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Sample records for alleviates insulin resistance

  1. Down-regulation of the miR-543 alleviates insulin resistance through targeting the SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojing; Chi, Liyi; Zhang, Wentao; Bai, Tiao; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Zhanbin; Tian, Hongyan

    2015-12-25

    Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of hypertension, which is seriously detrimental to human health. Recently, Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) has been found to participate in regulation of insulin resistance. Therefore, further studies focused on the SIRT1 regulators might provide a potential approach for combating insulin resistance and hypertension. Interestingly, in this study, we found that SIRT1 was the target gene of the miR-543 by the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay. Moreover, the miR-543 expression notably increased in the insulin-resistant HepG2 cells induced by TNF-α. Further analysis showed that the overexpression of the miR-543 lowered the SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels, resulting in the insulin resistance in the HepG2 cells; the inhibition of miR-543, however, enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of the SIRT1, and alleviated the insulin resistance. Furthermore, the SIRT1 overexpression abrogated the effect of miR-543 on insulin resistance. In addition, the overexpression of the miR-543 by the lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly impaired the insulin signaling assessed by the Western blot analysis of the glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. In summary, our study suggested that the downregulation of the miR-543 could alleviate the insulin resistance via the modulation of the SIRT1 expression, which might be a potential new strategy for treating insulin resistance and a promising therapeutic method for hypertension.

  2. Anhydroicaritin improves diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia and alleviates insulin resistance by suppressing SREBPs activation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zu-Guo; Zhou, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Thu, Pyone Myat; Xie, Zhi-Shen; Lu, Chong; Pang, Tao; Xue, Bin; Xu, Da-Qian; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Li, Hui-Jun; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-12-15

    SREBPs play important roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, and are closely related to the occurrence and development of many metabolic diseases. Small molecular inhibitors of SERBPs are important tools in developing efficient treatment of metabolic diseases. However, there are no listing drug targeting SREBPs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop highly specific small molecules that inhibit SREBPs. In this study, using a hepatocyte-based high-throughput screening, we identified anhydroicaritin (AHI) as a novel inhibitor of SREBPs. HepG2, HL-7702, and human primary hepatocytes were used to verify the effects of AHI. We explored the mechanism by which AHI blocks the binding of SCAP/SREBPs complex with Sec23α/24D via regulating LKB1/AMPK/mTOR pathway. AHI reduced liver cell lipid level by preventing de novo lipogenesis. In diet induced obese mice, AHI ameliorated obesity, insulin resistance, fatty accumulation in liver and hyperlipemia. In conclusion, AHI improves diet-induced obesity and alleviates insulin resistance by suppressing SREBPs maturation which is dependent on LKB1/AMPK/mTOR pathway. Thus, AHI can serve as a leading compound for pharmacological control of metabolic diseases.

  3. (n-3) Fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: Mechanistic insights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a significant risk factor for developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the adipose tissue of obese individuals is causally linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the metaboli...

  4. [Study of effect of Humifuse Euphorbia Herb on alleviating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model KK-Ay mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-lin; Fu, Hong; Li, Wei-wei; Song, Fang-jiao; Song, Yi-xiang; Yu, Qian; Liu, Geng-xin; Wang, Xue-mei

    2015-05-01

    [To explore the effect of Humifuse Euphorbia Herb ( HEH) on alleviating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. Totally 40 KK-Ay mice fed with high-fat diet were divided into four groups: the metformin group, the model group, the HEH low-dose group and the HEH high-dose group, and orally administrated with metformin hydrochloride (250 mg x kg(-1)), distilled water, humifuse euphorbia herb 1 g x kg(-1) and 2 g x kg(-1). Besides, C57BL/6J mice with ordinary feed were taken as the normal control group and orally administrated with equal distilled water. The oral administration for the five groups lasted for eight weeks. Before and after the experiment, weight, fasting glucose and insulin tolerance were determined. The morphological changes in pancreas were observed through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining on pancreatic tissue sections. The serum insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin (ADPN) and leptin (LEP) were detected by ELISA. The results showed that HEH could reduce weight and fasting glucose in KK-Ay mice, alleviate hyperinsulinemia, reduce blood glucose-time AUC, increase 30-min blood glucose decline rate, relieve insulin resistance, significantly ameliorate the pathomorphological changes in pancreas in each group, decrease serum TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin levels in KK-Ay mice and rise serum ADPN level. This study proved that humifuse euphorbia herb can ameliorate the insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice, and its mechanism may be related to the effect on inflammatory factors and adipocytokines.

  5. Erythropoietin alleviates hepatic insulin resistance via PPARγ-dependent AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhijuan; Zhang, Pengzi; Hong, Ting; Tang, Sunyinyan; Meng, Ran; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying these effects has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate how EPO affects hepatic glucose metabolism. Here, we report that EPO administration promoted phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway activation in palmitic acid (PA)-treated HepG2 cells and in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, whereas adenovirus-mediated silencing of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) blocked EPO-induced AKT signalling in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist and PPARγ small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated the EPO-induced increase in p-AKT in HepG2 cells. Lentiviral vector-mediated hepatic PPARγ silencing in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice impaired EPO-mediated increases in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic AKT activation. Furthermore, EPO activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signalling pathway, and AMPKα and SIRT1 knockdown each attenuated the EPO-induced PPARγ expression and deacetylation and PPARγ-dependent AKT activation in HepG2 cells. In summary, these findings suggest that PPARγ is involved in EPO/EPOR-induced AKT activation, and targeting the PPARγ/AKT pathway via EPO may have therapeutic implications for hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26643367

  6. Insulin and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the complex biological mechanisms of insulin action and insulin resistance, we need to consider the dramatic social changes of the past century with respect to physical activity, diet, work, socialisation and sleep patterns. Rapid globalisation, urbanisation and industrialisation have spawned epidemics of obesity, diabetes and their attendant co-morbidities, as physical inactivity and dietary imbalance unmask latent predisposing genetic traits. PMID:16278749

  7. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells elicit macrophages into an anti-inflammatory phenotype to alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongyan; Hao, Haojie; Tong, Chuan; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Jiejie; Pang, Yaping; Si, Yiling; Guo, Yulin; Zang, Li; Mu, Yiming; Han, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance, a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is closely associated with adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) that induce chronic low-grade inflammation. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in alleviation of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether the effect of MSCs on insulin resistance was related to macrophages phenotypes in adipose tissues of T2D rats. In this study, human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) infusion produced significantly anti-diabetic effects and promoted insulin sensitivity in T2D rats that were induced by a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin and directed ATMs into an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, anti-inflammatory). In vitro, MSC-induced M2 macrophages alleviated insulin resistance caused by classically activated macrophages (M1, pro-inflammatory). Further analysis showed that M1 stimulated UC-MSCs to increase expression of interleukin (IL)-6, a molecule which upregulated IL4R expression, promoted phosphorylation of STAT6 in macrophages, and eventually polarized macrophages into M2 phenotype. Moreover, the UC-MSCs effect on macrophages was largely abrogated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of IL-6. Together, our results indicate that UC-MSCs can alleviate insulin resistance in part via production of IL-6 that elicits M2 polarization. Additionally, human obesity and insulin resistance were associated with increased pro-inflammatory ATMs infiltration. Thus, MSCs may be a new treatment for obesity-related insulin resistance and T2D concerning macrophage polarized effects.

  8. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-02

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05), indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  9. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05), indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. PMID:26633482

  10. Kaempferol alleviates insulin resistance via hepatic IKK/NF-κB signal in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Yang, Hui; Tang, Chengyong; Yao, Gaoqiong; Kong, Lingxi; He, Haixia; Zhou, Yuanda

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies show that inflammation underlies the metabolic disorders of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been described to have potent anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether kaempferol could ameliorate insulin resistance through inhibiting inflammatory responses. The model of diabetic rat was induced by 6-week high-fat diet plus streptozotocin. Animals were orally treated with kaempferol (50 or 150 mg/kg) and aspirin (100mg/kg) for 10 weeks. The results showed that kaempferol ameliorated blood lipids and insulin in an dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol effectively restored insulin resistance induced alteration of glucose disposal by using an insulin tolerance test and the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp method. Western blotting results showed that KPF inhibited the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IkB kinase α (IKKα) and IkB kinase β (IKKβ). These effects were accompanied with reduction in nucleic and cytosol levels of nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB), and further tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Aspirin had similar effects. These results provide in vivo evidence that kaempferol-mediated down-regulation of IKK and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB pathway activation may be associated with the reduction of hepatic inflammatory lesions, which is contributing to the improvement of insulin signaling defect in diabetes.

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik A; Hespel, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 12-wk intervention groups: chow-fed controls (CON), cafeteria diet (CAF), and cafeteria diet plus swimming exercise during the last 4 wk (CAF(TR)). CAF feeding led to increased body weight (16%, P < 0.01) and increased plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin levels (P < 0.01) during an IVGTT, which was counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P = 0.051) in the CAF group, there were no differences in insulin signaling (IR Tyr(1150/1151), PI 3-kinase activity, Akt Thr(308), TBC1D4 Thr(642), GSK3-alpha/beta Ser(21/9)) or changes in AMPKalpha1 or -alpha2, GLUT4, Munc18c, or syntaxin 4 protein expression or in phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK expression or phosphorylation. Thus, compared with previous studies of high-fat feeding, where insulin signaling is significantly impaired, the mechanism by which CAF diet induces insulin resistance seems different.

  13. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG–LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG–LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

  14. Insulin signaling and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance or its sequelae may be the common etiology of maladies associated with metabolic syndrome (eg, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure). It is thus important to understand those factors that affect insulin sensitivity. This review stems from the surprising discovery that interference with angiotensin signaling improves insulin sensitivity, and it provides a general overview of insulin action and factors that control insulin sensitivity.

  15. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Poulet, Laurent; Anderson, Richard A; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Canini, Frédéric; Batandier, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), which is a leading cause of the metabolic syndrome, results in early brain function alterations which may alter brain mitochondrial functioning. Previously, we demonstrated that rats fed a control diet and submitted to an acute restraint stress exhibited a delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of dietary and emotional stressors as found in western way of life. We studied, in rats submitted or not to an acute stress, the effects of diet-induced IR on brain mitochondria, using a high fat/high fructose diet (HF(2)), as an IR inducer, with addition or not of cinnamon as an insulin sensitizer. We measured Ca(2+) retention capacity, respiration, ROS production, enzymatic activities and cell signaling activation. Under stress, HF(2) diet dramatically decreased the amount of Ca(2+) required to open the mPTP (13%) suggesting an adverse effect on mitochondrial survival. Cinnamon added to the diet corrected this negative effect and resulted in a partial recovery (30%). The effects related to cinnamon addition to the diet could be due to its antioxidant properties or to the observed modulation of PI3K-AKT-GSK3β and MAPK-P38 pathways or to a combination of both. These data suggest a protective effect of cinnamon on brain mitochondria against the negative impact of an HF(2) diet. Cinnamon could be beneficial to counteract deleterious dietary effects in stressed conditions.

  16. Alleviation of insulin resistance and liver damage by oral administration of Imm124-E is mediated by increased Tregs and associated with increased serum GLP-1 and adiponectin: results of a phase I/II clinical trial in NASH

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Meir; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya’acov, Ami; Lalazar, Gadi; Adar, Tomer; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered to be part of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders and its incidence is increasing. Imm124-E (Immuron Ltd, Melbourne, Australia), containing hyperimmune bovine colostrum, has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory effect and to alleviate target organ damage in animal models of NASH. The aim of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral administration of Imm124-E to patients with insulin resistance and NASH. Methods In an open-label trial, ten patients with biopsy-proven NASH and insulin resistance were orally treated with Imm124-E for 30 days. Results Oral administration of Imm124-E was safe, and no side effects were noted. Alleviation of insulin resistance was reflected by significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values in all ten treated patients. For between five and eight responders, the following effects were noted: a decrease in fasting glucose levels; improved oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA) scores; and alleviation in lipid profile. These effects were accompanied by increased serum levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), adiponectin and T regulatory cells. Conclusion Hyperimmune colostrum alleviates NASH. PMID:23293533

  17. Sea Buckthorn Fruit Oil Extract Alleviates Insulin Resistance through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Cells and Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Qing; Qin, Chengguang; Shang, Rui; Zhang, Zesheng

    2017-02-22

    Sea buckthorn fruit oil is rich in palmitoleic acid (POA), which has been reported to play roles in many metabolic processes. In this study, a sea buckthorn fruit oil (SBFO) extract was evaluated through in vitro experiments (the doses were 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM) and in vivo experiments (the doses were 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg·day) to explore its mechanism of action in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The results revealed that the SBFO extract effectively increased the glucose uptake from 12.23 ± 1.09 to 14.90 ± 1.48 mmol/L in insulin resistance (IR) HepG2 cells, lowered blood glucose (the reductions rates of blood glucose in groups treated with SBFO extract at 200 and 300 mg/kg·day were 10.47% and 13.79%, respectively) and improved insulin indices from -6.11 ± 0.10 to -5.45 ± 0.31 after 4 weeks treatment with SBFO extract at 300 mg/kg·day in T2DM SD rats. RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested that the SBFO extract could promote the expression of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthesis (GS) while inhibiting the expression of glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Thus, the SBFO extract played a positive role in alleviating T2DM through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells, and diabetic rats and could be used for the future development of functional food and dietary supplements.

  18. All about Insulin Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 2 All About Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is a condition that raises your risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 1/15 Toolkit No. 2: All About Insulin Resistance continued J Order the smallest ...

  19. Insulin resistance and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the association between insulin resistance and vascular disease, and this has led to wide acceptance of the clustering of hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and obesity as a clinical entity, the metabolic syndrome. While insulin resistance, by promoting dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities, is part of the proatherogenic milieu, it is possible that insulin resistance itself in the vascular wall does not promote atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest that insulin resistance and atherosclerosis could represent independent and ultimately maladaptive responses to the disruption of cellular homeostasis caused by the excess delivery of fuel. PMID:16823479

  20. Exercise alleviates lipid-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle-signaling interaction at the level of TBC1 domain family member 4.

    PubMed

    Pehmøller, Christian; Brandt, Nina; Birk, Jesper B; Høeg, Louise D; Sjøberg, Kim A; Goodyear, Laurie J; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2012-11-01

    Excess lipid availability causes insulin resistance. We examined the effect of acute exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance and TBC1 domain family member 1/4 (TBCD1/4)-related signaling in skeletal muscle. In eight healthy young male subjects, 1 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise was followed by 7 h of saline or intralipid infusion. During the last 2 h, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed. Femoral catheterization and analysis of biopsy specimens enabled measurements of leg substrate balance and muscle signaling. Each subject underwent two experimental trials, differing only by saline or intralipid infusion. Glucose infusion rate and leg glucose uptake was decreased by intralipid. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was higher in the prior exercised leg in the saline and the lipid trials. In the lipid trial, prior exercise normalized insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to the level observed in the resting control leg in the saline trial. Insulin increased phosphorylation of TBC1D1/4. Whereas prior exercise enhanced TBC1D4 phosphorylation on all investigated sites compared with the rested leg, intralipid impaired TBC1D4 S341 phosphorylation compared with the control trial. Intralipid enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation and lactate release. Prior exercise led to higher PDH phosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase compared with resting control. In conclusion, lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle was associated with impaired TBC1D4 S341 and elevated PDH phosphorylation. The prophylactic effect of exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance may involve augmented TBC1D4 signaling and glycogen synthase activation.

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols alleviate insulin resistance and renal epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel action mechanism mediated by type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yang, Yi-Sun; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Mu-Lin; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2014-10-08

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important in renal fibrosis. Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 (S307)) is a hallmark of insulin resistance. We report that polyphenol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HPE) ameliorate diabetic nephropathy and EMT. Recently it has been observed that type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin is effective for treating type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. We investigated if DPP-4 and insulin resistance are involved in renal EMT and explored the role of HPE. In high glucose-stimulated tubular cells, HPE, like linagliptin, inhibited DPP-4 activation, thereby regulating vimentin (EMT marker) and IRS-1 (S307). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, pIRS-1 (S307) abundantly surrounds the tubular region, with increased vimentin in kidney. Both the expressions were reduced by HPE. In conclusion, HPE exerts effects similar to those of linagliptin, which improves insulin resistance and EMT, and could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Infliximab and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ursini, Francesco; Naty, Saverio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela

    2010-06-01

    Insulin resistance is the most important pathophysiologic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetic states. TNF-alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated insulin resistance during the course of rheumatic diseases. Therapies aimed at neutralizing TNF-alpha, such as the monoclonal antibody infliximab, represent a novel approach for the treatment of rheumatic diseases and allow to obtain significant results in terms of control of the inflammatory process. In this article we reviewed the scientific evidence published in the literature about a potential role of TNF-alpha blockade in improving insulin resistance in non-diabetic rheumatic patients.

  3. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially sleep apnea; and cigarette smoking. Does sleep matter? Yes. Studies show that untreated sleep problems, especially ... a severe form of insulin resistance may have dark patches of skin, usually on the back of ...

  4. Chromium and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A

    2003-12-01

    Insulin resistance leads to the inability of insulin to control the utilization and storage of glucose. It is associated initially with elevated levels of circulating insulin followed by glucose intolerance which may progress to type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. While the causes of these diseases are multifactorial, one nutrient that is associated with all of these abnormalities is Cr. In the presence of Cr, in a biologically active form, much lower levels of insulin are required. Modern diets, which are often high in refined carbohydrates, are not only low in Cr, but lead to enhanced Cr losses. In response to the consumption of refined carbohydrates, there is a rapid rise in blood sugar leading to elevations in insulin that cause a mobilization of Cr. Once mobilized, Cr is not reabsorbed but lost via the urine leading to decreased Cr stores. Several studies involving both human subjects and experimental animals have reported improvements in insulin sensitivity, blood glucose, insulin, lipids, haemoglobin A1c, lean body mass and related variables in response to improved Cr nutrition. However, not all studies have reported beneficial effects associated with improved Cr nutrition. Well-controlled human studies are needed to document an unequivocal effect of Cr on insulin sensitivity in human subjects. Studies need to involve a significant number of subjects with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance or early stages of diabetes, who have not been taking supplements containing Cr for at least 4 months, and involve at least 400 to 600 microg supplemental Cr daily or more. Studies should be at least 4 months to document sustained effects of supplemental Cr on insulin resistance and related variables. Cr is a nutrient and not a therapeutic agent and therefore will only be of benefit to those whose problems are due to suboptimal intake of Cr.

  5. Immunologic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J K; DeBra, D W

    1978-03-01

    The efficacy of sulfated beef insulin for plasma glucose control in 35 patients with immunologic insulin resistance was studied. Patients were on a mean dose of 550 U./day (range 200--2,000) of U-500 regular beef insulin. Mean maximum 125I-insulin-binding capacity was 191 mU./ml. serum (range 13--1,080). Mean in vivo half-life (T 1/2) of 125I-regular beef insulin was 614 minutes (range 114--1,300), as against a mean T 1/2 of 13.9 minutes (range 11.8--16.5) in normal controls. Treatment was successful in 34 patients and unsuccessful in one with lipoatrophic diabetes. The mean initial dose of sulfated insulin was 89 U./day (range 15--400) and at three months was 66 U./day (range 20--400). Twenty-eight patients who responded and survived have been on sulfated insulin for a mean of 39 months (range 2-66) and are on a mean dose of 25 U./day (range 0--100). The mean maximum binding capacity fell to 9 mU./ml. (range 0--34) during therapy (p less than 0.01). Mean 125I-insulin T 1/2 fell from 614 to 249 minutes after sulfated insulin therapy (p less than 0.001). A comparative study of 15 patients on consecutive days showed a 35 sulfated insulin T 1/2 of 60 minutes (range 15--94) and a mean 125I-regular insulin T 1/2 of 246 minutes (range 62--560, p less than 0.001). These results indicate that sulfated insulin is less antigenic than regular beef insulin and combines less avidly with human antibodies to regular beef insulin. The response to sulfated insulin therapy was significantly better than the response reported by other investigators to pork insulin or to steroid therapy in similar patients.

  6. Swimming Exercise Alleviated Insulin Resistance by Regulating Tripartite Motif Family Protein 72 Expression and AKT Signal Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR) by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72) expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD). After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR), markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles. Compared with HFD, the GIR, muscle SOD, and GSH-Px were significantly increased (p < 0.05, resp.), whereas muscle MDA and 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in Ex-HFD. Expression levels of TRIM72 mRNA and protein in muscles were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), whereas protein expression levels of IRS-1, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were significantly increased in Ex-HFD compared with HFD (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05). These results suggest that an 8-week swimming exercise improves HFD-induced insulin resistance maybe through a reduction of TRIM72 in skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction. PMID:27843952

  7. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

  8. Adipocyte lipolysis and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Morigny, Pauline; Houssier, Marianne; Mouisel, Etienne; Langin, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Basal fat cell lipolysis (i.e., fat cell triacylglycerol breakdown into fatty acids and glycerol in the absence of stimulatory factors) is elevated during obesity and is closely associated with insulin resistance. Inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating insulin resistance and preventing obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. In this review, we explore the relationship between adipose lipolysis and insulin sensitivity. After providing an overview of the components of fat cell lipolytic machinery, we describe the hypotheses that may support the causality between lipolysis and insulin resistance. Excessive circulating fatty acids may ectopically accumulate in insulin-sensitive tissues and impair insulin action. Increased basal lipolysis may also modify the secretory profile of adipose tissue, influencing whole body insulin sensitivity. Finally, excessive fatty acid release may also worsen adipose tissue inflammation, a well-known parameter contributing to insulin resistance. Partial genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of fat cell lipases in mice as well as short term clinical trials using antilipolytic drugs in humans support the benefit of fat cell lipolysis inhibition on systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, which occurs without an increase of fat mass. Modulation of fatty acid fluxes and, putatively, of fat cell secretory pattern may explain the amelioration of insulin sensitivity whereas changes in adipose tissue immune response do not seem involved.

