N) were studied in controlled environments. Dormant seedlings were chilled at 0, 5 or 10 degrees C from October 4 onward and then, at monthly intervals from mid-November to February, batches of seedlings were held at 15 degrees C in an 8-h (SD) or 24-h (LD) photoperiod to permit flushing. A decline in days to bud burst occurred with increasing chilling time in all ecotypes. In November, after 44 chilling days, time to bud burst was least in plants chilled at 0 and 5 degrees C. The difference diminished with increasing chilling time, and in February, after 136 chilling days, bud burst was earliest in plants chilled at 10 degrees C. Long photoperiods during flushing significantly reduced thermal time after short chilling periods (44 and 74 days), but had no effect when the chilling requirement was fully met after 105 or more chilling days. No significant difference in these responses was found between the two species. In both species, chilling requirement decreased significantly with increasing latitude of origin. Bud burst was normal in seedlings overwintered at 12 degrees C, but was erratic and delayed in seedlings overwintered at 15 and especially at 21 degrees C, indicating that the critical overwintering temperature is between 12 and 15 degrees C. We conclude that there is little risk of a chilling deficit in birch under Scandinavian winter conditions even with a climatic warming of 7-8 degrees C. The likely effects of a climatic warming include earlier bud burst, a longer growing season and increased risk of spring frost injury, especially in high latitude ecotypes. PMID:14965987

  1. Welding Using Chilled-Inert-Gas Purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of fusion welding using chilled inert gas. Marked improvement shown in welding of aluminum using chilled helium gas. Chilling inert gas produces two additional benefits: 1) creation of ultradense inert atmosphere around welds; 2) chilled gas cools metal more quickly down to temperature at which metals not reactive.

  2. RNA Expression and Post-Transcriptional Editing Analyses of Cucumber Plastids Reveals Genetic Differences Associated with Chilling Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance to chilling injury in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is associated with three plastomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (ptSNPs) at bp positions 4,813, 56,561, and 126,349 that are co-inherited. An understanding of the genetic expression of these ptSNPs as a response to chilling is critical...

  3. Conventional protein kinase Cβ-mediated phosphorylation inhibits collapsin response-mediated protein 2 proteolysis and alleviates ischemic injury in cultured cortical neurons and ischemic stroke-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Yun; Han, Song; Howells, David W; Li, Shujuan; Li, Junfa

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)β participated in hypoxic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury, and collapsin response-mediated protein 2 (CRMP2) was identified as a cPKCβ interacting protein. In this study, we explored the regulation of CRMP2 phosphorylation and proteolysis by cPKCβ, and their role in ischemic injury of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated cortical neurons and brains of mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischemic stroke. The results demonstrated that cPKCβ-mediated CRMP2 phosphorylation via the cPKCβ-selective activator 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate 20-acetate (DOPPA) and inhibition of calpain-mediated CRMP2 proteolysis by calpeptin and a fusing peptide containing TAT peptide and the calpain cleavage site of CRMP2 (TAT-CRMP2) protected neurons against OGD-induced cell death through inhibiting CRMP2 proteolysis in cultured cortical neurons. The OGD-induced nuclear translocation of the CRMP2 breakdown product was inhibited by DOPPA, calpeptin, and TAT-CRMP2 in cortical neurons. In addition, both cPKCβ activation and CRMP2 proteolysis inhibition by hypoxic preconditioning and intracerebroventricular injections of DOPPA, calpeptin, and TAT-CRMP2 improved the neurological deficit in addition to reducing the infarct volume and proportions of cells with pyknotic nuclei in the peri-infact region of mice with ischemic stroke. These results suggested that cPKCβ modulates CRMP2 phosphorylation and proteolysis, and cPKCβ activation alleviates ischemic injury in the cultured cortical neurons and brains of mice with ischemic stroke through inhibiting CRMP2 proteolysis by phosphorylation. Focal cerebral ischemia induces a large flux of Ca(2+) to activate calpain which cleaves collapsin response mediator (CRMP) 2 into breakdown product (BDP). Inhibition of CRMP2 cleavage by calpeptin and TAT-CRMP2 alleviates ischemic injury. Conventional protein kinase C (c

  4. Effect of heat shock on the chilling sensitivity of trichomes and petioles of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha).

    PubMed

    Saltveit, Mikal E.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2004-05-01

    Chilling at 6 degrees C caused an immediate cessation of protoplasmic streaming in trichomes from African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha), and a slower aggregation of chloroplasts in the cells. Streaming slowly recovered upon warming to 20 degrees C, reaching fairly stable rates after 4, 15, 25 and 35 min for tissue chilled for 2 min and for 2, 14 and 24 h, respectively. The rate of ion leakage from excised petioles into an isotonic 0.2 M mannitol solution increased after 12 h of chilling and reached a maximum after 3 days of chilling. A heat shock at 45 degrees C for 6 min reduced chilling-induced rates of ion leakage from excised 1-cm petiole segments by over 50%, namely to levels near that from non-chilled control tissue. Heat-shock treatments themselves had no effect on the rate of ion leakage from non-chilled petiole segments. Protoplasmic streaming was stopped by 1 min of heat shock at 45 degrees C, but slowly recovered to normal levels after about 30 min Chloroplasts aggregation was prevented by a 1 or 2 min 45 degrees C heat-shock treatment administered 1.5 h before chilling, but heat-shock treatments up to 6 min only slightly delayed the reduction in protoplasmic streaming caused by chilling. Tradescantia virginiana did not exhibit symptoms associated with chilling injury in sensitive species (i.e. cessation of protoplasmic streaming in stamen hairs and increased ion leakage from leaf tissue). PMID:15086815

  5. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hugly, S.; McCourt, P.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. ); Patterson, G.W. )

    1990-07-01

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18{degree}C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress. PMID:26904078

  7. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  8. Molecular basis of chill resistance adaptations in poikilothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Scott A L; Manso, Bruno; Cossins, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Chill and freeze represent very different components of low temperature stress. Whilst the principal mechanisms of tissue damage and of acquired protection from freeze-induced effects are reasonably well established, those for chill damage and protection are not. Non-freeze cold exposure (i.e. chill) can lead to serious disruption to normal life processes, including disruption to energy metabolism, loss of membrane perm-selectivity and collapse of ion gradients, as well as loss of neuromuscular coordination. If the primary lesions are not relieved then the progressive functional debilitation can lead to death. Thus, identifying the underpinning molecular lesions can point to the means of building resistance to subsequent chill exposures. Researchers have focused on four specific lesions: (i) failure of neuromuscular coordination, (ii) perturbation of bio-membrane structure and adaptations due to altered lipid composition, (iii) protein unfolding, which might be mitigated by the induced expression of compatible osmolytes acting as 'chemical chaperones', (iv) or the induced expression of protein chaperones along with the suppression of general protein synthesis. Progress in all these potential mechanisms has been ongoing but not substantial, due in part to an over-reliance on straightforward correlative approaches. Also, few studies have intervened by adoption of single gene ablation, which provides much more direct and compelling evidence for the role of specific genes, and thus processes, in adaptive phenotypes. Another difficulty is the existence of multiple mechanisms, which often act together, thus resulting in compensatory responses to gene manipulations, which may potentially mask disruptive effects on the chill tolerance phenotype. Consequently, there is little direct evidence of the underpinning regulatory mechanisms leading to induced resistance to chill injury. Here, we review recent advances mainly in lower vertebrates and in arthropods, but increasingly

  9. Alleviation of transient global ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats with 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose isolated from Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Viswanatha, G L; Shylaja, H; Mohan, C G

    2013-11-15

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (PGG) against transient global ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in rats. Sixty minutes of global ischemia, followed by 24h of reperfusion caused significant alterations in cognition and memory (p<0.01), significant deterioration of motor coordination, grip strength, and limb tone (P<0.01) associated with neurological deficit. In addition, significant decrease in catalase (P<0.01), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.01) activities, increase in lipid peroxidation (P<0.01), depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) (P<0.01), and increase in brain volume (P<0.01) was observed. Additionally, I/R insult has aggravated the cerebral infarct formation (P<0.01), and the histopathology of brain showed congestion of blood vessels, edema of brain parenchyma, leukocyte infiltration as signs of neuroinflammation, and necrosis of brain tissue. Interestingly, pre-treatment with quercetin (20mg/kg, i.p.), and PGG (5 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days showed significant, and dose dependent protection against I/R-induced brain injury by alleviating all the behavioral, neurological, morphological, and histological changes induced by I/R. Besides, PGG is a well-known antioxidant, and its protective effect against I/R-induced brain injury is thought to be due to its potent antioxidant property.

  10. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  11. [Effects of chilling stress on antioxidant system and ultrastructure of walnut cultivars].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing-hua; Wang, Hong-xia; Zhang, Zhi-hua; Gao, Yi

    2015-05-01

    In order to reveal cold hardiness mechanisms and ascertain suitable cold hardiness biochemical indicators of walnut (Juglans regia) , three walnut cultivars ' Hartley' , 'Jinlong 1' and 'Jinlong 2' with strong to weak tolerance of chilling stress, were used to investigate variations of leaf antioxidant enzyme activity and superoxide anion (O2-·) content in one year-old branches under chilling stress at 1 °C in leaf-expansion period. The mesophyll cells ultrastructure of ' Hartley' and 'Jinlong 2' under chilling stress were also observed by transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzyme activities were the strongest and O2-· content was the lowest in chilling-tolerant cultivar ' Hartley' under chilling stress among the three cultivars. The ultrastructure of the mesophyll cells was stable, and chilling injury symptoms of the leaves were not observed. In chilling-sensitive cultivar 'Jinlong 2' , the SOD, POD and catalase enzyme ( CAT) activities decreased sharply, and the O2-· content was kept at a high level under chilling stress. The ultrastructure of the mesophyll cells was injured obviously at 1 °C∟ for 72 hours. Most of chloroplasts were swollen, and grana lamella became thinner and fewer. A number of chloroplasts envelope and plasma membrane were damaged and became indistinct. At the same time, the edges of some of 'Jinlong 2' young leaves became water-soaked. It was concluded that the ultrastructure stability of mesophyll cells under chilling stress was closely related to walnut cold hardiness. SOD, POD enzyme activities and O2-· content in walnut leaves could be used as biochemical indicators of walnut cold hardiness in leaf-expansion period. There might be a correlation between the damage of cell membrane system and reactive oxygen accumulation under chilling stress.

  12. Overexpression of the human ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Can; Zhang, Li-Yang; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Xian-Peng; Zhang, Jian-Xiang

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of human CUL4A (hCUL4A) in PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of hCUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage and thus promotes cell survival. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A regulates apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A plays important roles in diverse cellular processes including carcinogenesis and proliferation. It has been reported that the expression of CUL4A can be induced by hypoxic-ischemic injury. However, the effect of elevated expression of CUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury is currently unclear. In this study, human CUL4A (hCUL4A) was expressed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer, and the effects of hCUL4A expression on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. In PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, we found that hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage by regulating apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53 and p27); consequently, hCUL4A promotes cell survival. Taken together, our results reveal the beneficial effects of hCUL4A in PC12 cells upon hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

  13. Apios americana Medik Extract Alleviates Lung Inflammation in Influenza Virus H1N1- and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Cui, Jun; Jang, Ho Hee; Kang, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kim, In-Kyoung; Lee, Deuk-Ki; Choi, Seulgi; Yoon, Il-Sub; Chung, Ji-Woo; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2015-12-28

    Apios americana Medik (hereinafter Apios) has been reported to treat diseases, including cancer, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. The therapeutic effect of Apios is likely to be associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Apios in animal models of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1). Mice were exposed to LPS or H1N1 for 2-4 days to induce acute lung injury. The treatment groups were administered Apios extracts via oral injection for 8 weeks before LPS treatment or H1N1 infection. To investigate the effects of Apios, we assessed the mice for in vivo effects of Apios on immune cell infiltration and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathological changes in the lung. After induction of acute lung injury, the numbers of neutrophils and total cells were lower in the Apios-treated groups than in the non-Apios-treated LPS and H1N1 groups. The Apios groups tended to have lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6 in BAL fluid. In addition, the histopathological changes in the lungs were markedly reduced in the Apios-treated groups. These data suggest that Apios treatment reduces LPS- and H1N1-induced lung inflammation. These protective effects of Apios suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in acute lung injury.

  14. Dioscin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory kidney injury via the microRNA let-7i/TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Tao, Xufeng; Qi, Yan; Han, Xu; Wang, Changyuan; Xu, Youwei; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported the potent effect of dioscin against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, but little is known about the role of dioscin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory kidney injury. The present work aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of dioscin in preventing LPS-induced kidney injury. In vivo injury was induced in rats and mice with an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10mg/kg), and in vitro studies were performed on NRK-52E and HK-2 cells challenged with LPS (0.5μg/ml). Our results indicated that dioscin significantly protected against renal damage by decreasing blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and reversing oxidative stress. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that dioscin markedly up- regulated the level of the microRNA let-7i, resulting in significant inhibition of TLR4 expression. Dioscin significantly down-regulated the levels of MyD88, NOX1 and cleaved caspase-8/3; inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB; inhibited PI3K and Akt phosphorylation; increased the levels of SOD2; and decreased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1α, Fas and FasL. In vitro, transfection of microRNA let-7i inhibitor and TLR4 DNA were applied, and the results further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of dioscin in suppressing TLR4/MyD88 signaling and subsequently inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, the abrogation of cellular MyD88 expression by ST2825 eliminated the inhibitory effect of dioscin on the levels of nuclear NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3, SOD2 and ROS. These data indicated that dioscin exerted a nephroprotective effect against LPS-induced inflammatory renal injury by adjusting the microRNA let-7i/TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway, which provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory kidney injury. PMID:27431331

  15. Metabolism and energy supply below the critical thermal minimum of a chill-susceptible insect.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Heath A; Williams, Caroline M; Staples, James F; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-04-15

    When exposed to temperatures below their critical thermal minimum (CT(min)), insects enter chill-coma and accumulate chilling injuries. While the critical thermal limits of water-breathing marine animals may be caused by oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLT), the mechanisms are poorly understood in air-breathing terrestrial insects. We used thermolimit respirometry to characterize entry into chill-coma in a laboratory population of fall field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus). To detect potential oxygen limitation, we quantified muscle ATP, lactate and alanine concentrations in crickets following prolonged exposure to 0°C (a temperature that causes chill-coma, chilling injury and eventual death). Although there was a sharp (44%) drop in the rate of CO(2) emission at the CT(min) and spiracular control was lost, there was a low, continuous rate of CO(2) release throughout chill-coma, indicating that the spiracles were open and gas exchange could occur through the tracheal system. Prolonged exposure to 0°C caused muscle ATP levels to increase marginally (rather than decrease as OCLT would predict), and there was no change in muscle lactate or alanine concentration. Thus, it appears that insects are not susceptible to OCLT at low temperatures but that the CT(min) may instead be set by temperature effects on whole-animal ion homeostasis. PMID:22442375

  16. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress. PMID:27580055

  17. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress. PMID:27580055

  18. Transplantation of Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor Transducted BMSCs in Contusion Spinal Cord Injury of Rats: Promotion of Nerve Regeneration by Alleviating Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Du, Xinwen; Hou, Yong; Liu, Yi; Cui, Zhaoqiang; Nie, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes neuron death and axonal damage resulting in functional motor and sensory loss, showing limited regeneration because of adverse microenvironment such as neuroinflammation and glial scarring. Currently, there is no effective therapy to treat SCI in clinical practice. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are candidates for cell therapies but its effect is limited by neuroinflammation and adverse microenvironment in the injured spinal cord. In this study, we developed transgenic BMSCs overexpressing cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), a secretory neurotrophic factor that showed potent effects on neuron protection, anti-inflammation, and sciatic nerve regeneration in previous studies. Our results showed that the transplantation of CDNF-BMSCs suppressed neuroinflammation and decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines after SCI, resulting in the promotion of locomotor function and nerve regeneration of the injured spinal cord. This study presents a novel promising strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  19. MLIF Alleviates SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Injury Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by Targeting Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiuzhen; Zhang, Yuefan; Liu, Yulan; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Rui, Yaocheng; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable pentapeptide, has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of MLIF against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability, and flow cytometry assay and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate apoptosis. LDH assay was used to exam necrosis. The release of inflammatory cytokines was detected by ELISA. Levels of the apoptosis associated proteins were measured by western blot analysis. To identify the protein target of MLIF, pull-down assay and mass spectrometry were performed. We observed that MLIF enhanced cell survival and inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by inhibiting p-JNK, p53, c-caspase9 and c-caspase3 expression. In the microglia, OGD-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines was markedly reduced in the presence of MLIF. Furthermore, we found that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2) is a downstream target of MLIF. Knockdown eEF1A2 using short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of MLIF in SH-SY5Y cells subjected to OGD, with an associated decrease in cell survival and an increase in expression of p-JNK and p53. These results indicate that MLIF ameliorates OGD-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma injury by inhibiting the p-JNK/p53 apoptotic signaling pathway via eEF1A2. Our findings suggest that eEF1A2 may be a new therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury. PMID:26918757

  20. MLIF Alleviates SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Injury Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by Targeting Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulan; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Rui, Yaocheng; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable pentapeptide, has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of MLIF against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability, and flow cytometry assay and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate apoptosis. LDH assay was used to exam necrosis. The release of inflammatory cytokines was detected by ELISA. Levels of the apoptosis associated proteins were measured by western blot analysis. To identify the protein target of MLIF, pull-down assay and mass spectrometry were performed. We observed that MLIF enhanced cell survival and inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by inhibiting p-JNK, p53, c-caspase9 and c-caspase3 expression. In the microglia, OGD-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines was markedly reduced in the presence of MLIF. Furthermore, we found that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2) is a downstream target of MLIF. Knockdown eEF1A2 using short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of MLIF in SH-SY5Y cells subjected to OGD, with an associated decrease in cell survival and an increase in expression of p-JNK and p53. These results indicate that MLIF ameliorates OGD-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma injury by inhibiting the p-JNK/p53 apoptotic signaling pathway via eEF1A2. Our findings suggest that eEF1A2 may be a new therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury. PMID:26918757

  1. Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Extract of Erigeron multiradiatus Alleviated Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Inhibiting NF-KappaB and JNK Activations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Ren, Xuecong; Wang, Kaishun; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth. has been used in Tibet folk medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate antimyocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury effect of caffeoylquinic acids derivatives of E. multiradiatus (AE) in vivo and to explain underling mechanism. AE was prepared using the whole plant of E. multiradiatus and contents of 6 caffeoylquinic acids determined through HPLC analysis. Myocardial I/R was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 30 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in rats. AE administration (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) inhibited I/R-induced injury as indicated by decreasing myocardial infarct size, reducing of CK and LDH activities, and preventing ST-segment depression in dose-dependent manner. AE decreased cardiac tissue levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 and attenuated leukocytes infiltration. AE was further demonstrated to significantly inhibit I-κB degradation, nuclear translocation of p-65 and phosphorylation of JNK. Our results suggested that cardioprotective effect of AE could be due to suppressing myocardial inflammatory response and blocking NF-κB and JNK activation pathway. Thus, caffeoylquinic acids might be the active compounds in E. multiradiatus on myocardial ischemia and be a potential natural drug for treating myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27516722

  2. Motor, Visual and Emotional Deficits in Mice after Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Are Alleviated by the Novel CB2 Inverse Agonist SMM-189

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Anton; Heldt, Scott A.; Presley, Chaela S.; Guley, Natalie H.; Elberger, Andrea J.; Deng, Yunping; D’Surney, Lauren; Rogers, Joshua T.; Ferrell, Jessica; Bu, Wei; Del Mar, Nobel; Honig, Marcia G.; Gurley, Steven N.; Moore, Bob M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50–60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2), we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50–60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI. PMID:25561230

  3. Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Extract of Erigeron multiradiatus Alleviated Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Inhibiting NF-KappaB and JNK Activations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Xuecong; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Kaishun; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth. has been used in Tibet folk medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate antimyocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury effect of caffeoylquinic acids derivatives of E. multiradiatus (AE) in vivo and to explain underling mechanism. AE was prepared using the whole plant of E. multiradiatus and contents of 6 caffeoylquinic acids determined through HPLC analysis. Myocardial I/R was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 30 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in rats. AE administration (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) inhibited I/R-induced injury as indicated by decreasing myocardial infarct size, reducing of CK and LDH activities, and preventing ST-segment depression in dose-dependent manner. AE decreased cardiac tissue levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 and attenuated leukocytes infiltration. AE was further demonstrated to significantly inhibit I-κB degradation, nuclear translocation of p-65 and phosphorylation of JNK. Our results suggested that cardioprotective effect of AE could be due to suppressing myocardial inflammatory response and blocking NF-κB and JNK activation pathway. Thus, caffeoylquinic acids might be the active compounds in E. multiradiatus on myocardial ischemia and be a potential natural drug for treating myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27516722

  4. Ice bubbles confirm big chill

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-06-14

    Clues buried in Greenland`s icesheet indicate that during the last ice age, the climate repeatedly warmed sharply, only to slide into a renewed chill lasting thousands of years. New indicators derived from trapped bubbles of ancient gases, nitrogen and methane, indicate that these were indeed catastrophic events. This article describes the research and adjunct issues.

  5. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  6. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Chan; Zhou, Ronghua; Qiu, Yanhua; Luo, Ming; Tan, Zhaoxia; Li, Shen; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Wentao; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin; Liu, Jin; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb), a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v) provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v) did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(P)H oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26161234

  7. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week-old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT-overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and protecting the

  8. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week‑old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT‑overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and

  9. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week‑old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT‑overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and

  10. Intracranial Transplantation of Hypoxia-Preconditioned iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells Alleviates Neuropsychiatric Defects After Traumatic Brain Injury in Juvenile Rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng Zachory; Lee, Jin Hwan; Zhang, Yongbo; Zhu, Yan Bing; Deveau, Todd C; Gu, Xiaohuan; Winter, Megan M; Li, Jimei; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in children and adolescents. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently develops in these patients, leading to a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Currently, few therapeutic strategies are available to treat juveniles with PTSD and other developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present investigation, postnatal day 14 (P14) Wistar rats were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impact (CCI) (velocity = 3 m/s, depth = 2.0 mm, contact time = 150 ms). This TBI injury resulted in not only cortical damages, but also posttrauma social behavior deficits. Three days after TBI, rats were treated with intracranial transplantation of either mouse iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells under normal culture conditions (N-iPSC-NPCs) or mouse iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells pretreated with hypoxic preconditioning (HP-iPSC-NPCs). Compared to TBI animals that received N-iPSC-NPCs or vehicle treatment, HP-iPSC-NPC-transplanted animals showed a unique benefit of improved performance in social interaction, social novelty, and social transmission of food preference tests. Western blotting showed that HP-iPSC-NPCs expressed significantly higher levels of the social behavior-related genes oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor. Overall, HP-iPSC-NPC transplantation exhibits a great potential as a regenerative therapy to improve neuropsychiatric outcomes after juvenile TBI. PMID:26766038

  11. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates cardiac contractile dysfunction in an Akt2-knockout murine model of insulin resistance: role of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Nan; Dong, Maolong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas now being recognized as an endogenous signaling molecule in multiple organ systems, in particular, the cardiovascular system. H2S is known to regulate cardiac function and protect against ischemic injury. However, little information is available regarding the effect of H2S on cardiac function in insulin resistance. This study was designed to examine the impact of H2S supplementation on cardiac function using an Akt2 knockout model of insulin resistance. Wild-type and Akt2 knockout mice were treated with NaHS (50 μM·kg−1·day−1 ip for 10 days) prior to evaluation of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile, and intracellular Ca2+ properties, apoptosis, and mitochondrial damage. Our results revealed that Akt2 ablation led to overtly enlarged ventricular end-systolic diameter, reduced myocardial and cardiomyocyte contractile function, and disrupted intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and apoptosis, the effects of which were ameliorated by H2S. Furthermore, Akt2 knockout displayed upregulated apoptotic protein markers (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspace-12) and mitochondrial damage (reduced aconitase activity and NAD+, elevated cytochrome-c release from mitochondria) along with reduced phosphorylation of PTEN, Akt, and GSK3β in the absence of changes in pan protein expression, the effects of which were abolished or significantly ameliorated by H2S treatment. In vitro data revealed that H2S-induced beneficial effect against Akt2 ablation was obliterated by mitochondrial uncoupling. Taken together, our findings suggest the H2S may reconcile Akt2 knockout-induced myocardial contractile defect and intracellular Ca2+ mishandling, possibly via attenuation of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. PMID:24622975

  12. Fisetin alleviates early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats possibly by suppressing TLR 4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen-hui; Wang, Chun-xi; Xie, Guang-bin; Wu, Ling-yun; Wei, Yong-xiang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Hang, Chun-hua; Zhou, Meng-liang; Shi, Ji-xin

    2015-12-10

    Early brain injury (EBI) determines the unfavorable outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection properties in several brain injury models, but the role of fisetin on EBI following SAH remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the effects of fisetin on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham and SAH groups, fisetin (25mg/kg or 50mg/kg) or equal volume of vehicle was given at 30min after SAH. Neurological scores and brain edema were assayed. The protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), p65, ZO-1 and bcl-2 was examined by Western blot. TLR 4 and p65 were also assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was perform to assess neural cell apoptosis. High-dose (50mg/kg) fisetin significantly improved neurological function and reduced brain edema at both 24h and 72h after SAH. Remarkable reductions of TLR 4 expression and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocation to nucleus were detected after fisetin treatment. In addition, fisetin significantly reduced the productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased neural cell apoptosis and increased the protein expression of ZO-1 and bcl-2. Our data provides the evidence for the first time that fisetin plays a protective role in EBI following SAH possibly by suppressing TLR 4/NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway.

  13. 1991: Warmth, chill may follow

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-17

    Following 1990's record temperatures, last year ended as the second warmest ever recorded. But it might have set yet another record had it not been for the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. The layer of sun-blocking haze spewed by the Philippine volcano is sending a chill through the climate system that may already have shown up in the temperature record. This volcanic cooling, which could last a couple of years, should also temporarily chill the debate about whether the green house effect is behind the warming of recent years. It's been hard enough to draw firm conclusions about any greenhouse warming from world temperature data, and Pinatubo's masking effect should make it harder still during the next few years. But the cooling episode may advance the science of climate prediction indirectly. It will give scientists an opportunity to check out their computer greenhouse models by seeing how well they do at predicting the volcano-induced climate change.

  14. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide treatment on the metabolism of eggplant fruits in relation to development of pulp browning under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Kang, LiNa; Liu, Qing; Cheng, Ni; Wang, BiNi; Cao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the metabolism in relation to development of chilling injury-induced pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The fruits were dipped for 10 min in solutions containing 10 μmM EBR and then stored at 1 °C for 15 days. Chilling injury index, weight loss, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of control fruit increased during storage. Chilling injury improved phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities, which are correlated with the increase of total phenolic content and pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The inhibition of pulp browning by EBR treatment was possibly attributed to preserving the cell membrane integrity, reducing total phenolic content, and decreasing PAL, PPO, and POD activities. These results suggest that EBR may inhibit chilling injury and pulp browning in eggplant fruit during cold storage.

  15. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide treatment on the metabolism of eggplant fruits in relation to development of pulp browning under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Kang, LiNa; Liu, Qing; Cheng, Ni; Wang, BiNi; Cao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the metabolism in relation to development of chilling injury-induced pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The fruits were dipped for 10 min in solutions containing 10 μmM EBR and then stored at 1 °C for 15 days. Chilling injury index, weight loss, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of control fruit increased during storage. Chilling injury improved phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities, which are correlated with the increase of total phenolic content and pulp browning of eggplant fruit. The inhibition of pulp browning by EBR treatment was possibly attributed to preserving the cell membrane integrity, reducing total phenolic content, and decreasing PAL, PPO, and POD activities. These results suggest that EBR may inhibit chilling injury and pulp browning in eggplant fruit during cold storage. PMID:26028720

  16. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Chu, Xitong; Sun, Yongfang; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans. PMID:26151364

  17. β-Caryophyllene alleviates D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury through suppression of the TLR4 and RAGE signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Ik; Hong, Jeong-Min; Choi, Joo-Wan; Choi, Hyo-Sun; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kook Lee, Sang; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2015-10-01

    Agastache rugosa (A. rugosa, Labiatae), a perennial herb spread throughout Korean fields, is widely consumed as a wild edible vegetable and is used in folk medicine. This study examined the hepatoprotective mechanisms of β-caryophyllene (BCP), a major bicyclic sesquiterpene of A. rugosa, against D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic failure. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of BCP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) 1 h before GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (40 μg/kg) injection and were killed 1 h or 6 h after GalN/LPS injection. GalN/LPS markedly increased mortality and serum aminotransferase activity, both of which were attenuated by BCP. BCP also attenuated increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and high-mobility group protein B1 levels by GalN/LPS. GalN/LPS significantly increased toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein expression, extracellular signal-related kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), early growth response protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 protein expression. These increases were attenuated by BCP. Furthermore, BCP suppressed increased TLR4 and RAGE protein expression and proinflammatory cytokines production in LPS-treated isolated Kupffer cells. Our findings suggest that BCP protects against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through down-regulation of the TLR4 and RAGE signaling. PMID:26254779

  18. Geniposide alleviates inflammation by suppressing MeCP2 in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and LPS-treated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao-tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Li, Wan-xia; Yang, Yang; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Geniposide (GP), an iridoid glucoside extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruits, has been used as a herbal medicine to treat liver and gall bladder disorders for many years. However the mechanism of anti-inflammatory is largely unknown. In this study, GP significantly attenuated inflammation in acute liver injury (ALI) mice model and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 cells. It was demonstrated that GP obviously decreased the expression of Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of MeCP2 with siRNA suppressed the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α, while over-expression of MeCP2 had a proinflammatory effect on the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. Mechanistically, it was indicated that GP had anti-inflammatory effects at least in part, through suppressing MeCP2. Interestingly, GP could attenuate expressions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and GLIS family zinc finger 1 (GLIS1) but increase Ptched1 (PTCH1) expression. Similar findings were also demonstrated at the protein level by siRNA MeCP2. Furthermore, over-expression of MeCP2 obviously increased Shh and GLIS1 expressions but reduced PTCH1 expression. Taken together, GP may serve as an effective modulator of MeCP2-hedgehog pathway (Hh)-axis during the pathogenesis of inflammation. Our findings shed light on the potential therapeutic feature of GP in recovering inflammatory diseases. PMID:26371859

  19. Sodium distribution predicts the chill tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster raised in different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath A; Andersen, Jonas L; Loeschcke, Volker; Overgaard, Johannes

    2015-05-15

    Many insects, including the model holometabolous insect Drosophila melanogaster, display remarkable plasticity in chill tolerance in response to the thermal environment experienced during development or as adults. At low temperatures, many insects lose the ability to regulate Na(+) balance, which is suggested to cause a secondary loss of hemolymph water to the tissues and gut lumen that concentrates the K(+) remaining in the hemolymph. The resultant increase in extracellular [K(+)] inhibits neuromuscular excitability and is proposed to cause cellular apoptosis and injury. The present study investigates whether and how variation in chill tolerance induced through developmental and adult cold acclimation is associated with changes in Na(+), water, and K(+) balance. Developmental and adult cold acclimation improved the chilling tolerance of D. melanogaster in an additive manner. In agreement with the proposed model, these effects were intimately related to differences in Na(+) distribution prior to cold exposure, such that chill-tolerant flies had low hemolymph [Na(+)], while intracellular [Na(+)] was similar among treatment groups. The low hemolymph Na(+) of cold-acclimated flies allowed them to maintain hemolymph volume, prevent hyperkalemia, and avoid injury following chronic cold exposure. These findings extend earlier observations of hemolymph volume disruption during cold exposure to the most ubiquitous model insect (D. melanogaster), highlight shared mechanisms of developmental and adult thermal plasticity and provide strong support for ionoregulatory failure as a central mechanism of insect chill susceptibility.

  20. Hygiene aspects of modern poultry chilling.

    PubMed

    Allen, V M; Corry, J E; Burton, C H; Whyte, R T; Mead, G C

    2000-06-30

    An evaluation was made of six commercial poultry chilling systems in relation to factors affecting microbial-contamination of carcasses. These systems included water immersion chilling, air chilling and air chilling with evaporative cooling using water sprays. Samples of neck skin and body cavity were taken from carcasses, together with samples from the chilling environment. These were examined for total aerobic mesophilic microbes and counts of presumptive coliform bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. at specific points in the chilling process. Physical measurements included surface and deep-muscle temperatures of carcasses, water temperatures and chlorine concentrations in the immersion system and air speed and temperature during air chilling. The results obtained for water immersion chilling confirmed previous experience that the washing effect reduces microbial contamination of carcasses, although initially the numbers of pseudomonads tended to increase. The air chillers varied in design and mode of operation, but had little overall effect on microbial contamination of the skin. When a completely dry process was used, microbial numbers were reduced approximately ten-fold in the body cavity. However, the use of water sprays tended to increase contamination of the cavity, while relatively heavy spraying using non-chlorinated water, resulted in a substantial increase in the numbers of pseudomonads.

  1. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  2. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  3. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  4. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  5. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  6. Short-term chilled storage of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in cryoprotectant as an alternative to cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kunjan; Spikings, Emma; Zhang, Tiantian

    2015-02-01

    As zebrafish embryos have never been cryopreserved, we developed a protocol to store zebrafish embryos (50% epiboly-5.3 hour post fertilization) for up to 18 h at 0°C. Initial experiments to optimize the cryoprotectant (CPA) solution demonstrated improved embryo hatching rate following chilling at 0°C for 18 h with 1 M MeOH+0.1 M sucrose (56 ± 5%) compared with other combinations of methanol (0.2-0.5 M) and sucrose (0.05-0.1 M). This combination of CPAs that protects against chilling injury was further tested to assess its impact on sox gene and protein expression. Significant decreases in sox3 gene expression were observed in hatched embryos that had been chilled for 18 h in 1 M MeOH+0.1 sucrose compared with non-chilled controls, however the expression of both sox2 and sox3 proteins was unaffected. Significant decreases in sox2 protein expression were, however, observed in embryos that had been chilled without CPAs and these embryos also had lower hatching rates than those chilled with the optimal CPA solution. We, therefore, conclude that the CPA combination of 1 M MeOH+0.1 M sucrose facilitates chilled storage of early stage (50% epiboly) zebrafish embryos for up to 18 h without compromising transcriptional response.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide is involved in the cold acclimation-induced chilling tolerance of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jian; Shi, Kai; Xia, Xiao Jian; Zhou, Yan Hong; Yu, Jing Quan

    2012-11-01

    Cold acclimation increases plant tolerance to a more-severe chilling and in this process an accumulation of H(2)O(2) in plants is often observed. To examine the role of H(2)O(2) in cold acclimation in plants, the accumulation of H(2)O(2), antioxidant metabolism, the glutathione redox state, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were analyzed after cold acclimation at 12/10 °C and during the subsequent chilling at 7/4 °C in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Cold acclimation modestly elevated the levels of H(2)O(2), the gene expression of respiratory burst oxidase homolog 1 (Rboh1) and NADPH oxidase activity, leading to the up-regulation of the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. In non-acclimated plants chilling caused a continuous rise in the H(2)O(2) content, an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and in the oxidized redox state of glutathione, followed by reductions in the CO(2) assimilation rate and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)). However, in cold-acclimated plants chilling-induced photoinhibition, membrane peroxidation and reductions in the CO(2) assimilation rate were significantly alleviated. Furthermore, a treatment with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor or H(2)O(2) scavenger before the plants subjected to the cold acclimation abolished the cold acclimation-induced beneficial effects on photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism, leading to a loss of the cold acclimation-induced tolerance against chilling. These results strongly suggest that the H(2)O(2) generated by NADPH oxidase in the apoplast of plant cells plays a crucial role in cold acclimation-induced chilling tolerance.

  8. How membranes organize during seed germination: three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling define chilling resistance and affect plastid biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Aihua; Li, Weiqi

    2015-07-01

    Imbibitional chilling injury during germination causes agricultural losses, but this can be overcome by osmopriming. It remains unknown how membranes reorganize during germination. Herein, we comparatively profiled changes of membrane lipids during imbibition under normal and chilling temperatures in chilling-tolerant and -sensitive soybean seeds. We found three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling during the three phases of germination. Pattern 1 involved a gradual increase in plastidic lipids during phases I and II, with an abrupt increase during phase III. This abrupt increase was associated with initiation of photosynthesis. Pattern 3 involved phosphatidic acid (PA) first decreasing, then increasing, and finally decreasing to a low level. Patterns 1 and 3 were interrupted in chilling-sensitive seeds under low temperature, which lead a block in plastid biogenesis and accumulation of harmful PA, respectively. However, they were rescued and returned to their status under normal temperature after polyethylene glycol osmopriming. We specifically inhibited phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated PA formation in chilling-sensitive seeds of soybean, cucumber, and pea, and found their germination under low temperature was significantly improved. These results indicate that membranes undergo specific and functional reorganization of lipid composition during germination and demonstrate that PLD-mediated PA causes imibibitional chilling injury.

  9. How membranes organize during seed germination: three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling define chilling resistance and affect plastid biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiamei; Li, Aihua; Li, Weiqi

    2016-01-01

    Imbibitional chilling injury during germination causes agricultural losses but this can be overcome by osmopriming. It remains unknown how membranes reorganize during germination. Herein, we comparatively profiled changes of membrane lipids during imbibition under normal and chilling temperatures in chilling-tolerant and -sensitive soybean seeds. We found three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling during the three phases of germination. Pattern 1 involved a gradual increase in plastidic lipids during phases I and II, with an abrupt increase during phase III. This abrupt increase was associated with initiation of photosynthesis. Pattern 3 involved phosphatidic acid (PA) first decreasing, then increasing, and finally decreasing to a low level. Pattern 1 and 3 were interrupted in chilling-sensitive seeds under low temperature, which lead a block in plastid biogenesis and accumulation of harmful PA respectively. However, they were rescued and returned to their status under a normal temperature after polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmopriming. We specifically inhibited phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated PA formation in chilling-sensitive seeds of soybean, cucumber, and pea and found their germination under low temperature was significantly improved. These results indicate that membranes undergo specific and functional reorganization of lipid composition during germination and demonstrate that PLD-mediated PA causes imibibitional chilling injury. PMID:25474382

  10. Chills

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Dress the child in light clothing, provide liquids, and keep the room cool but not uncomfortable. DO NOT use ice water or rubbing alcohol baths to reduce a child's temperature. These can cause shivering and even shock . DO ...

  11. Contribution of polyamines metabolism and GABA shunt to chilling tolerance induced by nitric oxide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yansheng; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-04-15

    Effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on polyamines (PAs) catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, proline accumulation and chilling injury of banana fruit under cold storage was investigated. Banana fruit treated with NO sustained lower chilling injury index than the control. Notably elevated nitric oxide synthetase activity and endogenous NO level were observed in NO-treated banana fruit. PAs contents in treated fruit were significantly higher than control fruit, due to the elevated activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase. NO treatment increased the activities of diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase and glutamate decarboxylase, while reduced GABA transaminase activity to lower levels compared with control fruit, which resulted the accumulation of GABA. Besides, NO treatment upregulated proline content and significantly enhanced the ornithine aminotransferase activity. These results indicated that the chilling tolerance induced by NO treatment might be ascribed to the enhanced catabolism of PAs, GABA and proline.

  12. Osmoconditioning reduces physiological and biochemical damage induced by chilling in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Posmyk, Malgorzata Maria; Corbineau, Françoise; Vinel, Dominique; Bailly, Christophe; Côme, Daniel

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of osmoconditioning on chilling injury in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds during imbibition. Soybean seeds germinated readily over a large range of temperatures (10-35 degrees C), the thermal optimum being 25-30 degrees C. Low temperatures reduced the germination rate and no seed germinated at 1 degrees C. Pre-treatment of seeds at 1 degrees C reduced further germination at the optimal temperature (25 degrees C). This deleterious effect of chilling increased with duration of the treatment, and was maximal after 4 days. Osmoconditioning of seeds at 20 degrees C with a polyethylene glycol-8000 solution at -1.5 MPa for at least 24 h followed by drying back the seeds to their initial moisture content reduced their chilling sensitivity and even allowed germination at 1 degrees C. Chilling of control seeds resulted in a sharp decline in in vivo ACC-dependent ethylene production and in an increase in electrolyte leakage in the medium, which indicated deterioration of membrane properties. Osmoconditioned seeds placed at 1 degrees C did not show any reduction in their ability to convert ACC to ethylene nor any strong increase in electrolyte leakage. Imbibition of both control and osmoconditioned seeds at 1 degrees C resulted in a marked increase in ATP level (more than 50% of the total nucleotides) and energy charge; however, the latter cannot be considered as an indicator of chilling since it remained high (0.74-0.88) throughout the cold treatment. Chilling treatment longer than 6 days induced accumulation of malondialdehyde in the embryonic axis, which was more marked in control seeds than in osmoconditioned seeds, suggesting that chilling sensitivity was associated with lipid peroxidation. Imbibition of seeds at 1 degrees C resulted in an increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activity, which was generally higher in osmoconditioned seeds than in control ones. This stimulation

  13. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    PubMed

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD.

  14. Comparative metabolomic analysis reveals a reactive oxygen species-dominated dynamic model underlying chilling environment adaptation and tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Luo, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Yunyuan; Song, Shuhui; Chong, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Cold, a major environmental stress for plants, has been studied intensively for decades. Its response system has been revealed, especially at the transcriptional level. The mechanisms underlying recovery growth and environmental adaptation, however, remain unknown. Taking advantage of a naturally existing system, two subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) with significant divergence in chilling tolerance, we analyzed representative japonica and indica varieties, Nipponbare and 93-11, using comparative metabolomic analysis at six time points covering chilling treatment and recovery. In total, 223 known metabolites were detected. During chilling treatment, significant biochemical changes were centered on antioxidation. During recovery, a wide-ranging chilling response was observed. Large-scale amino acid accumulation occurred, consistent with the appearance of chilling injury. At the mid-treatment stage, the accumulation of antioxidation-related compounds appeared earlier in Nipponbare than in 93-11, consistent with the higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in japonica vs indica varieties. A significant contribution of ROS-mediated gene regulation, rather than the C-repeat binding factor/dehydration-responsive-element binding factor (CBF/DREB) regulon, to the more vigorous transcriptional stress response in Nipponbare was revealed by RNA-seq. Accordingly, during recovery, the induction of stress-tolerant-related metabolites was more active in the chilling-tolerant variety Nipponbare. Senescence-related compounds accumulated only in the chilling-sensitive variety 93-11. Our study uncovers the dynamic metabolic models underlying chilling response and recovery, and reveals a ROS-dominated rice adaptation mechanism to low-temperature environments. PMID:27198693

  15. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions. PMID:25639033

  16. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.

  17. Microbiological quality of water immersion-chilled and air-chilled broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Janardhanan, Kishorekumar K; Ryser, Elliot T; Kang, Iksoon

    2011-09-01

    Carcass chilling during broiler processing is a critical step in preventing growth of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of air- and water-chilled broiler carcasses processed at the same commercial facility. For each of four replications, 15 broilers were collected from the same commercial processing line after evisceration, after spraying with cetylpyridinium chloride (a cationic disinfectant), and after air chilling or water immersion chilling (WIC). All carcasses were quantitatively examined for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Campylobacter as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were seen between air and water chilling for E. coli or coliforms or for the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Lower numbers of Campylobacter were recovered from WIC than from air-chilled carcasses (P < 0.05), but the incidence of Campylobacter on WIC carcasses was similar, suggesting that some Campylobacter organisms were injured rather than killed during WIC. In-line spraying with the disinfectant effectively decreased the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter on prechilled carcasses; however, cells presumably injured by the sanitizer recovered during chilling. Therefore, on-farm intervention strategies remain critically important in minimizing the spread of microbial contaminants during processing. PMID:21902923

  18. Grafting of Cucumis sativus onto Cucurbita ficifolia leads to improved plant growth, increased light utilization and reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chilled plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Lifeng; Ding, Xiaotao; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2009-09-01

    The effects of chilling at 14 and 7 degrees C on plant growth, CO(2) assimilation, light allocation, photosynthetic electron flux and antioxidant metabolism were examined in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4, CS) plants with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, CF) and cucumber as rootstocks, respectively. Growth inhibition by chilling at 7 degrees C was characterized by irreversible inhibition of CO(2) assimilation in grafted plants with cucumber as rootstock and scion (CS/CS) but this effect was significantly alleviated by grafting onto CF roots (CS/CF). Chilled CS/CF plants exhibited a higher photosynthetic activity and lower proportion of energy dissipation than chilled CS/CS plants. Chilling resulted in a greater decrease in the electron flux in photosystem (PS) II (J (PSII)) than the rate of energy dissipation either via light-dependent (J (NPQ)) or via constitutive thermal dissipation and fluorescence (J (f,D)) in CS/CS plants. In parallel with the reduction in J (PSII), electron flux to oxygenation (J (o)) and carboxylation by Rubisco (J (c)) all decreased significantly whilst alternative electron flux in PS II (J (a)) increased, especially in CS/CS plants. Moreover, CS/CF plants exhibited higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, lower antioxidant content and less membrane peroxidation relative to CS/CS plants after chilling.

  19. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  20. Chilling stress response of post-emergent cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to post-emergent 13-d-old cotton seedlings. • Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. Fo...

  1. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  2. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  3. Quality assessment of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during super chilling and chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Shen, Song; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang; Gao, Liang

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of super chilling (-3 °C) and chilled (3 °C) storage on the quality of rainbow trout fillets, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, pH, electric conductivity (EC), total aerobic count (TAC), K and related values, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and related compounds, color and sensory score were determined and correlation between these indicators were analyzed. According to the comprehensive evaluation of TAC, K value and sensory score, the limit for acceptability of rainbow trout fillets was 5 days at 3 °C and 11 days at -3 °C. Additionally, the correlation coefficients between TVB-N and other freshness indicators (TAC, K value, sensory score) were relatively low. TVB-N may be inadequate for evaluating freshness changes of rainbow trout fillets compared with other indicators. Among the K and related values, H value was a better freshness indicator in rainbow trout fillets during chilled and super chilling storage for its better correlation coefficients with other freshness indicators. Super chilling storage could extend the shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 6 days compared to chilled storage.

  4. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  5. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  6. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  7. Case studies of chilled water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Andrepont, J.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Centralized chilled water systems are commonly used to meet the air conditioning needs of colleges, universities, medical complexes, and other large campuses or district cooling facilities. Data from the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) indicate that over half its members operate central cooling plants. Various configurations are in use, including single and multiple central chilling plants serving single distribution systems, nonconnected miniature central systems, and combinations of one central and one or more satellite plants on a single distribution loop. Central plant chillers may be electric motor-driven centrifugal compressors, gas engine-driven centrifugal compressors, steam turbine-driven centrifugal compressors, heat-driven absorption chillers, or combinations of these types. The usual refrigerants are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); but alternatives such as HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia (NH[sub 3]), and absorption solutions may also be employed. Free cooling via cooling towers is sometimes used, directly or indirectly, during periods of relatively low ambient air temperatures. During any central plant capacity expansion, O and M, capital, and life cycle costs are among the major concerns, as are the increasingly critical issues of reliability, flexibility, safety, and the environment. Specifically, atmospheric ozone depletion and the CFC refrigerant issue are now impacting everyone involved in the air conditioning field. Anyone selecting or planning for new chiller capacity is faced with choosing from such options as CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia, and absorption refrigeration. These choices have unique and serious drawbacks. Because of this chilled water storage is now experiencing increased application.

  8. Arctigenin Confers Neuroprotection Against Mechanical Trauma Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells by Regulating miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a Expression to Alleviate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Wang, Yue; Meng, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical trauma injury is a severe insult to neural cells. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory factors that have dramatic consequences for undamaged cells, leading to normal cell death after the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary effects and evaluated the mechanism underlying the action of microRNA (miRNA)-199a and miRNA-16 in a mechanical trauma injury (MTI) model using SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells are often applied to in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in NF-κB and cholinergic signaling, which can regulate inflammation. The cell model was established by scratch-induced injury of human SH-SY5Y cells, which mimics the characteristics of MTI. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry were used to measure cell viability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine and cholinesterase (CHE) content. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured to assess the degree of cell injury. The mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR to analyze ARC's mechanism of action. miRNA inhibitors and mimics were used to inhibit and strengthen the expression of miRNAs. Protein expression was detected by western blotting analysis. ARC treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as the number of TUNEL+ apoptotic SH-SY5Y cells surrounding the scratch and increased the IL-10 level compared to the controls. ARC attenuated the increase of the cell damage degree and LDH content induced by scratching, indicating increased cell survival. Mechanistic studies showed that ARC upregulated the miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a levels to reduce upstream protein (IKKα and IKKβ) expression and inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway activity; moreover, the increased miRNA-199a suppresses

  9. Arctigenin Confers Neuroprotection Against Mechanical Trauma Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells by Regulating miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a Expression to Alleviate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Wang, Yue; Meng, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical trauma injury is a severe insult to neural cells. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory factors that have dramatic consequences for undamaged cells, leading to normal cell death after the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary effects and evaluated the mechanism underlying the action of microRNA (miRNA)-199a and miRNA-16 in a mechanical trauma injury (MTI) model using SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells are often applied to in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in NF-κB and cholinergic signaling, which can regulate inflammation. The cell model was established by scratch-induced injury of human SH-SY5Y cells, which mimics the characteristics of MTI. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry were used to measure cell viability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine and cholinesterase (CHE) content. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured to assess the degree of cell injury. The mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR to analyze ARC's mechanism of action. miRNA inhibitors and mimics were used to inhibit and strengthen the expression of miRNAs. Protein expression was detected by western blotting analysis. ARC treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as the number of TUNEL+ apoptotic SH-SY5Y cells surrounding the scratch and increased the IL-10 level compared to the controls. ARC attenuated the increase of the cell damage degree and LDH content induced by scratching, indicating increased cell survival. Mechanistic studies showed that ARC upregulated the miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a levels to reduce upstream protein (IKKα and IKKβ) expression and inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway activity; moreover, the increased miRNA-199a suppresses

  10. Dewaxing waxy oil by dilution chilling employing static mixing means

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, D. H.; Hall, R. R.

    1985-04-30

    An improved process for the solvent dewaxing of petroleum oil stocks. Wax-containing oil is chilled in an elongated chilling zone by introducing cold dewaxing solvent into said zone, at a plurality of points along same, said chilling zone containing or having associated with it a plurality of static means for mixing the solvent and wax-containing oil under conditions of plug flow radial mixing, thereby avoiding shock chilling without the need for the intense agitation and/or dynamic agitators normally required for such processes.

  11. Developmental stages of cultivated strawberry flowers in relation to chilling sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Maria Teresa; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting flower development may limit the yields of fruiting crops worldwide. In temperate regions, chilling temperatures during flower development can compromise fruit production, but their negative effects vary depending on the differing susceptibilities of each developmental stage. The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) is widely grown worldwide but financial returns are influenced by sudden shifts to chilling temperatures occurring during the cropping cycle. Despite this important limitation, knowledge of F.× ananassa flower development is lacking, in contrast to the diploid wild-type strawberry (F. vesca). In this study we describe steps in floral development of cultivated strawberry and define their vulnerability to chilling temperatures. To achieve this, flower buds from strawberry plants of cv. ‘Camarosa’ were labelled and monitored from bud initiation until anthesis. Description of morphological and functional changes during flower development was based on histological sections and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the impact of low temperatures at different developmental stages, plants carrying buds of different sizes were chilled at 2 °C for 24 h. Several parameters related to male and female gametophyte development were later evaluated in flowers as they approached anthesis. Fragaria× ananassa flower development was divided into 16 stages according to landmark events. These stages were similar to those documented for F. vesca but three new additional intermediate stages were described. Timing of developmental processes was achieved by correlating developmental staging with specific bud sizes and days before anthesis. Time to reach anthesis from early bud stages was 17–18 days. During this period, we detected four critical periods vulnerable to low temperatures. These were mostly related to male gametophyte development but also to injury to female organs at late developmental stages. These results

  12. Developmental stages of cultivated strawberry flowers in relation to chilling sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Maria Teresa; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting flower development may limit the yields of fruiting crops worldwide. In temperate regions, chilling temperatures during flower development can compromise fruit production, but their negative effects vary depending on the differing susceptibilities of each developmental stage. The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) is widely grown worldwide but financial returns are influenced by sudden shifts to chilling temperatures occurring during the cropping cycle. Despite this important limitation, knowledge of F.× ananassa flower development is lacking, in contrast to the diploid wild-type strawberry (F. vesca). In this study we describe steps in floral development of cultivated strawberry and define their vulnerability to chilling temperatures. To achieve this, flower buds from strawberry plants of cv. 'Camarosa' were labelled and monitored from bud initiation until anthesis. Description of morphological and functional changes during flower development was based on histological sections and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the impact of low temperatures at different developmental stages, plants carrying buds of different sizes were chilled at 2 °C for 24 h. Several parameters related to male and female gametophyte development were later evaluated in flowers as they approached anthesis. Fragaria× ananassa flower development was divided into 16 stages according to landmark events. These stages were similar to those documented for F. vesca but three new additional intermediate stages were described. Timing of developmental processes was achieved by correlating developmental staging with specific bud sizes and days before anthesis. Time to reach anthesis from early bud stages was 17-18 days. During this period, we detected four critical periods vulnerable to low temperatures. These were mostly related to male gametophyte development but also to injury to female organs at late developmental stages. These results provide

  13. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  14. Performance of a chill ATES system

    SciTech Connect

    Midkiff, K.C.; Song, Y.K.; Schaetzle, W.J.

    1989-03-01

    An aquifer air-conditioning system has been installed to cool the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama Campus. This research program encompasses the monitoring of the operation of the aquifer system and provision of emplacements to the system. The monitoring includes establishing the instrumentation, acquiring data, and analyzing the results. The instrumentation allows the measurement of water flow rates and corresponding temperatures, electrical energy input, aquifer temperatures at nineteen monitoring wells, and aquifer levels at six monitoring wells. Recent acquifer performance data indicate that 76% of the chill energy stored was recovered for the period Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 70% for the period Oct/87 - Sep/88. This is a substantial improvement over recoveries of 38% for the 1985 season and 55% for 1986. The overall coefficient of performance was 5.4 for Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 4.6 for Oct/87 - Sep/88. THe system has supplied 100% of the cooling with only about one-half of the energy input required by a conventional system. Some of the increased recovery of chilled water is a result of modifying the production well operation to reduce the regional flow of water toward the northwest. All warm water is withdrawn form the southeast wells, chilled, and injected in northwest wells. The cold water then withdrawn from the cold wells is used for air-conditioning but not reinjected into the aquifer. Additional flow control is provided by pumping (and discarding) water out of a southeast well, although the complete results of this new strategy are as yet unclear.

  15. Wind chill factor applied to Patagonian climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronato, Fernando R.

    1993-03-01

    The wind cooling effect determines wind chill equivalent-temperatures, which may be rather different to actual temperature. In a windy region such as Patagonia, this difference may reach a magnitude and persistence to become an important bioclimatic element. This paper quantifies the wind cooling effect in Patagonia by the presentation of equivalent isotherms as an adaptation of the usual isotherm maps to the regional bioclimatic environment. It is concluded that due to seasonal variations in wind speed, the annual equivalent temperature range is smaller than the actual temperature range, thus increasing oceanic features, from a thermal viewpoint, of the Patagonian climate.

  16. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  17. Increasing chilling reduces heat requirement for floral budbreak in peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to chilling temperatures is a critical factor in the suitability of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars to moderate climates such as in the southeastern United States. Time of bloom depends on the innate chilling requirement of the cultivar as well as the timing and quantity of co...

  18. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  19. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics. PMID:23958788

  20. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  1. Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high quality meat and to meet the USDA-FSIS temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in two replica...

  2. The effect of chilling and cryoprotectants on hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes during short-term low temperature preservation.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Tsai, S

    2012-04-01

    Understanding chilling sensitivity and chilling injury of coral oocytes, in the presence and absence of a cryoprotectant, is important in developing cryopreservation protocols, as well as for short-term storage and transport (e.g., for species conservation). The objective of this study was to investigate the chilling sensitivity of hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes and the effectiveness of methanol (as a cryoprotectant) in protecting these oocytes during short-term, low temperature preservation. Oocytes were exposed to 0.5, 1, or 2 m methanol at 5, 0, or -5 °C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, or 32 h, and their quality determined based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Methanol at 0.5 m was the most effective means to reduce chilling-induced reduction in ATP concentrations. Coral oocytes can be stored at room temperature for 4 h in filtered nature seawater with no detrimental effect on oocyte quality; however, in the present study, oocyte survival was extended for 8 h by addition of methanol in low concentrations (0.5 or 1 m) at low temperatures (5 and 0 °C). These findings should enhance conservation efforts and facilitate low-temperature transport of endangered and threatened coral species. PMID:22153264

  3. Knocking down expression of Hsp22 and Hsp23 by RNA interference affects recovery from chill coma in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Lee, Siu Fai; Hoffmann, Ary

    2010-12-15

    To protect cells from the damaging effects of environmental stresses, all organisms possess a universal stress response involving upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps). The mechanisms underlying chilling injuries and the subsequent recovery phase are only beginning to be understood in insects. Hsp22 and Hsp23 are both upregulated during the recovery from prolonged chill coma in Drosophila melanogaster. This prompted us to investigate the functional significance of these modulations by testing whether expression of these two small Hsps is necessary for recovery after cold stress. We used the GAL4/UAS system to separately knock down expression of Hsp22 and Hsp23, and assayed three aspects of recovery performance in transgenic adults that had undergone 12 h of chill coma at 0°C. The time to recover (short-term recovery) and mobility parameters (medium-term recovery) were significantly impaired in the transgenic flies in which Hsp22 or Hsp23 was suppressed. Our findings show that both Hsp22 and Hsp23 play important roles in the recovery from chill coma in adult males, and suggest that these contribute to adaptive responses to fluctuating thermal conditions. PMID:21112994

  4. Stepwise chilling: tender pork without compromising water-holding capacity.

    PubMed

    Rosenvold, K; Borup, U; Therkildsen, M

    2010-05-01

    The current pork slaughter process is primarily optimized to reduce cooler shrink and the incidence of PSE pork. Elimination of the halothane gene and improved preslaughter handling have decreased the incidence of PSE pork and improved the water-holding capacity of the muscle; however, the chilling process has not been optimized to accommodate these changes. The hypothesis that stepwise chilling could improve tenderness without compromising water-holding capacity was tested in this study. The stepwise chilling treatments were composed of a rapid chilling to 10 or 15 degrees C (in a chilling tunnel) and a 6-h holding period at 10 or 15 degrees C, followed by rapid chilling to 4 degrees C. Both treatments were compared directly with a chilling treatment that simulated conventional tunnel chilling; one carcass half from each pig was allocated to a stepwise chilling treatment, whereas the other carcass half was allocated to the control treatment. A total of 42 pigs were slaughtered on 6 slaughter days. Biopsies were collected for analysis of glycogen degradation and glycogen debranching enzyme activity from slaughter until 72 h postmortem, and samples for color, sarcomere length, drip loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory analysis were removed from the carcass 24 h postmortem. Substantial temperature differences were obtained during the holding period between the stepwise and conventionally chilled carcass halves. These had almost, but not completely, disappeared by 22 h postmortem, and although the differences were small, pH was significantly (P < 0.01) less in the stepwise-chilled carcasses compared with the control carcasses. The stepwise chilling treatments led to significantly improved (P < 0.01) tenderness in LM without compromising quality indicators or attributes such as pH, drip loss, or ham processing yield, although color of the stepwise-chilled pork was affected. Neither the tenderness of processed semimembranosus muscle nor the shear force of

  5. The Chilled-Mirror Humidity Sensor: Improved Radiosonde Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    Chilled-mirror humidity sensor technology recently was adapted for use with the VIZ radiosonde. The principle of the chilled-mirror operation is to lower its temperature until dew forms on the mirror, at that point the dew point temperature is noted and the mirror is then heated to evaporate the moisture. The cycle is repeated. Research conducted from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility has provided comparisons between the chilled-mirror sensor and the carbon hygristor of VIZ, and the capacitive sensors of AIR Inc. and Vaisala Co. We believe the chilled-mirror sensor is accurate and would serve as a reference standard for evaluating operational radiosonde relative humidity sensors. Thus, differences seen in the comparisons are beginning to furnish insight into developing better humidity sensors. We discuss these comparison results as well as reproducibility results from a dual chilled-mirror measurement.

  6. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  7. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Matadial, B.; Pauls, K.P. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2{degrees}C but when cultures were transferred to 25{degree}C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. {sup 35}S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in {sup 35}S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25{degrees}C.

  8. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  9. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    vessels in the feet, is observed in shipwreck survivors or in soldiers whose feet have been wet, but not freezing, for long periods. Patients with frostbite frequently present with multisystem injuries (e.g., systemic hypothermia, blunt trauma, substance abuse). The freezing of the corneas has been reported to occur in individuals who keep their eyes open in high wind-chill situations without protective goggles (e.g., snowmobilers, cross-country skiers). PMID:15715518

  10. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    vessels in the feet, is observed in shipwreck survivors or in soldiers whose feet have been wet, but not freezing, for long periods. Patients with frostbite frequently present with multisystem injuries (e.g., systemic hypothermia, blunt trauma, substance abuse). The freezing of the corneas has been reported to occur in individuals who keep their eyes open in high wind-chill situations without protective goggles (e.g., snowmobilers, cross-country skiers).

  11. A TIR-NBS protein encoded by Arabidopsis Chilling Sensitive 1 (CHS1) limits chloroplast damage and cell death at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Porfirova, Svetlana; Griebel, Thomas; Melzer, Michael; Parker, Jane E; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Survival of plants at low temperature depends on mechanisms for limiting physiological damage and maintaining growth. We mapped the chs1-1 (chilling sensitive1-1) mutation in Arabidopsis accession Columbia to the TIR-NBS gene At1g17610. In chs1-1, a single amino acid exchange at the CHS1 N-terminus close to the conserved TIR domain creates a stable mutant protein that fails to protect leaves against chilling stress. The sequence of another TIR-NBS gene (At5g40090) named CHL1 (CHS1-like 1) is related to that of CHS1. Over-expression of CHS1 or CHL1 alleviates chilling damage and enhances plant growth at moderate (24°C) and chilling (13°C) temperatures, suggesting a role for both proteins in growth homeostasis. chs1-1 mutants show induced salicylic acid production and defense gene expression at 13°C, indicative of autoimmunity. Genetic analysis of chs1-1 in combination with defense pathway mutants shows that chs1-1 chilling sensitivity requires the TIR-NBS-LRR and basal resistance regulators encoded by EDS1 and PAD4 but not salicylic acid. By following the timing of metabolic, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural changes in chs1-1 leaves during chilling, we have established that alterations in photosynthetic complexes and thylakoid membrane integrity precede leaf cell death measured by ion leakage. At 24°C, the chs1-1 mutant appears normal but produces a massive necrotic response to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection, although this does not affect bacterial proliferation. Our results suggest that CHS1 acts at an intersection between temperature sensing and biotic stress pathway activation to maintain plant performance over a range of conditions.