  9. Mouse models of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hribal, Marta Letizia; Oriente, Francesco; Accili, Domenico

    2002-05-01

    The hallmarks of type 2 diabetes are impaired insulin action in peripheral tissues and decreased pancreatic beta-cell function. Classically, the two defects have been viewed as separate entities, with insulin resistance arising primarily from impaired insulin-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and beta-cell dysfunction arising from impaired coupling of glucose sensing to insulin secretion. Targeted mutagenesis and transgenesis involving components of the insulin action pathway have changed our understanding of these phenomena. It appears that the role of insulin signaling in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes has been overestimated in classic insulin target tissues, such as skeletal muscle, whereas it has been overlooked in liver, pancreatic beta-cells, and brain, which had been thought not to be primary insulin targets. We review recent progress and try to reconcile areas of apparent controversy surrounding insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and pancreatic beta-cells.

  10. Lipid mediators of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Knotts, Trina A; Chavez, Jose A; Wang, Li-Ping; Hoehn, Kyle L; Summers, Scott A

    2007-06-01

    Lipid abnormalities such as obesity, increased circulating free fatty acid levels, and excess intramyocellular lipid accumulation are frequently associated with insulin resistance. These observations have prompted investigators to speculate that the accumulation of lipids in tissues not suited for fat storage (e.g., skeletal muscle and liver) is an underlying component of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We review the metabolic fates of lipids in insulin-responsive tissues and discuss the roles of specific lipid metabolites (e.g., ceramides, GM3 ganglioside, and diacylglycerol) as antagonists of insulin signaling and action.

  11. [Chromium and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J; Bakker, S J; Houweling, S T

    2004-01-31

    Since as early as the 50s of the last century, it has been known that chromium is essential for normal glucose metabolism. Too little chromium in the diet may lead to insulin resistance. However, there is still no standard against which chromium deficiency can be established. Nevertheless, chromium supplements are becoming increasingly popular. Various systematic reviews have been unable to demonstrate any effects of chromium on glycaemic regulation (possibly due partly to the low dosages used), but there is a slight reduction in body weight averaging 1 kg. In a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in a Chinese population with type-2 diabetes mellitus, supplementation with 1000 micrograms of chromium led to a fall in the glycosylated haemoglobin level (HbA1c) by 2%. Toxic effects of chromium are seldom seen; recently, however, the safety of one of the dosage forms of chromium, chromium picolinate, has been questioned. One should be aware that individual patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus may have an increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes when taking chromium supplements as self-medication.

  12. Insulin resistance and hypertension: new insights.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher

    2015-03-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension. Nakamura et al. demonstrate in rodents and humans with insulin resistance that while the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake in adipocytes, mediated via insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), was severely diminished, its effect on salt reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule, mediated via IRS2, was preserved. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in individuals with insulin resistance may enhance salt absorption in the proximal tubule, resulting in a state of salt overload and hypertension.

  13. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Weickert, Martin O.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts. PMID:24278690

  14. Restoration of autophagy alleviates hepatic ER stress and impaired insulin signalling transduction in high fructose-fed male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Ruo-Qiong; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Xiu; Li, Songpei; Jo, Eunjung; Molero, Juan C; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-carbohydrate (mainly fructose) consumption is a major dietary factor for hepatic insulin resistance, involving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid accumulation. Because autophagy has been implicated in ER stress, the present study investigated the role of autophagy in high-fructose (HFru) diet-induced hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. The results show that chronic HFru feeding induced glucose intolerance and impaired insulin signaling transduction in the liver, associated with ER stress and the accumulation of lipids. Intriguingly, hepatic autophagy was suppressed as a result of activation of mammalian target of rapamycin. The suppressed autophagy was detected within 6 hours after HFru feeding along with activation of both inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase pathways. These events occurred prior to lipid accumulation or lipogenesis and were sufficient to blunt insulin signaling transduction with activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/inhibitory-κB kinase and serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1. The stimulation of autophagy attenuated ER stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/inhibitory-κB kinase-associated impairment in insulin signaling transduction in a mammalian target of rapamycin -independent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that restoration of autophagy functions disrupted by fructose is able to alleviate ER stress and improve insulin signaling transduction.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Soumaya, Kouidhi

    2012-01-01

    Molecular components of impaired insulin signaling pathway have emerged with growing interest to understand how the environment and genetic susceptibility combine to cause defects in this fundamental pathway that lead to insulin resistance. When insulin resistance is combined with beta-cell defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia, or Type 2 diabetes can result. The most common underlying cause is obesity, although primary insulin resistance in normal-weight individuals is also possible. The adipose tissue releases free fatty acids that contribute to insulin resistance and also acts as a relevant endocrine organ producing mediators (adipokines) that can modulate insulin signalling. This chapter deals with the core elements promoting, insulin resistance, associated with impaired insulin signalling pathway and adipocyte dysfunction. A detailed understanding of these basic pathophysiological mechanisms is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat diabetes.

  16. Nitrosative stress and pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaneki, Masao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Daisuke; Chang, Kyungho

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a major causative factor for type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Despite intense investigation for a number of years, molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance remain to be determined. Recently, chronic inflammation has been highlighted as a culprit for obesity-induced insulin resistance. Nonetheless, upstream regulators and downstream effectors of chronic inflammation in insulin resistance remain unclarified. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a mediator of inflammation, has emerged as an important player in insulin resistance. Obesity is associated with increased iNOS expression in insulin-sensitive tissues in rodents and humans. Inhibition of iNOS ameliorates obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, molecular mechanisms by which iNOS mediates insulin resistance remain largely unknown. Protein S-nitrosylation, a covalent attachment of NO moiety to thiol sulfhydryls, has emerged as a major mediator of a broad array of NO actions. S-nitrosylation is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, and increased S-nitrosylation of insulin signaling molecules, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt/PKB, has been shown in skeletal muscle of obese, diabetic mice. Akt/PKB is reversibly inactivated by S-nitrosylation. Based on these findings, S-nitrosylation has recently been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  17. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianping

    2013-03-01

    Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes through induction of insulin resistance. Treatment of type 2 diabetes has been limited by little translational knowledge of insulin resistance although there have been several well-documented hypotheses for insulin resistance. In those hypotheses, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxicity have been the major concepts and have received a lot of attention. Oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, genetic background, aging, fatty liver, hypoxia and lipodystrophy are active subjects in the study of these concepts. However, none of those concepts or views has led to an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes. The reason is that there has been no consensus for a unifying mechanism of insulin resistance. In this review article, literature is critically analyzed and reinterpreted for a new energy-based concept of insulin resistance, in which insulin resistance is a result of energy surplus in cells. The energy surplus signal is mediated by ATP and sensed by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Decreasing ATP level by suppression of production or stimulation of utilization is a promising approach in the treatment of insulin resistance. In support, many of existing insulin sensitizing medicines inhibit ATP production in mitochondria. The effective therapies such as weight loss, exercise, and caloric restriction all reduce ATP in insulin sensitive cells. This new concept provides a unifying cellular and molecular mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity, which may apply to insulin resistance in aging and lipodystrophy.

  18. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  19. Animal models of insulin resistance: A review.

    PubMed

    Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Singh, Barinder; Choudhary, Supriti; Kumar, Anil

    2016-12-01

    Insulin resistance can be seen as a molecular and genetic mystery, with a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a basis for a number of chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, coronary heart disease, cerebral vascular disease along with T2DM, thus the key is to cure and prevent insulin resistance. Critical perspicacity into the etiology of insulin resistance have been gained by the use of animal models where insulin action has been modulated by various transgenic and non-transgenic models which is not possible in human studies. The following review comprises the pathophysiology involved in insulin resistance, various factors causing insulin resistance, their screening and various genetic and non-genetic animal models highlighting the pathological and metabolic characteristics of each.

  20. Steroids and insulin resistance in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vejrazkova, Daniela; Vcelak, Josef; Vankova, Marketa; Lukasova, Petra; Bradnova, Olga; Halkova, Tereza; Kancheva, Radmila; Bendlova, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glucose during pregnancy reflects the equilibrium between lactogenic hormones stimulating insulin production and counterregulatory hormones inducing insulin resistance. In physiological pregnancies, insulin-mediated glucose uptake is substantially decreased and insulin secretion increased to maintain euglycemia. This common state of peripheral insulin resistance arises also due to steroid spectra changes. In this review article, we have focused on the role of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens, gestagens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, as well as secosteroid vitamin D) in the impairment of glucose tolerance in pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  1. Selective Insulin Resistance in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Masashi; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Seki, George

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been characterized as attenuation of insulin sensitivity at target organs and tissues, such as muscle and fat tissues and the liver. The insulin signaling cascade is divided into major pathways such as the PI3K/Akt pathway and the MAPK/MEK pathway. In insulin resistance, however, these pathways are not equally impaired. For example, in the liver, inhibition of gluconeogenesis by the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2 pathway is impaired, while lipogenesis by the IRS1 pathway is preserved, thus causing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It has been recently suggested that selective impairment of insulin signaling cascades in insulin resistance also occurs in the kidney. In the renal proximal tubule, insulin signaling via IRS1 is inhibited, while insulin signaling via IRS2 is preserved. Insulin signaling via IRS2 continues to stimulate sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule and causes sodium retention, edema, and hypertension. IRS1 signaling deficiency in the proximal tubule may impair IRS1-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenesis, which could induce hyperglycemia by preserving glucose production. In the glomerulus, the impairment of IRS1 signaling deteriorates the structure and function of podocyte and endothelial cells, possibly causing diabetic nephropathy. This paper mainly describes selective insulin resistance in the kidney, focusing on the proximal tubule. PMID:27247938

  2. Angiotensin and insulin resistance: conspiracy theory.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R

    2003-04-01

    Resistance to the metabolic effects of insulin is a contender for the short list of major cardiovascular risk factors. Since the elements of the syndrome of insulin resistance were first articulated together in 1988, numerous epidemiologic investigations and treatment endeavors have established a relationship between the metabolic disarray of impaired insulin action and cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin II, the primary effector of the renin-angiotensin system, has also achieved a place in the chronicles of cardiovascular risk factors. Conspiracy mechanisms by which angiotensin II and insulin resistance interact in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease are reviewed, with particular attention to recent developments in this engaging area of human research.

  3. Effect of fensuccinal on experimental insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, N I; Poltorak, V V; Gladkikh, A I; Ivanova, O V

    2000-07-01

    The effects of new antioxidant fensuccinal on dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats were studied. Oral administration of fensuccinal in a dose of 25 mg/kg for 2 weeks prevented basal hyperinsulinemia and insulin insensitivity of peripheral tissues. Fensuccinal also attenuated oxidative stress by decreasing the concentrations of primary and secondary lipid peroxidation products in liver homogenates. The ability of fensuccinal to prevent dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance is probably due to its antioxidant properties.

  4. Treatment Approach to Patients With Severe Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Church, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    In Brief Patients with severe insulin resistance require >2 units/kg of body weight or 200 units/day of insulin. Yet, many patients do not achieve glycemic targets despite using very high doses of insulin. Insulin can cause weight gain, which further contributes to worsening insulin resistance. This article describes the pharmacological options for managing patients with severe insulin resistance, including the use of U-500 insulin and newer agents in combination with insulin. PMID:27092020

  5. Increased insulin translation from an insulin splice-variant overexpressed in diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Minn, Alexandra H; Lan, Hong; Rabaglia, Mary E; Harlan, David M; Peculis, Brenda A; Attie, Alan D; Shalev, Anath

    2005-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes occurs when pancreatic beta-cells become unable to compensate for the underlying insulin resistance. Insulin secretion requires beta-cell insulin stores to be replenished by insulin biosynthesis, which is mainly regulated at the translational level. Such translational regulation often involves the 5'-untranslated region. Recently, we identified a human insulin splice-variant (SPV) altering only the 5'-untranslated region and conferring increased translation efficiency. We now describe a mouse SPV (mSPV) that is found in the cytoplasm and exhibits increased translation efficiency resulting in more normal (prepro)insulin protein per RNA. The RNA stability of mSPV is not increased, but the predicted secondary RNA structure is altered, which may facilitate translation. To determine the role of mSPV in insulin resistance and diabetes, mSPV expression was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in islets from three diabetic and/or insulin-resistant, obese and nonobese, mouse models (BTBRob/ob, C57BL/6ob/ob, and C57BL/6azip). Interestingly, mSPV expression was significantly higher in all diabetic/insulin-resistant mice compared with wild-type littermates and was dramatically induced in primary mouse islets incubated at high glucose. This raises the possibility that the mSPV may represent a compensatory beta-cell mechanism to enhance insulin biosynthesis when insulin requirements are elevated by hyperglycemia/insulin resistance.

  6. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Normal and Insulin-Resistant States

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jérémie; Kleinridders, André; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the worldwide increase in type-2 diabetes, a major focus of research is understanding the signaling pathways impacting this disease. Insulin signaling regulates glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, predominantly via action on liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Precise modulation of this pathway is vital for adaption as the individual moves from the fed to the fasted state. The positive and negative modulators acting on different steps of the signaling pathway, as well as the diversity of protein isoform interaction, ensure a proper and coordinated biological response to insulin in different tissues. Whereas genetic mutations are causes of rare and severe insulin resistance, obesity can lead to insulin resistance through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding these pathways is essential for development of new drugs to treat diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their complications. PMID:24384568

  7. Insulin resistance in porphyria cutanea tarda.

    PubMed

    Calcinaro, F; Basta, G; Lisi, P; Cruciani, C; Pietropaolo, M; Santeusanio, F; Falorni, A; Calafiore, R

    1989-06-01

    It has been reported that patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) develop carbohydrate (CHO) intolerance and manifest diabetes melitus (DM) more frequently than the normal population. In order to verify whether this is due to insulin resistance we studied 5 patients with PCT and 5 normal subjects matched for age, sex and weight. In all the patients an evaluation consisted of the glycemic curve and insulin response to an iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT: 0.33 g/kg) as well as of an evaluation of the circulating monocyte insulin receptors. Blood samples were drawn in the basal state to measure plasma levels of NEFA, glycerol, and intermediate metabolites. The patients with PCT showed normal glucose tolerance which was obtained, however, at the expense of the elevated insulin levels: therefore a condition of insulin resistance was demonstrated in these subjects. An involvement of the lipid metabolism, observed by the raised levels of plasma NEFA and glycerol, was also evident. The insulin binding to circulating monocytes was reduced but not enough to justify the degree of insulin resistance observed. Therefore, it could be hypothesized, in agreement with similar studies, that a postreceptor defect is responsible for the insulin-resistance observed in patients with PCT and that the reduction of insulin receptors is determined by the down regulation in response to elevated insulinemic levels. An alteration of the porphyrin metabolism might be responsible for this disorder.

  8. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Challis, Benjamin; Shannon, Nicholas; Hoare, Matthew; Heaney, Judith; Alexander, Graeme J.M.

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance.

  9. [Beyond immunopathogenesis. Insulin resistance and "epidermal dysfunction"].

    PubMed

    Boehncke, W-H; Boehncke, S; Buerger, C

    2012-03-01

    Insulin is a central player in the regulation of metabolic as well as non-metabolic cells: inefficient signal transduction (insulin resistance) not only represents the cornerstone in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also drives atherosclerosis through inducing endothelial dysfunction. Last but not least epidermal homeostasis depends on insulin. We summarize the effects of insulin on proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocytes as well as the relevance of cytokine-induced insulin resistance for alterations in epidermal homeostasis characteristic for psoriasis. Kinases involved in both insulin- as well as cytokine-receptor signaling represent potential targets for innovative therapeutics. Such small molecules would primarily normalize "epidermal dysfunction", thus complementing the immunomodulatory strategies of today's biologics.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: type A insulin resistance syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... insulin resistance syndrome , insulin resistance impairs blood sugar regulation and ultimately leads to a condition called diabetes ... to the effects of insulin impairs blood sugar regulation and leads to diabetes mellitus. In females with ...

  11. Obesity/insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Implications for the syndrome of insulin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, H O; Chaker, H; Leaming, R; Johnson, A; Brechtel, G; Baron, A D

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that obesity/insulin resistance impairs both endothelium-dependent vasodilation and insulin-mediated augmentation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of methacholine chloride (MCh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) during saline infusion and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia in lean insulin-sensitive controls (C), in obese insulin-resistant subjects (OB), and in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). MCh induced increments in LBF were approximately 40% and 55% lower in OB and NIDDM, respectively, as compared with C (P < 0.05). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia augmented the LBF response to MCh by - 50% in C (P < 0.05 vs saline) but not in OB and NIDDM. SNP caused comparable increments in LBF in all groups. Regression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation between the maximal LBF change in response to MCh and body fat content. Thus, obesity/insulin resistance is associated with (a) blunted endothelium-dependent, but normal endothelium-independent vasodilation and (b) failure of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia to augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Therefore, obese/insulin-resistant subjects are characterized by endothelial dysfunction and endothelial resistance to insulin's effect on enhancement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This endothelial dysfunction could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerosis in obese insulin-resistant subjects. PMID:8647954

  12. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance in children

    PubMed Central

    Arata, Mikage; Nakajima, Junya; Nishimata, Shigeo; Nagata, Tomomi; Kawashima, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Various pathological conditions can cause fatty liver in children. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children has been known since 1983. However, NASH diagnosed in childhood does not have a favorable outcome. The pathological characteristics of NASH are significantly different between children and adults. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH is accompanied by insulin resistance, which plays a pivotal role in its pathophysiology in both children and adults. In NASH, a “two-hit” model involving triglyceride accumulation (first hit) and liver damage (second hit) has been accepted. Insulin resistance was found to correlate with changes in fat levels; however, it did not correlate with fibrosis or NAFLD activity score in children. Therefore, insulin resistance may be important in the first hit. Because there is obvious familial clustering in NASH, genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors including diet might be the second hit of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:25512797

  13. Treatment of insulin resistance in the neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Manuela; Martocchia, Antonio; De Marinis, Elisabetta Adele; Falaschi, Giulia Maria; Romano, Gloria; Rufo, Maddalena; Falaschi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The association between diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases is increasing with aging. Several common mechanisms are involved in both these diseases. The endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier, neurons and glia express typical and different receptors of the glucose metabolism (glucose transporters, insulin receptors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors). The impairment in insulin signaling leads to an impairment of neuronal function and increases neurodegeneration, and, conversely, neurodegeneration causes a reduction of insulin signaling on neurons. Increased detailed knowledge of common physiological processes opens up the opportunities for developing new treatments that may prevent or reduce the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the review is to discuss the potential neuroprotective effects of the antidiabetic drugs. The article presents some promising patents on the treatment of insulin resistance in the neurodegeneration.

  14. Fucoidan from sea cucumber may improve hepatic inflammatory response and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; Hu, Shiwei; Jiang, Wei; Song, Wendong; Cai, Lu; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition excess-induced inflammation positively contributed to insulin resistance. Fucoidan from sea cucumber can increase glucose translocation in skeletal muscle. However, its effects on inflammation-associated insulin resistance are not understood. We investigated fucoidan from Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC)-alleviated inflammatory response and signaling as well as -improved insulin resistance in the liver of obesity mice. The results showed that Ib-FUC reduced body weight and glucose levels, increased insulin sensitivity, and inhibited serum lipid concentrations. Meanwhile, Hepatic glycogen synthesis was promoted by Ib-FUC via activation of the PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β signaling and regulation of glucose metabolism-related enzymatic activities. Ib-FUC regulated serum inflammatory cytokines and their mRNA expression in the liver. Ib-FUC-induced inactivation of the JNK and IKKβ/NFκB pathways was involved in the activation of insulin signal cascade and inflammatory factor production. These findings suggested that Ib-FUC supplementary-induced alleviation of inflammatory response could be a mechanism responsible for its beneficial effects against hepatic insulin resistance.

  15. Mechanistic interplay between ceramide and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Reali, Federico; Morine, Melissa J.; Kahramanoğulları, Ozan; Raichur, Suryaprakash; Schneider, Hans-Christoph; Crowther, Daniel; Priami, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Recent research adds to a growing body of literature on the essential role of ceramides in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling, while the mechanistic interplay between various components of ceramide metabolism remains to be quantified. We present an extended model of C16:0 ceramide production through both the de novo synthesis and the salvage pathways. We verify our model with a combination of published models and independent experimental data. In silico experiments of the behavior of ceramide and related bioactive lipids in accordance with the observed transcriptomic changes in obese/diabetic murine macrophages at 5 and 16 weeks support the observation of insulin resistance only at the later phase. Our analysis suggests the pivotal role of ceramide synthase, serine palmitoyltransferase and dihydroceramide desaturase involved in the de novo synthesis and the salvage pathways in influencing insulin resistance versus its regulation. PMID:28112248

  16. Uncoupling Proteins: Role in Insulin Resistance and Insulin Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine B.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are modulators of mitochondrial metabolism that have been implicated in the development of both insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency, the two major pathophysiological events associated with type 2 diabetes. UCP2 mRNA is expressed in a wide range of tissues; however UCP2 protein expression is restricted to fewer tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, spleen, stomach, brain and the lung. To date, its role in the pathophysiology of diabetes has been most strongly associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell, particularly after its induction by free fatty acids. The physiological role of UCP2 remains controversial, but it may act as a downstream signal transducer of superoxide. UCP3 mRNA and protein are expressed in relatively few tissues, predominately skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and heart. Increased expression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle is associated with protection from diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. In patients with type 2 diabetes UCP3 protein in muscle is reduced by 50% compared to healthy controls. The primary physiological role of the novel UCPs does not appear to be protection against positive energy balance and obesity; this is based largely on findings from studies of UCP2 and UCP3 knockout mice and from observed increases in UCP3 expression with fasting. The mechanism(s) of action of UCP2 and UCP3 are poorly understood. However, findings support roles for UCP2 and UCP3 as modifiers of fatty acid metabolism and in mitigating damage from reactive oxygen species. PMID:18220632

  17. Epigenetic markers to further understand insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina

    2016-11-01

    Epigenetic variation in human adipose tissue has been linked to type 2 diabetes and its related risk factors including age and obesity. Insulin resistance, a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, may also be associated with altered DNA methylation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, linking epigenetic variation in target tissues to similar changes in blood cells may identify new blood-based biomarkers. In this issue of Diabetologia, Arner et al studied the transcriptome and methylome in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of 80 obese women who were either insulin-sensitive or -resistant (DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4074-5 ). While they found differences in gene expression between the two groups, no alterations in DNA methylation were found after correction for multiple testing. Nevertheless, based on nominal p values, their methylation data overlapped with methylation differences identified in adipose tissue of individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Differential methylation of these overlapping CpG sites may predispose to diabetes by occurring already in the insulin-resistant state. Furthermore, some methylation changes may contribute to an inflammatory process in adipose tissue since the identified CpG sites were annotated to genes encoding proteins involved in inflammation. Finally, the methylation pattern in circulating leucocytes did not mirror the adipose tissue methylome of these 80 women. Together, identifying novel molecular mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes may help advance the search for new therapeutic alternatives.