  12. A New Approach to an Accurate Wind Chill Factor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Maurice; Zecher, Jack

    1999-09-01

    Winter weather often shows a severity marked by low dry-bulb temperature combined with high wind speed. The wind chill factor is now a standard meteorological term to express this severity. This factor, or more appropriately the wind chill temperature, represents that air temperature without wind that would effect the same heat loss rate from bare human skin as that due to the actual combined dry-bulb temperature and wind. Currently used wind chill factors derive from a study conducted by the U.S. Antarctic Service over 50 years ago. The data then collected was used to develop a cooling rate as a function of wind speed, which in turn was used to formulate an equation still in use today. The equation is based on primitive experiments with a container of freezing water and an unrealistically high human skin temperature. A more appropriate estimate of the thermal properties of the skin and implementation of modern heat transfer theory can provide a more realistic wind chill factor. Recent research studies suggest that the wind chill equation currently used overestimates the effect of the wind for the range of temperatures and wind speeds expected. This paper provides a new formula for the wind chill factor and a chart of wind chill temperatures for various combinations of dry-bulb temperatures and wind speeds as measured by standard techniques.

  13. Psychrotolerant Endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Strains OB155 and OS261 Induced Chilling Resistance in Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) by Activation of Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Yi; Sa, Tongmin

    2015-10-01

    Studies on chilling stress damage and its mitigation through microorganisms in members of family Solanaceae is limited, despite their economic importance. We studied chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants colonized by psychrotolerant bacterial strains Pseudomonas vancouverensis OB155-gfp and P. frederiksbergensis OS261-gfp. Log phase cultures of bacterial strains were coated on surface-sterilized seeds (bacterization) before sowing and nonbacterized (control) seeds were coated with sterile bacterial growth medium. All plants were grown at temperatures of 30 and 25°C and at the end of 4 weeks, chilling treatment (12 and 10°C) was imposed for 1 week on half of the bacterized and control plants. Under normal conditions (30 and 25°C), no significant difference was observed in antioxidant activity, proline accumulation, and expression of cold acclimation genes in tomato leaf tissues of both control and bacterized plants. However, plants exposed to temperatures of 12 and 10°C were found to decrease in robustness and nutrient uptake, accompanied by increased membrane damage. Chilling resistance in bacterized plants was evident from reduced membrane damage and reactive oxygen species levels, improved antioxidant activity in leaf tissues, and high expression of cold acclimation genes LeCBF1 and LeCBF3 compared with control plants. Confocal microscopy confirmed effective colonization and intercellular localization of cold-adapted bacterial strains OB155-gfp and OS261-gfp. PMID:26075827

  14. Psychrotolerant Endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Strains OB155 and OS261 Induced Chilling Resistance in Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) by Activation of Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Yi; Sa, Tongmin

    2015-10-01

    Studies on chilling stress damage and its mitigation through microorganisms in members of family Solanaceae is limited, despite their economic importance. We studied chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants colonized by psychrotolerant bacterial strains Pseudomonas vancouverensis OB155-gfp and P. frederiksbergensis OS261-gfp. Log phase cultures of bacterial strains were coated on surface-sterilized seeds (bacterization) before sowing and nonbacterized (control) seeds were coated with sterile bacterial growth medium. All plants were grown at temperatures of 30 and 25°C and at the end of 4 weeks, chilling treatment (12 and 10°C) was imposed for 1 week on half of the bacterized and control plants. Under normal conditions (30 and 25°C), no significant difference was observed in antioxidant activity, proline accumulation, and expression of cold acclimation genes in tomato leaf tissues of both control and bacterized plants. However, plants exposed to temperatures of 12 and 10°C were found to decrease in robustness and nutrient uptake, accompanied by increased membrane damage. Chilling resistance in bacterized plants was evident from reduced membrane damage and reactive oxygen species levels, improved antioxidant activity in leaf tissues, and high expression of cold acclimation genes LeCBF1 and LeCBF3 compared with control plants. Confocal microscopy confirmed effective colonization and intercellular localization of cold-adapted bacterial strains OB155-gfp and OS261-gfp.

  15. Mechanics of buried chilled gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Hu, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the factors influencing the modelling of soil-pipeline interaction for a pipeline which is used to transport chilled gas. The soil-pipeline interaction is induced by the generation of discontinuous frost heave at a boundary between soils with differing frost susceptibility. The three-dimensional modelling takes into consideration the time-dependent evolution of frost heave due to moisture migration, the creep and elastic behavior of the frozen soil and flexural behavior of the embedded pipeline. The results of the computational model are compared with experimental results obtained from the frost heave induced soil-pipeline interaction test performed at the full scale test facilities in Caen, France.

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Chilling Stress Responsiveness in Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Xiuqin; Wang, Wensheng; Pan, Yajiao; Huang, Liyu; Liu, Xiaoyue; Zong, Ying; Zhu, Linghua; Yang, Daichang; Fu, Binying

    2012-01-01

    Rice is sensitive to chilling stress, especially at the seedling stage. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of chilling tolerance in rice, comprehensive gene expressions of two rice genotypes (chilling-tolerant LTH and chilling-sensitive IR29) with contrasting responses to chilling stress were comparatively analyzed. Results revealed a differential constitutive gene expression prior to stress and distinct global transcription reprogramming between the two rice genotypes under time-series chilling stress and subsequent recovery conditions. A set of genes with higher basal expression were identified in chilling-tolerant LTH compared with chilling-sensitive IR29, indicating their possible role in intrinsic tolerance to chilling stress. Under chilling stress, the major effect on gene expression was up-regulation in the chilling- tolerant genotype and strong repression in chilling-sensitive genotype. Early responses to chilling stress in both genotypes featured commonly up-regulated genes related to transcription regulation and signal transduction, while functional categories for late phase chilling regulated genes were diverse with a wide range of functional adaptations to continuous stress. Following the cessation of chilling treatments, there was quick and efficient reversion of gene expression in the chilling-tolerant genotype, while the chilling-sensitive genotype displayed considerably slower recovering capacity at the transcriptional level. In addition, the detection of differentially-regulated TF genes and enriched cis-elements demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways, including CBF and MYBS3 regulons, were involved in chilling stress tolerance. A number of the chilling-regulated genes identified in this study were co-localized onto previously fine-mapped cold-tolerance-related QTLs, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for chilling tolerance in rice. PMID:22912843

  17. Low-level laser therapy alleviates neuropathic pain and promotes function recovery in rats with chronic constriction injury: possible involvements in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α).

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Chou, Li-Wei; Chang, Pei-Lin; Yang, Chen-Chia; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern

    2012-09-01

    Nerve inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of neuropathic pain after chronic constrictive injury (CCI). Recent studies have indicated that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is crucial in inflammation. Low-level laser therapy has been used in treating musculoskeletal pain, but rare data directly support its use for neuropathic pain. We investigated the effects of low-level laser on the accumulation of HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in controlling neuropathic pain, as well as on the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in promoting functional recovery in a rat CCI model. CCI was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve of rats. Treatments of low-level laser (660 nm, 9 J/cm(2)) or sham irradiation (0 J/cm(2)) were performed at the CCI sites for 7 consecutive days. The effects of laser in animals with CCI were determined by measuring the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold, as well as the sciatic, tibial, and peroneal function indices. Histopathological and immunoassay analyses were also performed. Low-level laser therapy significantly improved paw withdrawal threshold and the sciatic, tibial, and peroneal functional indices after CCI. The therapy also significantly reduced the overexpressions of HIF-1α, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and increased the amounts of VEGF, NGF, and S100 proteins. In conclusion, a low-level laser could modulate HIF-1α activity. Moreover, it may also be used as a novel and clinically applicable therapeutic approach for the improvement of tissue hypoxia/ischemia and inflammation in nerve entrapment neuropathy, as well as for the promotion of nerve regeneration. These findings might lead to a sufficient morphological and functional recovery of the peripheral nerve. PMID:22351621

  18. Organic acid component from Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz alleviates inflammatory injury in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute tracheobronchitis of ICR mice through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Li, Chao; Tian, Gang; Zhu, Maomao; Bu, Weiquan; Chen, Juan; Hou, Xuefeng; Di, Liuqing; Jia, Xiaobin; Dong, Zibo; Feng, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute tracheobronchitis. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz (TMHM) is a dietic herb for heat-clearing and detoxifying functions as well as swell-reducing and mass-resolving effect in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Studies have shown that its major ingredient organic acid component (OAC) possesses favorable anti-inflammatory activity. However, the protective effect of OAC from TMHM (TMHM-OAC) on inflammatory injury of acute tracheobronchitis and its possible mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, HPLC-DAD was used to analyze the components of TMHM-OAC. Lipopolysaccharide of 1mg/ml was used to induce respiratory inflammation in ICR mice at the dose of 5mg/kg by intratracheally aerosol administration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect the levels of inflammation factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide in serum and supernatant of trachea tissue. Western blotting (WB) and Immunohistochemistry analysis (IHC) were conducted in parallel to determine TNF-α, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Toll-like receptors 4(TLR4) protein expressions and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) phosphorylation. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining (HE) was applied to evaluate pathological lesions of trachea tissue. Experimental results showed that TMHM-OAC significantly reduced the levels of the TNF-α, IL-6 and NO in serum and supernatant of tracheal of LPS-induced ICR mice. The protein expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS in tracheal tissue were also down-regulated significantly by the treatment of TMHM-OAC. Moreover, TMHM-OAC downregulated phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and protein expression of TLR4. Our results indicated that TMHM-OAC could improve LPS-induced histopathological damage of tracheal tissues through the regulation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and could be beneficial for the treatment of acute tracheobronchitis

  19. Organic acid component from Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz alleviates inflammatory injury in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute tracheobronchitis of ICR mice through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Li, Chao; Tian, Gang; Zhu, Maomao; Bu, Weiquan; Chen, Juan; Hou, Xuefeng; Di, Liuqing; Jia, Xiaobin; Dong, Zibo; Feng, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute tracheobronchitis. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz (TMHM) is a dietic herb for heat-clearing and detoxifying functions as well as swell-reducing and mass-resolving effect in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Studies have shown that its major ingredient organic acid component (OAC) possesses favorable anti-inflammatory activity. However, the protective effect of OAC from TMHM (TMHM-OAC) on inflammatory injury of acute tracheobronchitis and its possible mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, HPLC-DAD was used to analyze the components of TMHM-OAC. Lipopolysaccharide of 1mg/ml was used to induce respiratory inflammation in ICR mice at the dose of 5mg/kg by intratracheally aerosol administration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect the levels of inflammation factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide in serum and supernatant of trachea tissue. Western blotting (WB) and Immunohistochemistry analysis (IHC) were conducted in parallel to determine TNF-α, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Toll-like receptors 4(TLR4) protein expressions and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) phosphorylation. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining (HE) was applied to evaluate pathological lesions of trachea tissue. Experimental results showed that TMHM-OAC significantly reduced the levels of the TNF-α, IL-6 and NO in serum and supernatant of tracheal of LPS-induced ICR mice. The protein expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS in tracheal tissue were also down-regulated significantly by the treatment of TMHM-OAC. Moreover, TMHM-OAC downregulated phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and protein expression of TLR4. Our results indicated that TMHM-OAC could improve LPS-induced histopathological damage of tracheal tissues through the regulation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and could be beneficial for the treatment of acute tracheobronchitis.

  20. Chilling outweighs photoperiod in preventing precocious spring development.

    PubMed

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Höfler, Josef; Ankerst, Donna P; Menzel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that increased spring temperatures cause earlier onset dates of leaf unfolding and flowering. However, a temperature increase in winter may be associated with delayed development when species' chilling requirements are not fulfilled. Furthermore, photosensitivity is supposed to interfere with temperature triggers. To date, neither the relative importance nor possible interactions of these three factors have been elucidated. In this study, we present a multispecies climate chamber experiment to test the effects of chilling and photoperiod on the spring phenology of 36 woody species. Several hypotheses regarding their variation with species traits (successional strategy, floristic status, climate of their native range) were tested. Long photoperiods advanced budburst for one-third of the studied species, but magnitudes of these effects were generally minor. In contrast to prior hypotheses, photosensitive responses were not restricted to climax or oceanic species. Increased chilling length advanced budburst for almost all species; its effect greatly exceeding that of photoperiod. Moreover, we suggest that photosensitivity and chilling effects have to be rigorously disentangled, as the response to photoperiod was restricted to individuals that had not been fully chilled. The results indicate that temperature requirements and successional strategy are linked, with climax species having higher chilling and forcing requirements than pioneer species. Temperature requirements of invasive species closely matched those of native species, suggesting that high phenological concordance is a prerequisite for successful establishment. Lack of chilling not only led to a considerable delay in budburst but also caused substantial changes in the chronological order of species' budburst. The results reveal that increased winter temperatures might impact forest ecosystems more than formerly assumed. Species with lower chilling requirements, such as pioneer or invasive

  1. DuPage County chilled water storage project

    SciTech Connect

    Grumman, D.L.

    1998-10-01

    Between 1992 and 1995, the DuPage County Governmental Center in Wheaton, Illinois, commissioned a detailed analysis of its chilled water plant and distribution system, as well as its future needs and options for meeting those needs. The result was a 10,000 ton-hour (35,170 kWh) chilled water storage tank with associated components and controls. This paper describes that process and the system that resulted.

  2. Chill-tolerant Gryllus crickets maintain ion balance at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Coello Alvarado, Litza E; MacMillan, Heath A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-06-01

    Insect cold tolerance is both phenotypically-plastic and evolutionarily labile, but the mechanisms underlying this variation are uncertain. Chill-susceptible insects lose ion and water homeostasis in the cold, which contributes to the development of injuries and eventually death. We thus hypothesized that more cold-tolerant insects will better maintain ion and water balance at low temperatures. We used rapid cold-hardening (RCH) and cold acclimation to improve cold tolerance of male Gryllus pennsylvanicus, and also compared this species to its cold-tolerant relative (Gryllus veletis). Cold acclimation and RCH decreased the critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and chill coma recovery time (CCR) in G. pennsylvanicus, but while cold acclimation improved survival of 0 °C, RCH did not; G. veletis was consistently more cold-tolerant (and had lower CCR and CTmin) than G. pennsylvanicus. During cold exposure, hemolymph water and Na(+) migrated to the gut of warm-acclimated G. pennsylvanicus, which increased hemolymph [K(+)] and decreased muscle K(+) equilibrium potentials. By contrast, cold-acclimated G. pennsylvanicus suffered a smaller loss of ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure, and this redistribution did not occur at all in cold-exposed G. veletis. The loss of ion and water balance was similar between RCH and warm-acclimated G. pennsylvanicus, suggesting that different mechanisms underlie decreased CCR and CTmin compared to increased survival at 0 °C. We conclude that increased tolerance of chilling is associated with improved maintenance of ion and water homeostasis in the cold, and that this is consistent for both phenotypic plasticity and evolved cold tolerance.

  3. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  4. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H₂O₂. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  5. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL. PMID:21355422

  6. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  7. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing powe...

  8. Improved Humidity Sensing with the Chilled Mirror: Really?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Testing of the chilled mirror sensor was initiated at Wallops Island in 1997. The chilled mirror dew point system is integrated with the Sippican, Inc., MK2 radiosonde providing a relatively inexpensive instrument. Early tests suggested that better stratospheric humidity measurements might be available. But, recent tests with different configurations of the mirror's cooler indicated that the systems capability to cool to the very low dew point temperatures required in the stratosphere were not being met with the present system. Nonetheless, the present mirror technology, while still undergoing development gives better humidity information between 400 and 100 hPa than the current routine radiosonde sensor. Comparisons are given of the chilled mirror and the typical operational humidity sensors.

  9. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  10. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  11. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  12. Revised Wind Chill Index (The Development of a New Wind Chill Temperature Chart)

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, Maurice

    2002-04-10

    It had been known for many years that the original wind chill temperature charts used by the weather services of Canada and the U.S. were flawed. This speaker applied modern heat transfer principles to the Antarctic research that was the basis for the original charts to demonstrate that the temperatures were much too cold. He then proposed an alternative model that would more accurately depict the effect of wind in cold weather on exposed skin. Media attention and an internet conference sponsored in Canada prompted the U.S. Weather Service to initiate a program to update their charts. This speaker and a Canadian researcher who worked with a similar approach were charged with developing a new chart. An algorithm was completed and the new chart was put into effect in Canada in October and in the U.S. in November, 2001.

  13. Revised Wind Chill Index (The Development of a New Wind Chill Temperature Chart)

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, Maurice

    2009-04-10

    It had been known for many years that the original wind chill temperature charts used by the weather services of Canada and the U.S. were flawed. This speaker applied modern heat transfer principles to the Antarctic research that was the basis for the original charts to demonstrate that the temperatures were much too cold. He then proposed an alternative model that would more accurately depict the effect of wind in cold weather on exposed skin. Media attention and an internet conference sponsored in Canada prompted the U.S. Weather Service to initiate a program to update their charts. This speaker and a Canadian researcher who worked with a similar approach were charged with developing a new chart. An algorithm was completed and the new chart was put into effect in Canada in October and in the U.S. in November, 2001.

  14. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011); Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From... Duty Order, 76 FR 70409 (November 14, 2011), and Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 71 FR...

  15. Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles.

    PubMed

    Brauner, N; Shacham, M

    1995-08-01

    The wind chill index (WCI) and the more widely used wind chill equivalent temperature represent an attempt to combine several weather-related variables (temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation) into a single index which can indicate human comfort. Since its introduction in 1945, the WCI has been criticized mainly on the ground that the underlying model does not comply with modern heat transfer theory. In spite of that, the WCI, "calibrated" to human comfort, has proven to be successful in predicting discomfort and tolerance of man to the cold. Nevertheless, neither the WCI nor the wind chill equivalent temperature can be actually measured and, therefore, without the additional 'calibration' they are meaningless. In this study we have shown that the WCI represents the instantaneous rate of heat loss from bare skin at the moment of exposure to the cold, and as such, it correlates reasonably well with measurable variables that represent a feeling of cold. Two new wind chill indicators have been introduced: exposed skin temperature and maximum exposure time. These indicators yield more information than the WCI provides, are measurable, have physical meaning and are based on established heat transfer principles. PMID:7558408

  16. Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles.

    PubMed

    Brauner, N; Shacham, M

    1995-08-01

    The wind chill index (WCI) and the more widely used wind chill equivalent temperature represent an attempt to combine several weather-related variables (temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation) into a single index which can indicate human comfort. Since its introduction in 1945, the WCI has been criticized mainly on the ground that the underlying model does not comply with modern heat transfer theory. In spite of that, the WCI, "calibrated" to human comfort, has proven to be successful in predicting discomfort and tolerance of man to the cold. Nevertheless, neither the WCI nor the wind chill equivalent temperature can be actually measured and, therefore, without the additional 'calibration' they are meaningless. In this study we have shown that the WCI represents the instantaneous rate of heat loss from bare skin at the moment of exposure to the cold, and as such, it correlates reasonably well with measurable variables that represent a feeling of cold. Two new wind chill indicators have been introduced: exposed skin temperature and maximum exposure time. These indicators yield more information than the WCI provides, are measurable, have physical meaning and are based on established heat transfer principles.

  17. Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauner, Neima; Shacham, M.

    1995-03-01

    The wind chill index (WCI) and the more widely used wind chill equivalent temperature represent an attempt to combine several weather-related variables (temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation) into a single index which can indicate human comfort. Since its introduction in 1945, the WCI has been criticized mainly on the ground that the underlying model does not comply with modern heat transfer theory. In spite of that, the WCI, “calibrated” to human comfort, has proven to be successful in predicting discomfort and tolerance of man to the cold. Nevertheless, neither the WCI nor the wind chill equivalent temperature can be actually measured and, therefore, without the additional ‘calibration’ they are meaningless. In this study we have shown that the WCI represents the instantaneous rate of heat loss from bare skin at the moment of exposure to the cold, and as such, it correlates reasonably well with measurable variables that represent a feeling of cold. Two new wind chill indicators have been introduced: exposed skin temperature and maximum exposure time. These indicators yield more information than the WCI provides, are measurable, have physical meaning and are based on established heat transfer principles.

  18. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  19. Chilling the Messenger: The Impact of Libel on Community Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Elizabeth K.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study used a new attitude and behavioral scale for measuring the chilling effect--an undercurrent of fear with respect to publishing decisions--and to determine the impact, if any, of threatened or actual libel suits on community newspapers. The editors and/or publishers of all 167 newspapers in Kentucky with a circulation of less than 50,000…

  20. Mechanism of Inhibition of Translocation by Localized Chilling 1

    PubMed Central

    Giaquinta, R. T.; Geiger, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Arrhenius plots of translocation velocity as a function of petiole temperature show a marked increase in temperature dependence below 10 C in bean (a chilling-sensitive species) but not in sugar beet (chilling-resistant). The increased temperature dependence below 10 C was not observed for cytoplasmic streaming or oxygen uptake in bean. Bean petioles were served to release pressure in order to determine whether sieve tubes are obstructed in cold-treated petioles. The resulting pressure release caused serious displacement of the crystalline protein bodies in the sieve tubes of petioles at 25 C, but in those locally cooled to 0 C for 30 minutes little displacement occurred, indicating obstruction in the latter. An ultrastructural study of sieve tubes in tissue frozen rapidly in situ and dehydrated by freeze substitution revealed that treatment at 0 C for 30 minutes caused structural alteration and displacement of the cytoplasmic material lining the sieve tube wall resulting in occlusion of sieve plates. The sieve plates of the control petioles at 25 C were generally clear of obstructions. The results indicate that inhibition of translocation by chilling in chilling-sensitive plants results from physical blockage of sieve plates rather than from direct inhibition of a metabolic process which drives translocation. Images PMID:16658332

  1. Imagining Citizenship as Friendship in "The Big Chill"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This essay stages a theoretically driven critique of Lawrence Kasdan's film "The Big Chill" as a productive example of a constitutive contradiction animating the liberal political imaginary. In particular, it argues that liberalism relies irreducibly on an under-examined conception of friendship to supply its model of citizenship as a distinctive,…

  2. Paradox: increased blood perfusion to the face enhances protection against frostbite while it lowers wind chill equivalent temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2007-05-01

    A model of facial heat exchange in cold and windy environments is presented. The tissue is depicted as a hollow cylinder and the model includes heat conduction and heat transport by blood circulation from the warmer core. A steady-state solution facilitating the estimation of wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) as a function of the effective wind velocity, air temperature and blood perfusion rate was obtained. The results quantify and demonstrate the elevation of skin temperatures caused by increased flow of warmer blood from the inner core to the face. Elevated facial temperatures, while enhancing protection against frostbite and other cold-related injuries, also increase heat loss to the colder environment. Paradoxically, such elevated facial temperatures cause WCETs, as estimated by the prevailing definition, to attain lower rather than higher values, indicating, in fact, increased risk of frostbite. The results of this study should be useful in understanding and quantifying the effects of blood perfusion in protection against cold-related injuries. They should also be considered in the re-evaluation and re-formulation of the concept of wind chill, which has been a useful cold weather indicator for decades. PMID:17333290

  3. An approach to the determination of winter chill requirements for different Ribes cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jones, H G; Hillis, R M; Gordon, S L; Brennan, R M

    2013-01-01

    Winter chilling is critical for flowering and fruiting of many temperate fruits, with evidence that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) cropping has been adversely affected by warm winters. Accurate models of chill accumulation in blackcurrant are required so that breeding strategies can be formulated for the generation of new cultivars with resilience to future climates. Existing models for chill accumulation have largely been derived from statistical correlation; here we report the derivation of improved models for blackcurrant using controlled environment treatments. Hardwood cuttings from a diverse set of cultivars were exposed to constant or varying chilling temperatures and the effects on bud break after transfer to a warm, permissive environment evaluated. The impact of different combinations of temperature and chilling periods were described in terms of their overall 'Effectiveness' (E). Clear genotypic differences were found, with excessive chilling often inhibiting bud break. There was a significant interaction between observed chilling response and the period of low temperature exposure. A number of chilling models to explain observed interactions between chilling temperature and time of exposure on bud break were compared; the most effective involved an optimal response to increasing chill accumulation. The effects of varying temperatures during chilling on bud break were complex, with warm temperature breaks substantially inhibiting bud development and cooler temperature breaks tending to enhance bud burst. The relevance of these models to generic studies of endodormancy is discussed, together with their potential application to the development of phenotyping screens for future breeding using diverse blackcurrant germplasm.

  4. Ecophysiological differences between three mangrove seedlings (Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, and Avicennia marina) exposed to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ya-Lan; Wang, You-Shao; Fei, Jiao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Although the cold-resistant ability of mangroves varies greatly with species, the physiological mechanism remains unclear. The chilling stress effects on morphological changes, photosynthetic pigments, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and several antioxidants, were studied in leaves of three mangrove seedlings (Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina). Results showed that both K. obovata and A. corniculatum exhibited lighter chilling damage, lower chilling injury rates and higher survival rates compared to A. marina. Reductions of chlorophylls (Chls) were observed in all the three mangroves, and the highest was detected in A. marina. Significant increases in content of ROS (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; hydroxyl radicals, OH⋅) and MDA were observed in both A. marina and A. corniculatum, whereas chilling stressed K. obovata showed a decrease in H2O2 content, constant OH⋅ level and instantaneous increase of MDA. The contents of proline and water-soluble protein exhibited similar stress-time dependent increases in all mangroves, while A. corniculatum showed the highest increase of proline and relatively higher increase of water-soluble protein. The catalase activities significantly decreased with stress time in all mangroves, while K. obovata showed the least reduction. An increase in ascorbic acid (AsA) content and activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were also detected in all the three mangroves, while K. obovata showed the highest increases. These results indicate that chilling-tolerance of mangroves is associated with the efficiency of antioxidants, as confirmed by principal component analysis. The AsA, APX and POD in K. obovata may play more important role in control of oxidative stresses than those in the other two species. Furthermore, the higher cold-resistance of A. corniculatum compared to A. marina may be partly associated with its higher proline accumulation. The

  5. Ecophysiological differences between three mangrove seedlings (Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, and Avicennia marina) exposed to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ya-Lan; Wang, You-Shao; Fei, Jiao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Although the cold-resistant ability of mangroves varies greatly with species, the physiological mechanism remains unclear. The chilling stress effects on morphological changes, photosynthetic pigments, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and several antioxidants, were studied in leaves of three mangrove seedlings (Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina). Results showed that both K. obovata and A. corniculatum exhibited lighter chilling damage, lower chilling injury rates and higher survival rates compared to A. marina. Reductions of chlorophylls (Chls) were observed in all the three mangroves, and the highest was detected in A. marina. Significant increases in content of ROS (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; hydroxyl radicals, OH⋅) and MDA were observed in both A. marina and A. corniculatum, whereas chilling stressed K. obovata showed a decrease in H2O2 content, constant OH⋅ level and instantaneous increase of MDA. The contents of proline and water-soluble protein exhibited similar stress-time dependent increases in all mangroves, while A. corniculatum showed the highest increase of proline and relatively higher increase of water-soluble protein. The catalase activities significantly decreased with stress time in all mangroves, while K. obovata showed the least reduction. An increase in ascorbic acid (AsA) content and activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were also detected in all the three mangroves, while K. obovata showed the highest increases. These results indicate that chilling-tolerance of mangroves is associated with the efficiency of antioxidants, as confirmed by principal component analysis. The AsA, APX and POD in K. obovata may play more important role in control of oxidative stresses than those in the other two species. Furthermore, the higher cold-resistance of A. corniculatum compared to A. marina may be partly associated with its higher proline accumulation. The

  6. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. Polyamines – putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) – are metabolites commonly found associated with abiotic stresses such as chilling stress. We have generated two transgenic tomato lines (556HO and 579HO) that express yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and specifically accumulate Spd and Spm in fruits in comparison to fruits from control (556AZ) plants (Mehta et al., 2002). Tomato fruits undergo chilling injury at temperatures below 13°C. The high Spd and Spm tomato together with the control azygous line were utilized to address role(s) of polyamines in chilling-injury signaling. Exposure to chilling temperature (2°C) led to several-fold increase in the Put content in all the lines. Upon re-warming of the fruits at 20°C, the levels of Spd and Spm increased further in the fruit of the two transgenic lines, the higher levels remaining stable for 15 days after re-warming as compared to the fruit from the control line. Profiling their steady state proteins before and after re-warming highlighted a protein of ∼14 kD. Using proteomics approach, protein sequencing and immunoblotting, the ∼14-kD protein was identified as the pathogenesis related protein 1b1 (PR1b1). The PR1b1 protein accumulated transiently in the control fruit whose level was barely detectable at d 15 post-warming while in the fruit from both the 556HO and 579HO transgenic lines PR1b1 abundance increased and remained stable till d 15 post warming. PR1b1 gene transcripts were found low in the control fruit with a visible accumulation only on d 15 post warming; however, in both the transgenic lines it accumulated and increased soon after rewarming being several-fold higher on day 2 while in 556HO line this increase continued until d 6 than the control fruit. The chilling-induced increase in PR1b1 protein seems independent

  7. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2016-01-01

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. Polyamines - putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) - are metabolites commonly found associated with abiotic stresses such as chilling stress. We have generated two transgenic tomato lines (556HO and 579HO) that express yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and specifically accumulate Spd and Spm in fruits in comparison to fruits from control (556AZ) plants (Mehta et al., 2002). Tomato fruits undergo chilling injury at temperatures below 13°C. The high Spd and Spm tomato together with the control azygous line were utilized to address role(s) of polyamines in chilling-injury signaling. Exposure to chilling temperature (2°C) led to several-fold increase in the Put content in all the lines. Upon re-warming of the fruits at 20°C, the levels of Spd and Spm increased further in the fruit of the two transgenic lines, the higher levels remaining stable for 15 days after re-warming as compared to the fruit from the control line. Profiling their steady state proteins before and after re-warming highlighted a protein of ∼14 kD. Using proteomics approach, protein sequencing and immunoblotting, the ∼14-kD protein was identified as the pathogenesis related protein 1b1 (PR1b1). The PR1b1 protein accumulated transiently in the control fruit whose level was barely detectable at d 15 post-warming while in the fruit from both the 556HO and 579HO transgenic lines PR1b1 abundance increased and remained stable till d 15 post warming. PR1b1 gene transcripts were found low in the control fruit with a visible accumulation only on d 15 post warming; however, in both the transgenic lines it accumulated and increased soon after rewarming being several-fold higher on day 2 while in 556HO line this increase continued until d 6 than the control fruit. The chilling-induced increase in PR1b1 protein seems independent of

  8. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2016-01-01

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. Polyamines - putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) - are metabolites commonly found associated with abiotic stresses such as chilling stress. We have generated two transgenic tomato lines (556HO and 579HO) that express yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and specifically accumulate Spd and Spm in fruits in comparison to fruits from control (556AZ) plants (Mehta et al., 2002). Tomato fruits undergo chilling injury at temperatures below 13°C. The high Spd and Spm tomato together with the control azygous line were utilized to address role(s) of polyamines in chilling-injury signaling. Exposure to chilling temperature (2°C) led to several-fold increase in the Put content in all the lines. Upon re-warming of the fruits at 20°C, the levels of Spd and Spm increased further in the fruit of the two transgenic lines, the higher levels remaining stable for 15 days after re-warming as compared to the fruit from the control line. Profiling their steady state proteins before and after re-warming highlighted a protein of ∼14 kD. Using proteomics approach, protein sequencing and immunoblotting, the ∼14-kD protein was identified as the pathogenesis related protein 1b1 (PR1b1). The PR1b1 protein accumulated transiently in the control fruit whose level was barely detectable at d 15 post-warming while in the fruit from both the 556HO and 579HO transgenic lines PR1b1 abundance increased and remained stable till d 15 post warming. PR1b1 gene transcripts were found low in the control fruit with a visible accumulation only on d 15 post warming; however, in both the transgenic lines it accumulated and increased soon after rewarming being several-fold higher on day 2 while in 556HO line this increase continued until d 6 than the control fruit. The chilling-induced increase in PR1b1 protein seems independent of

  9. Physico-chemical, respiratory and fungicide residue changes in wax coated mandarin fruit stored at chilling temperature with intermittent warming.

    PubMed

    Ladaniya, Milind Shivratan

    2011-04-01

    Influence of chilling temperature, intermittent warming (IW) and fungicidal wax coating was evaluated during storage of 'Nagpur' mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruits were light green coloured with slight colour-break at the start of storage. Waxed and non-waxed fruits were stored at 3.5 °C (constant), 2 weeks at 3.5 °C followed by IW for 1 week at 19.5 °C (cycle) and at 6.5 °C (constant), and were evaluated immediately after 30, 45, 60, 75 days and also after 1 week holding at ambient condition (24 ± 2 °C, 60-70% RH). There was no chilling injury to fruit under IW treatment irrespective of coating. At 3.5 °C (constant) chilling injury appeared after 45 days during 1 week holding and thereafter increased at each storage interval. Wax coated fruit had lower chilling injury. Fruit under IW treatment and at 6.5 °C (constant) developed yellow-orange colour while at 3.5 °C (constant) fruit remained green during storage. Juice content, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents were not affected by temperature regimes and waxing while total soluble solids content was higher with IW treatment. Reducing and total sugars were higher in fruits stored at IW treatment and at 6.5 °C (constant) than at 3.5 °C (constant). Total peel phenols content were not significantly affected by waxing and temperature regimes. However, loss of phenols content was higher at 3.5 °C (constant). Phenol content decreased during storage. At 3.5 °C (constant), chlorophyll ('a', 'b' and total) content in peel was maximum while total carotenoids were minimum with little colour development. Rapid colour development was recorded under IW and also at 1 week holding. Wax coating delayed colour development at 3.5 °C (constant). Initially carbendazim residues were higher in peel (4.0 ppm) and pulp (3.2 ppm) of waxed fruit than in non-waxed (3.2 ppm in peel and 3.1 ppm in pulp) fruit. Overall drop in residues till storage up to 75 days+ 1 week over the

  10. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Constance A.; Gould, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2–5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier. PMID

  11. Analysis of gas chilling alternatives for Arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoiris, A.; McMillan, D.K.; Taksa, B.

    1994-12-31

    The operation of buried natural gas pipelines in Arctic regions requires installation of gas chilling facilities at compressor stations. These facilities are required in order to cool compressed pipeline gases to temperatures below that of permanently frozen surrounding soil. If these pipeline gas temperatures are too high, the frozen ground around the pipelines will eventually thaw. This is undesirable for many reasons amongst which are ground settlement and possible catastrophic failure of the pipeline. This paper presents the results of a study which compared several alternative methods of gas chilling for possible application at one of the compressor stations on the proposed new Yamal-Center gas pipeline system in the Russian Arctic. This technical and economic study was performed by Gulf Interstate Engineering (GIE) for GAZPROM, the gas company in Russia that will own and operate this new pipeline system. Geotechnical, climatical and other information provided by GAZPROM, coupled with information developed by GIE, formed the basis for this study.

  12. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual’s listening to preferred “chill-inducing” music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred “chill-inducing” music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred “chill-inducing” music promotes altruistic behavior. PMID:25389411

  13. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior.

  14. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling.

  15. Hydroxysafflor yellow A alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in hyperlipidemic animals through the suppression of TLR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Wenhuan; Shen, Chen; Feng, Yidong; Xia, Nian; Xu, Dan; Cai, Dongcheng; Li, Yunman; Fang, Weirong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia aggravates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through stimulating excessive inflammatory response. Therefore, blockade of inflammatory signal is a potential therapeutic management for MI/R complicated with hyperlipidemia. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA, a monomer extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L.), was studied in this article to address that the regulation of inflammatory signal would alleviate MI/R combined with hyperlipidemia injury. High-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia worsened MI/R mediated heart injury (elevation of infarct size, CK-MB and LDH activity), activated TLR4 over-expression in hearts, released inflammatory cytokines (LPS, TNF-α and IL-1β) excessively. HSYA administration suppressed the over-expression of TLR4 and alleviated heart damage caused by MI/R complicated with hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, HSYA had little influence on MI/R injury in TLR4-knockout mice, which indicated that HSYA protected MI/R through TLR4 inhibition. In vitro, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) coexisting with LPS model in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) induced serious damage compared with H/R injury to NRVMs. HSYA decreased excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines, down-regulated over-expression of TLR4 and NF-κB in H/R + LPS injured NRVMs. In conclusion, HSYA alleviated myocardial inflammatory injury through suppressing TLR4, offering an alternative medication for MI/R associated with hyperlipidemia. PMID:27731393

  16. Physical and metabolic causes of sub-lethal damage in Listeria monocytogenes after long-term chilled storage at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dykes, G A

    1999-12-01

    Cells of Listeria monocytogenes display sub-lethal injury when subjected to long-term chill-storage in a nutrient-poor environment. The physical and metabolic causes of sub-lethal injury to two meat (L61 and L62) and two clinical (L98 and L99) L. monocytogenes strains chill-stored (4 degrees C) for 4 weeks in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.0 and pH 5.5, and pH 5.5 in the presence of 0.3% potassium sorbate, were characterized. Causes of sub-lethal injury were determined by examining changes in the cell structure, leakage of nucleic acids and proteins from the cells, and cell recovery from injury in the presence of the metabolic inhibitors rifampicin, D-cycloserine, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and chloramphenicol. Visible shrinkage of the cytoplasm and slight cell wall damage were apparent over the 4 week storage period by electron microscopy for all four strains and three storage conditions. By contrast, over the same storage period, only three of the strains (L62, L98 and L99) displayed slight leakage of cellular content in all three storage media, while one strain (L61) displayed greater leakage. The three strains also displayed similar storage media-dependent metabolic damage. For these strains, phosphate-buffered saline pH 5.5 caused the least damage and potassium sorbate, the most. Recovery experiments also indicated that at pH 5.5, the energy transduction system of these three strains remained undamaged, and that injury to the cell transcription machinery was greatest at pH 7.0. The fourth strain, L61, displayed less damage than the others but this was attributed to the death of the injured cell sub-population in this strain. In this study, damage to sub-lethally injured chill-stored L. monocytogenes was different from that caused by other agents, such as heat. Therefore, cells injured by chill-storage under starvation conditions may require novel protocols to assure their effective recovery.

  17. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Smith, D P; Berrang, M E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry air-chilling (AC) method on sensory texture and flavor descriptive profiles of broiler pectoralis major (fillet) and pectoralis minor (tender). The profiles of the muscles immersion-chilled and deboned at the same postmortem time and the profiles of the muscles hot-boned (or no chill) were used for the comparison. A total of 108 eviscerated carcasses (6-wk-old broilers) were obtained from a commercial processing line before the chillers. Carcasses were transported to a laboratory facility where they were either i) chilled by a dry AC method (0.7 degrees C, 150 min in a cold room), ii) chilled by immersion chilling (IC; 0.3 degrees C, 50 min in a chiller), or iii) not chilled (9 birds per treatment per replication). Both IC and AC fillets and tenders were removed from the bone at 4 h after the initiation of chilling (approximately 4.75 h postmortem) in a processing area (18 degrees C). The no-chill muscles were removed immediately upon arrival. The sensory properties (21 attributes) of cooked broiler breast meat were evaluated by trained panelists using 0- to 15-point universal intensity scales. The average intensity scores of the 9 flavor attributes analyzed ranged from 0.9 to 4.0. Regardless of breast muscle type, there were no significant differences in sensory flavor descriptive profiles between the 3 treatments. The average intensity scores of the 12 texture attributes ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 and there were no significant differences between the AC and IC samples. The average intensity scores of the texture attributes, cohesiveness, hardness, cohesiveness of mass, rate of breakdown, and chewiness of the no chill fillets and tenders were significantly higher than those of either of the chilled samples. These results demonstrate that chicken breast meat from AC retains sensory flavor profile characteristics but AC results in sensory texture profile differences when compared with no-chill meat. Sensory

  18. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  19. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  20. Influence of direct and delayed chilling of excised female buffalo muscles on their textural quality.

    PubMed

    Raj, K R; Rao, R J; Rao, D N; Mahendrakar, N S

    2000-09-01

    The excised muscles from the left half of 6 carcasses of old female buffaloes (4-5 years of age) were held, soon after slaughter, at the temperature of 2-3°C for 24 h (direct chilling) and those from the right half at ambient temperature (26±2°C) up to 6 h postmortem followed by chilling at 2-3°C for 18 h (delayed chilling) in order to study the improvement in the texture quality of muscles. During the delayed chilling, the muscle pH decreased to 6.0 (from the initial value of 6.5) in 3 h whereas it took 5-6 h in direct chilling. Reduction in Instron firmness values was 10.3-33.6% and that in cohesiveness values was 13.2-22.2% in delayed chilled muscles compared to direct chilled ones when cooked muscles were sheared along or across the muscle fibres. These observations were statistically significant (P⩽ 0.001) indicating a definite improvement in the texture quality of muscles subjected to delayed chilling. However, no definite trend was observed in the values of elasticity, cooking loss and water holding capacity of muscles due to direct or delayed chilling.

  1. Gust alleviation - Criteria and control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynaski, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between criteria specified for aircraft gust alleviation and the form of the control laws that result from the criteria are considered. Open-loop gust alleviation based on the linearized, small perturbation equations of aircraft motion is discussed, and an approximate solution of the open-loop control law is presented for the case in which the number of degrees of freedom of the aircraft exceeds the rank of the control effectiveness matrix. Excessive actuator lag is compensated for by taking into account actuator dynamics in the equations of motion, resulting in the specification of a general load network. Criteria for gust alleviation when output motions are gust alleviated and the closed-loop control law derived from them are examined and linear optimal control law is derived. Comparisons of the control laws reveal that the effectiveness of an open-loop control law is greatest at low aircraft frequencies but deteriorates as the natural frequency of the actuators is approached, while closed-loop methods are found to be more effective at higher frequencies.

  2. Alleviation of Communication Apprehension: An Individualized Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    Communication apprehension (CA) affects from 15% to 20% of the college population, indicating inherent problems of negative cognitive appraisal, conditioned anxiety, or skills deficits. Use of an individualized approach to the alleviation of CA has been shown to increase students' class interaction and to improve their verbal skills. During an…

  3. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  4. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  5. Investigation of hygiene aspects during air chilling of poultry carcases using a model rig.

    PubMed

    Allen, V M; Burton, C H; Corry, J E; Mead, G C; Tinker, D B

    2000-12-01

    1. An experimental rig, designed and built to simulate conditions found in commercial poultry chilling systems, was used to investigate the effects of varying air temperature and chilling duration, and the effect of chlorinated water sprays, on the microbial load present on the skin and in the body cavity of freshly eviscerated poultry carcases; deep muscle and skin temperatures were monitored during chilling at three different temperatures. 2. During dry chilling for 2 h, total viable microbe counts (TVC) and counts of coliforms and pseudomonads from the body cavity fell by between half and one log unit; smaller reductions were observed in samples from the breast skin. 3. The situation changed when chlorinated water sprays (50, 100 or 250 ppm available chlorine) were applied for the first hour of chilling; spraying carcases enhanced the reduction in numbers on the skin; the effect was most pronounced with 250 ppm chlorine; conversely in the body cavity, the general effects of sprays was to increase contamination by up to one log unit. 4. There was no evidence that sprays increased the rate of chilling. 5. When carcases were held overnight in the rig at 11 degrees C after chilling, microbe counts on dry-chilled carcases remained stable, but increased on carcases that had been sprayed with chlorinated water.

  6. Feeding impairs chill coma recovery in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Low temperature causes loss of neuromuscular function in a wide range of insects, such that the animals enter a state known as chill coma. The ability to recover from chill coma (chill coma recovery time) is often a popular phenotype to characterise chill tolerance in insects. Chill coma in insects has been shown to be associated with a decrease in haemolymph volume and a marked increase in [K(+)], causing dissipation of K(+) equilibrium potential and resting membrane potential. High potassium diet (wheat) has also previously been shown to increase haemolymph [K(+)] in Locusta migratoria leading to sluggish behaviour. The present study combined these two independent stressors of ion and water homeostasis, in order to investigate the role of K(+)- and water-balance during recovery from chill coma, in the chill sensitive insect L. migratoria. We confirmed that cold shock elicits a fast increase in haemolymph [K(+)] which is likely caused by a water shift from the haemolymph to the muscles and other tissues. Recovery of haemolymph [K(+)] is however not only reliant on recovery of haemolymph volume, as the recovery of water and K(+) is decoupled. Chill coma recovery time, after 2h at -4 °C, differed significantly between fasted animals and those fed on high K(+) diet. This difference was not associated with an increased disturbance of haemolymph [K(+)] in the fed animals, instead it was associated with a slowed recovery of muscle [K(+)], muslce water, haemolymph [Na(+)] and K(+)equilibrium potential in the fed animals.

  7. Chills in Different Sensory Domains: Frisson Elicited by Acoustical, Visual, Tactile and Gustatory Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewe, Oliver; Katzur, Bjorn; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmuller, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    "Chills" (frisson manifested as goose bumps or shivers) have been used in an increasing number of studies as indicators of emotions in response to music (e.g., Craig, 2005; Guhn, Hamm, & Zentner, 2007; McCrae, 2007; Panksepp, 1995; Sloboda, 1991). In this study we present evidence that chills can be induced through aural, visual, tactile, and…

  8. How does music arouse "chills"? Investigating strong emotions, combining psychological, physiological, and psychoacoustical methods.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2005-12-01

    Music can arouse ecstatic "chill" experiences defined as "goose pimples" and as "shivers down the spine." We recorded chills both via subjects' self-reports and physiological reactions, finding that they do not occur in a reflex-like manner, but as a result of attentive, experienced, and conscious musical enjoyment.

  9. 9 CFR 381.66 - Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temperatures and chilling and freezing... Procedures § 381.66 Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. (a) General. Temperatures and... temperature is reduced to 40 °F. or less, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section unless such...

  10. 9 CFR 381.66 - Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temperatures and chilling and freezing... Procedures § 381.66 Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. (a) General. Temperatures and... temperature is reduced to 40 °F. or less, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section unless such...

  11. 9 CFR 381.66 - Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temperatures and chilling and freezing... Procedures § 381.66 Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. (a) General. Temperatures and... temperature is reduced to 40 °F. or less, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section unless such...

  12. 9 CFR 381.66 - Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temperatures and chilling and freezing... Procedures § 381.66 Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. (a) General. Temperatures and... temperature is reduced to 40 °F. or less, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section unless such...

  13. The relationships between rheological properties and structural changes of chilled abalone meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Gao; Zhaohui, Zhang; Zhixu, Tang; Yuri, Tashiro; Hiroo, Ogawa

    2003-10-01

    The quantitative correlation between rheological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72 h, the instantaneous modulus E 0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48h. The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am, Rvm), and rheological properties (E 1, τ 1, η 1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlation. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristics values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  14. Salmonella Recovery Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following immersion chilling were determined for both neck skin and the matching whole carcass enriched samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were immersion chilled in ice and tap water for 40 min. Following immersio...

  15. 9 CFR 381.66 - Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. 381.66 Section 381.66 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Procedures § 381.66 Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. (a) General. Temperatures...

  16. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  17. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  18. Insights on the development, kinetics, and variation of photoinhibition using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of a chilled, variegated leaf.

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, Sander W; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The effect of chilling on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was studied in the variegated leaves of Calathea makoyana, in order to gain insight into the causes of chilling-induced photoinhibition. Additionally, a relationship was revealed between (chilling) stress and variation in photosynthesis. Chilling treatments (5 degrees C and 10 degrees C) were performed for different durations (1-7 d) under a moderate irradiance (120 micromol m-2 s-1). The individual leaves were divided into a shaded zone and two illuminated, chilled zones. The leaf tip and sometimes the leaf base were not chilled. Measurements of the dark-adapted Fv/Fm were made on the different leaf zones at the end of the chilling treatment, and then for several days thereafter to monitor recovery. Chilling up to 7 d in the dark did not affect PSII efficiency and visual appearance, whereas chilling in the light caused severe photoinhibition, sometimes followed by leaf necrosis. Photoinhibition increased with the duration of the chilling period, whereas, remarkably, chilling temperature had no effect. In the unchilled leaf tip, photoinhibition also occurred, whereas in the unchilled leaf base it did not. Whatever the leaf zone, photoinhibition became permanent if the mean value dropped below 0.4, although chlorosis and necrosis were associated solely with chilled illuminated tissue. Starch accumulated in the unchilled leaf tip, in contrast to the adjacent chilled irradiated zone. This suggests that photoinhibition was due to a secondary effect in the unchilled leaf tip (sink limitation), whereas it was a direct effect of chilling and irradiance in the chilled illuminated zones. The PSII efficiency and its coefficient of variation showed a unique negative linearity across all leaf zones and different tissue types. The slope of this curve was steeper for chilled leaves than it was for healthy, non-stressed leaves, suggesting that the coefficient of variation may be an important tool for assessing stress in

  19. Insights on the development, kinetics, and variation of photoinhibition using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of a chilled, variegated leaf.

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, Sander W; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The effect of chilling on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was studied in the variegated leaves of Calathea makoyana, in order to gain insight into the causes of chilling-induced photoinhibition. Additionally, a relationship was revealed between (chilling) stress and variation in photosynthesis. Chilling treatments (5 degrees C and 10 degrees C) were performed for different durations (1-7 d) under a moderate irradiance (120 micromol m-2 s-1). The individual leaves were divided into a shaded zone and two illuminated, chilled zones. The leaf tip and sometimes the leaf base were not chilled. Measurements of the dark-adapted Fv/Fm were made on the different leaf zones at the end of the chilling treatment, and then for several days thereafter to monitor recovery. Chilling up to 7 d in the dark did not affect PSII efficiency and visual appearance, whereas chilling in the light caused severe photoinhibition, sometimes followed by leaf necrosis. Photoinhibition increased with the duration of the chilling period, whereas, remarkably, chilling temperature had no effect. In the unchilled leaf tip, photoinhibition also occurred, whereas in the unchilled leaf base it did not. Whatever the leaf zone, photoinhibition became permanent if the mean value dropped below 0.4, although chlorosis and necrosis were associated solely with chilled illuminated tissue. Starch accumulated in the unchilled leaf tip, in contrast to the adjacent chilled irradiated zone. This suggests that photoinhibition was due to a secondary effect in the unchilled leaf tip (sink limitation), whereas it was a direct effect of chilling and irradiance in the chilled illuminated zones. The PSII efficiency and its coefficient of variation showed a unique negative linearity across all leaf zones and different tissue types. The slope of this curve was steeper for chilled leaves than it was for healthy, non-stressed leaves, suggesting that the coefficient of variation may be an important tool for assessing stress in

  20. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  1. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  2. Aerodynamic side-force alleviator means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for alleviating high angle of attack side force on slender pointed cylindrical forebodies such as fighter aircraft, missiles and the like is described. A symmetrical pair of helical separation trips was employed to disrupt the leeside vortices normally attained. The symmetrical pair of trips starts at either a common point or at space points on the upper surface of the forebody and extends along separate helical paths along the circumference of the forebody.

  3. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  4. Windward Cooling: An Overlooked Factor in the Calculation of Wind Chill.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall J.

    2000-12-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures calculated from a recent vertical cylinder model of wind chill are several degrees colder than those calculated from a facial cooling model. The latter was based on experiments with a heated model of a face in a wind tunnel. Wind chill has sometimes been modeled as the overall heat transfer from the surface of a cylinder in cross flow, but such models average the cooling over the whole surface and thus minimize the effect of local cooling on the upwind side, particularly at low wind speeds. In this paper, a vertical cylinder model of wind chill has been modified so that just the cooling of its windward side is considered. Wind chill equivalent temperatures calculated with this new model compare favorably with those calculated by the facial cooling model.

  5. Stratified storage economically increases capacity and efficiency of campus chilled water system

    SciTech Connect

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Joyce, W.S.

    1995-03-01

    This article describes how the addition of stratified chilled water storage to the Cornell University campus chilled water system has increased its capacity and efficiency and reduced its operating costs for less than the cost of a conventional chilled water plant expansion. While chilled water storage is not appropriate for all chilled water systems, the experience at Cornell indicates that it can be very cost effective when favorable conditions exist. It should receive serious consideration by owners of large systems who are investigating alternatives for system expansion. The benefits of variable speed chiller operation were found to be considerable. It is hoped that this successful application will stimulate further interest in the development and application of variable speed drive chillers.

  6. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immersion chilling during broiler processing can be a site for cross contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as a chill tank antimicrobial but it can be overcome with heavy organic loads associated with the constant supp...

  7. Freezing and frostbite on mount everest: new insights into wind chill and freezing times at extreme altitude.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W K; Semple, J L

    2011-01-01

    Cold injury is an acknowledged risk factor for those who venture into high altitude regions. There is, however, little quantitative information on this risk that can be used to implement mitigation strategies. Here we provide the first characterization of the risk of cold injury near the summit of Mount Everest. This is accomplished through the application of a meteorological dataset that has been demonstrated to characterize conditions in the region as inputs to new parameterizations of wind chill equivalent temperature (WCT) and facial frostbite time (FFT). Throughout the year, the typical WCT near the summit of Everest is always <-30°C, and the typical FFT is always less than 20 min. During the spring climbing season, WCTs of -50°C and FFTs of 5 min are typical; during severe storms, they approach -60°C and 1 min, respectively; values typically found during the winter. Further, we show that the summit barometric pressure is an excellent predictor of summit WCT and FFT. Our results provide the first quantitative characterization of the risk of cold injury on Mount Everest and also allow for the possibility of using barometric pressure, an easily observed parameter, in real time to characterize this risk and to implement mitigation strategies. The results also provide additional confirmation as to the extreme environment experienced by those attempting to summit Mount Everest and other high mountains.

  8. Climate Change Affects Winter Chill for Temperate Fruit and Nut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Luedeling, Eike; Girvetz, Evan H.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Brown, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Temperate fruit and nut trees require adequate winter chill to produce economically viable yields. Global warming has the potential to reduce available winter chill and greatly impact crop yields. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated winter chill for two past (1975 and 2000) and 18 future scenarios (mid and end 21st century; 3 Global Climate Models [GCMs]; 3 greenhouse gas emissions [GHG] scenarios). For 4,293 weather stations around the world and GCM projections, Safe Winter Chill (SWC), the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of all years, was estimated for all scenarios using the “Dynamic Model” and interpolated globally. We found that SWC ranged between 0 and about 170 Chill Portions (CP) for all climate scenarios, but that the global distribution varied across scenarios. Warm regions are likely to experience severe reductions in available winter chill, potentially threatening production there. In contrast, SWC in most temperate growing regions is likely to remain relatively unchanged, and cold regions may even see an increase in SWC. Climate change impacts on SWC differed quantitatively among GCMs and GHG scenarios, with the highest GHG leading to losses up to 40 CP in warm regions, compared to 20 CP for the lowest GHG. Conclusions/Significance The extent of projected changes in winter chill in many major growing regions of fruits and nuts indicates that growers of these commodities will likely experience problems in the future. Mitigation of climate change through reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can help reduce the impacts, however, adaption to changes will have to occur. To better prepare for likely impacts of climate change, efforts should be undertaken to breed tree cultivars for lower chilling requirements, to develop tools to cope with insufficient winter chill, and to better understand the temperature responses of tree crops. PMID:21629649

  9. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sumpf, Maria; Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. Methodology/Principal Findings The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder. PMID:26083383

  10. Flow Analysis on a Limited Volume Chilled Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Lin

    2012-07-31

    LANL Currently has a limited volume chilled water system for use in a glove box, but the system needs to be updated. Before we start building our new system, a flow analysis is needed to ensure that there are no high flow rates, extreme pressures, or any other hazards involved in the system. In this project the piping system is extremely important to us because it directly affects the overall design of the entire system. The primary components necessary for the chilled water piping system are shown in the design. They include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fitting used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flow rate control devices (valves), and the pumps that add energy to the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. I used an 'exact' analysis and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for this project. When 'real-world' effects are important (such as viscous effects in pipe flows), it is often difficult or impossible to use only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations and dimensional analysis are needed in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level.

  11. How cultivation alleviates soil water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanus, Tomas; Dlapa, Pavel; Fodor, Nandor; Rajkai, Kalman

    2010-05-01

    Prolonged droughts are still more frequent and last longer in Central Europe. Under high temperature and low water content, the wettability of organic substances, which cover soil particles, decreases and the infiltration process can be retarded or even entirely prevented. This phenomenon (usually called the soil water repellency - SWR) is very common in sandy soils, especially under natural-state vegetation (forests, grasslands). The objective of this study was to examine to what extent the SWR can be alleviated by sandy soil cultivation. Two study sites in Pannonian basin were selected; Sekule in south-western Slovakia and Őrbottyán in northern Hungary. Both have sandy soils with similar textural composition and elementary structure. They differ only by land use. The first is an untreated meadow while the other has been cultivated for decades and contains small after-fertilization residual amount of carbonates. As the reference material, pure aeolian sand with no organic matter from the Sekule study site was taken, since no SWR has been detected there. Infiltration tests under small positive pressure and comparative infiltration tests with water and ethanol under small negative pressure were performed on the three materials, after several prolonged dry seasons. The results show that, water infiltration is considerably retarded in both sandy soils, which contain organic matter (meadow and arable) when compared to the reference material. In arable soil the effect was partially alleviated by cultivation. One evident reason is the presence of residual after-fertilization carbonates in this soil. Carbonates on the one side enlarged the hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface ratio and on the other increased pH, which causes enhanced dissociation of carboxylic groups and by this way also overall hydrophilicity of soil organic matter. This assumption was proved by laboratory experiments with the meadow soil from Sekule, when after calcite addition into the soil the

  12. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon. PMID:27500655

  13. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon.

  14. How to alleviate degradation of mangroves?

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, K

    2004-10-01

    This work has experimentally proved that hyper salinity, a major cause for degradation of coastal mangrove habitats, can be alleviated by flushing of hyper saline soil with tidal water and/or with rainwater. Over a period of three years after digging the creeks to flush hyper saline soil with tidal water, an appreciable reduction in soil salinity and a moderate increase in colonization of mangroves are observed. Soil analysis showed a significant reduction in salinity after 2 months of storage of rainwater with a significant and concomitant increase of heterotrophic bacterial counts and nutrients. This study raises the possibility of converting degrading mangrove habitats to luxuriant ones through man-made efforts.

  15. ICAM-1 Targeted Nanogels Loaded with Dexamethasone Alleviate Pulmonary Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Zern, Blaine J.; Composto, Russell J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Eckmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme dextran nanogels (NG) have great potential in vitro as a drug delivery platform, combining simple chemistry with rapid uptake and cargo release in target cells with “stealth” properties and low toxicity. In this work, we study for the first time the potential of targeted NG as a drug delivery platform in vivo to alleviate acute pulmonary inflammation in animal model of LPS-induced lung injury. NG are targeted to the endothelium via conjugation with an antibody (Ab) directed to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-NG), whereas IgG conjugated NG (IgG-NG) are used for control formulations. The amount of Ab conjugated to the NG and distribution in the body after intravenous (IV) injection have been quantitatively analyzed using a tracer isotope-labeled [125I]IgG. As a proof of concept, Ab-NG are loaded with dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory therapeutic, and the drug uptake and release kinetics are measured by HPLC. In vivo studies in mice showed that: i) ICAM-NG accumulates in mouse lungs (∼120% ID/g vs ∼15% ID/g of IgG-NG); and, ii) DEX encapsulated in ICAM-NG, but not in IgG-NG practically blocks LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cell adhesion molecules including ICAM-1 in the pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25019304

  16. The effect of evaporative air chilling and storage temperature on quality and shelf life of fresh chicken carcasses.

    PubMed

    Mielnik, M B; Dainty, R H; Lundby, F; Mielnik, J

    1999-07-01

    The effect of evaporative air chilling on quality of fresh chicken carcasses was compared with air chilling as reference method. Cooling efficiency and total heat loss were significantly higher for evaporative air chilling. The chilling method was of great importance for weight loss. Chicken chilled in cold air lost considerably more weight than chicken cooled by evaporative air chilling; the difference was 1.8%. The chilling method also affected the skin color and the amount of moisture on skin surface. After evaporative air chilling, the chicken carcasses had a lighter color and more water on the back and under the wings. The moisture content in skin and meat, cooking loss, and pH were not affected by chilling method. Odor attributes of raw chicken and odor and flavor attributes of cooked chicken did not show any significant differences between the two chilling methods. The shelf life of chicken stored at 4 and -1 C were not affected significantly by chilling method. Storage time and temperature appeared to be the decisive factors for sensory and microbiological quality of fresh chicken carcasses.

  17. Chilling and frost tolerance in Miscanthus and Saccharum genotypes bred for cool temperate climates

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Patrick C.; Peixoto, Murilo M.; Busch, Florian A.; Johnson, Daniel C.; Sage, Rowan F.