  18. B-1a Lymphocytes Attenuate Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Chng, MH; Alonso, Michael N.; Yuan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance, a common precursor of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by chronic inflammation of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here we show that B-1a cells, a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, are novel and important regulators of this process. B-1a cells are reduced in frequency in obese high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and EGFP interleukin-10 (IL-10) reporter mice show marked reductions in anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by B cells in vivo during obesity. In VAT, B-1a cells are the dominant producers of B cell–derived IL-10, contributing nearly half of the expressed IL-10 in vivo. Adoptive transfer of B-1a cells into HFD-fed B cell–deficient mice rapidly improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance through IL-10 and polyclonal IgM-dependent mechanisms, whereas transfer of B-2 cells worsens metabolic disease. Genetic knockdown of B cell–activating factor (BAFF) in HFD-fed mice or treatment with a B-2 cell–depleting, B-1a cell–sparing anti-BAFF antibody attenuates insulin resistance. These findings establish B-1a cells as a new class of immune regulators that maintain metabolic homeostasis and suggest manipulation of these cells as a potential therapy for insulin resistance. PMID:25249575

  19. Acrolein metabolites, diabetes and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein is a dietary and environmental pollutant that has been associated in vitro to dysregulate glucose transport. We investigated the association of urinary acrolein metabolites N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (3-HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine (CEMA) and their molar sum (∑acrolein) with diabetes using data from investigated 2027 adults who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). After excluding participants taking insulin or other diabetes medication we, further, investigated the association of the compounds with insulin resistance (n=850), as a categorical outcome expressed by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR>2.6). As secondary analyses, we investigated the association of the compounds with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, fasting insulin and fasting plasma glucose. The analyses were performed using urinary creatinine as independent variable in the models, and, as sensitivity analyses, the compounds were used as creatinine corrected variables. Diabetes as well as insulin resistance (defined as HOMA-IR>2.6) were positively associated with the 3-HPMA, CEMA and ∑Acrolein with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p<0.05). The highest 3rd and 4th quartiles of CEMA compared to the lowest quartile were significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin with a dose-response relationship. The highest 3rd quartile of 3-HPMA and ∑Acrolein were positively and significantly associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin. These results suggest a need of further studies to fully understand the implications of acrolein with type 2 diabetes and insulin.

  20. Fluctuation of insulin resistance in a leprechaun with a primary defect in insulin binding.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Takata, Y; Sasaoka, T; Shigeta, Y; Goji, K

    1988-05-01

    A 3-month-old female leprechaun demonstrated extreme insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia (330 mumol/L) and resistance to exogenous insulin. Insulin binding to erythrocytes, cultured lymphocytes, and fibroblasts from the patient were decreased to less than 20% of normal, whereas insulin-like growth factor I binding to fibroblasts was normal. Antiinsulin receptor antibody binding to cultured lymphocytes was also decreased to 20% of normal, indicating a decreased concentration of insulin receptors on the cell surface. The ability of insulin to stimulate D-[14C]glucose uptake was decreased to 35% of normal in the patient's fibroblasts, and the dose-response curve was shifted to the right. With time, the insulin resistance fluctuated from near normal (fasting insulin, 244.0 pmol/L) to severe resistance (fasting insulin, 5740-9328 pmol/L), and an insulin tolerance test revealed amelioration of insulin resistance during remission. However, insulin binding to erythrocytes and adipocytes was decreased persistently to 20% of normal. These results indicate that the patient had a primary defect in her insulin receptors, i.e. decreased insulin receptor concentration. The variable degree of insulin resistance was possibly due to variable receptor function in the signal transmission process.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance: an update

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Turner, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance (IR); however, a large variety of association and intervention studies as well as genetic manipulations in rodents have reported contrasting results. Indeed, even 39 years after the first publication describing a relationship between IR and diminished mitochondrial function, it is still unclear whether a direct relationship exists, and more importantly if changes in mitochondrial capacity are a cause or consequence of IR. This review will take a journey through the past and summarise the debate about the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and its possible role in causing decreased insulin action in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Evidence is presented from studies in various human populations, as well as rodents with genetic manipulations of pathways known to affect mitochondrial function and insulin action. Finally, we have discussed whether mitochondria are a potential target for the treatment of IR. PMID:25385852

  2. Race and the insulin resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Holly; Dugas, Lara; Rosas, Sylvia E

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome affects 25% of the adult US population based on the Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults from the National Cholesterol Education Program. Knowledge on the impact of obesity on metabolic health parameters has increased greatly over the past decade. This review discusses the limitations of the National Cholesterol Education Program metabolic syndrome definition and the racial disparities in the clinical presentation of the insulin resistance syndrome. We also examine the current literature with particular emphasis on albuminuria, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and intramyocellular lipid content. This review explores potential environmental and genetic reasons for differences in the manifestation of insulin resistance across racial/ethnic groups and highlights several promising areas for further study.

  3. Determinants of High Fasting Insulin and Insulin Resistance Among Overweight/Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jerri Chiu Yun; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Rampal, Sanjay; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is the earliest subclinical metabolic abnormality, which precedes insulin resistance in obese children. An investigation was conducted on the potential predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance among overweight/obese adolescents in a developing Asian country. A total of 173 overweight/obese (BMI > 85th percentile) multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents aged 13 were recruited from 23 randomly selected schools in this cross-sectional study. Waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), physical fitness score (PFS), fasting glucose and fasting insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to predict fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Covariates included pubertal stage, socioeconomic status, nutritional and physical activity scores. One-third of our adolescents were insulin resistant, with girls having significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR than boys. Gender, pubertal stage, BMI, WC and BF% had significant, positive moderate correlations with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR while PFS was inversely correlated (p < 0.05). Fasting insulin was primarily predicted by gender-girls (Beta = 0.305, p < 0.0001), higher BMI (Beta = −0.254, p = 0.02) and greater WC (Beta = 0.242, p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that gender, BMI and WC are simple predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance in overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:27824069

  4. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  5. PEDF-induced alteration of metabolism leading to insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Dass, Crispin R

    2015-02-05

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance.

  6. The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Rachel J.; Samuel, Varman T.; Petersen, Kitt F.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its downstream sequelae, hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, are rapidly growing epidemics, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates, and soaring health-care costs. Developing interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which excess hepatic lipid develops and causes hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Proposed mechanisms implicate various lipid species, inflammatory signalling and other cellular modifications. Studies in mice and humans have elucidated a key role for hepatic diacylglycerol activation of protein kinase Cε in triggering hepatic insulin resistance. Therapeutic approaches based on this mechanism could alleviate the related epidemics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24899308

  7. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by

  8. β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Overstimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR overstimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs overstimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart.

  9. β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Over-stimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR over-stimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs over-stimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart. PMID:28035081

  10. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guanghong; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Sowers, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated hyperinsulinaemia can promote the development of a specific form of cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, this form of cardiomyopathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed nations, and the prevalence of this condition is rising in parallel with increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, female patients seem to be particularly susceptible to the development of this complication of metabolic disease. The diabetic cardiomyopathy observed in insulin-resistant or hyperinsulinaemic states is characterized by impaired myocardial insulin signalling, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impaired calcium homeostasis, abnormal coronary microcirculation, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and maladaptive immune responses. These pathophysiological changes result in oxidative stress, fibrosis, hypertrophy, cardiac diastolic dysfunction and eventually systolic heart failure. This Review highlights a surge in diabetic cardiomyopathy research, summarizes current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this condition and explores potential preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26678809

  11. Insulin resistance influences central opioid activity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Love, Tiffany; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Sowers, MaryFran; Persad, Carol C; Pennington, Kathryn P; Eyvazaddeh, Aimee D; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

    2011-06-30

    This pilot study describes a relationship between insulin resistance and μ-opioid neurotransmission in limbic appetite and mood-regulating regions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting that insulin-opioid interactions may contribute to behavioral and reproductive pathologies of PCOS. We found that [1] patients with PCOS who are insulin-resistant (n = 7) had greater limbic μ-opioid receptor availability (nondisplaceable binding potential) than controls (n = 5); [2] receptor availability was correlated with severity of insulin resistance; and [3] receptor availability normalized after insulin-regulating treatment.

  12. Effect of curative parathyroidectomy on insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Rachel; Dhibar, Deba Prasad; Varshney, Shweta; Behera, Arunanshu; Mittal, B. R.; Bhansali, Anil; Rao, Sudhaker D.; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is characterized by inappropriately elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level despite elevated serum calcium. Insulin resistant is the basic pathophysiology, behind the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with PHPT. However, the improvement in insulin resistance (IR) after curative parathyroidectomy (CPTX) has not been established yet, as the study results are conflicting. Materials and Methods: In this prospective interventional study, ten patients with mild PHPT (Group 1) and another ten patients with moderate to severe PHPT (Group 2) were undergone CPTX. The IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and fasting serum insulin (FSI), before and 3 months after CPTX. Results: There was no significant change of FPG and FSI, before and after CPTX in Group 1 (P = 0.179 and P = 0.104) and Group 2 (P = 0.376 and P = 0.488). Before surgery, HOMA-IR was higher, and QUICKI was significantly lower, in both Group 1 (P = 0.058 and P = 0.009) and Group 2 (P = 0.023 and P = 0.005) as compared to published normal reference mean, with no significant difference between the groups. Three months after surgery HOMA-IR increased further and QUICKI remained unchanged as compared to baseline, in both Group 1 (P = 0.072 and 0.082) and Group 2 (P = 0.54 and 0.56), but statistically insignificant. Conclusion: IR remained unchanged after CPTX in mild as well as moderate to severe PHPT. Asymptomatic PHPT with abnormal IR should not be used as criteria for parathyroidectomy. PMID:27867880

  13. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. Aim To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Material and methods Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. Results All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001, 14.01 ±11.94 vs. 9.12 ±3.53). Additionally, there was a highly significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of HOMA values (p < 0.001, 2.87 ±2.56 vs. 1.63 ±0.65). Conclusions These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne. PMID:26366152

  14. [A case of leprechaunism with extreme insulin resistance due to a primary defect in insulin receptors].

    PubMed

    Goji, K; Takata, Y; Kobayashi, M

    1985-09-20

    This report describes a 3-month-old female infant with the typical physical features of leprechaunism. The patient demonstrated glucose intolerance and marked hyperinsulinemia (4600 microU/ml). Since an intravenous insulin injection (actrapid insulin: 0.15 U/kg) caused no significant decrease in the blood glucose level, the presence of insulin resistance was suggested. Neither insulin antibodies nor insulin receptor antibodies were were found in the patient's plasma, and other circulating insulin antagonists such as glucagon, growth hormone, and cortisol were within normal limits. [125I]Insulin binding to the erythrocytes from the patient was as low as 1.02% (control infants: 4.89 +/- 1.08% [mean +/- SD]). [125I]Insulin binding to the cultured transformed lymphocytes from the patient was similarly reduced to 3.58% (control: 20.9 +/- 2.71% [mean +/- SD]). From these findings we concluded that the insulin resistance was due to a primary defect in insulin receptors. Interestingly, transient remissions of the patient's glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia were observed during a year of follow-up study. The insulin tolerance test which was performed at the remission period showed an improvement in insulin resistance. However, the insulin binding defect to erythrocytes remained unchanged even at the remission period. The exact cause of these remissions was not clear and remained to be elucidated.

  15. Role of sialic acid in insulin action and the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Salhanick, A.I.; Amatruda, J.M. )

    1988-08-01

    Adipocytes treated with neuraminidase show markedly reduced responsiveness to insulin without any alteration in insulin binding. In addition, several studies have separately demonstrated both insulin resistance and decreases in membrane sialic acid content and associated biosynthetic enzymes in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the authors investigated the role that sialic acid residues may play in insulin action and in the hepatic insulin resistance associated with nonketotic diabetes. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats treated with neuraminidase demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. At a concentration of neuraminidase that decreases insulin action by 50%, 23% of total cellular sialic acid content was released. Neuraminidase-releasable sialic acid was significantly decreased in hepatocytes from diabetic rats and this was associated with significant insulin resistance. Treatment of hepatocytes from diabetic rats with cytidine 5{prime}-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) enhanced insulin responsiveness 39%. The enhanced insulin responsiveness induced by CMP-NANA was blocked by cytidine 5{prime}-monophosphate (CMP) suggesting that the CMP-NANA effect was catalyzed by a cell surface sialyl-transferase. CMP reduced neuraminidase-releasable ({sup 14}C)sialic acid incorporation into hepatocytes by 43%. The data demonstrate a role for cell surface sialic acid residues in hepatic insulin action and support a role for decreased cell surface sialic acid residues in the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy on insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    CĂTOI, ADRIANA FLORINELA; PÂRVU, ALINA; MIRONIUC, AUREL; GALEA, ROMEO FLORIN; MUREŞAN, ADRIANA; BIDIAN, CRISTINA; POP, IOANA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Obesity is a major risk factor for the onset of insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Evidence data has proven that beyond important weight loss bariatric surgery especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) leads to significant early reduction of insulinemia and of IR calculated through the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), independently of fat mass decrease. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is now used as a sole weight loss operation with good results. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the early changes of fasting blood glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR in a group of morbidly obese (MO) patients i.e. at 7, 30 and 90 days after SG. Methods The study included 20 MO patients (7 male and 13 female) submitted to SG. Anthropometrical (weight, body mass index –BMI, percent excess BMI loss -%EBMIL) and biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin and calculated HOMA-IR ) evaluation were performed before and at 7, 30 and 90 days after SG. In addition, a second group of 10 normal weight healthy subjects with a BMI ranging form 19 kg/m2 to 23.14 kg/m2, matched for age and gender was investigated. Results Plasma glucose (p=0.018), insulin (p=0.004) and HOMA-IR (p=0.006) values were statistically different between the studied groups. After surgery, at every follow-up point, there were statistically different weight and BMI mean values relative to the operation day (p<0.003). BMI, decreased at 7 days (estimated reduction=2.79; 95% CI:[2.12;3.45]), at 30 days (estimated reduction=5.65; 95% CI:[3.57;7.73]) and at 90 days (estimated reduction=10.88; 95% CI:[7.35;14.41]) respectively after SG. We noted a tendency toward statistical significant change of mean insulin values at 7 days after surgery (corrected p=0.075), no statistical change at 30 days (corrected p=0.327) and a significant change at 90 days (corrected p=0.027) after SG as compared to baseline. There was a

  17. Divergent role of sphingosine 1-phosphate on insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Susann; Japtok, Lukasz; Kleuser, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder in which insulin-sensitive tissues fail to respond to the physiological action of insulin. There is a strong correlation of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes both reaching epidemic proportions. Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of insulin resistance and a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Numerous studies in humans and rodents have shown that insulin resistance is associated with elevations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the plasma. Moreover, bioactive lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and ceramides appear to accumulate in response to NEFA, which may interact with insulin signaling. However, recent work has also indicated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a breakdown product of ceramide, modulate insulin signaling in different cell types. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about S1P and insulin signaling in insulin sensitive cells. A specific focus is put on the action of S1P on hepatocytes, pancreatic β-cells and skeletal muscle cells. In particular, modulation of S1P-signaling can be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Syndromic insulin resistance: Models for the therapeutic basis of the metabolic syndrome and other targets of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, Phillip; Zadeh, Elika Safar; Cochran, Elaine; Brown, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Insulin resistance is the key feature of the “metabolic syndrome,” a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes that includes hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia. Existing treatments target individual metabolic syndrome components, and act non-specifically with respect to disease pathophysiology. Our goal is to understand the link between insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, and how to develop treatment approaches. Methods We present three cases of extreme, syndromic insulin resistance: lipodystrophy, autoantibodies to the insulin receptor, and mutations of the insulin receptor, with discussion of pathophysiology and treatment. Results In lipodystrophy, insulin resistance is a direct consequence of leptin deficiency, and thus leptin replacement reverses metabolic syndrome abnormalities, including diabetes and hypertriglyeridemia. The insulin “receptoropathies”, including autoantibodies to the insulin receptor and insulin receptor mutations, are characterized by extreme insulin resistance and ovarian hyperandrogenism, without dyslipidemia or fatty liver disease. Autoantibodies to the insulin receptor can be treated using an immunosuppressive paradigm adapted from treatment of other autoimmune and neoplastic conditions. Leptin treatment has shown some success in treating hyperglycemia in insulin receptor mutations. Treatment for this condition remains inadequate, and novel therapies that bypass insulin receptor signaling, such as enhancers of brown adipose tissue, are needed. Conclusion We presented a clinical approach to treatment of syndromic insulin resistance. The study of rare diseases that replicate the metabolic syndrome, with clear-cut pathophysiology, allows the opportunity to understand novel physiology, and develop targeted therapies that may be applicable to the broader population with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. PMID:23047930

  19. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance. PMID:24676191

  20. Cerebral Blood Flow Links Insulin Resistance and Baroreflex Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John P.; Sheu, Lei K.; Verstynen, Timothy D.; Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance confers risk for diabetes mellitus and associates with a reduced capacity of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure. Importantly, several brain regions that comprise the central autonomic network, which controls the baroreflex, are also sensitive to the neuromodulatory effects of insulin. However, it is unknown whether peripheral insulin resistance relates to activity within central autonomic network regions, which may in turn relate to reduced baroreflex regulation. Accordingly, we tested whether resting cerebral blood flow within central autonomic regions statistically mediated the relationship between insulin resistance and an indirect indicator of baroreflex regulation; namely, baroreflex sensitivity. Subjects were 92 community-dwelling adults free of confounding medical illnesses (48 men, 30-50 years old) who completed protocols to assess fasting insulin and glucose levels, resting baroreflex sensitivity, and resting cerebral blood flow. Baroreflex sensitivity was quantified by measuring the magnitude of spontaneous and sequential associations between beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure and heart rate changes. Individuals with greater insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostatic model assessment, exhibited reduced baroreflex sensitivity (b = -0.16, p < .05). Moreover, the relationship between insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity was statistically mediated by cerebral blood flow in central autonomic regions, including the insula and cingulate cortex (mediation coefficients < -0.06, p-values < .01). Activity within the central autonomic network may link insulin resistance to reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Our observations may help to characterize the neural pathways by which insulin resistance, and possibly diabetes mellitus, relates to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24358272

  1. Cerebral blood flow links insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John P; Sheu, Lei K; Verstynen, Timothy D; Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C; Gianaros, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance confers risk for diabetes mellitus and associates with a reduced capacity of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure. Importantly, several brain regions that comprise the central autonomic network, which controls the baroreflex, are also sensitive to the neuromodulatory effects of insulin. However, it is unknown whether peripheral insulin resistance relates to activity within central autonomic network regions, which may in turn relate to reduced baroreflex regulation. Accordingly, we tested whether resting cerebral blood flow within central autonomic regions statistically mediated the relationship between insulin resistance and an indirect indicator of baroreflex regulation; namely, baroreflex sensitivity. Subjects were 92 community-dwelling adults free of confounding medical illnesses (48 men, 30-50 years old) who completed protocols to assess fasting insulin and glucose levels, resting baroreflex sensitivity, and resting cerebral blood flow. Baroreflex sensitivity was quantified by measuring the magnitude of spontaneous and sequential associations between beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure and heart rate changes. Individuals with greater insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostatic model assessment, exhibited reduced baroreflex sensitivity (b = -0.16, p < .05). Moreover, the relationship between insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity was statistically mediated by cerebral blood flow in central autonomic regions, including the insula and cingulate cortex (mediation coefficients < -0.06, p-values < .01). Activity within the central autonomic network may link insulin resistance to reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Our observations may help to characterize the neural pathways by which insulin resistance, and possibly diabetes mellitus, relates to adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  2. Blueberries’ Impact on Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.

    2016-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity) after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Additionally, the improvements in glucose tolerance after blueberry consumption were assessed by glucose tolerance tests. However, firm conclusions regarding the anti-diabetic effect of blueberries cannot be drawn due to the small number of existing clinical studies. Although the current evidence is promising, more long-term, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials are needed to establish the role of blueberries in preventing or delaying T2DM. PMID:27916833

  3. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications.

  4. C16:0-Ceramide Signals Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hla, Timothy; Kolesnick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A substantive literature has accumulated implicating sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, as mediators of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. Thanks to recent technical advances in mouse genetics and lipidomics, two independent laboratories identify the same sphingolipid, C16:0-ceramide, as principal mediator of obesity-related insulin resistance. PMID:25440051

  5. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin resistance is linked to increased acylcarnitine species in a number of tissues including skeletal muscle, due to incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO). It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aim of this stud...

  6. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanying; Chen, Youming; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Mi; Wu, Bide; Li, Yongqiang; Liang, Yan; Shao, Xiaofei; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-08-01

    We performed this study to investigate the prevalences of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population with normal weight. We also examined whether fat mass is associated with insulin resistance and MetS in normal-weight individuals. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study in China. Subjects with diabetes were excluded. The prevalences of insulin resistance and MetS were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed repeated separately for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in both men and women. We also used the combination of BMI and WC to predict insulin resistance and MetS. 8.55 % of normal-weight men and 12.62 % of normal-weight women had insulin resistance. 7.41 % of normal-weight men and 10.24 % of normal-weight women had MetS. WC was associated with incident insulin resistance and MetS independent of BMI in both men and women. BMI was independently associated with incident MetS in women. Normal-weight individuals with insulin resistance and/or MetS are not rare in the Chinese population. Fat mass is associated with insulin resistance and MetS in normal-weight subjects. The current findings support using both BMI and WC in clinical practice.