    2014-01-01

    Miscanthus hybrids are leading candidates for bioenergy feedstocks in mid to high latitudes of North America and Eurasia, due to high productivity associated with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and their tolerance of cooler conditions. However, as C4 plants, they may lack tolerance of chilling conditions (0–10 °C) and frost, particularly when compared with candidate C3 crops at high latitudes. In higher latitudes, cold tolerance is particularly important if the feedstock is to utilize fully the long, early-season days of May and June. Here, leaf gas exchange and fluorescence are used to assess chilling tolerance of photosynthesis in five Miscanthus hybrids bred for cold tolerance, a complex Saccharum hybrid (energycane), and an upland sugarcane variety with some chilling tolerance. The chilling treatment consisted of transferring warm-grown plants (25/20 °C day/night growth temperatures) to chilling (12/5 °C) conditions for 1 week, followed by assessing recovery after return to warm temperatures. Chilling tolerance was also evaluated in outdoor, spring-grown Miscanthus genotypes before and after a cold front that was punctuated by a frost event. Miscanthus×giganteus was found to be the most chilling-tolerant genotype based on its ability to maintain a high net CO2 assimilation rate (A) during chilling, and recover A to a greater degree following a return to warm conditions. This was associated with increasing its capacity for short-term dark-reversible photoprotective processes (ΦREG) and the proportion of open photosystem II reaction centres (qL) while minimizing photoinactivation (ΦNF). Similarly, in the field, M.×giganteus exhibited a significantly greater A and pre-dawn F v/F m after the cold front compared with the other chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrids. PMID:24642848

  18. Monitoring and analysis of a chill storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzle, W. J.; Brett, C. E.

    1982-12-01

    Parisian, a major department store in University Mall, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, has a free cooling system installed to provide air conditioning. The system uses a cooling tower during cold weather, below 47 F Wet bulb temperature, to chill water to an average 43 F. The cold water is stored in an unconfined aquifer and recovered as required for air conditioning on an annual basis. This contract provides monitoring of this system to evaluate system performance. Instrumentation for monitoring has been selected and is being installed. Water temperatures and integrated flow entering and leaving the air conditioning cooling coils and the cooling tower are the prime measurements. Power input to all pumps and cooling tower is also measured. In addition, the temperatures leaving and entering the wells and near the bottom of the wells are measured at random intervals. The water levels in the wells are measured at similar times. Store and ambient data are also recorded.

  19. Quality and bacteriological consequences of beef carcass spray-chilling: Effects of spray duration and boxed beef storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Greer, G G; Jones, S D

    1997-01-01

    The effects of water spray-chilling on beef carcass traits and muscle quality, bacteriology and retail case life were determined in a research abattoir. Chilling treatments were compared using 10 crossbred steer carcasses (280 ± 4 kg) at each spray duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 h) and each vacuum storage temperature (1, 4, 8 and 12 °C). Control sides were air-chilled (1 °C, 24 h) while spray-chilled sides were sprayed with an intermittent water mist at 1 °C in four, 60 s cycles/h for the initial 4-16 h of chilling. The effects of storage temperature were evaluated using vacuum packaged longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle at post-chill intervals of 2, 16, 30 and 44 days. Chilling treatment effects were similar at all spray-chill durations and LT vacuum storage times and temperatures. Carcass spray-chilling did not effect pH, lean colour, % moisture, sarcomere length, shear value or weight loss during the vacuum storage of LT muscle. Carcass fat colour tended to brighten as spray duration was extended up to 12 h, but there was a grey discoloration of fat at spray durations beyond 12 h. Chilling treatment had only marginal effects on anaerobic bacteria during the vacuum storage of LT muscles, or aerobic bacteria during the retail display of rib-eye steaks, and the retail case life of steaks was largely unaffected by spray-chilling. A linear relationship between spray-chill duration and carcass weight loss was determined and carcass shrinkage was reduced by 0.08 g/100 g for every hour of spray-chilling. It was estimated that a major beef processing abattoir could utilize spray-chilling to save more than 2000 kg daily in carcass shrinkage, without compromising quality or increasing spoilage losses.

  20. Neural predictive control for active buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pado, Lawrence E.; Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Liguore, Salvatore L.; Drouin, Donald

    1998-06-01

    The adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response (ANCAR) and the affordable loads and dynamics independent research and development (IRAD) programs at the Boeing Company jointly examined using neural network based active control technology for alleviating undesirable vibration and aeroelastic response in a scale model aircraft vertical tail. The potential benefits of adaptive control includes reducing aeroelastic response associated with buffet and atmospheric turbulence, increasing flutter margins, and reducing response associated with nonlinear phenomenon like limit cycle oscillations. By reducing vibration levels and thus loads, aircraft structures can have lower acquisition cost, reduced maintenance, and extended lifetimes. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken on a rigid 15% scale aircraft in Boeing's mini-speed wind tunnel, which is used for testing at very low air speeds up to 80 mph. The model included a dynamically scaled flexible fail consisting of an aluminum spar with balsa wood cross sections with a hydraulically powered rudder. Neural predictive control was used to actuate the vertical tail rudder in response to strain gauge feedback to alleviate buffeting effects. First mode RMS strain reduction of 50% was achieved. The neural predictive control system was developed and implemented by the Boeing Company to provide an intelligent, adaptive control architecture for smart structures applications with automated synthesis, self-optimization, real-time adaptation, nonlinear control, and fault tolerance capabilities. It is designed to solve complex control problems though a process of automated synthesis, eliminating costly control design and surpassing it in many instances by accounting for real world non-linearities.

  1. The CSU-CHILL REU: The Interdisciplinary challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, C. V.; Hardin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The CSU-CHILL Research Experience for Undergraduates program at Colorado State University has been around for a while, operating under the fundamental goal of providing Research Experiences in Atmospheric Technology and Science. During that period, while the science challenges have evolved, the technological advancements have been moving at breakneck speed. Therefore we have the constant challenge of providing cutting edge research experiences to undergraduate students, where the students may not have had exposure beyond their own discipline. The CSU-CHILL REU provides students experience in current research topics. Students publish in leading conferences every year, and produce high quality research. This paper will provide examples of how the interface between technology and science has evolved over years, where some cross training has become easy, while some other challenges still remain. This REU focuses on small groups, so that we can establish one-on-one connections between mentors and students, and instead of just involving students in cutting edge research, we have them actively create it. Students are not merely assigned a small part of a larger project, but often lead their own project. We consider mentors to be supporting their student's research, and not the other way around. This has led to some very interesting research projects that have contributed to science, and to society at large. In this presentation we will discuss some of the specific challenges that we have encountered when running an interdisciplinary REU program, as well as some of the secondary support activities that we do that extend far beyond the student's participation in the REU.

  2. Salicylate Accumulation Inhibits Growth at Chilling Temperature in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ian M.; Clarke, Shannon M.; Wood, Jacqueline E.; Mur, Luis A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of Arabidopsis plants in chilling conditions could be related to their levels of salicylic acid (SA). Plants with the SA hydroxylase NahG transgene grew at similar rates to Col-0 wild types at 23°C, and growth of both genotypes was slowed by transfer to 5°C. However, at 5°C, NahG plants displayed relative growth rates about one-third greater than Col-0, so that by 2 months NahG plants were typically 2.7-fold larger. This resulted primarily from greater cell expansion in NahG rosette leaves. Specific leaf areas and leaf area ratios remained similar in both genotypes. Net assimilation rates were similar in both genotypes at 23°C, but higher in NahG at 5°C. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed no PSII photodamage in chilled leaves of either genotype. Col-0 shoots at 5°C accumulated SA, particularly in glucosylated form. SA in NahG shoots showed similar tendencies at 5°C, but at greatly depleted levels. Catechol was not detected as a metabolite of the NahG transgene product. We also examined growth and SA levels in SA signaling and metabolism mutants at 5°C. The partially SA-insensitive npr1 mutant displayed growth intermediate between NahG and Col-0, while the SA-deficient eds5 mutant behaved like NahG. In contrast, the cpr1 mutant at 5°C accumulated very high levels of SA and its growth was much more inhibited than wild type. At both temperatures, cpr1 was the only SA-responsive genotype in which oxidative damage (measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) was significantly different from wild type. PMID:15173571

  3. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  4. High root temperature blocks both linear and cyclic electron transport in the dark during chilling of the leaves of rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kensaku; Ohmori, Yukimi; Ratel, Emilien

    2011-09-01

    The most photosynthetically active leaves of rice seedlings were severely damaged when shoots but not roots were chilled (10°C/25°C, respectively), but no such injury was observed when the whole seedling was chilled (10°C/10°C). To elucidate the mechanisms, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics of the seedlings during the dark chilling treatments. Simultaneous analyses of Chl fluorescence and the change in absorbance of P700 showed that electron transport almost disappeared in both PSII and PSI in the 10°C/25°C leaves, whereas the electron transport rate in PSI in the 10°C/10°C leaves was similar to or higher than that in non-chilled control leaves. Light-induced non-photochemical quenching in PSII was inhibited in the 10°C/25°C leaves, occurring at only half the level in the 10°C/10°C leaves, whereas non-light-induced non-photochemical quenching remained high in the 10°C/25°C leaves. The light induction of Chl a fluorescence (OJIP curves) in the 10°C/25°C leaves was similar to that in leaves treated with DCMU. The fluorescence decay after a single turnover saturating flash in the 10°C/25°C leaves was much slower than in the 10°C/10°C leaves. In vivo analyses of the 550-515 nm difference signal indicated decreased formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane and decreased zeaxanthin formation in the 10°C/25°C leaves. Our results suggest that electron transport was blocked between Q(A) and Q(B) in the dark 10°C/25°C leaves, but without irreversible damage to the components of this system. The consequent light-dependent losses of electron transport, proton gradient formation across the thylakoids and thermal dissipation may therefore be responsible for the visible injury. PMID:21803813

  5. Sexually different morphological, physiological and molecular responses of Fraxinus mandshurica flowers to floral development and chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Qi, Fenghui; Yan, Chaofu; Zhan, Yaguang

    2016-02-01

    Fraxinus mandshurica is considered a dioecious hardwood, and the temporal separation of the maturation of the male and female flowers is one reason that F. mandshurica has become an endangered species in China. Rainfall and low temperature influence pollen formation and dispersal and the blooming of female flowers. Therefore, low fertilization efficiency strongly influences the population of F. mandshurica. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the sex-specific morphological, physiological and molecular differentiation of F. mandshurica during flowering and its responses to low temperature. In this study, we investigated the sexual differences in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of F. mandshurica during flowering and determined the physiological and biochemical parameters and expression levels of related genes in response to low-temperature stress induced by exposure to 4 °C (chilling stress) during pollen dispersal and fertilization. Our study supports the hypothesis that male flowers suffer more severe injuries while female flowers are more adaptable to environmental stress during flower development in F. mandshurica. The results showed higher physiological and biochemical levels of malondialdehyde, proline, and soluble sugar, as well as the expression of genes involved in calcium signaling, cold shock and DNA methylation in male flowers compared with female flowers, which suggested that male flowers suffer from more serious peroxidation than female flowers. In contrast, higher antioxidant capacity and FmaCAT expression were detected in female flowers, providing preliminary evidence that male flowers rapidly fade after pollination and further demonstrating that female flowers need a much stronger antioxidant enzyme system to maintain embryonic growth. Most peaks related to physiological and molecular responses were observed at 2-4 h and 8-10 h of exposure to chilling stress in the female and male flowers, respectively

  6. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  7. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  8. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  9. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  10. Hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.

  11. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  12. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research.

  13. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  14. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. PMID:26949231

  15. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  16. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  18. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  19. Optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.

    PubMed

    Shaluei, F; Imanpoor, M R; Shabani, A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-04-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0 °C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8 °C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8 °C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, viability of chilled embryos in GFACF medium was slightly, but non-significantly, higher than in Dettlaff's solution. Supplementation of the GFACF medium with antibiotics, Hepes or BSA increased the viability of chilled embryos, but the tested vitamin E analogue Trolox, vitamin C or Tris concentration had no effect on embryo viability. The outcome of this series of experiments shows that heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos could be chilled for 60 h in GFACF supplemented with 25 mm Hepes, 100 U/ml penicillin, 10 μg/l streptomycin and 1 g/l BSA in such a way that embryonic development does not proceed, and viability is not lost.

  20. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  1. Influence of chilling and drought on water relations and abscisic acid accumulation in bean

    SciTech Connect

    Vernieri, P.; Pardossi, A.; Tognoni, F. )

    1991-01-01

    Intact bean seedlings were subjected to either chilling (4{degree}C) or drought stress. Leaf water relations and abscisic acid (ABA) content were monitored throughout a stress-recovery cycle. Chilling at low relative humidity (RH) and drought caused similar water deficits, as indicated by the decline in relative water content and water potentials, but they had different effects on ABA accumulation. There was a rapid increase in ABA levels in the leaves of water-deprived plants while only slight ABA accumulation was observed after 48 h of chilling (4{degree}C). After 24 h cold treatment there were large changes in turgor but no change in ABA content. Plants chilled for 24 h accumulated ABA only when transferred to recovery conditions (20{degree}C, 90-95% RH, in the dark) to an extent that was related to the rate of leaf rehydration. When the chilling treatment was performed in a water-saturated atmosphere, plants did not suffer any water stress and ABA levels did not increase over a period of 48 h. However, when the chilling treatment lasted for a longer period (72 h), a significant increase in ABA levels was found also in the absence of water deficit. Experiments performed with leaf discs incubated in a mannitol solution (osmotic potential {minus}1{center dot}6 MPa) at different temperatures indicated that low temperature markedly inhibits ABA synthesis and that water stress induces increases in ABA content only at non-limiting warm temperatures.

  2. Chilling temperature stimulates growth, gene over-expression and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Yang, De Long; Sun, Ping; Li, Meng Fei

    2016-10-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives, isolated from the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (P. hexandrum), are typically used in clinical settings for anti-cancer and anti-virus treatments. Empirical studies have verified that P. hexandrum had stronger tolerance to chilling, due to involving PPT accumulation in rhizome induced by cold stress. However, the cold-adaptive mechanism and its association with PPT accumulation at a molecular level in P. hexandrum are still limited. In this study, the morpho-physiological traits related to plant growth, PPT accumulation and key gene expressions controlling PPT biosynthesis were assessed by exposing P. hexandrum seedlings to different temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C as chilling stress and 22 °C as the control). The results showed that chilling significantly increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and plant biomass, whereas it greatly decreased transpiration rates and intercellular CO2 concentration. Compared to the control, the chilling treatments under 4 °C and 10 °C conditions induced a 5.00- and 3.33-fold increase in PPT contents, respectively. The mRNA expressions of six key genes were also up-regulated by chilling stresses. The findings are useful in understanding the molecular basis of P. hexandrum response to chilling.

  3. Chilling temperature stimulates growth, gene over-expression and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Yang, De Long; Sun, Ping; Li, Meng Fei

    2016-10-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives, isolated from the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (P. hexandrum), are typically used in clinical settings for anti-cancer and anti-virus treatments. Empirical studies have verified that P. hexandrum had stronger tolerance to chilling, due to involving PPT accumulation in rhizome induced by cold stress. However, the cold-adaptive mechanism and its association with PPT accumulation at a molecular level in P. hexandrum are still limited. In this study, the morpho-physiological traits related to plant growth, PPT accumulation and key gene expressions controlling PPT biosynthesis were assessed by exposing P. hexandrum seedlings to different temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C as chilling stress and 22 °C as the control). The results showed that chilling significantly increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and plant biomass, whereas it greatly decreased transpiration rates and intercellular CO2 concentration. Compared to the control, the chilling treatments under 4 °C and 10 °C conditions induced a 5.00- and 3.33-fold increase in PPT contents, respectively. The mRNA expressions of six key genes were also up-regulated by chilling stresses. The findings are useful in understanding the molecular basis of P. hexandrum response to chilling. PMID:27314513

  4. A missense mutation in CHS1, a TIR-NB protein, induces chilling sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuancong; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-08-01

    Low temperature is an environmental factor that affects plant growth and development and plant-pathogen interactions. How temperature regulates plant defense responses is not well understood. In this study, we characterized chilling-sensitive mutant 1 (chs1), and functionally analyzed the role of the CHS1 gene in plant responses to chilling stress. The chs1 mutant displayed a chilling-sensitive phenotype, and also displayed defense-associated phenotypes, including extensive cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid, and an increased expression of PR genes: these phenotypes indicated that the mutation in chs1 activates the defense responses under chilling stress. A map-based cloning analysis revealed that CHS1 encodes a TIR-NB-type protein. The chilling sensitivity of chs1 was fully rescued by pad4 and eds1, but not by ndr1. The overexpression of the TIR and NB domains can suppress the chs1-conferred phenotypes. Interestingly, the stability of the CHS1 protein was positively regulated by low temperatures independently of the 26S proteasome pathway. This study revealed the role of a TIR-NB-type gene in plant growth and cell death under chilling stress, and suggests that temperature modulates the stability of the TIR-NB protein in Arabidopsis.

  5. Effect of chilling, polyphosphate and bicarbonate on quality characteristics of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    Sen, A R; Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Babji, Y; Murthy, T R K

    2005-08-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate on colour and sensory attributes of pre- and post-chilled breast meat. 2. Three groups of 6 halves of breasts (pre-chill) immediately after slaughter were treated with 3% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 3% sodium bicarbonate in 2% NaCl or 2% NaCl alone (control); the remaining 6 halves (post-chill) were stored overnight at 4 degrees C and then treated similarly. Both the pre- and post-chill samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h and pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, CIE colour values and sensory attributes were recorded. 3. Chilling had few effects on the meat characteristics measured in this study. 4. Treatment with phosphate and bicarbonate increased pH in both the pre- and post-chill groups. Treated breasts exhibited lower L* and higher a* value (more red) than controls. 5. A sensory evaluation study revealed improvements in colour and other sensory attributes of cooked broiler breast meat in all treated samples compared to the control. 6. The findings suggest that tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate, when injected post mortem, will have beneficial effects on several physico-chemical (pH, colour, WHC %, cooking loss) and sensory attributes of broiler meat. However, phosphate had a smaller effect than bicarbonate.

  6. An evaluation of the wind chill factor: its development and applicability.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, M

    1998-04-01

    The wind chill factor has become a standard meteorologic term in cold climates. Meteorologic charts provide wind chill temperatures meant to represent the hypothetical air temperature that would, under conditions of no wind, effect the same heat loss from unclothed human skin as does the actual combination of air temperature and wind velocity. As this wind chill factor has social and economic significance, an investigation was conducted on the development of this factor and its applicability based on modern heat transfer principles. The currently used wind chill factor was found to be based on a primitive study conducted by the U.S. Antarctic Service over 50 years ago. The resultant equation for the wind chill temperature assumes an unrealistic constant skin temperature and utilizes heat transfer coefficients that differ markedly from those obtained from equations of modern convective heat transfer methods. The combined effect of these two factors is to overestimate the effect of a given wind velocity and to predict a wind chill temperature that is too low.

  7. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared drug particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the spray dried microparticles was compared with spray-chilled microparticles, pure and recrystallized samples. Spray dried microparticles and spray chilled microparticles exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spray dried microparticle and spray chilled particles were improved compared with recrystallized and pure sample of piroxicam. Consequently, it was believed that spray drying of piroxicam is a useful tool to improve dissolution but not in case of spray chilling. This may be due to the degradation of drug or variations in the resonance structure or could be due to minor distortion of bond angles. Hence, this spray drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of piroxicam by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients. PMID:21589797

  8. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  9. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ruibing; Yan, Lihui; Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  10. Use of methanol as cryoprotectant and its effect on sox genes and proteins in chilled zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kunjan; Spikings, Emma; Zhang, Tiantian

    2015-08-01

    Methanol is a widely used cryoprotectant (CPA) in cryopreservation of fish embryos, however little is known about its effect at the molecular level. This study investigated the effect of methanol on sox gene and protein expression in zebrafish embryos (50% epiboly) when they were chilled for 3 h and subsequently warmed and cultured to the hatching stages. Initial experiments were carried out to evaluate the chilling tolerance of 50% epiboly embryos which showed no significant differences in hatching rates for up to 6 h chilling in methanol (0.2-, 0.5- and 1 M). Subsequent experiments in embryos that had been chilled for 3 h in 1 M methanol and warmed and cultured up to the hatching stages found that sox2 and sox3 gene expression were increased significantly in hatched embryos that had been chilled compared to non-chilled controls. Sox19a gene expression also remained above control levels in the chilled embryos at all developmental stages tested. Whilst stable sox2 protein expression was observed between non-chilled controls and embryos chilled for 3 h with or without MeOH, a surge in sox19a protein expression was observed in embryos chilled for 3 h in the presence of 1 M MeOH compared to non-chilled controls and then returned to control levels by the hatching stage. The protective effect of MeOH was increased with increasing concentrations. Effect of methanol at molecular level during chilling was reported here first time which could add new parameter in selection of cryoprotectant while designing cryopreservation protocol.

  11. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  12. Chill block melt spinning of nickel-molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemker, Kevin J.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of Ni-Mo alloys ranging in composition from pure nickel to Ni-40 at. pct molybdenum were cast by the chill block melt-spinning rapid solidification technique and examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. Casting difficulties were encountered with lean alloys, but richer alloys spread more readily on the casting wheel. Alloy microstructures for 5 to 37.5 at. pct molybdenum ribbons were primarily cellular/dendritic; microstructure feature size decreased with increasing molybdenum content. Extended solubility of molybdenum in gamma-nickel, with fcc lattice parameter increasing with composition to the 1.05 power, was observed up to 37/5 at. pct molybdenum. Substoichiometric Ni-Mo (delta) nucleated on the wheel side of the ribbons of compositions 35, 37.5, and 40 at. pct molybdenum. The amount of partitionless delta-phase thus formed increased with increasing molybdenum content and quench rate. This substoichiometric delta transformed readily to a fine structure gamma-delta mixture.

  13. Chilled disks in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Kuncic, Zdenka; Gonçalves, Anabela C.

    2007-04-01

    The "soft-excess" component fitted to the X-ray spectra of many ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) remains a controversial finding, which may reveal fundamental information either on the black hole (BH) mass or on the state of the accretion flow. In the simplest model, it was explained as thermal emission from a cool accretion disk around an intermediate-mass BH (about 1000 solar masses). We argue that this scenario is highly implausible, and discuss and compare the two most likely alternatives. 1) The soft-excess does come from a cool disk; however, the temperature is low not because of a high BH mass but because most of the accretion power is drained from the inner disk via magnetic torques, and channelled into jets and outflows ("chilled disk" scenario). Using a phenomenological model, we infer that ULXs contain BHs of about 50 solar masses accreting gas at about 10 times their Eddington rate. 2) The soft excess is in fact a soft deficit, if the power-law continuum is properly fitted. Such broad absorption features are caused by smeared absorption lines in fast, highly ionized outflows. This scenario has already been successfully applied to the soft excess in AGN. If so, this spectral feature reveals details of disk outflows,but is unrelated to the BH mass.

  14. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Leiyun; Yang, Fen; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hua, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures), and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance. PMID:27138552

  15. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Bai, Ge; Wang, Shu; Yang, Leiyun; Yang, Fen; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hua, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures), and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance. PMID:27138552

  16. Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

    1981-09-01

    This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  18. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting. PMID:24410154

  19. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  20. Chilling requirements for hatching of a New Zealand isolate of Nematodirus filicollis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, A-M B; Pomroy, W E; Ganesh, S; Leathwick, D M

    2016-08-15

    The eggs of some species of the parasitic nematode Nematodirus require a period of chilling before they can hatch; N. filicollis is one such species. This study investigated this requirement for chilling in a New Zealand strain of this species. Eggs of N. filicollis were extracted from lamb's faeces and incubated at 20°C to allow development to the third stage larvae within the egg. These eggs were then placed into tissue culture plates and incubated at: 2.7°C (±0.99), 3.6°C (±0.90), 4.7°C (±0.35), 6.4°C (±0.37), 8.0°C (±1.54) or 9.9°C (±0.14) for up to 224 days. At 14day intervals until day 84, then every 28 days, one plate was removed from each temperature and placed at 13.1°C (±0.44) for 14 days. Eggs were then assessed for hatching. From this data, chill units were calculated by subtracting the culture temperature from a constant threshold of 11°C and multiplying by the number of days for which the sample was cultured; then the Gompertz model fitted. Even though hatching overall was low, a greater proportion of eggs hatched with chill accumulation. Maximum hatching of eggs required 800-1000 chill units. Consequently in the field, more than one season of chilling would be required before hatching. As such a generation time could take more than one year to complete. This is different to the hatching dynamics of N. spathiger, the other main species found in New Zealand sheep, which does not display this requirement for chilling and hatches immediately once the third stage larvae are developed. PMID:27514876

  1. Chilling requirements for hatching of a New Zealand isolate of Nematodirus filicollis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, A-M B; Pomroy, W E; Ganesh, S; Leathwick, D M

    2016-08-15

    The eggs of some species of the parasitic nematode Nematodirus require a period of chilling before they can hatch; N. filicollis is one such species. This study investigated this requirement for chilling in a New Zealand strain of this species. Eggs of N. filicollis were extracted from lamb's faeces and incubated at 20°C to allow development to the third stage larvae within the egg. These eggs were then placed into tissue culture plates and incubated at: 2.7°C (±0.99), 3.6°C (±0.90), 4.7°C (±0.35), 6.4°C (±0.37), 8.0°C (±1.54) or 9.9°C (±0.14) for up to 224 days. At 14day intervals until day 84, then every 28 days, one plate was removed from each temperature and placed at 13.1°C (±0.44) for 14 days. Eggs were then assessed for hatching. From this data, chill units were calculated by subtracting the culture temperature from a constant threshold of 11°C and multiplying by the number of days for which the sample was cultured; then the Gompertz model fitted. Even though hatching overall was low, a greater proportion of eggs hatched with chill accumulation. Maximum hatching of eggs required 800-1000 chill units. Consequently in the field, more than one season of chilling would be required before hatching. As such a generation time could take more than one year to complete. This is different to the hatching dynamics of N. spathiger, the other main species found in New Zealand sheep, which does not display this requirement for chilling and hatches immediately once the third stage larvae are developed.

  2. Structural correlates of imbibitional injury in Typha pollen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.; Hoekstra, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Typha latifolia pollen was examined as a function of pollen moisture content and incubation temperature, in order to identify possible lesions induced by imbibitional chilling. A syndrome of structural traits was found which characterizes damaged grains. Compared to viable grains, the protoplast of damaged pollen has a higher proportion of its volume occupied by vesicles, and less volume occupied by cytoplasm. Damaged grains also tend to have dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum, larger starch grains and lipid bodies, poorly preserved mitochondria and membranes, and, sometimes, numerous electron-dense globules associated with membranes. The percentage of grains exhibiting this damage syndrome correlates closely with the number of ungerminated grains in most samples, regardless of moisture content or incubation temperature. Injury due to rapid imbibition from the dry state or to imbibitional chilling appear to be similar structurally, regardless of whether the stresses are imposed singly or together. The injury is not confined to one cell component (e.g., mitochondria), but may involve a generalized disruption of membranes. These results suggest that similar stress responses are elicited by imbibition from the dry state and by imbibitional chilling.

  3. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ruibing; Yan, Lihui; Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca(2+) influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague-Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0-400mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  4. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  5. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  6. Basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joel S; Newberg, Arthur H

    2010-11-01

    Basketball injuries are most prevalent in the lower extremity, especially at the ankle and knee. Most basketball injuries are orthopedic in nature and commonly include ligament sprains, musculotendinous strains, and overuse injuries including stress fractures. By virtue of its excellent contrast resolution and depiction of the soft tissues and trabecular bone, magnetic resonance imaging has become the principal modality for evaluating many basketball injuries. In this article, commonly encountered basketball injuries and their imaging appearances are described. The epidemiology of basketball injuries across various age groups and levels of competition and between genders are reviewed.

  7. Chilling rate effects on pork loin tenderness in commercial processing plants.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L

    2012-08-01

    The present experiment was conducted to provide a large-scale objective comparison of pork LM tenderness and other meat quality traits among packing plants that differ in stunning method and carcass chilling rate. For each of 2 replicates, pigs were sourced from a single barn of a commercial finishing operation that fed pigs from a single terminal crossbred line. On each day, 3 trucks were loaded, with each of those trucks delivering the pigs to a different plant. Plant A used CO(2) stunning and conventional spray chilling; Plant B used CO(2) stunning and blast chilling; and Plant C used electrical stunning and blast chilling. The boneless, vacuum-packaged loin was obtained from the left side of each carcass (n = 597; 100 · plant(-1) · replicate(-1)). As designed, HCW, LM depth, and LM intramuscular fat percentage did not differ among plants (P > 0.05). By 1.67 h postmortem (1 h after the carcasses exited the harvest floor), the average deep LM temperature was >10°C warmer for Plant A than Plants B and C (32.1°C, 21.6°C, and 19.3°C, for Plants A, B, and C, respectively) and deep LM temperature continued to be >10°C warmer for Plant A until 4.17 h or 6.33 h postmortem than for Plants C and B, respectively. Both plants that used blast chilling produced loins with greater LM slice shear force at 15 d postmortem than did the plant that used conventional spray chilling (P < 0.0001). The frequency of loins with excessively high (>25 kg) LM slice shear force values was greater for Plant B than Plant A (14.7% vs. 1%; P < 0.01). Among all the traits studied, including visual and instrumental evaluations of LM color, ultimate pH, marbling score, and lean color stability, the only other difference between Plants A and B was that purge loss during 13 d (from d 1 to 14) of vacuum-packaged storage was greater for Plant B (P < 0.05). That is, with this sample of pigs and CO(2) stunning, no loin quality advantages were detected for blast chilling. Regardless of chilling

  8. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Signaling Mechanisms Associated with Rapid Cold Hardening in a Chill-Tolerant Fly.

    PubMed

    Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L

    2016-08-01

    Rapid cold hardening (RCH) is a physiological adaptation in which brief chilling (minutes to hours) significantly enhances the cold tolerance of insects. RCH allows insects to cope with sudden cold snaps and diurnal variation in temperature, but the mechanistic basis of this rapid stress response is poorly understood. Here, we used phosphoproteomics to identify phosphorylation-mediated signaling events that are regulated by chilling that induces RCH. Phosphoproteomic changes were measured in both brain and fat bodies, two tissues that are essential for sensing cold and coordinating RCH at the organismal level. Tissues were chilled ex vivo, and changes in phosphoprotein abundance were measured using 2D electrophoresis coupled with Pro-Q diamond labeling of phosphoproteins followed by protein identification via LC-MS/MS. In both tissues, we observed an abundance of protein phosphorylation events in response to chilling. Some of the proteins regulated by RCH-inducing chilling include proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in the degradation of damaged cellular components via the proteasome and autophagosome. Our results suggest that phosphorylation-mediated signaling cascades are major drivers of RCH and enhance our mechanistic understanding of this complex phenotype.

  9. Identification of Clathrate Hydrates, Hexagonal Ice, Cubic Ice, and Liquid Water in Simulations: the CHILL+ Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2015-07-23

    Clathrate hydrates and ice I are the most abundant crystals of water. The study of their nucleation, growth, and decomposition using molecular simulations requires an accurate and efficient algorithm that distinguishes water molecules that belong to each of these crystals and the liquid phase. Existing algorithms identify ice or clathrates, but not both. This poses a challenge for cases in which ice and hydrate coexist, such as in the synthesis of clathrates from ice and the formation of ice from clathrates during self-preservation of methane hydrates. Here we present an efficient algorithm for the identification of clathrate hydrates, hexagonal ice, cubic ice, and liquid water in molecular simulations. CHILL+ uses the number of staggered and eclipsed water-water bonds to identify water molecules in cubic ice, hexagonal ice, and clathrate hydrate. CHILL+ is an extension of CHILL (Moore et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010, 12, 4124-4134), which identifies hexagonal and cubic ice but not clathrates. In addition to the identification of hydrates, CHILL+ significantly improves the detection of hexagonal ice up to its melting point. We validate the use of CHILL+ for the identification of stacking faults in ice and the nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates. To our knowledge, this is the first algorithm that allows for the simultaneous identification of ice and clathrate hydrates, and it does so in a way that is competitive with respect to existing methods used to identify any of these crystals. PMID:25389702

  10. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Signaling Mechanisms Associated with Rapid Cold Hardening in a Chill-Tolerant Fly.

    PubMed

    Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L

    2016-08-01

    Rapid cold hardening (RCH) is a physiological adaptation in which brief chilling (minutes to hours) significantly enhances the cold tolerance of insects. RCH allows insects to cope with sudden cold snaps and diurnal variation in temperature, but the mechanistic basis of this rapid stress response is poorly understood. Here, we used phosphoproteomics to identify phosphorylation-mediated signaling events that are regulated by chilling that induces RCH. Phosphoproteomic changes were measured in both brain and fat bodies, two tissues that are essential for sensing cold and coordinating RCH at the organismal level. Tissues were chilled ex vivo, and changes in phosphoprotein abundance were measured using 2D electrophoresis coupled with Pro-Q diamond labeling of phosphoproteins followed by protein identification via LC-MS/MS. In both tissues, we observed an abundance of protein phosphorylation events in response to chilling. Some of the proteins regulated by RCH-inducing chilling include proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in the degradation of damaged cellular components via the proteasome and autophagosome. Our results suggest that phosphorylation-mediated signaling cascades are major drivers of RCH and enhance our mechanistic understanding of this complex phenotype. PMID:27362561

  11. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  12. Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses and time of deboning on weight loss and technological quality of pork semimembranosus muscle.

    PubMed

    Tomović, Vladimir M; Petrović, Ljiljana S; Džinić, Natalija R

    2008-12-01

    The effect of rapid air chilling of carcasses in the first 3 h of chilling at -31°C (then at 2-4°C, till 24 h post-mortem) and the possibility of earlier deboning (8 h post-mortem) after rapid air chilling, compared to conventional air chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24 h post-mortem) on weight loss and technological quality (pH value, tenderness, drip loss, cooking loss and colour - L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values) of pork M. semimembranosus was investigated. Under the rapid chilling conditions, weight loss was 0.8% at 8 h post-mortem and increased to 1.4% at 24 h post-mortem when weight loss was 2.0% under conventional chilling. Carcasses that were rapid chilled had significantly lower (P<0.001) internal temperature in the deep leg at 4 (25.7°C), 6 (13.0°C), 8 (6.2°C) and 24 h (3.8°C) post-mortem compared to conventional chill treatment (32.7, 24.2, 19.1 and 5.1°C, respectively). Rapid chilling reduced significantly (P<0.05) the rate of pH value decline at 8 h (6.02) post-mortem in M. semimembranosus compared to conventional chill treatment (5.88). Compared to conventional chilling, in M. semimembranosus deboned in different time post-mortem, rapid chilling had a positive significant effect on drip loss (P<0.05, muscles deboned 8 h post-mortem), cooking loss (P<0.001) and incidence of pale colour (L(∗) value). Rapid chilling i.e. rapid chilling and earlier deboning had neither positive nor negative significant effects (P>0.05) on other investigated technological quality parameters of M. semimembranosus (tenderness, a(∗) value and b(∗) value) compared to conventional chilling.

  13. Skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Cass, D T; Ross, F

    1990-08-01

    The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum.

  14. Ka-band propagation studies using the ACTS propagation terminal and the CSU-CHILL multiparameter, Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, J.; Turk, J.; Bringi, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    An increase in the demand for satellite communications has led to an overcrowding of the current spectrums being used - mainly at C and Ku bands. To alleviate this overcrowding, new technology is being developed to open up the Ka-band for communications use. One of the first experimental communications satellites using this technology is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). In Sept. 1993, ACTS was deployed into a geostationary orbit near 100 deg W longitude. The ACTS system employs two Ka-band beacons for propagation experiments, one at 20.185 GHz and another at 27.505 GHz. Attenuation due to rain and tropospheric scintillations will adversely affect new technologies proposed for this spectrum. Therefore, before being used commercially, propagation effects at Ka-band must be studied. Colorado State University is one of eight sites across the United States and Canada conducting propagations studies; each site is equipped with the ACTS propagation terminal (APT). With each site located in a different climatic zone, the main objective of the propagation experiment is to obtain monthly and yearly attenuation statistics. Each site also has secondary objectives that are site dependent. At CSU, the CSU-CHILL radar facility is being used to obtain polarimetric radar data along the ACTS propagation path. During the expected two to four year period of the project, it is hoped to study several significant weather events. The S-band radar will be used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates and to initialize propagation models that have been developed, to help classify propagation events measured by the APT. Preliminary attenuation estimates for two attenuation events will be shown here - a bright band case that occurred on 13 May 1994 and a convective case that occurred on 20 Jun. 1994. The computations used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates from S-band radar data are detailed. Results from the two events are shown.

  15. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Wu, Qingyu; Sprague, Stuart A; Park, Jungeun; Oh, Myungmin; Rajashekar, C B; Koiwa, Hisashi; Nakata, Paul A; Cheng, Ninghui; Hirschi, Kendal D; White, Frank F; Park, Sunghun

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing power of glutathione to reduce disulfide bonds of substrate proteins and maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we report that tomato expressing Arabidopsis GRX gene AtGRXS17 conferred tolerance to chilling stress without adverse effects on growth and development. AtGRXS17-expressing tomato plants displayed lower ion leakage, higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and increased accumulation of soluble sugar compared with wild-type plants after the chilling stress challenge. Furthermore, chilling tolerance was correlated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced H2O2 accumulation. At the same time, temporal expression patterns of the endogenous C-repeat/DRE-binding factor 1 (SlCBF1) and CBF mediated-cold regulated genes were not altered in AtGRXS17-expressing plants when compared with wild-type plants, and proline concentrations remained unchanged relative to wild-type plants under chilling stress. Green fluorescent protein -AtGRXS17 fusion proteins, which were initially localized in the cytoplasm, migrated into the nucleus during chilling stress, reflecting a possible role of AtGRXS17 in nuclear signaling of chilling stress responses. Together, our findings demonstrate that genetically engineered tomato plants expressing AtGRXS17 can enhance chilling tolerance and suggest a genetic engineering strategy to improve chilling tolerance without yield penalty across different crop species.

  16. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying; Wu, Qingyu; Sprague, Stuart A; Park, Jungeun; Oh, Myungmin; Rajashekar, C B; Koiwa, Hisashi; Nakata, Paul A; Cheng, Ninghui; Hirschi, Kendal D; White, Frank F; Park, Sunghun

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing power of glutathione to reduce disulfide bonds of substrate proteins and maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we report that tomato expressing Arabidopsis GRX gene AtGRXS17 conferred tolerance to chilling stress without adverse effects on growth and development. AtGRXS17-expressing tomato plants displayed lower ion leakage, higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and increased accumulation of soluble sugar compared with wild-type plants after the chilling stress challenge. Furthermore, chilling tolerance was correlated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced H2O2 accumulation. At the same time, temporal expression patterns of the endogenous C-repeat/DRE-binding factor 1 (SlCBF1) and CBF mediated-cold regulated genes were not altered in AtGRXS17-expressing plants when compared with wild-type plants, and proline concentrations remained unchanged relative to wild-type plants under chilling stress. Green fluorescent protein -AtGRXS17 fusion proteins, which were initially localized in the cytoplasm, migrated into the nucleus during chilling stress, reflecting a possible role of AtGRXS17 in nuclear signaling of chilling stress responses. Together, our findings demonstrate that genetically engineered tomato plants expressing AtGRXS17 can enhance chilling tolerance and suggest a genetic engineering strategy to improve chilling tolerance without yield penalty across different crop species. PMID:26623076

  17. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Wu, Qingyu; Sprague, Stuart A; Park, Jungeun; Oh, Myungmin; Rajashekar, C B; Koiwa, Hisashi; Nakata, Paul A; Cheng, Ninghui; Hirschi, Kendal D; White, Frank F; Park, Sunghun

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing power of glutathione to reduce disulfide bonds of substrate proteins and maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we report that tomato expressing Arabidopsis GRX gene AtGRXS17 conferred tolerance to chilling stress without adverse effects on growth and development. AtGRXS17-expressing tomato plants displayed lower ion leakage, higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and increased accumulation of soluble sugar compared with wild-type plants after the chilling stress challenge. Furthermore, chilling tolerance was correlated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced H2O2 accumulation. At the same time, temporal expression patterns of the endogenous C-repeat/DRE-binding factor 1 (SlCBF1) and CBF mediated-cold regulated genes were not altered in AtGRXS17-expressing plants when compared with wild-type plants, and proline concentrations remained unchanged relative to wild-type plants under chilling stress. Green fluorescent protein -AtGRXS17 fusion proteins, which were initially localized in the cytoplasm, migrated into the nucleus during chilling stress, reflecting a possible role of AtGRXS17 in nuclear signaling of chilling stress responses. Together, our findings demonstrate that genetically engineered tomato plants expressing AtGRXS17 can enhance chilling tolerance and suggest a genetic engineering strategy to improve chilling tolerance without yield penalty across different crop species. PMID:26623076

  18. Climate Change Impact on Evapotranspiration, Heat Stress and Chill Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, R. L.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration scenarios project an increase in CO2 from 372 ppm to between 500 and 950 ppm by the year 2100, and the potential effect on temperature, humidity, and plant responses to environmental factors are complex and concerning. For 2100, mean daily temperature increase projections range from 1.2oC to 6.8oC depending on greenhouse gas emissions. On the bad side, higher temperatures are often associated with increases in evapotranspiration (ET), heat stress, and pest infestations. On the good side, increased temperature is commonly related to less frost damage, faster growth, and higher production in some cases. One misconception is that global warming will increase evapotranspiration and, hence, agricultural water demand. As the oceans and other water bodies warm, evaporation and humidity are likely to increase globally, but higher humidity tends to reduce plant transpiration and hence ET. Higher CO2 concentrations also tend to reduce ET, and, in the end, the increase in ET due to higher temperature is likely to be offset by a decrease in ET due to higher humidity and CO2. With a decrease in daytime evapotranspiration, the canopy temperature is likely to rise relative to the air temperature, and this implies that heat stress could be worse than predicted by increased air temperature. Daily minimum temperatures are generally increasing about twice as fast as maximum temperatures presumably because of the increasing dew point temperatures as more water vapor is added to the atmosphere. This could present a serious problem to meet the chill requirement for fruit and nut crops. Growing seasons, i.e., from the last spring to the first fall frost, are likely to increase, but the crop growth period is likely to shorten due to higher temperature. Thus, spring frost damage is unlikely to change but there should be fewer damaging fall frost events. In this paper, we will present some ideas on the possible impact of climate change on evapotranspiration and

  19. Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mastouri, Fatemeh; Björkman, Thomas; Harman, Gary E

    2010-11-01

    Trichoderma spp. are endophytic plant symbionts that are widely used as seed treatments to control diseases and to enhance plant growth and yield. Although some recent work has been published on their abilities to alleviate abiotic stresses, specific knowledge of mechanisms, abilities to control multiple plant stress factors, their effects on seed and seedlings is lacking. We examined the effects of seed treatment with T. harzianum strain T22 on germination of seed exposed to biotic stress (seed and seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum) and abiotic stresses (osmotic, salinity, chilling, or heat stress). We also evaluated the ability of the beneficial fungus to overcome physiological stress (poor seed quality induced by seed aging). If seed were not under any of the stresses noted above, T22 generally had little effect upon seedling performance. However, under stress, treated seed germinated consistently faster and more uniformly than untreated seeds whether the stress was osmotic, salt, or suboptimal temperatures. The consistent response to varying stresses suggests a common mechanism through which the plant-fungus association enhances tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses as well as biotic stress. A common factor that negatively affects plants under these stress conditions is accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), and we tested the hypothesis that T22 reduced damages resulting from accumulation of ROS in stressed plants. Treatment of seeds reduced accumulation of lipid peroxides in seedlings under osmotic stress or in aged seeds. In addition, we showed that the effect of exogenous application of an antioxidant, glutathione, or application of T22, resulted in a similar positive effect on seed germination under osmotic stress or in aged seed. This evidence supports the model that T. harzianum strain T22 increases seedling vigor and ameliorates stress by inducing physiological protection in plants against oxidative damage.

  20. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  1. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  2. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. Alternative Names Spinal cord injury; SCI Images Skeletal spine Vertebra, cervical (neck) Vertebra, lumbar (low back) Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Vertebral column Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  3. [The use of "sous vide" technology in the packaging of chilled and ready to serve food].

    PubMed

    Zalewski, S

    1999-01-01

    As chilled precooked dishes show limited to 3-5 days shelf life several additional factors have to be applied to extend it up to 21 or even 42 days as is sometimes allowed for sous vide technology products. Those factors comprise high hygienic standards for raw materials and premises as well as technological steps and parameters that efficiently destroy microbial contamination, and do not allow for recontamination or bacterial growth. Such steps include precooking which also means pasteurisation in high vacuum or anaerobic atmosphere in sealed pouches, blast chilling, low temperature storage parameters as well as high temperature of reheating process and quick serving procedures. Paper specifies parameters for each technological steps and presents microbiological requirements for final products. Sous vide technology allows for good quality and high nutritional value in soups, meats in sauces and stewed vegetables. It is used for individual consumer in chilled "ready to eat" line dishes in supermarkets and supplies such dishes for catering units. PMID:10523935

  4. Chilling to zero degrees disrupts pollen formation but not meiotic microtubule arrays in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah A; Cantrill, Laurence C; Law, Andrew M K; Phillips, Collin G; Sutton, Bruce G; Overall, Robyn L

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the wheat-growing regions of Australia, chilling temperatures below 2 °C occur periodically on consecutive nights during the period of floral development in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants showed significant reductions in fertility when exposed to prolonged chilling temperatures in controlled environment experiments. Among the cultivars tested, the Australian cultivars Kite and Hartog had among the lowest levels of seed set due to chilling and their responses were investigated further. The developmental stage at exposure, the chilling temperature and length of exposure all influenced the level of sterility. The early period of booting, and specifically the +4 cm auricle distance class, was the most sensitive and corresponded to meiosis within the anthers. The response of microtubules to chilling during meiosis in Hartog was monitored, but there was little difference between chilled and control plants. Other abnormalities, such as plasmolysis and cytomixis increased in frequency, were associated with death of developing pollen cells, and could contribute to loss of fertility. The potential for an above-zero chilling sensitivity in Australian spring wheat varieties could have implications for exploring the tolerance of wheat flower development to chilling and freezing conditions in the field.

  5. Chilling to zero degrees disrupts pollen formation but not meiotic microtubule arrays in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah A; Cantrill, Laurence C; Law, Andrew M K; Phillips, Collin G; Sutton, Bruce G; Overall, Robyn L

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the wheat-growing regions of Australia, chilling temperatures below 2 °C occur periodically on consecutive nights during the period of floral development in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants showed significant reductions in fertility when exposed to prolonged chilling temperatures in controlled environment experiments. Among the cultivars tested, the Australian cultivars Kite and Hartog had among the lowest levels of seed set due to chilling and their responses were investigated further. The developmental stage at exposure, the chilling temperature and length of exposure all influenced the level of sterility. The early period of booting, and specifically the +4 cm auricle distance class, was the most sensitive and corresponded to meiosis within the anthers. The response of microtubules to chilling during meiosis in Hartog was monitored, but there was little difference between chilled and control plants. Other abnormalities, such as plasmolysis and cytomixis increased in frequency, were associated with death of developing pollen cells, and could contribute to loss of fertility. The potential for an above-zero chilling sensitivity in Australian spring wheat varieties could have implications for exploring the tolerance of wheat flower development to chilling and freezing conditions in the field. PMID:24762030

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella prevalence and the serogroups recovered following immersion chilling were determined for matched enriched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were chilled in ice/tap water 40 min with or without 20 ppm free c...

  7. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  8. Cold-induced sudden reversible lowering of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence after saturating light pulses : a sensitive marker for chilling susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Larcher, W; Neuner, G

    1989-03-01

    In chilling-sensitive plants (Glycine max, Saintpaulia ionantha, Saccharum officinarum) a sudden reversible drop in chlorophyll fluorescence occurs during photosynthetic induction immediately following saturating light pulses at low temperatures in the range 4 to 8 degrees C. A comparison of two soybean cultivars of different chilling sensitivities revealed that this phenomenon, termed lowwave, indicates specific thresholds of low temperature stress. Its occurrence under controlled chilling can be regarded as a quantitative marker for screening chilling susceptibility in angiosperms. PMID:16666615

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the

  11. The benefits of liposomes for chilling canine sperm for 4 days at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Belala, Redha; Delay, Juliette; Amirat, Lamia; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Le Guillou, Jocya; Anton, Marc; Schmitt, Eric; Thorin, Chantal; Michaud, Sandrine; Kaidi, Rachid; Tainturier, Daniel; Bencharif, Djemil

    2016-05-01

    This study comprises 3 experiments exploring the possible benefits and mechanism of action of liposomes for chilling (4°C) canine sperm over a period of 4 days. In the first experiment, 20 ejaculates collected from 5 Beagle dogs were chilled in an extender containing 6% low density lipoproteins (LDL) (Control), or one of 7 extenders containing different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20%) of liposomes (LIPO). These ejaculates were chilled over 4 days and motility was assessed daily using a Hamilton Thorne analyzer (HTM-IVOS, 14.0). The 2% LIPO obtained the best results (p=0.038) after four days (72.55% motile spermatozoa and 31.4% progressive spermatozoa). In experiment 2, 10 ejaculates were collected from same 5 dogs and chilled in 6% LDL or 2% LIPO-based extenders. Sperm integrity characteristics were assessed prior to refrigeration and every 48h for four days (D0, D2, and D4). Acrosome integrity was assessed using the FITC-PSA test (Fluorescein IsoThiocyanate-Pisum Sativum Agglutinin), plasma membrane (PM) integrity using both the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSt) and SYBR14/Propidium Iodide test (SYBR14/PI), and DNA integrity using the Acridine-Orange test (AO). The 2% LIPO extender provided equivalent preservation of sperm integrity parameters to the reference extender (6% LDL). In experiment 3, a Langmuir-Blodgett trough was used to evaluate the mechanistic interactions between LDL, LIPO, prostatic fluid, and the canine spermatozoal membrane during chilling. Results indicate that LDL and LIPO interact differently with the biomimetic membrane. The most likely conclusion of these findings is that LDL and liposomes employ different protective mechanisms during the chilling (4°C) of canine spermatozoa.

  12. The benefits of liposomes for chilling canine sperm for 4 days at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Belala, Redha; Delay, Juliette; Amirat, Lamia; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Le Guillou, Jocya; Anton, Marc; Schmitt, Eric; Thorin, Chantal; Michaud, Sandrine; Kaidi, Rachid; Tainturier, Daniel; Bencharif, Djemil

    2016-05-01

    This study comprises 3 experiments exploring the possible benefits and mechanism of action of liposomes for chilling (4°C) canine sperm over a period of 4 days. In the first experiment, 20 ejaculates collected from 5 Beagle dogs were chilled in an extender containing 6% low density lipoproteins (LDL) (Control), or one of 7 extenders containing different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20%) of liposomes (LIPO). These ejaculates were chilled over 4 days and motility was assessed daily using a Hamilton Thorne analyzer (HTM-IVOS, 14.0). The 2% LIPO obtained the best results (p=0.038) after four days (72.55% motile spermatozoa and 31.4% progressive spermatozoa). In experiment 2, 10 ejaculates were collected from same 5 dogs and chilled in 6% LDL or 2% LIPO-based extenders. Sperm integrity characteristics were assessed prior to refrigeration and every 48h for four days (D0, D2, and D4). Acrosome integrity was assessed using the FITC-PSA test (Fluorescein IsoThiocyanate-Pisum Sativum Agglutinin), plasma membrane (PM) integrity using both the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSt) and SYBR14/Propidium Iodide test (SYBR14/PI), and DNA integrity using the Acridine-Orange test (AO). The 2% LIPO extender provided equivalent preservation of sperm integrity parameters to the reference extender (6% LDL). In experiment 3, a Langmuir-Blodgett trough was used to evaluate the mechanistic interactions between LDL, LIPO, prostatic fluid, and the canine spermatozoal membrane during chilling. Results indicate that LDL and LIPO interact differently with the biomimetic membrane. The most likely conclusion of these findings is that LDL and liposomes employ different protective mechanisms during the chilling (4°C) of canine spermatozoa. PMID:26952759

  13. Overexpression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene improves chilling tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Sui, Na; Li, Meng; Zhao, Shi-Jie; Li, Feng; Liang, Hui; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2007-10-01

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene (LeGPAT) was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed that LeGPAT contained four acyltransferase domains, showing high identities with GPAT in other plant species. A GFP fusion protein of LeGPAT was targeted to chloroplast in cowpea mesophyll protoplast. RNA gel blot showed that the mRNA accumulation of LeGPAT in the wild type (WT) was induced by chilling temperature. Higher expression levels were observed when tomato leaves were exposed to 4 degrees C for 4 h. RNA gel and western blot analysis confirmed that the sense gene LeGPAT was transferred into the tomato genome and overexpressed under the control of 35S-CaMV. Although tomato is classified as a chilling-sensitive plant, LeGPAT exhibited selectivity to 18:1 over 16:0. Overexpression of LeGPAT increased total activity of LeGPAT and cis-unsaturated fatty acids in PG in thylakoid membrane. Chilling treatment induced less ion leakage from the transgenic plants than from the WT. The photosynthetic rate and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) in transgenic plants decreased more slowly during chilling stress and recovered faster than in WT under optimal conditions. The oxidizable P700 in both WT and transgenic plants decreased obviously at chilling temperature under low irradiance, but the oxidizable P700 recovered faster in transgenic plants than in the WT. These results indicate that overexpression of LeGPAT increased the levels of PG cis-unsaturated fatty acids in thylakoid membrane, which was beneficial for the recovery of chilling-induced PS I photoinhibition in tomato.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the

  15. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  16. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context. PMID:1679787

  17. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context.

  18. Effect of irradiation and storage time on lipid oxidation of chilled pork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Anwei; Wan, Fachun; Xu, Tongcheng; Du, Fangling; Wang, Wenliang; Zhu, Qingjun

    2011-03-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation with different doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy) and storage time (0-30 days) on the lipid oxidation of chilled pork and the combined effect of irradiation and antioxidant on the lipid oxidative stability during storage at 4 °C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment increased lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lipid oxidation was increased with the increase in storage time. The addition of tea polyphenol (TP) was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation of chilled pork after irradiation during cold storage.

  19. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  20. Lutein alleviates arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, S G; Xu, S Z; Niu, Q; Ding, Y S; Pang, L J; Ma, R L; Jing, M X; Wang, K; Ma, X M; Feng, G L; Liu, J M; Zhang, X F; Xiang, H L; Li, F

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the action of lutein (LU) alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity using mice model. Forty male Kunming mice were received following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control), arsenic trioxide (ATO; 5 mg/kg/day), LU (40 mg/kg/day), and ATO + LU (5 mg/kg/day + 40 mg/kg/day). At the end, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and weighed. Pathological examination was done on the testis. The biomedical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) in testis were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We found that there was a decrease in sperm count; testis somatic index; the activities of SOD, GSH, total antioxidative capacity (p < 0.01, respectively) in ATO-treated mice, while there was an increase in the levels of sperm abnormalities, MDA, and 8-OHdG than control (p < 0.01, respectively). The groups treated with ATO + LU showed recovery of the measured parameters between those of ATO or saline-treated group. The antagonized interaction between ATO and LU was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Mice treated with ATO + LU also showed greater mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST than ATO or saline-treated groups. These findings suggest that LU alleviates reproductive toxicity induced by arsenic in male mice via Nrf2 signaling, which implicates a possible mechanism of LU in preventing the reproductive injury, and elucidates that consuming the rich plant sources of LU will alleviate the reproductive toxicity induced by chemicals.

  1. He-Ne laser influenced actin filaments alleviate the damage of UV-B in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the use of a He-Ne laser in alleviating the damaging effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on wheat seedlings by influenced actin filaments. Triticum aestivum seedlings were irradiated with either enhanced UV-B (10.08 KJ m-2 d-1) or a combination of UV-B light and the He-Ne laser. Plants were also exposed to the He-Ne laser alone. In order to compare the effect of the He-Ne laser, red light (same power and wavelength as the He-Ne laser) treatment and the combined UV-B and red light treatment were added. Moreover, wheat seedlings were treated with actin special drugs, including cytochalasin B (CB) and jasplakinolide (JAS). We analyzed the growth of the seedlings, the distribution of actin filaments (AFs), DNA laddering and ACTIN expression in the different groups. The results showed that enhanced UV-B produced negative effects on the growth of wheat seedlings while implementing the He-Ne laser partially alleviated the injury. With the red light treatment, there are no positive effects. The ACTIN expression stayed the same in the different treatments, while the distribution and the protein content are different. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopic results further established significant changes in the chemical composition of the wall material. These results suggested that the He-Ne laser alleviated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation in wheat seedlings by changing the characteristics of the AFs.

  2. Comparison of air and immersion chilling on meat quality and shelf life of marinated broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Carroll, C D; Alvarado, C Z

    2008-02-01

    Marinated broiler breast fillets were evaluated using both air- and immersion-chilling treatments. Ninety fillets from air-chilled broiler carcasses and 90 fillets from immersion-chilled broiler carcasses were obtained from a processor to determine differences in meat quality, sensory, and shelf life. At 24 h postmortem, the fillets were vacuum-tumbled (25 in Hg, 30 min, 14 rpm, 4 degrees C) in 2 replications per treatment with a 20% solution (wt/wt) yielding 0.70% NaCl and 0.45% sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. One-third of the fillets in each replication were packaged in a tray covered with plastic wrap and stored in retail cases to simulate retail shelf-life conditions. The remaining fillets were stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h until analysis for marinade retention, cook loss, consumer evaluation, and objective tenderness. The immersion-chilled fillets had a significantly lower pH (5.56) and were lighter (L* 54.73) when compared with the air-chilled fillets (5.64, L* 50.13, respectively). The air-chilled fillets had a significantly higher marinade pickup (15.51%) than the immersion-chilled (14.07%) fillets. However, there were no significant differences in cook loss percentage in either treatment (approximately 20.03). Shear value was significantly higher in the immersion-chilled fillets (4.14 N), indicating less tender meat than the air-chilled fillets (3.62 N). In the consumer analyses, the air-chilled fillets were significantly different. Of the respondents that noted differences, 19% indicated differences in texture, and 9.67% indicated taste differences. The air-chilled treatment had significantly lower aerobic plate count in postpackaging d 0, 3, and 9. Also, coliforms were significantly lower in the air-chilled treatment through d 6. Therefore, air chilling carcasses may improve color, marination yield, tenderness, and increase the shelf life of retail-packaged broiler breast fillets.

  3. Calcium alleviates cadmium-induced inhibition on root growth by maintaining auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Chengzhou; Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Feng; Bi, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity has been widely studied in different plant species. However, the mechanism involved in its toxicity and the cell response to Cd has not been well established. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanism of calcium (Ca) in protecting Arabidopsis from Cd toxicity. The results showed that 50 μM Cd significantly inhibited the seedling growth and decreased the chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis. Specifically, the primary root (PR) length was decreased but the lateral root (LR) number was increased under Cd stress. Furthermore, Cd enhanced the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Cd also altered the level and the distribution of auxin in PR tips (as evidenced by DR5::GUS and PIN:GFP reporter expression) and the expression of several putative auxin biosynthetic, catabolic, and transport pathway-related genes. Application of 3 mM Ca alleviated the inhibition of Cd on the root growth. Ca application not only led to reducing oxidative injuries but also restoring the normal auxin transport and distribution in Arabidopsis root under Cd stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca alleviates the root growth inhibition caused by Cd through maintaining auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  4. Naringin Alleviates Diabetic Kidney Disease through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fenqin; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Xiaoyu; Huang, Ting; Shao, Ying; Wu, Can; Wang, Qiuyue

    2015-01-01

    Naringin, a flavanone glycoside extracted from Citrus grandis Osbeck, has a wide range of pharmacological effects. In the present study we aimed at demonstrating the protective effect of naringin against diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and elucidating its possible molecular mechanism underlying. The beneficial effect of naringin was assessed in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and high glucose-induced HBZY-1 cells. According to our results, first we found that naringin relieved kidney injury, improved renal function and inhibited collagen formation and renal interstitial fibrosis. Second, we confirmed that naringin restrained oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Moreover, the results suggested that naringin significantly resisted inflammatory reaction by inhibiting NF- κ B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that naringin effectively alleviates DKD, which provide theoretical basis for naringin clinically used to treatment of DKD. PMID:26619044

  5. Experimental evidence for alleviating nociceptive hypersensitivity by single application of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Fang-Xiong; Dong, Fei; Bao, Lan; Zhang, Xu

    2015-04-22

    The single application of high-concentration of capsaicin has been used as an analgesic therapy of persistent pain. However, its effectiveness and underlying mechanisms remain to be further evaluated with experimental approaches. The present study provided evidence showing that the single application of capsaicin dose-dependently alleviated nociceptive hypersensitivity, and reduced the action potential firing in small-diameter neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats and mice. Pre-treatment with capsaicin reduced formalin-induced acute nocifensive behavior after a brief hyperalgesia in rats and mice. The inhibitory effects of capsaicin were calcium-dependent, and mediated by the capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1). We further found that capsaicin exerted inhibitory effects on the persistent nociceptive hypersensitivity induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury. Thus, these results support the long-lasting and inhibitory effects of topical capsaicin on persistent pain, and the clinic use of capsaicin as a pain therapy.

  6. "Chilled" pork--Part I: Sensory and physico-chemical quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Leblanc, D; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    Chilled meat exportation comprises chilling within 48 h post-mortem to temperatures <0 °C without freezing and holding under these conditions for several weeks. The effects of this ageing on sensory quality of pork are unknown and hence the objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality of Canadian pork as found in an export (Japan) market and locally. Regardless that the Japanese market's quality criteria were met, pork sorted on-line differed (P<0.05) from that for the domestic market only for lightness, exudate and cooking loss; no differences in intramuscular fat content were observed. Overall, a trained panel scored weaker pork and meat flavours and odours in the export than the domestic pork as a result of either the quality by selection if roasted or the ageing (-1.7 °C, 43 days exported chilled or 3.1 °C, 5 days domestic) if grilled or shabu shabu. Grilled pork was also more tender, sweeter and had stronger caramel flavour with the chilled ageing. PMID:22633163

  7. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  8. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  9. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  10. Optimizing the Design of Chilled Water Plants in Large Commercial Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Dante'E.

    The design of chilled water plants has a very large impact on building energy use and energy operating costs. This thesis proposes procedures and analysis techniques for energy efficiency design of chilled water plants. The approach that leads to optimal design variables can achieve a significant saving in cooling cost. The optimal variables include piping sizing, chilled water temperature difference, and chilled water supply temperature. The objective function is the total cooling energy cost. The proposed design method depends on detailed cooling load analysis, head and energy calculations, and an optimization solver. The pump head calculations including piping, all fittings, valves, and devices are achieved by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation and given flow parameters. The energy calculations are done by using generic chiller, fan, and pump models. The method is tested on an existing four-story building located in Greensboro, NC, equipped with a packaged water-cooled chiller. A whole building energy simulation model is used to generate the hourly cooling loads and then the optimal design variables are found to minimize the total energy cost. The testing results show this approach will achieve better results than rules-of-thumb or traditional design procedures. The cooling energy saving could be up to 10% depending on particular projects.