  7. Insulin Resistance in Children: Consensus, Perspective, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Marchal, Claire; Arslanian, Silva; Cutfield, Wayne; Sinaiko, Alan; Druet, Celine; Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Emerging data indicate that insulin resistance is common among children and adolescents and is related to cardiometabolic risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. However, there is still confusion on how to define insulin resistance, how to measure it, what its risk factors are, and whether there are effective strategies to prevent and treat it. A consensus conference was organized in order to clarify these points. Participants: The consensus was internationally supported by all the major scientific societies in pediatric endocrinology and 37 participants. Evidence: An independent and systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify key articles relating to insulin resistance in children. Consensus Process: The conference was divided into five themes and working groups: background and definition; methods of measurement and screening; risk factors and consequences; prevention; and treatment. Each group selected key issues, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. During a 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting them to the full forum for further discussion and agreement. Conclusions: Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, insulin resistance in children is an important issue confronting health care professionals. There are no clear criteria to define insulin resistance in children, and surrogate markers such as fasting insulin are poor measures of insulin sensitivity. Based on current screening criteria and methodology, there is no justification for screening children for insulin resistance. Lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, whereas drugs should be implemented only in selected cases. PMID:20829185

  8. Insulin-secreting cells from human eyelid-derived stem cells alleviate type I diabetes in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seah; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Haekwon; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Eun Jig; Seo, Sung Ig; Kang, Sung Goo; Lee, Jong-Eun; Lim, Hyunjung

    2009-08-01

    Various attempts have been made to develop stem cell-based therapy to alleviate type I diabetes using animal models. However, it has been a question whether human insulin produced from explanted cells is solely responsible for the normoglycemia of diabetic animals. In this study, we isolated neural crest-like stem cells from the human eyelid fat and examined their therapeutic potentials for diabetes. The human eyelid adipose-derived stem cells (HEACs) displayed characteristics of neural crest cells. Using a two-step culture condition combined with nicotinamide, activin, and/or GLP-1, we differentiated HEACs into insulin-secreting cells and examined in vivo effects of differentiated cells by transplantation experiments. Following differentiation in vitro, HEACs released insulin and c-peptide in a glucose-dependent manner. Upon their transplantation under kidney capsules of streptozotocin-treated immunocompetent mice, we observed normalization of hyperglycemia in 10 of 20 recipient mice until sacrifice after 2 months. Only the human, but not the mouse, insulin and c-peptide were detected in the blood of recipient mice. Removal of the kidneys transplanted with HEACs resulted in a sharp increase of blood glucose level. Removed kidney tissues showed distinct expression of various human genes including insulin, and colocalization of the human insulin and the human nuclear protein in many cells. However, they showed diminished or null expression of some immune-related genes. In conclusion, human insulin alone produced from eyelid-derived stem cells following differentiation into insulin-secreting cells and transplantation could normalize type I diabetes in mice.

  9. Related factors of insulin resistance in Korean children: adiposity and maternal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hur, Yang-Im; Song, Jihyun; Lee, Kang-Sook

    2011-12-01

    Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR) is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children's adiposity indices (r = 0.309-0.318, all P-value = 0.001) and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002) were positively correlated with children's HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children's HOMA-IR level according to children's lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children's HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001) and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children's HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002). This study shows that children's adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children's IR.

  10. Pulmonary vascular function in insulin resistance and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moral-Sanz, Javier; Moreno, Laura; Cogolludo, Angel; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are current clinical concerns due to their increasing prevalence in western societies and in developing countries. Cardiovascular alterations, affecting both macro- and microcirculation, are among the major causes of illness and premature death within patients with insulin resistance or diabetes. However, the detrimental effects of insulin resistance and diabetes in the lungs are less clinically apparent, or at least masked by the progression of these metabolic diseases on other target organs. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest a link between pulmonary arterial hypertension and diabetes. Thereby, hemodynamic derangements in uncontrolled diabetes or insulin resistance are predisposing factors leading to early pulmonary alterations that in association with a second hit might accelerate the onset of pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension. The present article reviewed the current knowledge about the effects of insulin resistance and diabetes in a territory which has received little attention until recently: the pulmonary circulation.

  11. Differential hepatic distribution of insulin receptor substrates causes selective insulin resistance in diabetes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Eiji; Iwamura, Tomokatsu; Kumagai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Taku; Inoue, Mariko; Takamoto, Iseki; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kumagai, Katsuyoshi; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakamuta, Makoto; Moroi, Masao; Sugi, Kaoru; Noda, Tetsuo; Terauchi, Yasuo; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic insulin signalling involves insulin receptor substrates (Irs) 1/2, and is normally associated with the inhibition of gluconeogenesis and activation of lipogenesis. In diabetes and obesity, insulin no longer suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis, while continuing to activate lipogenesis, a state referred to as ‘selective insulin resistance'. Here, we show that ‘selective insulin resistance' is caused by the differential expression of Irs1 and Irs2 in different zones of the liver. We demonstrate that hepatic Irs2-knockout mice develop ‘selective insulin resistance', whereas mice lacking in Irs1, or both Irs1 and Irs2, develop ‘total insulin resistance'. In obese diabetic mice, Irs1/2-mediated insulin signalling is impaired in the periportal zone, which is the primary site of gluconeogenesis, but enhanced in the perivenous zone, which is the primary site of lipogenesis. While hyperinsulinaemia reduces Irs2 expression in both the periportal and perivenous zones, Irs1 expression, which is predominantly in the perivenous zone, remains mostly unaffected. These data suggest that ‘selective insulin resistance' is induced by the differential distribution, and alterations of hepatic Irs1 and Irs2 expression. PMID:27708333

  12. Peripheral insulin-sensitizer drug metformin ameliorates neuronal insulin resistance and Alzheimer's-like changes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Bisht, Bharti; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Pharmacological treatments presently available can slow down the progression of symptoms but can not cure the disease. Currently there is widening recognition that AD is closely associated with impaired insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in brain, suggesting it to be a brain-specific form of diabetes and so also termed as "type 3 diabetes". Hence investigating the role of pharmacological agents that could ameliorate neuronal insulin resistance merit attention in AD therapeutics, however the therapeutics for pathophysiological condition like neuronal insulin resistance itself is largely unknown. In the present study we have determined the effect of metformin on neuronal insulin resistance and AD-associated characteristics in an in vitro model of "type 3 diabetes" by differentiating neuronal cell line Neuro-2a under prolonged presence of insulin. We observed that prolonged hyperinsulinemic conditions in addition to generating insulin resistance also led to development of hallmark AD-associated neuropathological changes. Treatment with metformin sensitized the impaired insulin actions and also prevented appearance of molecular and pathological characteristics observed in AD. The results thus demonstrate possible therapeutic efficacy of peripheral insulin-sensitizer drug metformin in AD by its ability to sensitize neuronal insulin resistance. These findings also provide direct evidences linking hyperinsulinemia and AD and suggest a unique opportunity for prevention and treatment of "type 3 diabetes".

  13. Postreceptor defects causing insulin resistance in normoinsulinemic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinder, J.; Ostman, J.; Arner, P.

    1982-10-01

    The mechanisms of the diminished hypoglycemic response to insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with normal levels of circulating plasma insulin were investigated. Specific binding of mono-/sup 125/I (Tyr A14)-insulin to isolated adipocytes and effects of insulin (5--10,000 microunits/ml) on glucose oxidation and lipolysis were determined simultaneously in subcutaneous adipose tissue of seven healthy subjects of normal weight and seven untreated NIDDM patients with normal plasma insulin levels. The two groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. Insulin binding, measured in terms of receptor number and affinity, was normal in NIDDM, the total number of receptors averaging 350,000 per cell. Neither sensitivity nor the maximum antilipolytic effect of insulin was altered in NIDDM patients as compared with control subjects; the insulin concentration producing half the maximum effect (ED50) was 10 microunits/ml. As regards the effect of insulin on glucose oxidation, for the control subjects ED50 was 30 microunits/ml, whereas in NIDDM patients, insulin exerted no stimulatory effect. The results obtained suggest that the effect of insulin on glucose utilization in normoinsulinemic NIDDM may be diminished in spite of normal insulin binding to receptors. The resistance may be due solely to postreceptor defects, and does not involve antilipolysis.

  14. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Aguer, Céline; McCoin, Colin S; Knotts, Trina A; Thrush, A Brianne; Ono-Moore, Kikumi; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Hwang, Daniel H; Adams, Sean H; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be linked to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation and the subsequent increase in acylcarnitine species in different tissues including skeletal muscle. It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aims of this study were to determine whether acylcarnitines can elicit muscle insulin resistance and to better understand the link between incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin-resistance development. Differentiated C2C12, primary mouse, and human myotubes were treated with acylcarnitines (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0) or with palmitate with or without carnitine acyltransferase inhibition by mildronate. Treatment with C4:0, C14:0, and C16:0 acylcarnitines resulted in 20-30% decrease in insulin response at the level of Akt phosphorylation and/or glucose uptake. Mildronate reversed palmitate-induced insulin resistance concomitant with an ∼25% decrease in short-chain acylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine secretion. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not affected under these conditions, oxidative stress was increased by 2-3 times by short- or long-chain acylcarnitines. Acylcarnitine-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance were reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Results are consistent with the conclusion that incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, raising the possibility that these metabolites play a role in muscle insulin resistance.

  15. Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml). We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound. Results The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

  16. Hepatitis C Virus, Insulin Resistance, and Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kralj, Dominik; Jukić, Lucija Virović; Stojsavljević, Sanja; Duvnjak, Marko; Smolić, Martina; Čurčić, Ines Bilić

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide. Liver steatosis is a common finding in many hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, the most common being metabolic syndrome (MS). Over time, it has been shown that the frequent coexistence of these two conditions is not coincidental, since many epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have indicated HCV to be strongly associated with liver steatosis and numerous metabolic derangements. Here, we present an overview of publications that provide clinical evidence of the metabolic effects of HCV and summarize the available data on the pathogenetic mechanisms of this association. It has been shown that HCV infection can induce insulin resistance (IR) in the liver and peripheral tissues through multiple mechanisms. Substantial research has suggested that HCV interferes with insulin signaling both directly and indirectly, inducing the production of several proinflammatory cytokines. HCV replication, assembly, and release from hepatocytes require close interactions with lipid droplets and host lipoproteins. This modulation of lipid metabolism in host cells can induce hepatic steatosis, which is more pronounced in patients with HCV genotype 3. The risk of steatosis depends on several viral factors (including genotype, viral load, and gene mutations) and host features (visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, genetic predisposition, medication use, and alcohol consumption). HCV-related IR and steatosis have been shown to have a remarkable clinical impact on the prognosis of HCV infection and quality of life, due to their association with resistance to antiviral therapy, progression of hepatic fibrosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, HCV-induced IR, oxidative stress, and changes in lipid and iron metabolism lead to glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, hyperuricemia, and atherosclerosis, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27047774

  17. Postreceptor insulin resistance contributes to human dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Robert K.; Sleigh, Alison; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Adams, Claire A.; Bluck, Les; Jackson, Sarah; Vottero, Alessandra; Kanabar, Dipak; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Durrington, Paul; Soos, Maria A.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Lomas, David J.; Cochran, Elaine K.; Gorden, Phillip; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Savage, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic dyslipidemia is characterized by high circulating triglyceride (TG) and low HDL cholesterol levels and is frequently accompanied by hepatic steatosis. Increased hepatic lipogenesis contributes to both of these problems. Because insulin fails to suppress gluconeogenesis but continues to stimulate lipogenesis in both obese and lipodystrophic insulin-resistant mice, it has been proposed that a selective postreceptor defect in hepatic insulin action is central to the pathogenesis of fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in these mice. Here we show that humans with generalized insulin resistance caused by either mutations in the insulin receptor gene or inhibitory antibodies specific for the insulin receptor uniformly exhibited low serum TG and normal HDL cholesterol levels. This was due at least in part to surprisingly low rates of de novo lipogenesis and was associated with low liver fat content and the production of TG-depleted VLDL cholesterol particles. In contrast, humans with a selective postreceptor defect in AKT2 manifest increased lipogenesis, elevated liver fat content, TG-enriched VLDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterol levels. People with lipodystrophy, a disorder characterized by particularly severe insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, demonstrated similar abnormalities. Collectively these data from humans with molecularly characterized forms of insulin resistance suggest that partial postreceptor hepatic insulin resistance is a key element in the development of metabolic dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. PMID:19164855

  18. Hypertension genes are genetic markers for insulin sensitivity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuqing; Cheng, Suzanne; Taylor, Kent D; Cui, Jinrui; Hughes, Randall; Quiñones, Manuel J; Bulnes-Enriquez, Isabel; De la Rosa, Roxana; Aurea, George; Yang, Huiying; Hsueh, Willa; Rotter, Jerome I

    2005-04-01

    Insulin resistance is a determinant of blood pressure variation and risk factor for hypertension. Because insulin resistance and blood pressure cosegregate in Mexican American families, we thus investigated the association between variations in 9 previously reported hypertension genes (ACE, AGT, AGTRI, ADDI, NPPA, ADDRB2, SCNN1A, GNB3, and NOS3) and insulin resistance. Families were ascertained via a coronary artery disease proband in the Mexican American Coronary Artery Disease Project. Individuals from 100 Mexican American families (n=656) were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in the 9 genes and all adult offspring and offspring spouses were phenotyped for insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n=449). AGT M235T and NOS3 A(-922)G and E298D polymorphisms were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (P=0.018, 0.036, 0.039) but were not significant after adjusting for body mass index. ADD1 G460W was associated with insulin sensitivity only after adjusting for body mass index. The NPPA T2238C and SCNN1A A663T were associated with decreased fasting insulin levels after adjusting for body mass index (P=0.015 and 0.028). In conclusion, AGT, NOS3, NPPA, ADRB2, ADD1, and SCNN1A may well be genetic markers for insulin resistance, and adiposity was a potential modifier for only some gene/trait combinations. Our data support the hypothesis that genes in the blood pressure pathway may play a role in insulin resistance in Mexican Americans.

  19. Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Najem, Dema; Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Yang, Ze; Zhang, Wandong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity, tau pathology, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, all of which play roles in neurodegeneration. Insulin has polytrophic effects on neurons and may be at the center of these pathophysiological changes. In this study, we investigated possible relationships among insulin signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis, along with the effects of Aβ42 on these pathways in vitro. We found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) (N2a-AβPP) produced Aβ and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 (p-IRS-S612) as compared to parental N2a cells. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ42 also increased p-IRS-S612, suggesting that Aβ42 is responsible for insulin resistance. The insulin resistance was alleviated when N2a-AβPP cells were treated with higher insulin concentrations. Insulin increased Aβ release from N2a-AβPP cells, by which it may promote Aβ clearance. Insulin increased cholesterol-synthesis gene expression in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, including 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2). While Aβ42-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited increased HMGCR expression and c-Jun phosphorylation as pro-inflammatory responses, they also showed down-regulation of neuro-protective/anti-inflammatory DHCR24. These results suggest that Aβ42 may cause insulin resistance, activate JNK for c-Jun phosphorylation, and lead to dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, and that enhancing insulin signaling may relieve the insulin-resistant phenotype and the dysregulated cholesterol-synthesis pathway to promote A

  20. Insulin alleviates degradation of skeletal muscle protein by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome system in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiyi; Li, Ning; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Weiqin; Tang, Shaoqiu; Yu, Wenkui; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Jieshou

    2011-06-03

    Hypercatabolism is common under septic conditions. Skeletal muscle is the main target organ for hypercatabolism, and this phenomenon is a vital factor in the deterioration of recovery in septic patients. In skeletal muscle, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in hypercatabolism under septic status. Insulin is a vital anticatabolic hormone and previous evidence suggests that insulin administration inhibits various steps in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, whether insulin can alleviate the degradation of skeletal muscle protein by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome system under septic condition is unclear. This paper confirmed that mRNA and protein levels of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were upregulated and molecular markers of skeletal muscle proteolysis (tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine) simultaneously increased in the skeletal muscle of septic rats. Septic rats were infused with insulin at a constant rate of 2.4 mU.kg-1.min-1 for 8 hours. Concentrations of mRNA and proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and molecular markers of skeletal muscle proteolysis were mildly affected. When the insulin infusion dose increased to 4.8 mU.kg-1.min-1, mRNA for ubiquitin, E2-14 KDa, and the C2 subunit were all sharply downregulated. At the same time, the levels of ubiquitinated proteins, E2-14KDa, and the C2 subunit protein were significantly reduced. Tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine decreased significantly. We concluded that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is important skeletal muscle hypercatabolism in septic rats. Infusion of insulin can reverse the detrimental metabolism of skeletal muscle by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the effect is proportional to the insulin infusion dose.

  1. Biomarkers of insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance in insulin target tissues including liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is an early step in the progression towards type 2 diabetes. Accurate diagnostic parameters reflective of insulin resistance are essential. Longstanding tests for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c are useful and although the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp remains a "gold standard" for accurately determining insulin resistance, it cannot be implemented on a routine basis. The study of adipokines, and more recently myokines and hepatokines, as potential biomarkers for insulin sensitivity is now an attractive and relatively straightforward approach. This review discusses potential biomarkers including adiponectin, RBP4, chemerin, A-FABP, FGF21, fetuin-A, myostatin, IL-6, and irisin, all of which may play significant roles in determining insulin sensitivity. We also review potential future directions of new biological markers for measuring insulin resistance, including metabolomics and gut microbiome. Collectively, these approaches will provide clinicians with the tools for more accurate, and perhaps personalized, diagnosis of insulin resistance.

  2. Insulin Resistance and Environmental Pollutants: Experimental Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vanparys, Caroline; Van Gaal, Luc F.; Jorens, Philippe G.; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Background: The metabolic disruptor hypothesis postulates that environmental pollutants may be risk factors for metabolic diseases. Because insulin resistance is involved in most metabolic diseases and current health care prevention programs predominantly target insulin resistance or risk factors thereof, a critical analysis of the role of pollutants in insulin resistance might be important for future management of metabolic diseases. Objectives: We aimed to critically review the available information linking pollutant exposure to insulin resistance and to open the discussion on future perspectives for metabolic disruptor identification and prioritization strategies. Methods: We searched PubMed and Web of Science for experimental studies reporting on linkages between environmental pollutants and insulin resistance and identified a total of 23 studies as the prime literature. Discussion: Recent studies specifically designed to investigate the effect of pollutants on insulin sensitivity show a potential causation of insulin resistance. Based on these studies, a summary of viable test systems and end points can be composed, allowing insight into what is missing and what is needed to create a standardized insulin resistance toxicity testing strategy. Conclusions: It is clear that current research predominantly relies on top-down identification of insulin resistance–inducing metabolic disruptors and that the development of dedicated in vitro or ex vivo screens to allow animal sparing and time- and cost-effective bottom-up screening is a major future research need. Citation: Hectors TL, Vanparys C, Van Gaal LF, Jorens PG, Covaci A, Blust R. 2013. Insulin resistance and environmental pollutants: experimental evidence and future perspectives. Environ Health Perspect 121:1273–1281; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307082 PMID:24058052

  3. Urinary Phthalates and Increased Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spanier, Adam J.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Attina, Teresa M.; Blustein, Jan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is an environmental chemical commonly found in processed foods. Phthalate exposures, in particular to DEHP, have been associated with insulin resistance in adults, but have not been studied in adolescents. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from 766 fasting 12- to 19-year-olds in the 2003–2008 NHANES, we examined associations of phthalate metabolites with continuous and categorical measures of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, diet, continuous age, BMI category, and urinary creatinine, for each log (roughly threefold) increase in DEHP metabolites, a 0.27 increase (95% confidence interval 0.14–0.40; P < .001) in HOMA-IR was identified. Compared with the first tertile of DEHP metabolite in the study population (14.5% insulin resistant), the third tertile had 21.6% prevalence (95% confidence interval 17.2%–26.0%; P = .02). Associations persisted despite controlling for bisphenol A, another endocrine-disrupting chemical commonly found in foods, and HOMA-IR and insulin resistance were not significantly associated with metabolites of lower molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and other personal care products. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary DEHP concentrations were associated with increased insulin resistance in this cross-sectional study of adolescents. This study cannot rule out the possibility that insulin-resistant children ingest food with higher phthalate content, or that insulin-resistant children excrete more DEHP. PMID:23958772

  4. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue prevent insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, Henk S.; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; van de Graaf, Stan F.J.; Venken, Koen; Koppen, Arjen; Stienstra, Rinke; Prop, Serge; Meerding, Jenny; Hamers, Nicole; Besra, Gurdyal; Boon, Louis; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.; Elewaut, Dirk; Prakken, Berent; Kersten, Sander; Boes, Marianne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell–deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue–resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue–resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance. PMID:22863618

  5. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue prevent insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Henk S; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Venken, Koen; Koppen, Arjen; Stienstra, Rinke; Prop, Serge; Meerding, Jenny; Hamers, Nicole; Besra, Gurdyal; Boon, Louis; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Elewaut, Dirk; Prakken, Berent; Kersten, Sander; Boes, Marianne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell-deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance.

  6. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Masakazu; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Sugiyama, Naonobu; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent.

  7. Insulin resistance: metabolic mechanisms and consequences in the heart.

    PubMed

    Abel, E Dale; O'Shea, Karen M; Ramasamy, Ravichandran

    2012-09-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and impacts the heart in various ways. Impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake is a uniformly observed characteristic of the heart in these states, although changes in upstream kinase signaling are variable and dependent on the severity and duration of the associated obesity or diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological role of insulin resistance in the heart is evolving. To maintain its high energy demands, the heart is capable of using many metabolic substrates. Although insulin signaling may directly regulate cardiac metabolism, its main role is likely the regulation of substrate delivery from the periphery to the heart. In addition to promoting glucose uptake, insulin regulates long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular function in the normal cardiovascular system. Recent advances in understanding the role of metabolic, signaling, and inflammatory pathways in obesity have provided opportunities to better understand the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the heart. This review will summarize our current understanding of metabolic mechanisms for and consequences of insulin resistance in the heart and will discuss potential new areas for investigating novel mechanisms that contribute to insulin resistance in the heart.

  8. Intramyocellular lipid kinetics and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, ZengKui

    2007-01-01

    More than fifteen years ago it was discovered that intramyocellular triglyceride (imcTG) content in skeletal muscle is abnormally high in conditions of lipid oversupply (e.g. high fat feeding) and, later, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic conditions. This imcTG excess is robustly associated with muscle insulin resistance (MIR). However, to date the pathways responsible for the imcTG excess and the mechanisms underlying the imcTG-MIR correlation remain unclear. A current hypothesis is based on a backward mechanism that impaired fatty acid oxidation by skeletal muscle causes imcTG to accumulate. As such, imcTG excess is considered a marker but not a player in MIR. However, recent results from kinetic studies indicated that imcTG pool in high fat-induced obesity (HFO) model is kinetically dynamic. On one hand, imcTG synthesis is accelerated and contributes to imcTG accumulation. On the other, the turnover of imcTG is also accelerated. A hyperdynamic imcTG pool can impose dual adverse effects on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. It increases the release and thus the availability of fatty acids in myocytes that may promote fatty acid oxidation and suppress glucose utilization. Meanwhile, it releases abundant fatty acid products (e.g. diacylglycerol, ceramides) that impair insulin actions via signal transduction, thereby causing MIR. Thus, intramyocellular fatty acids and their products released from imcTG appear to function as a link to MIR. Accordingly, a forward mechanism is proposed that explains the imcTG-MIR correlation. PMID:17650308

  9. Salt sensitivity is associated with insulin resistance in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, N; Moreira, E; Cubeddu, L X

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between salt sensitivity and insulin resistance was investigated in nondiabetic, nonobese (body mass index < or = 28) untreated patients with uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Alterations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal were assessed by means of the insulin suppression test. Subjects were classified as salt sensitive and salt resistant according to their blood pressure response to low and high salt intake. Fasting serum glucose levels were within normal limits and did not differ between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives, irrespectively of the level of salt intake. Fasting serum insulin levels increased in salt sensitive patients when on a high intake of salt. The insulin suppression test revealed the existence of marked differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives. Much higher steady-state glucose values (nanomoles of glucose/ liter) were obtained during the insulin suppression test in salt sensitive than in salt-resistant hypertensives (7.4+/-1.6 v 3.5+/-0.1 under low salt; and 12.5+/-1.1 v 4.3+/-0.1 under high salt intake). The product of glucose times insulin obtained at steady state during low and high salt intakes were 2.5 and 5 times greater, respectively, in salt sensitive than in salt resistant hypertensives. Therefore, the impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal observed in salt sensitive hypertensives was present both under low salt (60 to 70 mEq/day) and high salt intake (300 mEq/day). However, it was exacerbated under high salt intake. These results suggest that untreated salt sensitive hypertensives have a considerable impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal because of a state of insulin resistance. High salt intake increased BP, induced hyperinsulinemia, and worsened insulin-mediated glucose disposal only in salt sensitive patients. We propose that salt sensitivity contributes, separately from hypertension, to insulin

  10. Severe insulin resistance secondary to insulin antibodies: successful treatment with the immunosuppressant MMF.

    PubMed

    Segal, T; Webb, Ea; Viner, R; Pusey, C; Wild, G; Allgrove, J

    2008-06-01

    We have evaluated the use of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the treatment of severe insulin resistance caused by neutralising anti-insulin antibodies in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A 12-yr-old boy with a 5-month history of T1DM developed severe immunological insulin resistance secondary to human insulin antibodies. Various different treatment modalities, including lispro insulin, intravenous insulin, prednisolone and immunoabsorption, were tried, all without a sustained response to treatment. Although the introduction of the immunosuppressant MMF only resulted in a small reduction in haemoglobin A1c (from 10.9 to 9.8%), it did result in a significant reduction in insulin requirements from 6000 to 250 U/d (75 to 3.1 U/kg/d), disappearance of the severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia associated with high titres of insulin antibodies and a reduction in the level of these antibodies from 34.6 to 2.7 mg/dL. MMF may be considered as a means of immunosuppression in patients with markedly raised insulin antibodies whose diabetes cannot be controlled with insulin alone.

  11. Inclusion of Konjac Flour in the Gestation Diet Changes the Gut Microbiota, Alleviates Oxidative Stress, and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Sows

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the gut microbiota of the hosts, few studies have focused on how these interactions influence the metabolic status of sows. Here, the effects of inclusion of konjac flour (KF) in a gestation diet on oxidative stress status, insulin sensitivity, and gut microbiota were investigated to elucidate the correlation between the microbiota and metabolic changes in sows. Sows were assigned to either control or 2.2% KF dietary treatment during gestation. The gut microbiota population in sows during gestation and lactation was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The oxidative stress parameters, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values, and fatty acids in the blood of sows were also assessed. Compared to the control diet group, KF significantly reduced the serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) but increased the serum concentrations of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in sows on day 1 in lactation. Additionally, sows in the KF group had a lower HOMA insulin resistance value but a higher HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) value. KF induced changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum and genus levels. The increased relative abundances of Akkermansia and Roseburia in the KF group were positively correlated with the HOMA-IS. Overall, dietary KF alleviated oxidative stress and improved insulin sensitivity of sows, and the changes in the gut microbiota in response to KF may have been correlated with the host metabolism response. IMPORTANCE To date, the effect of dietary fiber on metabolism responses and gut microbiota in sows has not been investigated. Here, KF supplementation of a gestation diet in sows was found to alleviate oxidative stress and to improve insulin sensitivity. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that KF treatment induces changes in the gut microbiota composition at the phylum and genus levels

  12. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p < 0.0001) and no change in performance on an additional task (delayed logical memory). In this study, although insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND

  13. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aguer, Céline; McCoin, Colin S.; Knotts, Trina A.; Thrush, A. Brianne; Ono-Moore, Kikumi; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Hwang, Daniel H.; Adams, Sean H.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be linked to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation and the subsequent increase in acylcarnitine species in different tissues including skeletal muscle. It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aims of this study were to determine whether acylcarnitines can elicit muscle insulin resistance and to better understand the link between incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin-resistance development. Differentiated C2C12, primary mouse, and human myotubes were treated with acylcarnitines (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0) or with palmitate with or without carnitine acyltransferase inhibition by mildronate. Treatment with C4:0, C14:0, and C16:0 acylcarnitines resulted in 20–30% decrease in insulin response at the level of Akt phosphorylation and/or glucose uptake. Mildronate reversed palmitate-induced insulin resistance concomitant with an ∼25% decrease in short-chain acylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine secretion. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not affected under these conditions, oxidative stress was increased by 2–3 times by short- or long-chain acylcarnitines. Acylcarnitine-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance were reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Results are consistent with the conclusion that incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, raising the possibility that these metabolites play a role in muscle insulin resistance.—Aguer, C., McCoin, C. S., Knotts, T. A., Thrush, A. B., Ono-Moore, K., McPherson, R., Dent, R., Hwang, D. H., Adams, S. H., Harper, M.-E. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance. PMID:25342132

  14. Insulin resistant diabetes mellitus without the presence of insulin antibodies. A case report.

    PubMed

    Páv, J; Srámková, J; Matys, Z

    1976-07-01

    A case of a 26-year old woman suffering from an insulin resistant diabetes mellitus for 14 years is described. Acanthosis nigricans was diagnosed in the patient's second year and the syndrome of Stein-Leventhal at the age of 15. Diabetes could not be properly controlled either with the daily dosis of insulin as high as 1140 U or with peroral tolbutamide. Fasting serum IRI concentrations were elevated, the secretoric response to the stimulation by glucose or tolbutamide was substantial and protracted. The hypoglycemic response to the i.v. application of commercial insulin was insignificant. Serum growth hormone levels were normal. No presence of insulin antibodies in the serum was detected.

  15. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-mediated memory dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by attenuating insulin resistance and elevating hippocampal GLUT4 levels independent of insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Sharma, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neuronal functioning, altered insulin signaling, and behavioral dysfunction. Quercetin has shown neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects, besides modulating cognition and insulin signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we explored whether or not quercetin ameliorates stress-mediated cognitive dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanism. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to an array of unpredicted stressors for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. The effect of chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) and quercetin treatment on cognition were evaluated using novel object recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Hippocampal neuronal integrity was observed by histopathological examination. Blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels were measured by commercial kits and insulin resistance was evaluated in terms of HOMA-IR index. Hippocampal insulin signaling was determined by immunofluorescence staining. CUS induced significant cognitive dysfunction (NOR and MWM) and severely damaged hippocampal neurons, especially in the CA3 region. Quercetin treatment alleviated memory dysfunction and rescued neurons from CUS-mediated damage. Fasting blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and serum insulin were significantly elevated in stressed animals, besides, having significantly higher HOMA-IR index, suggesting the development of insulin resistance. Quercetin treatment alleviated insulin resistance and attenuated altered biochemical parameters. CUS markedly down-regulated insulin signaling in CA3 region and quercetin treatment improved neuronal GLUT4 expression, which seemed to be independent of insulin and insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that intact insulin functioning in the hippocampus is essential for cognitive functions and quercetin improves CUS-mediated cognitive dysfunction by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling.

  16. Obesity, insulin resistance, NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Shen, Jiayun; Sun, Ting Ting; Zhang, Xiang; Wong, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological and clinical data have clearly demonstrated that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) predisposes risk to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH is the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which constellates obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although the percentage of patients diagnosed annually with NASH-associated HCC is still relatively low, this number signifies a large population due to the rapidly increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes globally. Fundamental studies on lipid storage, regulation of adipose factors, inflammatory cytokine recruitments and oxidative stress have provided insights into NASH as well as metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence also indicates the significant role of genetic factors in contributing to the pathogenesis of NASH and induced hepatic malignancy. In this review, we attempt to collate current research on NASH biology that lead to our understandings on how metabolic disorders may intersect with cancer development. We also discuss study models that have supported discoveries of molecular and cellular defects, and offered a perspective on therapeutic developments. These studies have collectively increased our knowledge on the complex signaling pathways involved in NASH and cancer, and provided the foundation for improved clinical management of patients with metabolic diseases.

  17. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), and Sanyinjiao (SP6); in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23) was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6) and Zusanli (ST36), needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA) apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG) was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS) and serum C peptide (C-P) were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules. PMID:27738449

  18. B lymphocytes as emerging mediators of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Winer, D A; Winer, S; Shen, L; Chng, M H Y; Engleman, E G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of various tissues including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which contributes to insulin resistance. T cells and macrophages infiltrate VAT in obesity and orchestrate this inflammation. Recently, we made the surprising discovery that B cells are important contributors to this process. Thus, some B cells and the antibodies they produce can promote VAT-associated and systemic inflammation, leading to insulin resistance. This report will focus on the properties of these B cells, and how they contribute to insulin resistance through T-cell modulation and production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Understanding the mechanisms by which B cells contribute to insulin resistance should lead to new antibody-based diagnostics and B-cell modulating therapeutics to manage this increasingly prevalent disease. PMID:25089193

  19. Hippocampal memory processes are modulated by insulin and high-fat-induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    McNay, Ewan C.; Ong, Cecilia T.; McCrimmon, Rory J.; Cresswell, James; Bogan, Jonathan S.; Sherwin, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Insulin regulates glucose uptake and storage in peripheral tissues, and has been shown to act within the hypothalamus to acutely regulate food intake and metabolism. The machinery for transduction of insulin signaling is also present in other brain areas, particularly in the hippocampus, but a physiological role for brain insulin outside the hypothalamus has not been established. Recent studies suggest that insulin may be able to modulate cognitive functions including memory. Here we report that local delivery of insulin to the rat hippocampus enhances spatial memory, in a PI-3-kinase dependent manner, and that intrahippocampal insulin also increases local glycolytic metabolism. Selective blockade of endogenous intrahippocampal insulin signaling impairs memory performance. Further, a rodent model of type 2 diabetes mellitus produced by a high-fat diet impairs basal cognitive function and attenuates both cognitive and metabolic responses to hippocampal insulin administration. Our data demonstrate that insulin is required for optimal hippocampal memory processing. Insulin resistance within the telencephalon may underlie the cognitive deficits commonly reported to accompany type 2 diabetes. PMID:20176121

  20. Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, and Energy Intake in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Rutledge, Margaret S.; Kozlosky, Merel; Salaita, Christine G.; Gustafson, Jennifer K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Fleisch, Abby F.; Roberts, Mary D.; Ning, Cong; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between energy intake during a buffet meal and indices of insulin dynamics in overweight children. Study design 95 non-diabetic, overweight (BMI ≥95th percentile) children (age 10.3±1.4y) selected lunch from a 9,835kcal buffet eaten ad libitum after an overnight fast. The associations between energy intake and measures of insulin dynamics, in the post-absorptive state and during a 2h-hyperglycemic clamp, were determined. Covariates in the statistical model included race, sex, skeletal age, fat-free mass, fat mass, socioeconomic status, and number of foods in the buffet rated as acceptable. Results Energy intake was positively associated with the fasting homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β=0.24, p=0.042), fasting insulin/glucose ratio (β=0.24, p=0.044), 1st-phase insulin (β=0.23, p=0.032), and 1st-phase C-peptide (β=0.21, p=0.046); energy intake was negatively associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (SIclamp; β= -0.29, p=0.042). Each 10% decrease in SIclamp predicted 27 kcal greater energy intake. Conclusions Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with greater energy intake after an overnight fast in overweight children. These associations suggest mechanisms whereby insulin resistance may contribute to excessive weight gain in children. PMID:18410761

  1. Insulin resistance in clinical and experimental alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rotonya M.; Correnti, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the number one cause of liver failure worldwide; its management costs billions of health care dollars annually. Since the advent of the obesity epidemic, insulin resistance and diabetes have become common clinical findings in patients with ALD; and the development of insulin resistance predicts the progression from simple steatosis to cirrhosis in ALD patients. Both clinical and experimental data implicate the impairment of several mediators of insulin signaling in ALD, and experimental data suggest that insulin-sensitizing therapies improve liver histology. This review explores the contribution of impaired insulin signaling in ALD and summarizes the current understanding of the synergistic relationship between alcohol and nutrient excess in promoting hepatic inflammation and disease. PMID:25998863

  2. Insulin resistance: Is it time for primary prevention?

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Valentina; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Valeria; Fazio, Serafino

    2012-01-26

    Insulin resistance is a clinical condition characterized by a decrease in sensitivity and responsiveness to the metabolic actions of insulin, so that a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. As a result, higher levels of insulin are needed to maintain normal glucose tolerance. Hyperinsulinemia, indeed, is one of the principal characteristics of insulin resistance states. This feature is common in several pathologic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia, and it is also a prominent component of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and atherosclerosis. The presence of endothelial dysfunction, related to insulin resistance, plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in all of these disorders. Insulin resistance represents the earliest detectable abnormality in type 2 diabetes, and is one of the major underlying mechanisms of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Its early detection could be of great importance, in order to set a therapeutic attack and to counteract the higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Insulin resistance: The linchpin between prediabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; Stavile, Rodolfo N; March, Carlos E; Reaven, Gerald M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease occurs to the greatest extent in persons with prediabetes mellitus who are also insulin resistant. In 2003, 664 non-diabetic women (n = 457) and men (n = 207), aged 52 ± 16 and 53 ± 15 years, were surveyed during a programme for cardiovascular disease prevention. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations defined participants as having normal fasting plasma glucose (fasting plasma glucose <5.6 mmol/L) or prediabetes mellitus (fasting plasma glucose ⩾ 5.6 and <7.0 mmol/L). The tertile of prediabetes mellitus subjects with the highest fasting plasma insulin concentration was classified as insulin resistant. Baseline cardiovascular disease risk factors were accentuated in prediabetes mellitus versus normal fasting glucose, particularly in prediabetes mellitus/insulin resistant. In 2012, 86% of the sample were surveyed again, and the crude incidence for cardiovascular disease was higher in subjects with prediabetes mellitus versus normal fasting glucose (13.7 vs 6.0/100 persons/10 years; age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.88, p = 0.052). In prediabetes mellitus, the crude incidences were 22.9 versus 9.6/100 persons/10 years in insulin resistant versus non-insulin resistant persons (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio = 2.36, p = 0.040). In conclusion, cardiovascular disease risk was accentuated in prediabetes mellitus/insulin resistant individuals, with a relative risk approximately twice as high compared to prediabetes mellitus/non-insulin resistant subjects.

  4. Impairment of GLP1-induced insulin secretion: role of genetic background, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Herzberg-Schäfer, S; Heni, M; Stefan, N; Häring, H-U; Fritsche, A

    2012-10-01

    One major risk factor of type 2 diabetes is the impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion which is mediated by the individual genetic background and environmental factors. In addition to impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion, impaired glucagon-like peptide (GLP)1-induced insulin secretion has been identified to be present in subjects with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, but little is known about its fundamental mechanisms. The state of GLP1 resistance is probably an important mechanism explaining the reduced incretin effect observed in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we address methods that can be used for the measurement of insulin secretion in response to GLP1 in humans, and studies showing that specific diabetes risk genes are associated with resistance of the secretory function of the β-cell in response to GLP1 administration. Furthermore, we discuss other factors that are associated with impaired GLP1-induced insulin secretion, for example, insulin resistance. Finally, we provide evidence that hyperglycaemia per se, the genetic background and their interaction result in the development of GLP1 resistance of the β-cell. We speculate that the response or the non-response to therapy with GLP1 analogues and/or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) inhibitors is critically dependent on GLP1 resistance.

  5. Rhus coriaria ameliorates insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Tarique; Sharma, Manju; Khan, Gyas; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Alam, Mohammad Sarfaraz; Safhi, Mohammed Mohsen; Gupta, Nakul

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of methanolic extract of Rhus coriaria (RC) on hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg) to 2 days old rat pups. RC (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for 5 weeks after the animals were confirmed diabetic (i.e, 90 days after STZ injection). A group of citrate control rats were also maintained which has received citrate buffer on the 2nd day of their birth. There was a significant increase in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum insulin levels were observed in NIDDM control rats. Treatment with RC reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin in the NIDDM rats. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in the same groups, in which we found a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in the rats treated with RC. The insulin sensitivity was assessed for both peripheral insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance. RC treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity index (K(ITT)) which was significantly decreased in NIDDM control rats. There was significant rise in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) in NIDDM control rats whereas RC treatment significantly prevented the rise in HOMA-R in NIDDM treated rats. Our data suggest that methanolic extract of RC significantly delayed the onset of hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance and improved insulin sensitivity in NIDDM rats.

  6. Insulin resistance: an emerging link in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Bikash; Chakrabarty, Mrinmoy

    2013-10-01

    Relentless progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses a grave situation for the biomedical community to tackle. Agents starting as hot favorites in clinical trials have failed in later stages and it is time we reconsidered our approaches to intervene the disease. Quite some interesting work in the last decade has introduced a new school of thought which factors in neuronal glycemic imbalance as a major component for the development of AD. Insulin resistance in the brain has brought forward subsequent sequelae which might work towards amyloid accretion and/or tau hyperphosphorylation. It is also pointed out that insulin works by distributing iron to neuronal tissue and an insulin resistant state throws it off gear leading to iron overloading of neurons which is ultimately detrimental. A relatively recent investigation finds the role of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK3) in AD which also seems to bear a link with insulin resistance.

  7. Role of nutrition in preventing insulin resistance in children.

    PubMed

    Blasetti, Annalisa; Franchini, Simone; Comegna, Laura; Prezioso, Giovanni; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition during prenatal, early postnatal and pubertal period is crucial for the development of insulin resistance and its consequences. During prenatal period fetal environment and nutrition seems to interfere with metabolism programming later in life. The type of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, protein, fat and micronutrient content in maternal nutrition could influence insulin sensitivity in the newborn. The effects of lactation on metabolism and nutritional behavior later in life have been studied. Dietary habits and quality of diet during puberty could prevent the onset of a pathological insulin resistance through an adequate distribution of macro- and micronutrients, a diet rich in fibers and vegetables and poor in saturated fats, proteins and sugars. We want to overview the latest evidences on the risk of insulin resistance later in life due to both nutritional behaviors and components during the aforementioned periods of life, following a chronological outline from fetal development to adolescence.

  8. TRAM1 protect HepG2 cells from palmitate induced insulin resistance through ER stress-JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhuqi; Zhang, Wanlu; Wan, Chunhua; Xu, Guangfei; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhu, Xiaohui; Xia, Nana; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin; Cui, Shiwei; Wang, Cuifang

    2015-02-20

    Excess serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are fundamental to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to obesity-induced insulin resistance in the liver. With high-fat feeding (HFD), FFAs can activate chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in target tissues, initiating negative crosstalk between FFAs and insulin signaling. However, the molecular link between insulin resistance and ER stress remains to be identified. We here reported that translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an ER-resident membrane protein, was involved in the onset of insulin resistance in hepatocytes. TRAM1 was significantly up-regulated in insulin-resistant liver tissues and palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we showed that depletion of TRAM1 led to hyperactivation of CHOP and GRP78, and the activation of downstream JNK pathway. Given the fact that the activation of ER stress played a facilitating role in insulin resistance, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β was also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAM1 markedly attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β in the cells. Moreover, application with JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the effect of TRAM1 interference on Akt phosphorylation. The accumulation of lipid droplets and expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, were also determined and found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt. Glucose uptake assay indicated that knocking down TRAM1 augmented PA-induced down-regulation of glucose uptake, and inhibition of JNK using SP600125 could block the effect of TRAM1 on glucose uptake. These data implicated that TRAM1 might protect HepG2 cells against PA-induced insulin resistance through alleviating ER stress.