  11. Umami and related components in "chilled" pork for the Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Vachon, L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate umami-related components and their evolution in Canadian pork destined for the Japanese market. Export quality pork loins for Japan were subjectively selected on-line for marbling, colour and firmness; remaining loins were retained for the domestic market. At 48h post-mortem, samples were aged 5d at 4.0°C (fresh) or 13, 28, 43 or 58d at -1.7°C (chilled). Meat qualities differed only in pH (<0.1 pH unit; P<0.05). Generally, free amino acid concentrations increased and nucleotide concentrations decreased with longer ageing periods. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) was highest in the pork aged 5d at 4.0°C and at 43d -1.7°C (P<0.05) which is estimated as the transportation time for Canadian chilled exports to Japan. A lack of differences in EUC between domestic and export pork and between fresh and 43d chilled ageing demonstrates that Canadian chilled pork in Japan has the EUC of its fresh 5d counterpart. PMID:27424307

  12. Can chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus be transferred to sugarcane?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to investigate if chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus can be transferred to sugarcane. Net leaf CO2 uptake (Asat) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II ('PSII) were measured in warm conditions (25 °C/20 °C), and then during and following ...

  13. Effect of sodium nitroprusside on morphological characters under chilling stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Chohan, Abha; Parmar, Usha; Raina, S K

    2012-07-01

    An experiment was conducted with chilling tolerant (IC-424234) and sensitive (PBG-1) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes to study the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)- nitric oxide donor applied as foliar spray of 150 and 300 microM concentrations at 45 DAS (vegetative stage), 85 DAS (flowering stage) and 125 DAS (post flowering stage). Both the concentrations of SNP (150 and 300 microM) resulted in significant increase in all the morphological characters viz. plant height, number of leaves plant1, leaf area plant(-1) and leaf area index (LAI) over the control at all the stages, though lower concentration (150 microM) was more effective. Chilling sensitive (CS) genotype PBG-1 responded more effectively to SNP treatment. Electrolyte leakage percentage was effectively reduced by SNP treatments in both the genotypes at low temperature (15 DAA). Chilling sensitive genotype PBG-1 treated with SNP (150 microM) recorded significantly higher yield contributing characters viz. number of pods plant1, number of seeds pod(-1), seed yield plant1(g), pod setting percentage (%), 100 seed weight (g) and yield (kg ha(-1)) over the chilling tolerant (IC-424234)

  14. Effects of chill stress on prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from leaves.

    PubMed

    Melcarek, P K; Brown, G N

    1977-12-01

    This paper describes the utilization of a portable solid state device for the simultaneous measurement of prompt and delayed fluorescence transients in leaves from a variety of species subjected to temperature lowering. The induction transients of the two phenomena were not identical as the peak in prompt fluorescence yield always preceded that of delayed fluorescence. Temperature lowering delayed the occurrence of peak fluorescence, increased prompt fluorescence yield, decreased delayed fluorescence yield, and caused the occurrence of a new, more rapid delayed fluorescence transient. Leaves from all species had qualitatively the same type of induction curves although the response to temperature differed between species. The delayed fluorescence yield of chill-sensitive species was reduced to a greater extent than that of chill-insensitive species. Cold hardening leaf material did not greatly change the fluorescence response to temperature lowering. Arrhenius plots showed a linear relationship between delayed fluorescence yield and temperature. There were no breaks that would suggest membrane lipid phase changes. The data indicate that thylakoid membranes of chill-sensitive species are less capable of maintaining a light-induced high energy state at low temperatures than are thylakoid membranes of chill-resistant species. PMID:16660193

  15. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  16. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 56 FR 14920 (April 12, 1991) (Norwegian Salmon Order... Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Final Results of the Full Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 70 FR... Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 74 FR, August 5, 2009) (Initiation and Preliminary Notice) determining...

  17. "Chilled" pork--Part I: Sensory and physico-chemical quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Leblanc, D; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    Chilled meat exportation comprises chilling within 48 h post-mortem to temperatures <0 °C without freezing and holding under these conditions for several weeks. The effects of this ageing on sensory quality of pork are unknown and hence the objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality of Canadian pork as found in an export (Japan) market and locally. Regardless that the Japanese market's quality criteria were met, pork sorted on-line differed (P<0.05) from that for the domestic market only for lightness, exudate and cooking loss; no differences in intramuscular fat content were observed. Overall, a trained panel scored weaker pork and meat flavours and odours in the export than the domestic pork as a result of either the quality by selection if roasted or the ageing (-1.7 °C, 43 days exported chilled or 3.1 °C, 5 days domestic) if grilled or shabu shabu. Grilled pork was also more tender, sweeter and had stronger caramel flavour with the chilled ageing.

  18. (Re)constituting Community through Narrative Argument: "Eros" and "Philia" in "The Big Chill."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinski, James

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the way a specific narrative text (Lawrence Kasdan's 1983 feature film "The Big Chill") confronts the relationship between communal norms and political possibilities. Shows how the film enacts a complex disjunctive narrative argument endorsing a specific form of communal affiliation (what Hannah Arendt refers to as "Philia") and rejecting…

  19. [Customer satisfaction study in two roman hospitals: comparison between "cook & serve" and "cook & chill"].

    PubMed

    Perata, E; Ferrari, P; Tarsitani, G

    2005-01-01

    We studied patient's satisfaction rate for hospital dishes comparing "cook & chill" method with "cook & serve". As principal instrument we used a comparative questionnaire, anonymous and self-compiled, which is able to evaluate the differences of customer satisfaction's rate between the two methods. PMID:16523715

  20. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  1. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  2. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  3. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  4. Diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Dickey, L S

    1984-01-01

    This is a collective review about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of SCUBA and diving injuries by the emergency physician. These injuries can be classified into those resulting from the toxic effects of the inhaled gas, from the pressure changes in the water and gas mixture while diving, and from decompression sickness. With the increasing popularity of SCUBA diving, it is hoped that this discussion will enable a recognition of these injuries and therefore minimize the morbidity and mortality from them.

  5. Tomato plants increase their tolerance to low temperature in a chilling acclimation process entailing comprehensive transcriptional and metabolic adjustments.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Huertas, Raúl; Rambla, José Luís; Granell, Antonio; Salinas, Julio

    2016-10-01

    Low temperature is a major environmental stress that seriously compromises plant development, distribution and productivity. Most crops are from tropical origin and, consequently, chilling sensitive. Interestingly, however, some tropical plants, are able to augment their chilling tolerance when previously exposed to suboptimal growth temperatures. Yet, the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this adaptive process, termed chilling acclimation, still remain practically unknown. Here, we demonstrate that tomato plants can develop a chilling acclimation response, which includes comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolic adjustments leading to increased chilling tolerance. More important, our results reveal strong resemblances between this response and cold acclimation, the process whereby plants from temperate regions raise their freezing tolerance after exposure to low, non-freezing temperatures. Both chilling and cold acclimation are regulated by a similar set of transcription factors and hormones, and share common defence mechanisms, including the accumulation of compatible solutes, the mobilization of antioxidant systems and the rearrangement of the photosynthetic machinery. Nonetheless, we have found some important divergences that may account for the freezing sensitivity of tomato plants. The data reported in this manuscript should foster new research into the chilling acclimation response with the aim of improving tomato tolerance to low temperature. PMID:27411783

  6. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    PubMed

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line.

  7. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    PubMed

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line. PMID:22564950

  8. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

  9. Tomato plants increase their tolerance to low temperature in a chilling acclimation process entailing comprehensive transcriptional and metabolic adjustments.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Huertas, Raúl; Rambla, José Luís; Granell, Antonio; Salinas, Julio

    2016-10-01

    Low temperature is a major environmental stress that seriously compromises plant development, distribution and productivity. Most crops are from tropical origin and, consequently, chilling sensitive. Interestingly, however, some tropical plants, are able to augment their chilling tolerance when previously exposed to suboptimal growth temperatures. Yet, the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this adaptive process, termed chilling acclimation, still remain practically unknown. Here, we demonstrate that tomato plants can develop a chilling acclimation response, which includes comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolic adjustments leading to increased chilling tolerance. More important, our results reveal strong resemblances between this response and cold acclimation, the process whereby plants from temperate regions raise their freezing tolerance after exposure to low, non-freezing temperatures. Both chilling and cold acclimation are regulated by a similar set of transcription factors and hormones, and share common defence mechanisms, including the accumulation of compatible solutes, the mobilization of antioxidant systems and the rearrangement of the photosynthetic machinery. Nonetheless, we have found some important divergences that may account for the freezing sensitivity of tomato plants. The data reported in this manuscript should foster new research into the chilling acclimation response with the aim of improving tomato tolerance to low temperature.

  10. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  11. The effects of carbon dioxide anesthesia and anoxia on rapid cold-hardening and chill coma recovery in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nilson, Theresa L; Sinclair, Brent J; Roberts, Stephen P

    2006-10-01

    Carbon dioxide gas is used as an insect anesthetic in many laboratories, despite recent studies which have shown that CO(2) can alter behavior and fitness. We examine the effects of CO(2) and anoxia (N(2)) on cold tolerance, measuring the rapid cold-hardening (RCH) response and chill coma recovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Short exposures to CO(2) or N(2) do not significantly affect RCH, but 60 min of exposure negates RCH. Exposure to CO(2) anesthesia increases chill coma recovery time, but this effect disappears if the flies are given 90 min recovery in air before chill coma induction. Flies treated with N(2) show a similar pattern, but require significantly longer chill coma recovery times even after 90 min of recovery from anoxia. Our results suggest that CO(2) anesthesia is an acceptable way to manipulate flies before cold tolerance experiments (when using RCH or chill coma recovery as a measure), provided exposure duration is minimized and recovery is permitted before chill coma induction. However, we recommend that exposure to N(2) not be used as a method of anesthesia for chill coma studies. PMID:16996534

  12. Cold-induced depolarization of insect muscle: differing roles of extracellular K+ during acute and chronic chilling.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Overgaard, Johannes

    2014-08-15

    Insects enter chill coma, a reversible state of paralysis, at temperatures below their critical thermal minimum (CTmin), and the time required for an insect to recover after a cold exposure is termed chill coma recovery time (CCRT). The CTmin and CCRT are both important metrics of insect cold tolerance that are used interchangeably, although chill coma recovery is not necessarily permitted by a direct reversal of the mechanism causing chill coma onset. Nevertheless, onset and recovery of coma have been attributed to loss of neuromuscular function due to depolarization of muscle fibre membrane potential (Vm). Here we test the hypothesis that muscle depolarization at chill coma onset and repolarization during chill coma recovery are caused by changes in extracellular [K(+)] and/or other effects of low temperature. Using Locusta migratoria, we measured in vivo muscle resting potentials of the extensor tibialis during cooling, following prolonged exposure to -2°C and during chill coma recovery, and related changes in Vm to transmembrane [K(+)] balance and temperature. Although Vm was rapidly depolarized by cooling, hemolymph [K(+)] did not rise until locusts had spent considerable time in the cold. Nonetheless, a rise in hemolymph [K(+)] during prolonged cold exposure further depressed muscle resting potential and slowed recovery from chill coma upon rewarming. Muscle resting potentials had a bimodal distribution, and with elevation of extracellular [K(+)] (but not temperature) muscle resting potentials become unimodal. Thus, a disruption of extracellular [K(+)] does depolarize muscle resting potential and slow CCRT following prolonged cold exposure. However, onset of chill coma at the CTmin relates to an as-yet-unknown effect of temperature on neuromuscular function.

  13. Injury Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Injuries are now the cause of more deaths to children than the next six most frequent causes combined. Reviews the research evidence on the effectiveness of approaches to injury control such as legislation, health education, and behavioral strategies. Suggests avenues of further research. (Author/BJV)

  14. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  15. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  16. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  17. Star in Deep Freeze Chills Theory, MIT Researchers Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- Like a frozen turkey that just won't thaw, a strange star near the center of the Milky Way is surprising MIT experts and colleagues with its remarkably low temperature. The odd behavior is chilling current theories of stellar physics. A famously battered neutron star named KS 1731-260 appears no hotter than some of its tranquil brethren, despite enduring the heat of constant thermonuclear explosions with the force of billions of hydrogen bombs every second across a region only a few miles wide for the past 12 years. Dr. Rudi Wijnands, an astrophysicist at MIT's Center for Space Research, used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to measure the temperature of the neutron star at a very opportune moment, only months after the nuclear war apparently ended and the smoke cleared. He presented his team's findings September 5 in Washington, D.C. at a scientific conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "Twelve years of constant thermonuclear explosions: One would think that would heat things up," said Wijnands. "This leaves us wondering whether some neutron stars are in the freezer for a much longer time than previously thought and consequently take a long time to heat up, or whether they cool down incredibly fast. Either explanation has profound implications for our field." Neutron stars are the dense, core remains of stars once many times more massive than our Sun. They are created in dazzling supernovas, in which the outer shell of the star explodes into space, and the core, containing about as much mass as the Sun, implodes and collapses into a sphere no wider than Cambridge, Massachusetts. Despite their tiny size, neutron stars are visible in several ways. One is through accretion. Neutron stars are a strong source of gravity. When they exist in binary star systems, such as KS 1731-260, they can attract the gas from what is often a "healthy" hydrogen-burning companion star (although the nature of KS 1731-260's companion is not clear.) Gas

  18. Dewaxing process using agitated heat exchanger to chill solvent-oil and wax slurry to wax filtration temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, Th.E.

    1984-04-10

    In an improved process for dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils, wherein said waxy oil is cooled in an indirect chilling zone to a temperature greater than the wax separation temperature whereby wax is precipitated to form a wax-oil-solvent slurry, cooling the slurry to the wax separation temperature in an indirect chilling zone thereby precipitating a further portion of wax from said waxy oil and separating said precipitated wax from the wax-oil-solvent slurry in solid-liquid separation means, the improvement comprises using as the indirect chilling zone an indirect heat exchanger means operated at a high level of agitation. Expressed in terms of Impeller Reynolds Number the agitation is on the order of about 1,000 to 1,000,000. Alternatively, the direct chilling zone is totally replaced by the high agitation indirect heat exchanger means.

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water System Design Description (SYS 47-4)

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-06-13

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water (VPSCHW) system. The discussion that follows is limited to the VPSCHW system and its interfaces with associated systems. The reader's attention is directed to Drawings H-1-82162, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID Vacuum System, and H-1-82224, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Process Chilled Water P&ID. Figure 1-1 shows the location and equipment arrangement for the VPSCHW system. The VPSCHW system provides chilled water to the Vacuum Purge System (VPS). The chilled water provides the ability to condense water from the multi-canister overpack (MCO) outlet gases during the MCO vacuum and purge cycles. By condensing water from the MCO purge gas, the VPS can assist in drying the contents of the MCO.

  20. Badminton injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  1. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  2. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2′-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  3. Retinoic acid alleviates Con A-induced hepatitis and differentially regulates effector production in NKT cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoo-A; Song, You Chan; Kim, Ga-Young; Choi, Gyeyoung; Lee, Yoon-Sook; Lee, Jung-Mi; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2012-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a diverse regulator of immune responses. Although RA promotes natural killer T (NKT) cell activation in vitro by increasing CD1d expression on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the direct effects of RA on NKT-cell responses in vivo are not known. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of RA on the severity of Con A-induced hepatitis and molecular changes of NKT cells. First, we demonstrated that Con A-induced liver damage was ameliorated by RA. In correlation with cytokine levels in serum, RA regulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α by NKT cells without influencing the NKT-cell activation status. However, RA did not alleviate α-GalCer-induced liver injury, even though it reduced IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α levels in serum. This regulation was also detected when liver mononuclear cells (MNCs) or NKT hybridoma cells were treated with RA in vitro. The regulatory effect of RA on NKT cells was mediated by RAR-α, and RA reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK. These results suggest that RA differentially modulates the production of effector cytokines by NKT cells in hepatitis, and the suppressive effect of RA on hepatitis varies with the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury.

  4. Photoinhibition at chilling temperatures and effects of freezing stress on cold acclimated spinach leaves in the field. A fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Somersalo, S; Krause, G H

    1990-08-01

    The role of high light stress in a natural environment was studied on spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Wolter) grown in the field during the winter season. Fluorescence induction (at 293 K and 77 K) of leaves was used to characterize the stress effects. Night frost with minimum temperatures between - 1.5°C and -7.5°C (i.e. above the'frost killing point'at ca. -11.5°C) led to impaired photosynthesis. This was seen as increased initial fluorescence (F(o) ), decreased ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (F(V) /F(M) ) and lowered rates of O(2) evolution. The freezing injury was reversible within several frostless days. Exposure to high light (about 900 mol m(-2) s(-1) ) at chilling temperatures in the field caused photoinhibition, manifested as decreased variable fluorescence (F(V) ) and F(V) /F(M) ratio without changes in F(O) . The photoinhibitory fluorescence quenching was not stronger after frost than after frostless nights; synergism between light stress and preceding freezing stress was not observed. Fluorescence induction signals at 77 K showed that F(V) of photosystems I and II decreased to the same extent, indicating increased thermal deactivation of excited chlorophyll. Photoinhibition was fully reversible at +4°C within 1 h in low light, but only partially in moderate light. Preceding night frosts did not affect the recovery. The photoinhibition observed here is regarded as a protective system of thermal dissipation of excess light energy. PMID:21087269

  5. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder.

  6. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. PMID:24944043

  7. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The transcriptional regulatory network involved in low temperature response leading to acclimation has been established in Arabidopsis. In japonica rice, which can only withstand transient exposure to milder cold stress (10°C), an oxidative-mediated network has been proposed to play a key role in configuring early responses and short-term defenses. The components, hierarchical organization and physiological consequences of this network were further dissected by a systems-level approach. Results Regulatory clusters responding directly to oxidative signals were prominent during the initial 6 to 12 hours at 10°C. Early events mirrored a typical oxidative response based on striking similarities of the transcriptome to disease, elicitor and wounding induced processes. Targets of oxidative-mediated mechanisms are likely regulated by several classes of bZIP factors acting on as1/ocs/TGA-like element enriched clusters, ERF factors acting on GCC-box/JAre-like element enriched clusters and R2R3-MYB factors acting on MYB2-like element enriched clusters. Temporal induction of several H2O2-induced bZIP, ERF and MYB genes coincided with the transient H2O2 spikes within the initial 6 to 12 hours. Oxidative-independent responses involve DREB/CBF, RAP2 and RAV1 factors acting on DRE/CRT/rav1-like enriched clusters and bZIP factors acting on ABRE-like enriched clusters. Oxidative-mediated clusters were activated earlier than ABA-mediated clusters. Conclusion Genome-wide, physiological and whole-plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress and developmental responses leads to modulated growth and vigor maintenance contributing to a delay of plastic injuries. PMID:20100339

  8. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  9. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    PubMed

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here. PMID:27264892

  10. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    PubMed

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here.

  11. Variation in chilling tolerance for photosynthesis and leaf extension growth among genotypes related to the C-4 grass Miscanthus xgiganteus

    SciTech Connect

    Glowacka, K; Adhikari, S; Peng, JH; Gifford, J; Juvik, JA; Long, SP; Sacks, EJ

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this study was to identify cold-tolerant genotypes within two species of Miscanthus related to the exceptionally chilling-tolerant C-4 biomass crop accession: M. xgiganteus 'Illinois' (Mxg) as well as in other Mxg genotypes. The ratio of leaf elongation at 10 degrees C/5 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C/25 degrees C was used to identify initially the 13 most promising Miscanthus genotypes out of 51 studied. Net leaf CO2 uptake (A(sat)) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) were measured in warm conditions (25 degrees C/20 degrees C), and then during and following a chilling treatment of 10 degrees C/5 degrees C for 11 d. Accessions of M. sacchariflorus (Msa) showed the smallest decline in leaf elongation on transfer to chilling conditions and did not differ significantly from Mxg, indicating greater chilling tolerance than diploid M. sinensis (Msi). Msa also showed the smallest reductions in A(sat) and Phi(PSII), and greater chilling-tolerant photosynthesis than Msi, and three other forms of Mxg, including new triploid accessions and a hexaploid Mxg 'Illinois'. Tetraploid Msa 'PF30153' collected in Gifu Prefecture in Honshu, Japan did not differ significantly from Mxg 'Illinois' in leaf elongation and photosynthesis at low temperature, but was significantly superior to all other forms of Mxg tested. The results suggested that the exceptional chilling tolerance of Mxg 'Illinois' cannot be explained simply by the hybrid vigour of this intraspecific allotriploid. Selection of chilling-tolerant accessions from both of Mxg's parental species, Msi and Msa, would be advisable for breeding new highly chilling-tolerant Mxg genotypes.

  12. Causes and Alleviation of Occupational Stress in Child Care Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenburger, Karola

    2004-01-01

    Occupational stress in not a new phenomenon in the working population. However, in the helping professions it has only recently attracted attention. The survey reported here was carried out in order to assess the extent of occupational stress, identify its causes, and suggest ways in which occupational stress can be alleviated. Field social…

  13. Gust alleviation system to improve ride comfort of light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Phillips, W. H.; Hewes, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    System consists of movable auxiliary aerodynamic sensors mounted on fuselage and connected to trailing-edge flaps by rigid mechanical linkages. System achieves alleviation by reducing lift-curve slope of airplane to such a small value that gust-induced angles of attack will result in small changes in lift.

  14. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  15. Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistical Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickels, John W.; Dobbs, Rhonda R.

    2007-01-01

    This study, Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistics Classes, investigated whether undergraduate students' anxiety about statistics changed when statistics is taught using computers compared to the traditional method. Two groups of students were questioned concerning their anxiety about statistics. One group was taught…

  16. Identification of chilling-responsive microRNAs and their targets in vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengchun; Liu, Na; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Wang, Guofu; Gong, Yaming

    2016-05-24

    Chilling stress is a major factor limiting the yield and quality of vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) on a global scale. In the present study, systematic identification and functional analysis of miRNAs under chilling stress were carried out to clarify the molecular mechanism of chilling resistance. Two independent small RNA libraries from leaves of soybean were constructed and sequenced with the high-throughput Illumina Solexa system. A total of 434 known miRNAs and 3 novel miRNAs were identified. Thirty-five miRNAs were verified by qRT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, their gene targets were identified via high-throughput degradome sequencing. A total of 898 transcripts were targeted by 54 miRNA families attributed to five categories. More importantly, we identified 51 miRNAs differentially expressed between chilling stress and control conditions. The targets of these miRNAs were enriched in oxidation-reduction, signal transduction, and metabolic process functional categories. Our qRT-PCR analysis confirmed a negative relationship among the miRNAs and their targets under chilling stress. Our work thus provides comprehensive molecular evidence supporting the involvement of miRNAs in chilling-stress responses in vegetable soybean.

  17. Identification of chilling-responsive microRNAs and their targets in vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengchun; Liu, Na; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Wang, Guofu; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Chilling stress is a major factor limiting the yield and quality of vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) on a global scale. In the present study, systematic identification and functional analysis of miRNAs under chilling stress were carried out to clarify the molecular mechanism of chilling resistance. Two independent small RNA libraries from leaves of soybean were constructed and sequenced with the high-throughput Illumina Solexa system. A total of 434 known miRNAs and 3 novel miRNAs were identified. Thirty-five miRNAs were verified by qRT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, their gene targets were identified via high-throughput degradome sequencing. A total of 898 transcripts were targeted by 54 miRNA families attributed to five categories. More importantly, we identified 51 miRNAs differentially expressed between chilling stress and control conditions. The targets of these miRNAs were enriched in oxidation-reduction, signal transduction, and metabolic process functional categories. Our qRT-PCR analysis confirmed a negative relationship among the miRNAs and their targets under chilling stress. Our work thus provides comprehensive molecular evidence supporting the involvement of miRNAs in chilling-stress responses in vegetable soybean. PMID:27216963

  18. MYC cis-Elements in PsMPT Promoter Is Involved in Chilling Response of Paeonia suffruticosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoqing; Dong, Lei; Liu, Chunying; Song, Wenwen; Liu, Jingjing; Gai, Shupeng

    2016-01-01

    The MPT transports Pi to synthesize ATP. PsMPT, a chilling-induced gene, was previously reported to promote energy metabolism during bud dormancy release in tree peony. In this study, the regulatory elements of PsMPT promoter involved in chilling response were further analyzed. The PsMPT transcript was detected in different tree peony tissues and was highly expressed in the flower organs, including petal, stigma and stamen. An 1174 bp of the PsMPT promoter was isolated by TAIL-PCR, and the PsMPT promoter::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis was generated and analyzed. GUS staining and qPCR showed that the promoter was active in mainly the flower stigma and stamen. Moreover, it was found that the promoter activity was enhanced by chilling, NaCl, GA, ACC and NAA, but inhibited by ABA, mannitol and PEG. In transgenic plants harboring 421 bp of the PsMPT promoter, the GUS gene expression and the activity were significantly increased by chilling treatment. When the fragment from -421 to -408 containing a MYC cis-element was deleted, the chilling response could not be observed. Further mutation analysis confirmed that the MYC element was one of the key motifs responding to chilling in the PsMPT promoter. The present study provides useful information for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism of PsMPT during the endo-dormancy release. PMID:27228117

  19. Reduction of spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed lamb by psychrotolerant clostridia.

    PubMed

    Adam, Katharine H; Flint, Steve H; Brightwell, Gale

    2013-02-01

    Methods for the reduction of spoilage, of lamb, by psychrotolerant clostridia were investigated including exposure to air, hot and cold water spray washing and tyndallisation. Initially vegetative cells of psychrotolerant clostridia associated with spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed meat were exposed to aerobic cooked meat medium at room temperature (21 °C) to determine how long they remained viable. Survival of strains varied from 2h to 3 days. Vegetative cells of Clostridium estertheticum subsp. estertheticum survived 7 days at 10 °C with little reduction in viable numbers. This ruled out exposure to air as a practical method for reducing spoilage. Trials were also carried out on chilled vacuum-packed lamb inoculated with spores of Cl. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum. The time until inoculated packs reached the loss of vacuum stage varied from 38 to 53 days. Hot and cold water washing extended the shelf life by 12 to 13 days in comparison to untreated packs. PMID:23040518

  20. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions.

  1. The importance of chill rate when characterising colour change of lamb meat during retail display.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Thomson, K L

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of two chilling rates (Con and Fast) on colour change of lamb meat during simulated retail display. Measurements were made on 3 muscles; LD (m. longisimuss dorsi), SM (m semimembranosus) and ST (m. semitendinous). Meat samples from 32 Merino crossbred lambs were vacuum packed and stored for 5 days at 2 °C, then cut and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride film on black polystyrene trays, stored in a display cabinet at 4 °C with lights on and measured twice daily for 4 days, using a Hunterlab minilab 45/20L D65, aperture 10°. Sarcomere length was shorter, shear force higher and colour change greater in meat from the Fast treatment compared to the Con treatment. Colour differences between treatments were likely due to oxygenation (bloom) as well as oxidation effects. Chill rate is important when characterising colour change during display and should be considered in measurement protocols.

  2. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart, to help decrease swelling. The Body’s Healing Process From the moment a bone breaks or a ... what happens at each stage of the healing process: At the moment of injury: Chemicals are released ...

  3. The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shi, K; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Considine, Michael J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO(2) assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance.

  4. The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shi, K; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Considine, Michael J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO(2) assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance. PMID:24735050

  5. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    PubMed Central

    Thongtip, Nikorn; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Pongsopavijitr, Pornsawan; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Jansittiwate, Saran; Rungsri, Ronnachit; Boonprasert, Khajornpat; Wongkalasin, Warut; Homkong, Pongpon; Dejchaisri, Suthathip; Wajjwalku, Worawit; Saikhun, Kulnasan

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years) by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years) were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod) inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao) inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population. PMID:19615097

  6. Thrills, chills, frissons, and skin orgasms: toward an integrative model of transcendent psychophysiological experiences in music

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Luke; Loui, Psyche

    2014-01-01

    Music has a unique power to elicit moments of intense emotional and psychophysiological response. These moments – termed “chills,” “thrills”, “frissons,” etc. – are subjects of introspection and philosophical debate, as well as scientific study in music perception and cognition. The present article integrates the existing multidisciplinary literature in an attempt to define a comprehensive, testable, and ecologically valid model of transcendent psychophysiological moments in music. PMID:25101043

  7. Manipulation of monoubiquitin improves chilling tolerance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanan; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Guokun; Gong, Jiangfeng; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a multifunctional protein that mainly functions to tag proteins for selective degradation by the 26S proteasome. We cloned an Ub gene TaUb2 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) previously. To study the function of TaUB2 in chilling stress, sense and antisense Ub transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.), as well as wild type (WT) and vector control β-glucuronidase (T-GUS) plants, were used. Under stress, leaf wilting in sense plants was significantly less than in controls, but more severe in antisense plants. Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in sense plants were greater than controls, but lower in antisense plants during chilling stress and recovery. Less wilting in sense plants resulted from improved water status, which may be related to the accumulation of proline and solute sugar. Furthermore, as indicated by electrolyte leakage, membrane damage under stress was less in sense plants and more severe in antisense plants than controls. Consistent with electrolyte leakage, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was less in sense plants, but more in antisense plants compared to controls. Meanwhile, the less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the greater antioxidant enzyme activity in sense plants implied the improved antioxidant competence by the overexpression of monoubiquitin gene Ta-Ub2 from wheat. We suggest that overexpressing Ub is a useful strategy to promote chilling tolerance. The improvement of ROS scavenging may be an important mechanism underlying the role of Ub in promoting plants tolerant to chilling stress.

  8. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  9. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  10. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  11. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  12. Primary-secondary pumping conversion: Retrofit of an existing campus chilled water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sczomak, D.P.; Nguyen, P.N.

    1996-08-01

    The chilled water distribution system within an existing 8,300 ton (29,200 kW) capacity regional chilled water plant at Michigan State University (MSU) is being converted from a primary pumping arrangement to a primary-secondary arrangement. The plant presently provides chilled water for air conditioning to twelve remote buildings. In the future, MSU plans to increase the plant`s capacity to 10,800 tons (38,000 kW) in order to serve seven more buildings. The addition of buildings to the distribution system has caused the existing primary pumps to be incapable of producing enough pressure to offset system losses at design flow rates. The existing system has become unable to concurrently provide adequate flow, design supply water temperature and efficient chiller operation due to the distribution system deficiencies. The primary-secondary pumping conversion will include modifications to the distribution piping, the addition of five variable speed secondary pumps, additions and modifications to the control systems, the trimming of impellers on six of the existing primary pumps and replacement of two primary pumps. The campus central control system will be utilized to provide automatic chiller staging, interface with the packaged secondary pump control systems, and control of the building interconnections. The total construction cost is approximately $1,400,000 and is scheduled for completion prior to the 1996 cooling season. Provisions have been made for two additional secondary pumps to accommodate the connection of additional buildings to the distribution system in the future.

  13. Experimental investigation on chill-down process of cryogenic flow line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lingxue; Park, Changgi; Cho, Hyokjin; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic chill-down experiments that are conducted on a 12.7 mm outer diameter, 1.25 mm wall thickness and 7 m long stainless steel horizontal pipe with liquid nitrogen (LN2). The pipe is vacuum insulated during the experiment to minimize the heat leak from room temperature and to enable one to numerically simulate the process easily. The temperature and the pressure profiles of the chill-down line are obtained at the location which is 5.5 m in a distance from the pipe inlet. The mass flux range is approximately from 19 kg/m2 s to 49 kg/m2 s, which corresponds to the Reynolds numbers range from 1469 to 5240. The transient histories of temperature, pressure and mass flow rate during the line chill-down process are monitored, and the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux are computed by an inverse problem solving method. The amplitude of the pressure oscillation and the oscillating period become larger and longer at higher pressure conditions. In the low mass flux conditions, the critical heat flux in horizontal pipes is not sensitive to mass flux, and is higher than that in vertical pipes. Kutateladze's correlation with the constant coefficient, B = 0.029 , well matches the experimental data in the current work. In nucleate flow boiling regime, heat transfer coefficient, h , is proportional to (q″)n , and n is equal to 0.7.