  9. Cinnamon: Potential Role in the Prevention of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve all of these variables in in vitro, animal, and/or human studies. In addition, cinnamon has been shown to alleviate factors associated with Alzheimer's disease by blocking and reversing tau formation in vitro and in ischemic stroke by blocking cell swelling. In vitro studies also show that components of cinnamon control angiogenesis associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. Human studies involving control subjects and subjects with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome all show beneficial effects of whole cinnamon and/or aqueous extracts of cinnamon on glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, lipids, antioxidant status, blood pressure, lean body mass, and gastric emptying. However, not all studies have shown positive effects of cinnamon, and type and amount of cinnamon, as well as the type of subjects and drugs subjects are taking, are likely to affect the response to cinnamon. In summary, components of cinnamon may be important in the alleviation and prevention of the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and related diseases. PMID:20513336

  10. Mechanisms involved in cholesterol-induced neuronal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Taghibiglou, Changiz; Bradley, Clarrisa A; Gaertner, Tara; Li, Yuping; Wang, Yushan; Wang, Yu Tian

    2009-09-01

    Insulin receptors (IRs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in normal brain functions, such as learning and memory. Due to the increasing rate of obesity in western societies and overall high fat diets, the incidents of neuronal insulin resistance is also on the rise, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly characterized. We found that cholesterol treatment produces robust insulin signaling resistance that is characterized by the marked reduction in insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR and its downstream targets insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and 2 (IRS2). Surface expression of IRs was also decreased and was correlated with an increase in facilitated receptor endocytosis. Membrane fractionation showed that after cholesterol treatment, the proportion of IRs localized in the lipid raft increased and correspondingly there was a reduction of IRs in the non-raft membrane. Interestingly, we found that IRs in the lipid rafts, unlike their counterparts in the non-raft membrane domain, were essentially unresponsive to insulin stimulation and that a high level of tyrosine phosphatase activity was associated with these raft fractions. Our results suggest that the lipid raft microdomain of the neuronal plasma membrane has a strong influence on IR signaling, and that incorporation of high levels of cholesterol may reduce IR signaling by increasing their representation in lipid rafts. The trapping of the IR in the lipid raft domain may result in its inactivation and promote its endocytosis: effects that could contribute to neuronal insulin resistance in obesity.

  11. Physical inactivity and obesity underlie the insulin resistance of aging.

    PubMed

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Coen, Paul M; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G S; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Age-associated insulin resistance may underlie the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in older adults. We examined a corollary hypothesis that obesity and level of chronic physical inactivity are the true causes for this ostensible effect of aging on insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared insulin sensitivity in 7 younger endurance-trained athletes, 12 older athletes, 11 younger normal-weight subjects, 10 older normal-weight subjects, 15 younger obese subjects, and 15 older obese subjects using a glucose clamp. The nonathletes were sedentary. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was not different in younger endurance-trained athletes versus older athletes, in younger normal-weight subjects versus older normal-weight subjects, or in younger obese subjects versus older obese subjects. Regardless of age, athletes were more insulin sensitive than normal-weight sedentary subjects, who in turn were more insulin sensitive than obese subjects. CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance may not be characteristic of aging but rather associated with obesity and physical inactivity.

  12. Perpetuating Effects of Androgen Deficiency on Insulin-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Judy L.; Jain, Ruhee; Rais, Maham; White, Ashley E.; Beer, Tomasz M.; Kievit, Paul; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Varlamov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly used for treatment of prostate cancer, but is associated with side effects such as sarcopenia and insulin resistance. The role of lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise on insulin sensitivity and body composition in testosterone-deficient males is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between androgen status, diet, and insulin sensitivity. Subjects/Methods Middle-aged (11–12-yo) intact and orchidectomized male rhesus macaques were maintained for two months on a standard chow diet, and then exposed for six months to a Western-style, high-fat/calorie-dense diet (WSD) followed by four months of caloric restriction (CR). Body composition, insulin sensitivity, physical activity, serum cytokine levels, and adipose biopsies were evaluated before and after each dietary intervention. Results Both intact and orchidectomized animals gained similar proportions of body fat, developed visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy, and became insulin resistant in response to the WSD. CR reduced body fat in both groups, but reversed insulin resistance only in intact animals. Orchidectomized animals displayed progressive sarcopenia, which persisted after the switch to CR. Androgen deficiency was associated with increased levels of interleukin-6 and macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22), both of which were elevated during CR. Physical activity levels showed a negative correlation with body fat and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Androgen deficiency exacerbated the negative metabolic side effects of the WSD, such that CR alone was not sufficient to improve altered insulin sensitivity, suggesting that ADT patients will require additional interventions to reverse insulin resistance and sarcopenia. PMID:27534842

  13. Serum Insulin, Glucose, Indices of Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wright, Margaret E.; Männistö, Satu; Limburg, Paul J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2009-01-01

    Background The mitogenic and growth-stimulatory effects of insulin-like growth factors appear to play a role in prostate carcinogenesis, yet any direct association of circulating insulin levels and risk of prostate cancer remains unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship of the level of serum insulin, glucose, and surrogate indices of insulin resistance (ie, the molar ratio of insulin to glucose and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) to the development of prostate cancer in a case–cohort study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of Finnish men. We studied 100 case subjects with incident prostate cancer and 400 noncase subjects without prostate cancer from the larger cohort. Fasting serum was collected 5–12 years before diagnosis. We determined insulin concentrations with a double-antibody immunochemiluminometric assay and glucose concentrations with a hexokinase assay. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated relative risks as odds ratios (ORs), and all statistical tests were two-sided. Results Insulin concentrations in fasting serum that was collected on average 9.2 years before diagnosis among case subjects were 8% higher than among noncase subjects, and the molar ratio of insulin to glucose and HOMA-IR were 10% and 6% higher, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant. Among subjects in the second through fourth insulin quartiles, compared with those in the first quartile, increased insulin levels were associated with statistically significantly increased risks of prostate cancer (OR = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 3.03; OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 0.86 to 3.56; and OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.18 to 5.51; for the second through fourth insulin quartiles, respectively; Ptrend = .02). A similar pattern was observed with the HOMA-IR (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.26; Ptrend = .02) for the highest vs lowest quartiles. Risk varied inconsistently with

  14. Glycation and insulin resistance: novel mechanisms and unique targets?

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2012-08-01

    Multiple biochemical, metabolic, and signal transduction pathways contribute to insulin resistance. In this review, we present evidence that the posttranslational process of protein glycation may play a role in insulin resistance. The posttranslational modifications, the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are formed and accumulated by endogenous and exogenous mechanisms. AGEs may contribute to insulin resistance by a variety of mechanisms, including generation of tumor necrosis factor-α direct modification of the insulin molecule, thereby leading to its impaired action, generation of oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial function, as examples. AGEs may stimulate signal transduction via engagement of cellular receptors, such as receptor for AGEs. AGE-receptor for AGE interaction perpetuates AGE formation and cellular stress via induction of inflammation, oxidative stress, and reduction in the expression and activity of the enzyme glyoxalase I that detoxifies the AGE precursor, methylglyoxal. Once set in motion, glycation-promoting mechanisms may stimulate ongoing AGE production and target tissue stresses that reduce insulin responsiveness. Strategies to limit AGE accumulation and action may contribute to the prevention of insulin resistance and its consequences.

  15. Urinary Arsenic and Insulin Resistance in US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qing; Harlow, Siobán D.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with increased diabetes risk in adults. Insulin resistance (IR) has been proposed as a mechanism of arsenic-related diabetes. Although limited evidence in adults found no association between arsenic and IR, the association in adolescents is largely unknown. We examined the association between urinary arsenic and insulin resistance in US adolescents. Eight hundred thirty five adolescents aged 12-19 years, with complete data on urinary arsenic (total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA)), fasting glucose, insulin and key covariates were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003/2004 through 2009/2010. Generalized additive mixed models accounting for intra-cluster correlation arising from the complex survey design were used to estimate the association between the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2)-IR and each type of arsenic. After adjusting for potential confounders, including urinary creatinine, sociodemographic factors, BMI, waist circumference, and arsenobetaine, arsenic exposure was not associated with HOMA2-IR. Interquartile range increases in total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and DMA were associated with 1.5% (95% CI: -2.0, 5.2), 1.1% (95% CI: -1.5, 3.8) and 0.25% (95% CI: -2.3, 2.9) increases in HOMA2-IR, respectively. In conclusion, despite arsenic's association with diabetes in adults and potential role in insulin resistance, our findings do not support the hypothesis that arsenic exposure at levels common in the US contributes to insulin resistance in adolescents. Whether higher doses and longer exposure duration are required for appreciable influence on insulin resistance, or that arsenic does not act through insulin resistance to induce diabetes needs further investigation.1 PMID:25845984

  16. Urinary arsenic and insulin resistance in US adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Harlow, Siobán D; Park, Sung Kyun

    2015-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with increased diabetes risk in adults. Insulin resistance (IR) has been proposed as a mechanism of arsenic-related diabetes. Although limited evidence in adults found no association between arsenic and IR, the association in adolescents is largely unknown. We examined the association between urinary arsenic and insulin resistance in US adolescents. Eight hundred thirty five adolescents aged 12-19 years, with complete data on urinary arsenic (total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA)), fasting glucose, insulin and key covariates were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003/2004 through 2009/2010. Generalized additive mixed models accounting for intra-cluster correlation arising from the complex survey design were used to estimate the association between the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2)-IR and each type of arsenic. After adjusting for potential confounders, including urinary creatinine, sociodemographic factors, BMI, waist circumference, and arsenobetaine, arsenic exposure was not associated with HOMA2-IR. Interquartile range increases in total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and DMA were associated with 1.5% (95% CI: -2.0, 5.2), 1.1% (95% CI: -1.5, 3.8) and 0.25% (95% CI: -2.3, 2.9) increases in HOMA2-IR, respectively. In conclusion, despite arsenic's association with diabetes in adults and potential role in insulin resistance, our findings do not support the hypothesis that arsenic exposure at levels common in the US contributes to insulin resistance in adolescents. Whether higher doses and longer exposure duration are required for appreciable influence on insulin resistance, or that arsenic does not act through insulin resistance to induce diabetes needs further investigation.

  17. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  18. Insulin Signaling in Insulin Resistance States and Cancer: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Alessandro; Conte, Federica; Mingrone, Geltrude; Papa, Federico; Salinari, Serenella

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the common denominator of several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cancer, and investigating the mechanisms responsible for insulin signaling impairment is of primary importance. A mathematical model of the insulin signaling network (ISN) is proposed and used to investigate the dose-response curves of components of this network. Experimental data of C2C12 myoblasts with phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) suppressed and data of L6 myotubes with induced insulin resistance have been analyzed by the model. We focused particularly on single and double Akt phosphorylation and pointed out insulin signaling changes related to insulin resistance. Moreover, a new characterization of the upstream signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is presented. As it is widely recognized that ISN proteins have a crucial role also in cell proliferation and death, the ISN model was linked to a cell population model and applied to data of a cell line of acute myeloid leukemia treated with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor with antitumor activity. The analysis revealed simple relationships among the concentrations of ISN proteins and the parameters of the cell population model that characterize cell cycle progression and cell death. PMID:27149630

  19. Green Synthesis of Oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan Nanocomposites and Its Ameliorative Effect on Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Jie, Xu; Guo, Yongli; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the preparation, characterization, and ameliorative effect on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress in mice of novel oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan (OV/CS) nanocomposites were investigated. The nanobiocomposite was produced by chemical reduction by chitosan and L-ascorbic acid using microwave heating, under environment-friendly conditions, using aqueous solutions, and notably, by using both mediators as reducing and stabilizing agents. In addition, OV/CS nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential measurements. In vivo experiments were designed to examine whether the OV/CS nanocomposites would provide additional benefits on oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. The results rendered insulin resistant by treating with OV/CS nanocomposites alleviate insulin resistance and improve oxidative stress. Such nanocomposite seem to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Eleutheroside E, An Active Component of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jiyun; Um, Min Young; Lee, Hyunjung; Jung, Chang Hwa; Heo, Seok Hyun; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-01-01

    Eleutheroside E (EE), a principal component of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in ischemia heart. However, it is unknown whether it ameliorates insulin resistance and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetes. This study investigated the effect of EE-containing ES extracts, as well as EE, on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice. EE increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, EE improved TNF-α-induced suppression of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Five-week-old db/db mice were fed a diet consisting of ES extract or EE for 5 weeks. Both were effective in improving serum lipid profiles and significantly decreased blood glucose and serum insulin levels. ES and EE supplementation effectively attenuated HOMA-IR. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests showed that EE increased insulin sensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that ES and EE protected pancreatic alpha and beta cells from diabetic damage. In addition, ES and EE improved hepatic glucose metabolism by upregulating glycolysis and downregulating gluconeogenesis in obese type 2 diabetic mice. These data suggest that EE mediates the hyperglycemic effects of ES by regulating insulin signaling and glucose utilization. The beneficial effects of EE may provide an effective and powerful strategy to alleviate diabetes. PMID:23690865

  1. Eleutheroside E, An Active Component of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyun; Um, Min Young; Lee, Hyunjung; Jung, Chang Hwa; Heo, Seok Hyun; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-01-01

    Eleutheroside E (EE), a principal component of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in ischemia heart. However, it is unknown whether it ameliorates insulin resistance and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetes. This study investigated the effect of EE-containing ES extracts, as well as EE, on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice. EE increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, EE improved TNF- α -induced suppression of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Five-week-old db/db mice were fed a diet consisting of ES extract or EE for 5 weeks. Both were effective in improving serum lipid profiles and significantly decreased blood glucose and serum insulin levels. ES and EE supplementation effectively attenuated HOMA-IR. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests showed that EE increased insulin sensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that ES and EE protected pancreatic alpha and beta cells from diabetic damage. In addition, ES and EE improved hepatic glucose metabolism by upregulating glycolysis and downregulating gluconeogenesis in obese type 2 diabetic mice. These data suggest that EE mediates the hyperglycemic effects of ES by regulating insulin signaling and glucose utilization. The beneficial effects of EE may provide an effective and powerful strategy to alleviate diabetes.

  2. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Lustig, Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity.

  3. Focal adhesion kinase negatively regulates neuronal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Bisht, Bharti; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein kinase, is known to be a phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activator and thus widely implicated in regulation of cell survival and cancer. In recent years FAK has also been strongly implicated as a crucial regulator of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues like skeletal muscle and liver, where decrease in its expression/activity has been shown to lead to insulin resistance. However, in the present study we report an altogether different role of FAK in regulation of insulin/PI3K signaling in neurons, the post-mitotic cells. An aberrant increase in FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in insulin resistant Neuro-2a (N2A) cells. Downregulation of FAK expression utilizing RNAi mediated gene silencing in insulin resistant N2A cells completely ameliorated the impaired insulin/PI3K signaling and glucose uptake. FAK silencing in primary cortical neurons also showed marked enhancement in glucose uptake. The results thus suggest that in neurons FAK acts as a negative regulator of insulin/PI3K signaling. Interestingly, the available literature also demonstrates cell-type specific functions of FAK in neurons. FAK that is well known for its cell survival effects has been shown to be involved in neurodegeneration. Along with these previous reports, present findings highlight a novel and critical role of FAK in neurons. Moreover, as this implicates differential regulation of insulin/PI3K pathway by FAK in peripheral tissues and neuronal cells, it strongly suggests precaution while considering FAK modulators as possible therapeutics.

  4. Lipid metabolism disturbances contribute to insulin resistance and decrease insulin sensitivity by malathion exposure in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Bouzid, Kahena; Douib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Elj, Naziha; El Fazaa, Saloua; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Gharbi, Najoua

    2015-04-01

    Several studies showed that organophosphorus pesticides disturb glucose homeostasis and can increase incidence of metabolic disorders and diabetes via insulin resistance. The current study investigates the influence of malathion on glucose metabolism regulation, in vivo, during subchronic exposure. Malathion was administered orally (200 mg/kg), once a day for 28 consecutive days. Plasma glucose, insulin and Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased while hepatic glycogen content was decreased in intoxicated animals compared with the control group. Furthermore, there was a significant disturbance of lipid content in subchronic treated and post-treated rats deprived of malathion for one month. In addition, we used the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β). Our results show that malathion increases insulin resistance biomarkers and decreases insulin sensitivity indices. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there was a positive and strong significant correlation between insulin level and insulin resistance indices, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β. Similarly, a negative and significant correlation was also found between insulin level and insulin sensitivity indices. For the first time, we demonstrate that malathion induces insulin resistance in vivo using homeostasis model assessment and these changes were detectable one month after the end of exposure. To explain insulin resistance induced by malathion we focus on lipid metabolism disturbances and their interaction with many proteins involved in insulin signaling pathways.

  5. Salt, aldosterone, and insulin resistance: impact on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Lastra, Guido; Dhuper, Sonal; Johnson, Megan S; Sowers, James R

    2010-10-01

    Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are powerful risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), both of which are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of CVD and CKD risk factors has identified salt sensitivity and insulin resistance as key elements underlying the relationship between hypertension and T2DM. Excess dietary salt and caloric intake, as commonly found in westernized diets, is linked not only to increased blood pressure, but also to defective insulin sensitivity and impaired glucose homeostasis. In this setting, activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), as well as increased signaling through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), result in increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, which in turn contribute to insulin resistance and impaired vascular function. In addition, insulin resistance is not limited to classic insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, but it also affects the cardiovascular system, where it participates in the development of CVD and CKD. Current clinical knowledge points towards an impact of salt restriction, RAAS blockade, and MR antagonism on cardiovascular and renal protection, but also on improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.

  6. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Paska A. . E-mail: Paska.Permana@med.va.gov; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-03-10

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

  7. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Johnson, William D; Champagne, Catherine M; Cefalu, William T

    2010-10-01

    Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m(-2)⋅min(-1)). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants.

  8. Plasma obestatin is lower at fasting and not suppressed by insulin in insulin-resistant humans.

    PubMed

    Anderwald-Stadler, Marietta; Krebs, Michael; Promintzer, Miriam; Mandl, Martina; Bischof, Martin G; Nowotny, Peter; Kästenbauer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Prager, Rudolf; Anderwald, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Obestatin, a recently discovered 23-amino acid peptide, is involved in the regulation of appetite and body weight in antagonistic fashion to ghrelin, both deriving from a common precursor peptide. Ghrelin was shown to be associated with insulin resistance, which may also affect obestatin. We investigated the association between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of obestatin and ghrelin in nondiabetic individuals with high (IS; n = 18, 13 females and 5 males, age 47 +/- 2 yr, BMI = 25.5 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) and low (IR; n = 18, 12 females and 6 males, age 45 +/- 2 yr, P = 0.49, BMI = 27.5 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2), P = 0.17) insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M), measured by 2-h hyperinsulinemic (40 mU.min(-1).m(-2)) isoglycemic clamp tests. M(100-120 min) was higher in IS (10.7 +/- 0.7) than in IR (4.4 +/- 0.2 mg.min(-1).kg(-1), P < 10(-9)), whereas insulin-dependent suppression of free fatty acids (FFA) in plasma was reduced in IR (71 +/- 6% vs. IS: 82 +/- 5%, P < 0.02). In both groups, plasma ghrelin concentrations were comparable at fasting and similarly reduced by 24-28% during insulin infusion. IR had lower fasting plasma obestatin levels (383 +/- 26 pg/ml vs. IS: 469 +/- 23 pg/ml, P < 0.02). Clamp insulin infusion reduced plasma obestatin to approximately 81% of basal values in IS (P < 0.00002), but not in IR. Fasting plasma obestatin was correlated positively with M (r = 0.34, P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (r = 0.45, P = 0.01), and plasma ghrelin concentrations (r = 0.80, P < 0.000001) and negatively with measures of adiposity, plasma FFA during clamp (r = -0.42, P < 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (r = -0.33, P < 0.05). In conclusion, fasting plasma concentrations of obestatin, but not of ghrelin, are reduced in insulin resistance and are positively associated with whole body insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic humans. Furthermore, plasma obestatin is reduced by insulin in insulin-sensitive but not in insulin-resistant persons.

  9. ADIPOQ polymorphisms are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Aya; Kitamoto, Takuya; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakata, Yoshio; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Ochi, Hidenori; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kamohara, Seika; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kotani, Kazuaki; Mineo, Ikuo; Wada, Jun; Ogawa, Yuji; Yoneda, Masato; Nakajima, Atsushi; Funahashi, Tohru; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Katsuto; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Ueno, Takato; Chayama, Kazuaki; Hamaguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Kentaro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sakata, Toshiie; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Hotta, Kikuko

    2015-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation contributes to the development of insulin resistance, leading to metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin provides a link between visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors play important roles in visceral fat accumulation and circulating adiponectin levels. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genetic variations in the adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ) gene that are associated with adiponectin levels. In this study, we investigated whether ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance. We measured the visceral fat area (VFA) by computed tomography (CT) and examined the presence of the insulin resistance-related phenotype (fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) in a set of Japanese individuals (731 men and 864 women) who were genotyped for seven ADIPOQ SNPs reported by recent GWASs (namely, rs6810075, rs10937273, rs1648707, rs864265, rs182052, rs17366568, and rs6773957). SNPs associated with the phenotype (P < 0.05) were then evaluated by association analysis using a second set of the study participants (383 men and 510 women). None of the SNPs was associated with body mass index (BMI) or VFA in men or women. However, the adiponectin-decreasing alleles of rs10937273 and rs1648707 were significantly associated with HOMA-IR (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.00074, respectively) in women, independently of BMI. These SNPs were significantly associated with decreased adiponectin levels in women. Our results suggested that rs10937273 and rs1648707 may affect insulin sensitivity by regulating adiponectin production by adipose tissue in women.

  10. Insulin resistance and acne: a new risk factor for men?

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Michela; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Di Somma, Carolina; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Colao, Annamaria

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between acne and insulin resistance as well as other metabolic impairment in young males. Acne is a skin disease that can be influenced by endocrine abnormalities. In females, it is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, with peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, whereas few data are available in males. For investigating this, 22 young males with acne have been compared to 22 controls of comparable age and gender. Acne was scored using the global acne grading system score. Clinical as well as biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, circulating levels of androgens, and IGF-1 were evaluated. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. The results thus obtained are as follows, patients had higher BMI (p = 0.003), WC (p = 0.002), WHR (p = 0.02), SBP (p = 0.0001), DBP (p = 0.001), basal (p = 0.01) and 120 min. oGTT serum insulin concentrations (p = 0.002), basal glucose concentrations (p = 0.03), HOMA-IR (p = 0.016), and lower HDL-cholesterol than controls (p = 0.001). Among the subgroup of subjects with BMI <24.9, HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05) and 120 min. oGTT serum insulin concentrations (p = 0.009) resulted to be independent predictors of acne at multivariate analysis. In conclusion, these findings highlight a metabolic imbalance in young males affected with acne. Insulin resistance seems to play the main role for the development of acne in these subjects. Insulin resistance could represent an effective target for therapy in male acne.