  14. Overexpression of a tomato flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like protein gene improves chilling tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Zhang, Song; Deng, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Guo-Dong; Kong, Fan-Ying

    2015-11-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites found in plants with a wide range of biological functions, such as stress protection. This study investigated the functions of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like protein gene SlF3HL by using transgenic tobacco. The expression of the gene was up-regulated under chilling (4 °C), heat (42 °C), salt (NaCl) and oxidative (H2O2) stresses. The transgenic plants that displayed high SlF3HL mRNA and protein levels showed higher flavonoid content than the WT plants. Moreover, the expression of three flavonoid biosynthesis-related structural genes, namely, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonol synthase (FLS) was also higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Under chilling stress, the transgenic plants showed not only faster seed germination, better survival and growth, but also lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, relative electrical conductivity (REC) and H2O2 and O2(·-) levels compared with WT plants. These results suggested that SlF3HL stimulated flavonoid biosynthesis in response to chilling stress. PMID:26372946

  15. Effect of different chilling rates on the quality parameters of mule duck fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Awde, S; Marty-Gasset, N; Sandri, G; Zotte, A Dalle; Rémignon, H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of chilling rates on the quality features of fatty livers. Three different chilling rates were applied: ultra-fast (UF), fast (FA), and slow (SL). Technological and proteomic results were compared at time T1 when the internal temperature of livers reached 10°C and at time T2=24 h post mortem. Samples from the UF group reached the T1 temperature at 50 min post mortem and had the least hard livers and the lowest cooking loss percentage (25±9%) at time T2=24 h post mortem (P-value of <0.01). The FA and SL groups reached the T1 temperature after 120 and 210 min post mortem and presented higher melting (36±9 and 41±9%, respectively, at time T2) and harder livers compared to the UF group. In parallel, we conducted semi-quantifications of proteins by electrophoresis and proteolytic activities by mono-dimensional zymography for three families of proteases: Matrix metalloproteases (MMP), Cathepsins, and Calpains. The proteomic assays revealed less modified proteolytic activities in samples from the UF group, and less associated proteins degradations than in samples from the FA and the SL groups. Effects of the different chilling rates were mainly significant at time T2 (24 h post mortem). As a conclusion we were able to highlight an indirect positive relation between proteolysis and melting yield in ducks' fatty liver.

  16. Spatial variability of chilling temperature in Turkey and its effect on human comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toros, H.; Deniz, A.; Şaylan, L.; Şen, O.; Baloğlu, M.

    2005-03-01

    Air temperature, absolute humidity and wind speed are the most important meteorological parameters that affect human thermal comfort. Because of heat loss, the human body feels air temperatures different to actual temperatures. Wind speed is the most practical element for consideration in terms of human comfort. In winter, due to the strong wind speeds, the sensible temperature is generally colder than the air temperature. This uncomfortable condition can cause problems related to tourism, heating and cooling. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of cooling temperatures and Wind Chill Index (WCI) are analyzed for Turkey, and their effect on the human body is considered. In this paper, monthly cooling temperatures between October and March in the years 1929 to 1990 are calculated by using measured temperature and wind speed at 79 stations in Turkey. The influence of wind chill is especially observed in the regions of the Aegean, west and middle Black Sea and east and central Anatolia. The wind chill in these regions has an uncomfortable effect on the human body. Usually, the WCI value is higher in western, northern and central Anatolia than in other regions.

  17. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on dog sperm longevity in chilling storage and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sahashi, Yu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Higaki, Shogo; Nagano, Masashi; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, on dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM BHT were added to egg yolk Tris extender (EYT), and sperm were stored at 4°C for 96 hr. Sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and morphological abnormality in the BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control (0 mM BHT). In Experiment 2, the effect of BHT in EYT containing 0.75% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol on survivability of cryopreserved sperm was examined after culture at 39°C for 3 hr. Sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in the 0.2 to 0.8 mM BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control. However, sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity decreased when 1.6 mM BHT was added to the extender (P<0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of the extender with 0.2 to 0.8 mM BHT did not affect characteristics of dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. Supplementation of 1.6 mM BHT did not affect characteristics of chilled sperm but impaired longevity of cryopreserved sperm in the dog.

  18. Effects of ascorbic acid on some physiological changes of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Sivaci, Aysel; Kaya, A; Duman, Sevcan

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the changes caused by chilling stress on some physiological parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) plant and the effects of ascorbic acid (100 mM) applied exogenously on these changes were examined. For this purpose, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, malondialdehyde and proline contents in leaves of pepino taken on 5th and 10th days were determined. As a result of chilling stress, it was found that while the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents decreased in pepino leaves, the ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds and malondialdehyde contents increased. In plants which were subjected to pre-treatment of ascorbic acid on the 10th day of stress, ascorbic acid and proline contents increased while a decrease was observed in malondialdehyde content, compared to stress group without pre-treated. This study may be important for explaining resistance induced by treatment of exogenous ascorbic acid in pepino exposed to chilling stress.

  19. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Nisin, Tea Polyphenols, and Chitosan and their Combinations in Chilled Mutton.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Zou, Likou; Yang, Qianru; Xia, Jinghua; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Yuanting; Han, Xinfeng; Pu, Biao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Wenwen; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial activities of nisin, tea polyphenols (TPs), and chitosan, and their combinations were evaluated against both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) by the agar dilution method. Results showed that the MIC of nisin was 2.44 to 1250 mg/L for GPB and reached 5000 mg/L for GNB. The MICs of TPs and chitosan were 313 to 625 mg/L and 469 mg/L for GNB, and 156 to 5000 mg/L and 234 to 938 mg/L for GPB, respectively. These results indicated that TPs and chitosan exhibited inhibitory effects against both GPB and GNB, whereas nisin inhibited the growth of GPB only. Based on the orthogonal test of their MICs, and evaluation of preservative effect and sensory attributes in chilled mutton, the optimum combination was chosen as 0.625, 0.313, and 3.752 g/L for nisin, TPs, and chitosan, respectively. By using the optimum treatment, the shelf life of chilled mutton was extended from 6 to 18 d at 4 °C in the preservative film packages. These results indicate that the combination of nisin, TPs, and chitosan could be used as preservatives to efficiently inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in meat, thus improving the safety and shelf life of chilled mutton. PMID:27096939

  1. Omeprazole Alleviates Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianmei; Zhang, Hongbing; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Tian, Jingzhuo; Zhang, Yushi; Wei, Xiaolu; Gao, Yue; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is a member of the Aristolochiaceae family and is a well-known cause of aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the potential of omeprazole (OM) to alleviate AMK-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that OM reduced mouse mortality caused by AMK and attenuated AMK-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. OM enhanced hepatic Cyp 1a1/2 and renal Cyp 1a1 expression in rats, as well as CYP 1A1 expression in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HKCs). HKCs with ectopic CYP 1A1 expression were more tolerant to AA than the control cells. Therefore, OM may alleviate AMK-mediated acute nephrotoxicity through induction of CYP 1A1. We suggest that the coadministration of OM might be beneficial for reducing of AA-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27716846

  2. Alleviating α quenching by solar wind and meridional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, D.; Moss, D.; Tavakol, R.; Brandenburg, A.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic α-quenching in mean field dynamos in two-dimensional spherical wedge domains. Methods: Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider α^2Ω mean field models with a dynamical α quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow ("solar wind") and meridional circulation. Results: We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  3. Focused grooming networks and stress alleviation in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Lehmann, Julia; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-06-01

    We examine the relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) levels and grooming behavior in wild female baboons during a period of instability in the alpha male rank position. All females' GC levels rose significantly at the onset of the unstable period, though levels in females who were at lower risk of infanticide began to decrease sooner in the following weeks. Three factors suggest that females relied on a focused grooming network as a coping mechanism to alleviate stress. First, all females' grooming networks became less diverse in the weeks following the initial upheaval. Second, females whose grooming had already focused on a few predictable partners showed a less dramatic rise in GC levels than females whose grooming network had been more diverse. Third, females who contracted their grooming network the most experienced a greater decrease in GC levels in the following week. We conclude that close bonds with a few preferred partners allow female baboons to alleviate the stress associated with social instability.

  4. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  5. Rested and stressed farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) chilled in ice or slurry and effects on quality.

    PubMed

    Digre, Hanne; Erikson, Ulf; Aursand, Ida G; Gallart-Jornet, Lorena; Misimi, Ekrem; Rustad, Turid

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) whether rested harvest of farmed cod was better maintained by chilling with slurry rather than by traditional ice storage, (2) whether chilling with slurry would be a feasible chilling method to assure low core temperatures (≤0 °C) at packing of gutted fish, and (3) the effects of superchilling compared with traditional ice on selected quality parameters of cod during storage. In the experiment, seawater slurry at -2.0 ± 0.3 °C was used. Anesthetized (AQUI-S™), percussion stunned, and stressed cod chilled in slurry were compared. Cod stored on ice were used as reference group. The fish were evaluated at the day of slaughter, and after 7 and 14 d of storage according to handling stress (initial muscle pH, muscle twitches, rigor mortis), core temperatures, quality index method, microbial counts, weight changes, salt and water content, water distribution, pH, adenosine triphosphate-degradation products, K-value, water-holding capacity, fillet color, and texture. Chilling cod in slurry was more rapid than chilling in ice. Prechilling (1 d) of cod in slurry before subsequent ice storage resulted in lower quality 7 d postmortem compared with both ice and continuous slurry storage. The potential advantages of superchilling became more prominent after 14 d with lower microbiological activity, better maintenance of freshness (lower total quality index scores and lower K-values) compared with fish stored on ice. A drawback with slurry-stored fish was that cloudy eyes developed earlier, in addition to weight gain and salt uptake compared to ice-stored fish. Practical Application: Chilling is an essential operation in any fish-processing plant. This manuscript addresses different applications of slurry ice in the processing and storage of Atlantic cod. Cod quality was assessed after 7 and 14 d of iced and superchilled storage.

  6. Effect of chilling duration on post-thaw characteristics of sperm from the North American bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D; Dance, A; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the duration for which sperm from the North American bison (Bison bison) could be chilled prior to being cryopreserved, without compromising post- thaw sperm quality. This would permit transport of samples collected remotely, to the laboratory (at 4°C) for cryopreservation. Epididymal sperm from plains bison (n = 11) and ejaculated sperm from wood bison (n = 3) were collected, extended and held at 4°C for extended periods of time. At intervals, an aliquot was cryopreserved. Post-thaw sperm motion characteristics were evaluated by computer assisted sperm analysis. Representative plains bison sperm samples (n = 3) were evaluated for their in vitro fertilizing ability in a heterologous system using bovine oocytes. There was no statistical difference in total and progressive motility of plains bison epididymal sperm when cryopreserved after chilling for 24, 48 or 72 h. For wood bison ejaculated sperm, there was no difference in total and progressive motility for sperm cryopreserved following 24 or 48 h of chilling. However, one of the three bulls showed significantly poorer fertilization (based on cleavage rate) with sperm chilled for 72 compared to 24 and 48 h prior to freezing. In conclusion, plains bison epididymal sperm can be chilled for 72 h and wood bison ejaculated sperm can be chilled for at least 48 h prior to cryopreservation without compromising post-thaw sperm motility, while heterologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay indicated a between-bull variation in the in vitro fertilizing ability of sperm chilled for an extended duration before cryopreservation.

  7. Delayed germination of Arabidopsis seeds under chilling stress by overexpressing an abiotic stress inducible GhTPS11.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Li; Zhang, Shi-Cai; Qi, Sheng-Dong; Zheng, Cheng-Chao; Wu, Chang-Ai

    2016-01-10

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) plays an important role in metabolic regulation and stress responses in a variety of organisms. However information about cotton TPS is poor. Here a cotton TPS gene GhTPS11 was isolated and characterized. Expression analysis revealed that GhTPS11 was induced in 20-day old cotton seedlings by heat drought and high salt stresses as well as GA and ABA. Moreover GhTPS11 was induced by chilling stress and mannitol while was depressed by sucrose. Tissue expression analysis indicated that GhTPS11 expressed higher in leaves than in stems and roots of 20-day old cotton seedlings. The GhTPS11 overexpressing Arabidopsis seeds germinated slower than the wild-type (WT) under chilling stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) and trehalose contents were evidently higher in GhTPS11 overexpressing lines 3, 5, and 22 than in WT under normal germination condition as well as chilling stress. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression of ICE1 CBF3 and RCI2A was induced lower whereas that of CBF1 and CBF2 was induced higher under chilling stress in the GhTPS11 overexpressing seeds than WT respectively. These results suggested that GhTPS11 encoded a stress-responsive TPS protein and functioned in chilling stress during seed germination. Perhaps the chilling stress sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was caused by the expression changes of at least some chilling-related genes such as ICE1 CBFs and RCI2A other than HOS1. So this article provided the useful information for GhTPS11 usage for crop molecular breeding.

  8. Delayed germination of Arabidopsis seeds under chilling stress by overexpressing an abiotic stress inducible GhTPS11.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Li; Zhang, Shi-Cai; Qi, Sheng-Dong; Zheng, Cheng-Chao; Wu, Chang-Ai

    2016-01-10

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) plays an important role in metabolic regulation and stress responses in a variety of organisms. However information about cotton TPS is poor. Here a cotton TPS gene GhTPS11 was isolated and characterized. Expression analysis revealed that GhTPS11 was induced in 20-day old cotton seedlings by heat drought and high salt stresses as well as GA and ABA. Moreover GhTPS11 was induced by chilling stress and mannitol while was depressed by sucrose. Tissue expression analysis indicated that GhTPS11 expressed higher in leaves than in stems and roots of 20-day old cotton seedlings. The GhTPS11 overexpressing Arabidopsis seeds germinated slower than the wild-type (WT) under chilling stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) and trehalose contents were evidently higher in GhTPS11 overexpressing lines 3, 5, and 22 than in WT under normal germination condition as well as chilling stress. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression of ICE1 CBF3 and RCI2A was induced lower whereas that of CBF1 and CBF2 was induced higher under chilling stress in the GhTPS11 overexpressing seeds than WT respectively. These results suggested that GhTPS11 encoded a stress-responsive TPS protein and functioned in chilling stress during seed germination. Perhaps the chilling stress sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was caused by the expression changes of at least some chilling-related genes such as ICE1 CBFs and RCI2A other than HOS1. So this article provided the useful information for GhTPS11 usage for crop molecular breeding. PMID:26325072

  9. Active control landing gear for ground loads alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An active landing gear has been created by connecting the hydraulic piston in an oleo strut to a hydraulic supply. A controller modulates the pressure in the oleo to achieve the desired dynamic characteristics. Tests on ground rigs (documented by a film) have demonstrated the successful alleviation of induced structural ground loads and the next step will be a flight test using a fighter aircraft.

  10. Damage in the dorsal striatum alleviates addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Muskens, J B; Schellekens, A F A; de Leeuw, F E; Tendolkar, I; Hepark, S

    2012-01-01

    The ventral striatum has been assigned a major role in addictive behavior. In addition, clinical lesion studies have described involvement of the insula and globus pallidus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of alleviation of alcohol and nicotine addiction after a cerebrovascular incident in the dorsal striatum. The patient was still abstinent from alcohol and nicotine at follow-up. This observation suggests that the dorsal striatum may play a critical role in addiction to alcohol and nicotine.

  11. A study of helicopter gust response alleviation by automatic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two control schemes designed to alleviate gust-induced vibration are analytically investigated for a helicopter with four articulated blades. One is an individual blade pitch control scheme. The other is an adaptive blade pitch control algorithm based on linear optimal control theory. In both controllers, control inputs to alleviate gust response are superimposed on the conventional control inputs required to maintain the trim condition. A sinusoidal vertical gust model and a step gust model are used. The individual blade pitch control, in this research, is composed of sensors and a pitch control actuator for each blade. Each sensor can detect flapwise (or lead-lag or torsionwise) deflection of the respective blade. The acturator controls the blade pitch angle for gust alleviation. Theoretical calculations to predict the performance of this feedback system have been conducted by means of the harmonic method. The adaptive blade pitch control system is composed of a set of measurements (oscillatory hub forces and moments), an identification system using a Kalman filter, and a control system based on the minimization of the quadratic performance function.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

    PubMed Central

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-01-01

    Background Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. Scope This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. Conclusions The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K+ : Na+ ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na+/H+ antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes. PMID:19815570

  13. Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

  14. Effective alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity by manure-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Hu, Dingfei

    2013-03-19

    The alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity to wheat plants in a hydroponic system through the amendment of biochar is investigated to explore the possibility of applying biochar in acidic soil amelioration. Biochar derived from cattle manure pyrolyzed at 400 °C (CM400) and the CM400 biochar washed with distilled-deionized water to remove alkalinity (WCM400) were prepared to determine the roles of the liming effect and adsorption during the alleviation of Al toxicity. Upon addition of 0.02% (W/V) CM400 to the exposure solution, the inhibition of plant growth by Al was significantly reduced while the toxic threshold was extended from 3 to 95 μmol/L Al(3+). Due to the biochar liming effect, the aluminum species were converted to Al(OH)(2+) and Al(OH)2(+) monomers, which were strongly adsorbed by biochar; furthermore, the highly toxic Al(3+) evolved to less toxic Al(OH)3 and Al(OH)4(-) species. Adsorption of Al by the biochar is dominated by surface complexation of the carboxyl groups with Al(OH)(2+)/Al(OH)2(+) rather than through electrostatic attraction of Al(3+) with negatively charged sites. Compared to the liming effect, the adsorption by biochar exhibited a sustainable effect on the alleviation of Al toxicity. Therefore, the biochar amendment appears to be a novel approach for aluminum detoxification in acidic soils. PMID:23398535

  15. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  16. Hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guanche, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828

  17. Fingertip injuries

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Sanjay; Tiwari, VK

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fingertip injuries are extremely common. Out of the various available reconstructive options, one needs to select an option which achieves a painless fingertip with durable and sensate skin cover. The present analysis was conducted to evaluate the management and outcome of fingertip injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 150 cases of fingertip Injuries of patients aged six to 65 years managed over a period of two years. Various reconstructive options were considered for the fingertip lesions greater than or equal to 1 cm2. The total duration of treatment varied from two to six weeks with follow-up from two months to one year. Results: The results showed preservation of finger length and contour, retention of sensation and healing without significant complication. Conclusion: The treatment needs to be individualized and all possible techniques of reconstruction must be known to achieve optimal recovery. PMID:21139772

  18. Wrestling injuries.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  19. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the severity of the injury. Tap this spinal column to see how the level of injury affects loss of function and control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the ...

  1. Helicopter gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, and vibration alleviation using individual-blade-control through a conventional swash plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    The novel active control system presented for helicopter rotor aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems involves the individual control of each blade in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies (up to the sixth harmonic of rotor speed). This Individual Blade Control (IBC) system controls blade pitch by means of broadband electrohydraulic actuators attached to the swash plate (in the case of three blades) or individually to each blade, using acceleratometer signals to furnish control commands to the actuators. Attention is given to IBC's application to blade lag, flapping, and bending dynamics. It is shown that gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, vibration alleviation, and air/ground resonance suppression, are all achievable with a conventional helicopter swash plate.

  2. Application of Internal Fusible Chills in Thick-Walled Castings Made of EN-GJS with an Optimized Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupa, Wojciech; Tonn, Babette

    2011-01-01

    The degeneration of graphite in thick-walled components made of ductile iron due to slower solidification affects the mechanical properties and is unacceptable for all safety-relevant components. The inoculation of the melt no longer leads to a fine microstructure. After exceeding the critical solidification time, degenerated shapes of graphite are to be expected. The external cooling with a chill-mould does not eliminate graphite degeneration in the thermal centres. The positive effect of these chills is also limited by the wall thickness. The aim of this study was to increase the heat dissipation of the melt by positioning the internal fusible chills in the thermal centre of the mould cavity. This should lead to accelerated solidification. The plate-shaped chills were placed in the middle of rectangular samples. The solidification processes were first simulated with Magmasoft in order to optimize the size and shape of the fusible chills and to thus guarantee a complete dissolving of the chills. A reduction in the solidification time of approximately 15% was achieved. In the experiments thick-walled samples were cast with and without internal fusible chills and compared. Areas with degenerated graphite, including chunky graphite, were found in the centres of the cast samples without internal cooling. Placing fusible chills in castings increased the number of graphite spheroids in the microstructure and exhibited no graphite degeneration. A homogenous microstructure was developed—no residues of the chills were found. Differences in microstructure and mechanical properties between the edges and centres of the casting could be nullified. The optimized graphite morphology of the casting with internal cooling led to an increase in tensile strength in the thermal centre of about 30 MPa (8%). This process was successfully implemented in an industrial environment. Blocks out of EN-GJS-400 for use in hydraulic engineering with a total weight of eight tonnes were cast in

  3. Distribution of Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes during Chilling in the Light Compared with Heat-Induced Modifications.

    PubMed

    Ovaska, J; Mäenpää, P; Nurmi, A; Aro, E M

    1990-05-01

    The effects of chilling in the light (4 days at 5 degrees C and 100-200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second) on the distribution of chlorophyll (Chl) protein complexes between appressed and nonappressed thylakoid regions of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) chloroplasts were studied and compared with the changes occurring during in vitro heat treatment (5 minutes at 40 degrees C) of isolated thylakoids. Both treatments induced an increase (18 and 65%, respectively) in the relative amount of the antenna Chl a protein complexes (CP47 + CP43) of photosystem II (PSII) in stroma lamellae vesicles. Freeze-fracture replicas of light-chilled material revealed an increase in the particle density on the exoplasmic fracture face of unstacked membrane regions. These two treatments differed markedly, however, in respect to comigration of the light-harvesting Chl a/b protein complex (LHCII) of PSII. The LHCII/PSII ratio in stroma lamellae vesicles remained fairly constant during chilling in the light, whereas it dropped during the heat treatment. Moreover, it was a minor light-harvesting Chl a/b protein complex of PSII, CP29, that increased most in stroma lamellae vesicles during light-chilling. Changes in the organization of LHCII during chilling were suggested by a shift to particles of smaller sizes on the protoplasmic fracture face of stacked membrane regions and a decrease in the amount of trans-Delta(3)-hexadecenoic acid in the phosphatidyldiacylglycerol fraction.

  4. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  5. Association mapping for chilling tolerance in elite flint and dent maize inbred lines evaluated in growth chamber and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Strigens, Alexander; Freitag, Niclas M; Gilbert, Xavier; Grieder, Christoph; Riedelsheimer, Christian; Schrag, Tobias A; Messmer, Rainer; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2013-10-01

    Chilling sensitivity of maize is a strong limitation for its cultivation in the cooler areas of the northern and southern hemisphere because reduced growth in early stages impairs on later biomass accumulation. Efficient breeding for chilling tolerance is hampered by both the complex physiological response of maize to chilling temperatures and the difficulty to accurately measure chilling tolerance in the field under fluctuating climatic conditions. For this research, we used genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify genes underlying chilling tolerance under both controlled and field conditions in a broad germplasm collection of 375 maize inbred lines genotyped with 56 110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We identified 19 highly significant association signals explaining between 5.7 and 52.5% of the phenotypic variance observed for early growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The allelic effect of several SNPs identified for early growth was associated with temperature and incident radiation. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signalling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. The frequent involvement of candidate genes into signalling or gene expression regulation underlines the complex response of photosynthetic performance and early growth to climatic conditions, and supports pleiotropism as a major cause of co-locations of quantitative trait loci for these highly polygenic traits.

  6. Effect of Chilling on Carbon Assimilation, Enzyme Activation, and Photosynthetic Electron Transport in the Absence of Photoinhibition in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Harbinson, J.; Williams, J.; Foyer, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism were measured in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves following exposure to suboptimal temperatures. The quantum efficiency for electron transport in unchilled leaves was similar to that previously observed in C3 plants, although maize has two types of chloroplasts, mesophyll and bundle sheath, with PSII being largely absent from the latter. The index of noncyclic electron transport was proportional to the CO2 assimilation rate. Chilled leaves showed decreased rates of CO2 assimilation relative to unchilled leaves, but the integral relationships between the quantum efficiency for electron transport or the index of noncyclic electron transport and CO2 fixation were unchanged and there was no photoinhibition. The maximum catalytic activities of the Benson-Calvin cycle enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, were decreased following chilling, but activation was unaffected. Measurements of thiol-regulated enzymes, particularly NADP-malate dehydrogenase, indicated that chilling induced changes in the stromal redox state so that reducing equivalents were more plentiful. We conclude that chilling produces a decrease in photosynthetic capacity without changing the internal operational, regulatory or stoichiometric relationships between photosynthetic electron transport and carbon assimilation. The enzymes of carbon assimilation are particularly sensitive to chilling, but enhanced activation may compensate for decreases in maximal catalytic activity. PMID:12223758

  7. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  8. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: prevention of cold injuries during exercise.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J; Ducharme, Michel B; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Glickman, Ellen; Sallis, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that exercise can be performed safely in most cold-weather environments without incurring cold-weather injuries. The key to prevention is use of a comprehensive risk management strategy that: a) identifies/assesses the cold hazard; b) identifies/assesses contributing factors for cold-weather injuries; c) develops controls to mitigate cold stress/strain; d) implements controls into formal plans; and e) utilizes administrative oversight to ensure controls are enforced or modified. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that: 1) coaches/athletes/medical personnel know the signs/symptoms and risk factors for hypothermia, frostbite, and non-freezing cold injuries, identify individuals susceptible to cold injuries, and have the latest up-to-date information about current and future weather conditions before conducting training sessions or competitions; 2) cold-weather clothing be chosen based on each individual's requirements and that standardized clothing ensembles not be mandated for entire groups; 3) the wind-chill temperature index be used to estimate the relative risk of frostbite and that heightened surveillance of exercisers be used at wind-chill temperatures below -27 degrees C (-18 degrees F); and 4) individuals with asthma and cardiovascular disease can exercise in cold environments, but should be monitored closely. PMID:17095937

  9. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: prevention of cold injuries during exercise.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J; Ducharme, Michel B; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Glickman, Ellen; Sallis, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that exercise can be performed safely in most cold-weather environments without incurring cold-weather injuries. The key to prevention is use of a comprehensive risk management strategy that: a) identifies/assesses the cold hazard; b) identifies/assesses contributing factors for cold-weather injuries; c) develops controls to mitigate cold stress/strain; d) implements controls into formal plans; and e) utilizes administrative oversight to ensure controls are enforced or modified. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that: 1) coaches/athletes/medical personnel know the signs/symptoms and risk factors for hypothermia, frostbite, and non-freezing cold injuries, identify individuals susceptible to cold injuries, and have the latest up-to-date information about current and future weather conditions before conducting training sessions or competitions; 2) cold-weather clothing be chosen based on each individual's requirements and that standardized clothing ensembles not be mandated for entire groups; 3) the wind-chill temperature index be used to estimate the relative risk of frostbite and that heightened surveillance of exercisers be used at wind-chill temperatures below -27 degrees C (-18 degrees F); and 4) individuals with asthma and cardiovascular disease can exercise in cold environments, but should be monitored closely.

  10. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  11. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  12. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  13. Patient Injuries?

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    An injured patient may be the last thing dentists want to think about. However, in reality, patients can be injured during dental treatment or as the result of an incident such as a slip and fall in the office. Treatment-related injuries can run the gamut and include burns, lacerations, swallowed objects and allergic reactions, according to The Dentists Insurance Company.

  14. Differential expression proteins associated with bud dormancy release during chilling treatment of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y X; Yu, D; Tian, X L; Liu, C Y; Gai, S P; Zheng, G S

    2015-01-01

    Endo-dormant flower buds of tree peony must have sufficient chilling duration to reinitiate growth, which is a major obstacle to the forcing culture of tree peony in winter. We used a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to identify the differentially expressed proteins of tree peony after three different chilling treatments: endo-dormancy, endo-dormancy release and eco-dormancy stages. More than 200 highly reproducible protein spots were detected, and 31 differentially expressed spots (P < 0.05) were selected for further analysis. Finally, 20 protein spots were confidently identified from databases, which were annotated and classified into seven functional categories: response to abiotic or biotic stimulus (four), metabolic processes (four), other binding (three), transcription or transcription regulation (two), biological processes (one), cell biogenesis (one) and unclassified (five). The results of qPCR of five genes were mainly consistent with that of the protein accumulation analysis as determined by 2-DE. This indicated that most of these genes were mainly regulated at transcriptional level. The activity of nitrate reductase and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 was consistent with the 2-DE results. The proteomic profiles indicated activation of citrate cycle, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy production, calcium signalling and cell growth processes by chilling fulfilment to facilitate dormancy release in tree peony. Analysis of functions of identified proteins will increase our knowledge of endo-dormancy release in tree peony.

  15. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  16. Macrosegregation in aluminum alloy ingot cast by the semicontinuous direct chill method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, H.; Granger, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model of the semicontinuous DC casting method is developed to predict the positive segregation observed at the subsurface and the negative segregation commonly found at the center of large commercial-size aluminum alloy ingot. Qualitative analysis of commercial-size aluminum alloy semicontinuous cast direct chill (DC) ingot is carried out. In the analysis, both positive segregation in the ingot subsurface and negative segregation at the center of the ingot are examined. Ingot subsurface macrosegregation is investigated by considering steady state casting of a circular cross-section binary alloy ingot. Nonequilibrium solidification is assumed with no solid diffusion, constant equilibrium partition ratio, and constant solid density.

  17. A consumer trial to assess the acceptability of an irradiated chilled ready meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, M. H.; Stewart, E. M.; McAteer, N. J.

    1995-02-01

    One hundred and seven consumers assessed the sensory quality of a chilled irradiated (2 kGy) and non-irradiated ready meal, consisting of beef and gravy, Yorkshire pudding, carrot, broccoli and roast potato 4 days after treatment. The irradiated meal was moderately to very acceptable and was not significantly different to the non-irradiated meal. The beef and gravy component of the meal was most liked by consumers. Appearance and aroma appeared to be more important than flavour or texture in the overall assessment of the meals.

  18. Primary arm spacing in chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt % Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacings measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient.

  19. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  20. Methyl salicylate-induced arginine catabolism is associated with up-regulation of polyamine and nitric oxide levels and improves chilling tolerance in cherry tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhua; Shen, Lin; Li, Fujun; Meng, Demei; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-09-14

    The effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) on chilling injury (CI) and gene expression levels, enzyme activities, and metabolites related to arginine catabolism in cherry tomato fruit were investigated. Freshly harvested fruits were treated with 0.05 mM MeSA vapor at 20 °C for 12 h and then stored at 2 °C for up to 28 days. MeSA reduced CI and enhanced the accumulation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, which was associated with increased gene expression levels and activities of arginase, arginine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase at most sampling times. MeSA also increased nitric oxide synthase activity, which at least partly contributed to the increased nitric oxide content. The results indicate that MeSA activates the different pathways of arginine catabolism in cold-stored fruit and that the reduction in CI by MeSA may be due to the coordinated metabolism of arginine and the increase in polyamines and nitric oxide levels. PMID:21790190