  11. Impaired activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by insulin in fibroblasts from patients with severe insulin resistance and pseudoacromegaly. A disorder characterized by selective postreceptor insulin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Dib, K; Whitehead, J P; Humphreys, P J; Soos, M A; Baynes, K C; Kumar, S; Harvey, T; O'Rahilly, S

    1998-01-01

    Some patients with severe insulin resistance develop pathological tissue growth reminiscent of acromegaly. Previous studies of such patients have suggested the presence of a selective postreceptor defect of insulin signaling, resulting in the impairment of metabolic but preservation of mitogenic signaling. As the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is considered essential for insulin's metabolic signaling, we have examined insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity in anti-insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 immunoprecipitates from cultured dermal fibroblasts obtained from pseudoacromegalic (PA) patients and controls. At a concentration of insulin (1 nM) similar to that seen in vivo in PA patients, the activation of IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase was reduced markedly in fibroblasts from the PA patients (32+/-7% of the activity of normal controls, P < 0.01). Genetic and biochemical studies indicated that this impairment was not secondary to a defect in the structure, expression, or activation of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, or p85alpha. Insulin stimulation of mitogenesis in PA fibroblasts, as determined by thymidine incorporation, was indistinguishable from controls, as was mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, confirming the integrity of insulin's mitogenic signaling pathways in this condition. These findings support the existence of an intrinsic defect of postreceptor insulin signaling in the PA subtype of insulin resistance, which involves impairment of the activation of PI 3-kinase. The PA tissue growth seen in such patients is likely to result from severe in vivo hyperinsulinemia activating intact mitogenic signaling pathways emanating from the insulin receptor. PMID:9486982

  12. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention. PMID:21696633

  13. Neurolytic celiac plexus block enhances skeletal muscle insulin signaling and attenuates insulin resistance in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Chen, Tao; Li, Kun; Yan, Hongtao; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Yulan; Su, Bingyin; Li, Fuxiang

    2016-05-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is associated with chronic inflammatory activity and disrupted insulin signaling, leading to insulin resistance (IR). The present study investigated the benefits of neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) on IR in a rat NIDDM model. Goto-Kakizaki rats fed a high-fat, high-glucose diet to induce signs of NIDDM were randomly divided into NCPB and control groups; these received daily bilateral 0.5% lidocaine or 0.9% saline injections into the celiac plexus, respectively. Following 14 and 28 daily injections, rats were subject to oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) or sacrificed for the analysis of serum free fatty acids (FFAs), serum inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Compared with controls, rats in the NCPB group demonstrated significantly (P<0.05) lower baseline, 60-min and 120-min OGTT values, lower 120-min serum insulin, lower IR [higher insulin sensitivity index (ISI1) and lower ISI2) and lower serum FFAs, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Conversely, NCPB rats exhibited higher basal and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake and higher skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 expression. There were no differences between the groups in insulin receptor β (Rβ) or Akt expression; however Rβ-Y1162/Y1163 and Akt-S473 phosphorylation levels were higher and IRS-1-S307 phosphorylation were lower in NCPB rats than in the controls. These results indicate that NCPB improved insulin signaling and reduced IR, possibly by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine release.

  14. Neurolytic celiac plexus block enhances skeletal muscle insulin signaling and attenuates insulin resistance in GK rats

    PubMed Central

    LI, JUN; CHEN, TAO; LI, KUN; YAN, HONGTAO; LI, XIAOWEI; YANG, YUN; ZHANG, YULAN; SU, BINGYIN; LI, FUXIANG

    2016-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is associated with chronic inflammatory activity and disrupted insulin signaling, leading to insulin resistance (IR). The present study investigated the benefits of neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) on IR in a rat NIDDM model. Goto-Kakizaki rats fed a high-fat, high-glucose diet to induce signs of NIDDM were randomly divided into NCPB and control groups; these received daily bilateral 0.5% lidocaine or 0.9% saline injections into the celiac plexus, respectively. Following 14 and 28 daily injections, rats were subject to oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) or sacrificed for the analysis of serum free fatty acids (FFAs), serum inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Compared with controls, rats in the NCPB group demonstrated significantly (P<0.05) lower baseline, 60-min and 120-min OGTT values, lower 120-min serum insulin, lower IR [higher insulin sensitivity index (ISI1) and lower ISI2) and lower serum FFAs, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Conversely, NCPB rats exhibited higher basal and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake and higher skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 expression. There were no differences between the groups in insulin receptor β (Rβ) or Akt expression; however Rβ-Y1162/Y1163 and Akt-S473 phosphorylation levels were higher and IRS-1-S307 phosphorylation were lower in NCPB rats than in the controls. These results indicate that NCPB improved insulin signaling and reduced IR, possibly by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:27168847

  15. Evaluation of leptin and insulin resistance in patients with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Atamer, Aytaç; Ovünç, Ayşe Oya Kurdaş; Yeşil, Atakan; Atamer, Yildiz

    2013-08-01

    The association between insulin resistance, lipoproteins and leptin was evaluated in cholelithiasis. The study group included 55 women (68.8%) and 25 men (31.3%) with a mean age and SD of 50.56 +/- 14.28 yrs. The control group included 25 women (62.5%) and 15 men (37.5%) with a mean age of 50.93 +/- 11.73 yrs. Serum leptin levels were measured by the enzyme immunoassay method. HOMA-IR was determined by using fasting glucose and insulin levels. Insulin, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HOMA-IR (p < 0.01) and leptin (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the cholelithiasis group, compared to the controls. In patients with a HOMA-IR >2.2, age, body mass index (BMI), glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), TC and leptin levels were higher than in patients with a HOMA-IR < 2.2. In patients with glucose levels >100 mg/dl, mean BMI, HOMA-IR, insulin, TG, TC and leptin levels were significantly higher than in patients with glucose levels <100 mg/dl. In patients with TG levels >150 mg/dl, mean age, BMI, glucose, insulin, TC, leptin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher than in patients with TG levels < 150 mg/dl. In patients with BMI > 25 kg/m2, mean age, glucose, insulin, TG, TC, leptin, HOMA-IR were significantly higher than in patients with BMI < 25. In cholelithiasis group, there was a positive correlation between leptin and age, BMI, glucose, insulin, TG, TC, LDL-C or HOMA-IR. In conclusion, we found a positive association between increased leptin levels and abnormal lipoprotein metabolism in cholelithiasis. Cholelithiasis subjects with insulin resistance showed higher cardiometabolic risk factors than those without it.

  16. Insulin resistance in young, lean male subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Belan, V; Blazicek, P; Imrich, R; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M; Selko, D; Koska, J; Radikova, Z

    2011-06-01

    Impaired insulin action, frequently found in essential hypertension (HT), is modified by other factors, such as higher age, accumulation of body fat, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, antihypertensive and insulin-sensitizing medication itself may significantly affect cardiovascular and metabolic milieu. The aim of this study was to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, lipidaemic status and the adipokines' concentrations with regard to abdominal fat distribution in young, lean male subjects with treatment-naïve essential HT and in matched healthy normotensive (NT) subjects. We studied 27 HT patients (age: 19.9±0.6 years; body mass index (BMI): 22.9±0.5 kg m(-2)) and 15 NT controls (age: 22.3±1.0 years; BMI: 23.7±0.6 kg m(-2)). The subjects underwent an oral and an intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT, IVGTT) on separate days in random order. Higher fasting insulin (P<0.001), non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05) and plasminogen activator inhibitor factor 1 concentrations (P<0.05) were found in HT patients when compared with NT patients. Despite comparable anthropometric parameters and body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in both groups, newly diagnosed untreated young hypertensive male subjects showed decreased insulin sensitivity, augmented insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose load (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) and 'higher still normal' 2-h plasma glucose levels during OGTT. Untreated, young, lean hypertensive male subjects, with distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and lipid profile comparable with their healthy NT matched counterparts, showed considerable signs of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. We hypothesize that insulin resistance is the initial feature, which is influenced by several environmental factors, and HT is one of their common consequences.

  17. A Model of Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Candelaresi, Cinzia; Saccomanno, Stefania; Ferretti, Gianna; Bachetti, Tiziana; Marzioni, Marco; De Minicis, Samuele; Nobili, Liliana; Salzano, Renata; Omenetti, Alessia; Pacetti, Deborah; Sigmund, Soeren; Benedetti, Antonio; Casini, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We used a high-fat, high-calorie solid diet (HFD) to create a model of insulin resistance and NASH in nongenetically modified rats and to study the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and liver. Obesity and insulin resistance occurred in HFD rats, accompanied by a progressive increase in visceral adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA and in circulating free fatty acids. HFD also decreased adiponectin mRNA and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α expression in the visceral adipose tissue and the liver, respectively, and induced hepatic insulin resistance through TNF-α-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent insulin receptor substrate-1Ser307 phosphorylation. These modifications lead to hepatic steatosis accompanied by oxidative stress phenomena, necroinflammation, and hepatocyte apoptosis at 4 weeks and by pericentral fibrosis at 6 months. Supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, a PPARα ligand, to HFD-treated animals restored hepatic adiponectin and PPARα expression, reduced TNF-α hepatic levels, and ameliorated fatty liver and the degree of liver injury. Thus, our model mimics the most common features of NASH in humans and provides an ideal tool to study the role of individual pathogenetic events (as for PPARα down-regulation) and to define any future experimental therapy, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, which ameliorated the degree of liver injury. PMID:16936261

  18. Defect in cooperativity in insulin receptors from a patient with a congenital form of extreme insulin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S I; Leventhal, S

    1983-01-01

    Previously, we have described a novel qualitative defect in insulin receptors from a patient with a genetic form of extreme insulin resistance (leprechaunism). Receptors from this insulin-resistant child are characterized by two abnormalities: (a) an abnormally high binding affinity for insulin, and (b) a markedly reduced sensitivity of 125I-insulin binding to alterations in pH and temperature. In this paper, we have investigated the kinetic mechanism of this abnormality in steady-state binding. The increased binding affinity for 125I-insulin results from a decrease in the dissociation rate of the hormone-receptor complex. In addition, the cooperative interactions among insulin binding sites are defective with insulin receptors from this child with leprechaunism. With insulin receptors on cultured lymphocytes from normal subjects, both negative and positive cooperativity may be observed. Porcine insulin accelerates the dissociation of the hormone-receptor complex (negative cooperativity). In contrast, certain insulin analogs such as desoctapeptide-insulin and desalanine-desasparagine-insulin retard the dissociation of the hormone-receptor complex (positive cooperativity). With insulin receptors from the leprechaun child, positive cooperativity could not be demonstrated, although negative cooperativity appeared to be normal. It seems likely that the same genetic defect may be responsible for the abnormalities in both insulin sensitivity and positive cooperativity. PMID:6345588

  19. Grizzly bears exhibit augmented insulin sensitivity while obese prior to a reversible insulin resistance during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Jansen, Heiko T; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Morgenstern, Kurt; Gehring, Jamie Lauren; Rigano, Kimberly Scott; Lee, Jae; Gong, Jianhua; Shaywitz, Adam J; Vella, Chantal A; Robbins, Charles T; Corbit, Kevin C

    2014-08-05

    The confluence of obesity and diabetes as a worldwide epidemic necessitates the discovery of new therapies. Success in this endeavor requires translatable preclinical studies, which traditionally employ rodent models. As an alternative approach, we explored hibernation where obesity is a natural adaptation to survive months of fasting. Here we report that grizzly bears exhibit seasonal tripartite insulin responsiveness such that obese animals augment insulin sensitivity but only weeks later enter hibernation-specific insulin resistance (IR) and subsequently reinitiate responsiveness upon awakening. Preparation for hibernation is characterized by adiposity coupled to increased insulin sensitivity via modified PTEN/AKT signaling specifically in adipose tissue, suggesting a state of "healthy" obesity analogous to humans with PTEN haploinsufficiency. Collectively, we show that bears reversibly cope with homeostatic perturbations considered detrimental to humans and describe a mechanism whereby IR functions not as a late-stage metabolic adaptation to obesity, but rather a gatekeeper of the fed-fasting transition.

  20. Fraction from wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] fruit extract ameliorates insulin resistance via modulating insulin signaling and inflammation pathway in tumor necrosis factor α-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chang, Chiao-Li

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, mouse FL83B cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance, and then co-incubated with a fraction from wax apple fruit extract (FWFE). This fraction significantly increased the uptake of the nonradioactive fluorescent indicator 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) in insulin resistant cells. Western blot analysis revealed that, compared with the TNF-α-treated control group, FWFE increased the expression of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), and increased IR tyrosyl phosporylation, in insulin resistant FL83B cells. However, FWFE decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not the expression of the intercellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), in the same cells. These results suggest that FWFE might alleviate insulin resistance in TNF-α-treated FL83B cells by activating PI3K-Akt/PKB signaling and inhibiting inflammatory response via suppression of JNK, rather than ERK, activation.

  1. Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Max C.; Madiraju, Anila K.; Gassaway, Brandon M.; Marcel, Michael; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Marcucci, Melissa J.; Zhang, Dongyan; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Zhang, Xian-Man; Philbrick, William; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Samuel, Varman T.; Rinehart, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop. We hypothesized that Thr1160 phosphorylation impairs INSR kinase activity by destabilizing the active configuration of the INSR kinase, and our results confirmed this prediction by demonstrating severely impaired INSR kinase activity in phosphomimetic T1160E mutants. Conversely, the INSR T1160A mutant was not inhibited by PKCε in vitro. Furthermore, mice with a threonine-to-alanine mutation at the homologous residue Thr1150 (InsrT1150A mice) were protected from high fat diet–induced hepatic insulin resistance. InsrT1150A mice also displayed increased insulin signaling, suppression of hepatic glucose production, and increased hepatic glycogen synthesis compared with WT controls during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. These data reveal a critical pathophysiological role for INSR Thr1160 phosphorylation and provide further mechanistic links between PKCε and INSR in mediating NAFLD-induced hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:27760050

  2. Dietary patterns and the insulin resistance phenotype among non-diabetic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Information on the relation between dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis and insulin resistance is scarce. Objective: To compare insulin resistance phenotypes, including waist circumference, body mass index, fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (I...

  3. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin-resistant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Blaszczak, Alecia; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-11-15

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance; however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilization in adults with IFG, IGT, or IFG + IGT is unknown. Twenty-four older (66.7 ± 0.8 yr) obese (34.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) adults were categorized as IFG (n = 8), IGT (n = 8), or IFG + IGT (n = 8) according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects underwent 12-wk of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/wk at ∼85% HRmax) and were instructed to maintain a eucaloric diet. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) with [6,6-(2)H]glucose was used to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Nonoxidative glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility [insulin-stimulated respiratory quotient (RQ) minus fasting RQ] were also assessed. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUCOGTT) was calculated from the OGTT. Exercise increased clamp-derived peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity more in adults with IFG or IGT alone than with IFG + IGT (P < 0.05). Exercise reduced glucose iAUCOGTT in IGT only (P < 0.05), and the decrease in glucose iAUCOGTT was inversely correlated with the increase in peripheral but not hepatic insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01). Increased clamp-derived peripheral insulin sensitivity was also correlated with enhanced metabolic flexibility, reduced fasting RQ, and higher nonoxidative glucose disposal (P < 0.05). Adults with IFG + IGT had smaller gains in clamp-derived peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility, which was related to blunted improvements in postprandial glucose. Additional work is required to assess the molecular mechanism(s) by which chronic hyperglycemia modifies insulin sensitivity following exercise training.

  4. [Insulin sensitizer--anti-diabetic drugs, metformin and pioglitazone that can improve insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Masaaki; Kawaguchi, Koutaro; Korenaga, Keiko; Uchida, Kouichi; Sakaida, Iso

    2006-06-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome is an increasingly cause of chronic liver disease in Japan. NASH is finally lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as viral hepatitis, therefore, medical treatment should be considered, when NASH occurs. Treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome has been focused on the management of associated conditions such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin resistance, that could accelerate liver inflammation and fibrosis by up-regulation of TNFa seems to be most important factor in many cases of NASH. The insulin-sensitizing drugs, which were biguanides (metformin) and thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone) have been shown to correct not only insulin resistance but also steatosis and inflammation in the liver. Metformin and pioglitazone might be useful drugs against NASH, however further investigations were needed.

  5. Delayed insulin transport across endothelium in insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wascher, T C; Wölkart, G; Russell, J C; Brunner, F

    2000-05-01

    Capillary endothelial cells are thought to limit the transport of insulin across the endothelium, resulting in attenuated insulin action at target sites. Whether endothelial insulin transport is altered in dysglycemic insulin-resistant states is not clear and was therefore investigated in the JCR:LA-cp corpulent male rat, which exhibits the metabolic syndrome of obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Lean littermates that did not develop these alterations served as controls. Animals of both groups were normotensive (mean arterial pressure 136+/-2 mmHg). Hearts from obese and lean rats aged 7 (n = 6) or 18 (n = 8) weeks were perfused in vitro at 10 ml/min per gram wet wt over 51 min with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.1 or 0.5 U human insulin/l (equivalent to 0.6 and 3 nmol/l). Interstitial fluid was collected using a validated method, and interstitial insulin was determined with a radioimmunoassay. At 0.1 U/l, insulin transfer velocity was similar in both experimental groups (half-times of transfer: 11+/-0.2 min in obese and 18+/-4 min in lean rats; NS), but at 0.5 U/l, the respective half-times were 7+/-1 min in lean and 13+/-2 min in obese rats (P < 0.05). The steady-state level of insulin in the interstitium was 34+/-1% of the vascular level at 0.1 U/l and reached the vascular level (102+/-2%) at 0.5 U/l in both lean and obese rats. In rats aged 18 weeks, the half-times of insulin transfer were 31+/-2 and 14+/-l min in obese rats and 10+/-0.3 and 7+/-0.3 min in lean rats (P < 0.05). Again, interstitial steady-state levels were similar in both groups. Finally, postprandial insulin dynamics were simulated over a period of 120 min with a peak concentration of 0.8 U/l in rats aged 27 weeks (n = 4). The maximal interstitial level was 0.38+/-0.02 U/l in lean rats and 0.24+/-0.02 U/l in obese rats (P < 0.05), and a similar difference was noted throughout insulin infusion (areas under the transudate concentration-time curves: 17 and 11 U

  6. Adipose proteome analysis: focus on mediators of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Hess, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    As is well known, adipose tissue is an important site for lipid metabolism and insulin-responsive glucose uptake. The recent discovery of the endocrine function of adipose tissue and the association of obesity with chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue has reinforced the concept of the central role of adipose tissue in mediating obesity-linked insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. The study of adipose cells has provided new insights into the mechanism underlying insulin resistance as well as the therapeutic strategies for diabetes. Numerous efforts have been made in identifying key molecular regulators of insulin action and metabolism, including the utilization of advanced proteomics technology. Various proteomic approaches have been applied to identify the adipose secretome, protein-expression profiling and post-translational modifications in adipose cells in the pathological state. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the proteomics of adipose tissue, and discuss the identified proteins that potentially play important roles in insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:19086862

  7. Role of PTEN in TNFα induced insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bulger, David A.; Conley, Jermaine; Conner, Spencer H.; Majumdar, Gipsy; Solomon, Solomon S.

    2015-06-05

    Aims/hypothesis: PTEN may play a reversible role in TNFα induced insulin resistance, which has been linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Methods: Western blots for PTEN and p-Akt were performed on H-411E liver cells incubated with insulin, TNFα, and in selected experiments VO-OHpic vanadium complex in the presence and absence of PTEN siRNA. Total PTEN was compared to β-actin loading control and p-Akt was compared to total Akt. Results: Western blot and Real Time RT-PCR experiments showed increased PTEN after TNFα treatment (p = 0.04); slightly decreased PTEN after insulin treatment; and slightly increased PTEN after insulin + TNFα treatment. PTEN siRNA markedly inhibited the TNFα-induced increase in PTEN (p < 0.01) without significantly changing the p-Akt levels. The vanadium complex, exhibiting insulin-like effects, also significantly prevented the TNFα-induced increase in PTEN. Combining insulin and VO-OHpic was additive, providing both proof of concept and insight into mechanism. Discussion: The PTEN increase due to TNFα treatment was reversible by both PTEN siRNA knockdown and VO-OHpic treatment. Thus, PTEN is identified as a potential new therapeutic target for reducing IR in Type 2 DM. - Highlights: • TNFα treatment induced a significant increase in PTEN in H-411E liver cells. • PTEN siRNA knockdown prevented this effect. • VO-OHpic (vanadium complex) treatment, like insulin, decreased PTEN protein levels. • Thus, PTEN is identified as a potential therapeutic target in DM Type 2.

  8. Is Insulin Resistance a Feature of or a Primary Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease?

    PubMed

    Laakso, Markku

    2015-12-01

    The two major pathophysiological abnormalities in type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance is a general term meaning that insulin does not exert its normal effects in insulin-sensitive target tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver, the major target tissues for insulin action in glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance (IR) promotes cardiovascular disease via multiple mechanisms, including changes in classic cardiovascular risk factors and downregulation of the insulin signaling pathways in different tissues. This review presents evidence for the association of insulin resistance with cardiovascular disease from clinical and population-based studies. The causality of the association of insulin resistance with cardiovascular disease is discussed on the basis of recent findings from the Mendelian randomization studies.

  9. Associations of vitamin D with insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-09-20

    ) relative paucity of rigorous clinical data on the effects of vitamin D sufficiency on non-calcium endpoints. Although a large number of observational studies support improving T2D, insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome with vitamin D adequacy, there is a lack of conclusive evidence from randomized control clinical trials that, these disorders are prevented following optimization of serum levels of 25(OH)D. However, none of the currently conducted clinical studies would resolve these issues. Thus, specifically designed, new clinical studies are needed to be conducted in well-defined populations, following normalizing the serum vitamin D levels in vitamin D deficient prediabetes subjects, to test the hypothesis that hypovitaminosis D worsens these disorders and correction would alleviate it.

  10. Insulin continues to induce plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene expression in insulin-resistant mice and adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Samad, F.; Pandey, M.; Bell, P. A.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk is well established, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The antifibrinolytic molecule plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a cardiovascular risk factor that is consistently elevated in insulin-resistant states such as obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The strong positive correlation between this elevated PAI-1 and the degree of hyperinsulinemia not only implicates insulin itself in this increase, but also suggests that PAI-1 is regulated by a pathway that does not become insulin resistant. The data in this report supports this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We show that insulin stimulates PAI-1 gene expression in metabolically insulin-resistant ob/ob mice and in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence that glucose transport and PAI-1 gene expression are mediated by different insulin signaling pathways. These observations suggest that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia that is frequently associated with insulin-resistant states, directly contribute to the elevated PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a potential mechanism for the abnormal increases in cardiovascular risk genes in obesity, NIDDM, and polycystic ovary disease. PMID:11055587

  11. Influence of magnesium on insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Pinto, Denise Pereira; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Colli, Célia; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of magnesium on insulin resistance in obese women. A case-control study involving 114 women on the age between 20 and 50 years old, divided into two groups: control (eutrophic women, n = 59) and case (obese women, n = 55). The analysis of magnesium intake was carried out through the 3-day food record and also NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The determinations of serum glucose and serum insulin were performed by enzymatic colorimetric method and chemiluminescence, respectively. The insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The mean values of magnesium intake were lower than those recommended, without difference between groups (p > 0.05). All the patients who were evaluated showed adequate mean concentrations of magnesium in the plasma and erythrocyte. The urinary excretion of this mineral was lower than the reference values in both groups and did not show significant difference (p > 0.05). The values of serum glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher in obese women compared to the control group. A negative correlation was observed between erythrocyte magnesium and glycemic parameters (p < 0.05). Obese patients take in foods with low dietary magnesium content, and they show hypomagnesuria as a compensatory mechanism to keep the plasma concentration of this mineral in adequate levels. The correlation between the erythrocyte magnesium concentration and the parameters of glycemic control suggests the influence of this mineral on the index of insulin resistance in obese women.

  12. Vitamin D insufficiency and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Aneesh K.; Belenchia, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Obese adolescents represent a particularly vulnerable group for vitamin D deficiency which appears to have negative consequences on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. Poor vitamin D status is also associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the obese. The biological mechanisms by which vitamin D influences glycemic control in obesity are not well understood, but are thought to involve enhancement of peripheral/hepatic uptake of glucose, attenuation of inflammation and/or regulation of insulin synthesis/secretion by pancreatic β cells. Related to the latter, recent data suggest that the active form of vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, does not impact insulin release in healthy pancreatic islets; instead they require an environmental stressor such as inflammation or vitamin D deficiency to see an effect. To date, a number of observational studies exploring the relationship between the vitamin D status of obese adolescents and markers of glucose homeostasis have been published. Most, although not all, show significant associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamn D concentrations and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices. In interpreting the collective findings of these reports, significant considerations surface including the effects of pubertal status, vitamin D status, influence of parathyroid hormone status and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The few published clinical trials using vitamin D supplementation to improve insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese adolescents have yielded beneficial effects. However, there is a need for more randomized controlled trials. Future investigations should involve larger sample sizes of obese adolescents with documented vitamin D deficiency, and careful selection of the dose, dosing regimen and achievement of target 25-hydroxyvitamn D serum concentrations. These trials should also include clamp-derived measures of in vivo sensitivity and

  13. The hepatitis C virus modulates insulin signaling pathway in vitro promoting insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    del Campo, José A; García-Valdecasas, Marta; Rojas, Lourdes; Rojas, Ángela; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Insulin is critical for controlling energy functions including glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin resistance seems to interact with hepatitis C promoting fibrosis progression and impairing sustained virological response to peginterferon and ribavirin. The main aim was to elucidate the direct effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on insulin signaling both in vitro analyzing gene expression and protein abundance. Huh7.5 cells and JFH-1 viral particles were used for in vitro studies. Experiments were conducted by triplicate in control cells and infected cells. Genes and proteins involved in insulin signaling pathway were modified by HCV infection. Moreover, metformin treatment increased gene expression of PI3K, IRS1, MAP3K, AKT and PTEN more than >1.5 fold. PTP1B, encoding a tyrosin phosphatase, was found highly induced (>3 fold) in infected cells treated with metformin. However, PTP1B protein expression was reduced in metformin treated cells after JFH1 infection. Other proteins related to insulin pathway like Akt, PTEN and phosphorylated MTOR were also found down-regulated. Viral replication was inhibited in vitro by metformin. A strong effect of HCV infection on insulin pathway-related gene and protein expression was found in vitro. These results could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets in HCV infection and its co-morbidities.

  14. Molecular mechanisms for insulin resistance in treated HIV-infection

    PubMed Central

    Hruz, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the high incidence of insulin resistance in HIV infected patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy remains a critically important goal in the quest to improve the safety of antiretroviral treatment regimens. The use of in vitro model systems together with the investigation of drug-mediated effects on glucose homeostasis in animals and healthy human volunteers has provided important insight into the contribution of individual drugs to insulin resistance and affected cellular pathways. HIV protease inhibitor mediated blockade of glucose transport and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mediated mitochondrial toxicity have been well characterized. Together with growing understanding of mediators of insulin resistance in non-HIV metabolic syndrome, additional cellular effects including the induction of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress, altered adipocytokine secretion, and lipotoxicity have been integrated into this developing picture. Further elucidation of these mechanisms provides potential for the continued development of safer antiviral drugs and targeted treatment of insulin resistance in affected patients. PMID:21663839

  15. Compensatory Islet Response to Insulin Resistance Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Gedeon, Nicholas; Kahraman, Sevim; De Jesus, Dario F.; Bhatt, Shweta; Kim, Jong-Seo; Clauss, Therese RW; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory islet response is a distinct feature of the pre-diabetic insulin resistant state in humans and rodents. To identify alterations in the islet proteome that characterize the adaptive response, we analyzed islets from five-month-old male control, high-fat diet fed (HFD) or obese ob/ob mice by LC-MS(/MS) and quantified ~1,100 islet proteins (at least two peptides) with a false discovery rate <1%. Significant alterations in abundance were observed for ~350 proteins between groups. A majority of alterations were common to both models, and the changes of a subset of ~40 proteins and 12 proteins were verified by targeted quantification using selected reaction monitoring and Western blots, respectively. The insulin resistant islets in both groups exhibited reduced expression of proteins controlling energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, hormone processing, and secretory pathways. Conversely, an increased expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and folding suggested effects in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell survival, and proliferation in both insulin resistant models. In summary, we report a unique comparison of the islet proteome that is focused on the compensatory response in two insulin resistant rodent models that are not overtly diabetic. These data provide a valuable resource of candidate proteins to the scientific community to undertake further studies aimed at enhancing β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. The data are available via the MassIVE repository, with accession MSV000079093. PMID:26151086

  16. Physical Training Improves Insulin Resistance Syndrome Markers in Obese Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sik; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Owens, Scott; Lemmon, Christian R.; Allison, Jerry; Litaker, Mark S.; Le, Ngoc-Anh

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that physical training (PT), especially high-intensity PT, would favorably affect components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in obese adolescents. Data on teens randomized into lifestyle education (LSE) alone, LSE plus moderate -intensity PT, and LSE plus high-intensity PT indicated that PT, especially high-intensity…

  17. Immunity as a link between obesity and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major health problem in the United States and worldwide. Obesity is causally linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2DM. A chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in adipose tissue is at least in part responsible for the obesit...

  18. Compensatory islet response to insulin resistance revealed by quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Zhou, Jian -Ying; Liew, Chong Wee; Shirakawa, Jun; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Kahraman, Sevim; De Jesus, Dario F.; Bhatt, Shweta; Kim, Jong -Seo; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Camp, II, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei -Jun; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2015-07-07

    Compensatory islet response is a distinct feature of the pre-diabetic insulin resistant state in humans and rodents. To identify alterations in the islet proteome that characterize the adaptive response, we analyzed islets from five-month-old male control, high-fat diet fed (HFD) or obese ob/ob mice by LC-MS(/MS) and quantified ~1,100 islet proteins (at least two peptides) with a false discovery rate <1%. Significant alterations in abundance were observed for ~350 proteins between groups. A majority of alterations were common to both models, and the changes of a subset of ~40 proteins and 12 proteins were verified by targeted quantification using selected reaction monitoring and Western blots, respectively. The insulin resistant islets in both groups exhibited reduced expression of proteins controlling energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, hormone processing, and secretory pathways. Conversely, an increased expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and folding suggested effects in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell survival, and proliferation in both insulin resistant models. In conclusion, we report a unique comparison of the islet proteome that is focused on the compensatory response in two insulin resistant rodent models that are not overtly diabetic. In conclusion, these data provide a valuable resource of candidate proteins to the scientific community to undertake further studies aimed at enhancing β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. The data are available via the MassIVE repository, with accession MSV000079093.

  19. Compensatory islet response to insulin resistance revealed by quantitative proteomics

    DOE PAGES

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Zhou, Jian -Ying; Liew, Chong Wee; ...

    2015-07-07

    Compensatory islet response is a distinct feature of the pre-diabetic insulin resistant state in humans and rodents. To identify alterations in the islet proteome that characterize the adaptive response, we analyzed islets from five-month-old male control, high-fat diet fed (HFD) or obese ob/ob mice by LC-MS(/MS) and quantified ~1,100 islet proteins (at least two peptides) with a false discovery rate <1%. Significant alterations in abundance were observed for ~350 proteins between groups. A majority of alterations were common to both models, and the changes of a subset of ~40 proteins and 12 proteins were verified by targeted quantification using selectedmore » reaction monitoring and Western blots, respectively. The insulin resistant islets in both groups exhibited reduced expression of proteins controlling energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, hormone processing, and secretory pathways. Conversely, an increased expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and folding suggested effects in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell survival, and proliferation in both insulin resistant models. In conclusion, we report a unique comparison of the islet proteome that is focused on the compensatory response in two insulin resistant rodent models that are not overtly diabetic. In conclusion, these data provide a valuable resource of candidate proteins to the scientific community to undertake further studies aimed at enhancing β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. The data are available via the MassIVE repository, with accession MSV000079093.« less

  20. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  1. Role of adiponectin in insulin-resistant hypertension and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Furuhashi, Masato; Higashiura, Katsuhiro; Miura, Tetsuji; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2003-09-01

    Insulin resistance is one of the major risk factors associated with development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may be involved in insulin resistance and development of atherosclerosis in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to examine adiponectin levels in patients with essential hypertension to determine the relationships between adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity and to examine the relationship of adiponectin with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a general population based on the results of an epidemiological survey in Japan. In a clinical study, 20 normotensives (NT) and 30 non-treated essential hypertensives (EHT) were hospitalized, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (GC) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity defined as M value. EHT were divided into insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-R) and insulin-nonresistant EHT (EHT-N) according to the mean -1 SD of the M value of NT as a cut-off point. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and adiponectin concentrations were measured. There were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) or FPG among the NT, EHT-N, and EHT-R groups. The M value and adiponectin concentration in EHT-R were significantly lower than those in the NT or EHT-N. The IRI level in the EHT-R was significantly higher than those in the other groups. A positive correlation between adiponectin concentration and M value was found in all subjects, and adiponectin concentration and M value were found to be significant determinants of each other in multiple regression analysis. In an epidemiological study, we studied 391 male inhabitants of rural communities in Hokkaido, Japan. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), BMI, FPG, IRI, and adiponectin were measured in all subjects early in the morning. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values were calculated as an index of insulin sensitivity, and PWV was used as an index of

  2. Rab5 activity regulates GLUT4 sorting into insulin-responsive and non-insulin-responsive endosomal compartments: a potential mechanism for development of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tessneer, Kandice L; Jackson, Robert M; Griesel, Beth A; Olson, Ann Louise

    2014-09-01

    Glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter mediating glucose uptake in adipose and skeletal muscle. Reduced GLUT4 translocation from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane is a cause of peripheral insulin resistance. Using a chronic hyperinsulinemia (CHI)-induced cell model of insulin resistance and Rab5 mutant overexpression, we determined these manipulations altered endosomal sorting of GLUT4, thus contributing to the development of insulin resistance. We found that CHI induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by retaining GLUT4 in a Rab5-activity-dependent compartment that is unable to equilibrate with the cell surface in response to insulin. Furthermore, CHI-mediated retention of GLUT4 in this non-insulin-responsive compartment impaired filling of the transferrin receptor (TfR)-positive and TfR-negative insulin-responsive storage compartments. Our data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may inhibit GLUT4 by chronically maintaining GLUT4 in the Rab5 activity-dependent endosomal pathway and impairing formation of the TfR-negative and TfR-positive insulin-responsive GLUT4 pools. This model suggests that an early event in the development of insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose tissue is to alter the intracellular localization of GLUT4 to a compartment that does not efficiently equilibrate with the cell surface when insulin levels are elevated for prolonged periods of time.

  3. Roles of mitochondrial fragmentation and reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Saotome, Masao; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Funaki, Makoto; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests an association between aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac diseases. Because myocardial metabolic deficiency caused by insulin resistance plays a crucial role in heart disease, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) in the pathogenesis of myocardial insulin resistance. Methods and Results: DRP1-expressing H9c2 myocytes, which had fragmented mitochondria with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ{sub m}) depolarization, exhibited attenuated insulin signaling and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake, indicating insulin resistance. Treatment of the DRP1-expressing myocytes with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP) significantly improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. When myocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), they increased DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and insulin resistance. When DRP1 was suppressed by siRNA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance were restored. Our results suggest that a mutual enhancement between DRP1 and reactive oxygen species could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myocytes, neither DRP1-suppression nor TMPyP restored the ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and impaired 2-DG uptake, however they improved insulin signaling. Conclusions: A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS could promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of insulin signal transduction. However, other mechanisms, including lipid metabolite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, may be involved in palmitate-induced insulin resistance. - Highlights: • DRP1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and insulin-resistance. • A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS ipromotes insulin-resistance. • Palmitate increases DRP1 expression and induces insulin-resistance

  4. Intensive insulin treatment induces insulin resistance in diabetic rats by impairing glucose metabolism-related mechanisms in muscle and liver.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Marques, Milano Felipe dos Santos Ferreira; Freitas, Helayne Soares; Mori, Rosana Cristina Tieko; Melo, Karla Fabiana S; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2011-10-01

    Insulin replacement is the only effective therapy to manage hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Nevertheless, intensive insulin therapy has inadvertently led to insulin resistance. This study investigates mechanisms involved in the insulin resistance induced by hyperinsulinization. Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by alloxan injection, and 2 weeks later received saline or different doses of neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (1.5, 3, 6, and 9 U/day) over 7 days. Insulinopenic-untreated rats and 6U- and 9U-treated rats developed insulin resistance, whereas 3U-treated rats revealed the highest grade of insulin sensitivity, but did not achieve good glycemic control as 6U- and 9U-treated rats did. This insulin sensitivity profile was in agreement with glucose transporter 4 expression and translocation in skeletal muscle, and insulin signaling, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase/glucose-6-phosphatase expression and glycogen storage in the liver. Under the expectation that insulin resistance develops in hyperinsulinized diabetic patients, we believe insulin sensitizer approaches should be considered in treating T1DM.

  5. Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Jean-François; Jager, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation is a time-controlled physiological feedback mechanism in insulin signaling that is hijacked by metabolic and inflammatory stresses to promote insulin resistance. Kinases, including IKKbeta, JNK, ERK, mTOR, and S6K, activated by the inducers of insulin resistance induce uncontrolled IRS serine phosphorylation. Studies with genetically modified mice reveal that these kinases integrate signals from metabolic and inflammatory stresses in adipose tissue, liver, and hypothalamus leading to peripheral and central insulin resistance. Moreover, IKKbeta/NF-kappaB and JNK1 pathways in myeloid cells represent a core mechanism involved in inflammation linked to obesity. These kinases are thus potential drug targets against insulin resistance and the targeting of the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB or the JNK pathway may evolve into future diabetes medication.

  6. Traumatic brain injury and obesity induce persistent central insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Karelina, Kate; Sarac, Benjamin; Freeman, Lindsey M; Gaier, Kristopher R; Weil, Zachary M

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced impairments in cerebral energy metabolism impede tissue repair and contribute to delayed functional recovery. Moreover, the transient alteration in brain glucose utilization corresponds to a period of increased vulnerability to the negative effects of a subsequent TBI. In order to better understand the factors contributing to TBI-induced central metabolic dysfunction, we examined the effect of single and repeated TBIs on brain insulin signalling. Here we show that TBI induced acute brain insulin resistance, which resolved within 7 days following a single injury but persisted until 28 days following repeated injuries. Obesity, which causes brain insulin resistance and neuroinflammation, exacerbated the consequences of TBI. Obese mice that underwent a TBI exhibited a prolonged reduction of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) signalling, exacerbated neuroinflammation (microglial activation), learning and memory deficits, and anxiety-like behaviours. Taken together, the transient changes in brain insulin sensitivity following TBI suggest a reduced capacity of the injured brain to respond to the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of insulin and Akt signalling, and thus may be a contributing factor for the damaging neuroinflammation and long-lasting deficits that occur following TBI.

  7. Insulin resistance and gray matter volume in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, J K; Vidoni, E D; Perea, R D; Rada, R; Johnson, D K; Lyons, K; Pahwa, R; Burns, J M; Honea, R A

    2014-06-13

    The goal of this study was to compare insulin resistance in aging and aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, and to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and gray matter volume (GMV) in each cohort using an unbiased, voxel-based approach. Insulin resistance was estimated in apparently healthy elderly control (HC, n=21) and neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer's disease (AD), n=20; Parkinson's disease (PD), n=22) groups using Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance 2 (HOMA2) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). HOMA2 and GMV were assessed within groups through General Linear Model multiple regression. We found that HOMA2 was increased in both AD and PD compared to the HC group (HC vs. AD, p=0.002, HC vs. PD, p=0.003), although only AD subjects exhibited increased fasting glucose (p=0.005). Furthermore, our voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that HOMA2 was related to GMV in all cohorts in a region-specific manner (p<0.001, uncorrected). Significant relationships were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (HC), medial temporal regions (AD), and parietal regions (PD). Finally, the directionality of the relationship between HOMA2 and GMV was disease-specific. Both HC and AD subjects exhibited negative relationships between HOMA2 and brain volume (increased HOMA2 associated with decreased brain volume), while a positive relationship was observed in PD. This cross-sectional study suggests that insulin resistance is increased in neurodegenerative disease, and that individuals with AD appear to have more severe metabolic dysfunction than individuals with PD or PD dementia.

  8. Insulin resistance in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spoto, Belinda; Pisano, Anna; Zoccali, Carmine

    2016-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an early metabolic alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, being apparent when the glomerular filtration rate is still within the normal range and becoming almost universal in those who reach the end stage of kidney failure. The skeletal muscle represents the primary site of IR in CKD, and alterations at sites beyond the insulin receptor are recognized as the main defect underlying IR in this condition. Estimates of IR based on fasting insulin concentration are easier and faster but may not be adequate in patients with CKD because renal insufficiency reduces insulin catabolism. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp is the gold standard for the assessment of insulin sensitivity because this technique allows a direct measure of skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin. The etiology of IR in CKD is multifactorial in nature and may be secondary to disturbances that are prominent in renal diseases, including physical inactivity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, metabolic acidosis, anemia, adipokine derangement, and altered gut microbiome. IR contributes to the progression of renal disease by worsening renal hemodynamics by various mechanisms, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, sodium retention, and downregulation of the natriuretic peptide system. IR has been solidly associated with intermediate mechanisms leading to cardiovascular (CV) disease in CKD including left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether IR is an independent predictor of mortality and CV complications in CKD. Because IR is a modifiable risk factor and its reduction may lower CV morbidity and mortality, unveiling the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of CKD-related insulin resistance is of importance for the identification of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing the high CV risk of this condition.

  9. Insulin resistance in obesity and its molecular control.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, T; Tanaka, T

    1995-09-01

    The Wistar fatty rat is a model of obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Males, but not females, develop hyperglycemia, glucouria and polyuria within 8 weeks of age. The regulation of gene expression by insulin has been shown to be differentially impaired in the liver of the fatty rats. The genes resistant to insulin include glucokinase gene and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. In contrast, L-type pyruvate kinase gene responds to insulin normally, raising the possibility that the signaling pathway from the insulin receptor to the insulin-resistant genes, but not to the insulin-sensitive genes, is defective at a point beyond the receptor kinase in the fatty rats. On the other hand, female fatty rats develop hyperglycemia only when they are given sucrose for several weeks. This treatment causes a decrease in gucokinase while enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis are increased. Chronic feeding of sucrose also leads to hypertriglycemia and visceral fat accumulation, which is more frequently associated with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolisms. Fructose is believed to be the responsible component of sucrose for these effects. Hypertriglyceridemic effect of fructose is mainly due to an increase in hepatic production of VLDL. Most enzymes related to lipogenesis in the liver are induced by dietary fructose even in diabetes. L-type pyruvate kinase is one of such enzymes. Cis-acting element named PKL-III in the 5'-flanking region of this gene is shown to be responsive to dietary fructose as well as to dietary glucose. Thus, identification and characterization of a protein bound to this element could help in the further understanding of the molecular mechanism of the fructose actions.

  10. Intrinsic Frequency and the Single Wave Biopsy: Implications for Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Petrasek, Danny; Pahlevan, Niema M; Tavallali, Peyman; Rinderknecht, Derek G; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-07-16

    Insulin resistance is the hallmark of classical type II diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance plays a central role in metabolic syndrome, which astonishingly affects 1 out of 3 adults in North America. The insulin resistance state can precede the manifestation of diabetes and hypertension by years. Insulin resistance is correlated with a low-grade inflammatory condition, thought to be induced by obesity as well as other conditions. Currently, the methods to measure and monitor insulin resistance, such as the homeostatic model assessment and the euglycemic insulin clamp, can be impractical, expensive, and invasive. Abundant evidence exists that relates increased pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and vascular dysfunction with insulin resistance. We introduce a potential method of assessing insulin resistance that relies on a novel signal-processing algorithm, the intrinsic frequency method (IFM). The method requires a single pulse pressure wave, thus the term " wave biopsy."

  11. Insulin induces a shift in lipid and primary carbon metabolites in a model of fasting-induced insulin resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral insulin resistance shifts metabolic fuel use away from carbohydrates, and towards lipids, and is most commonly associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, regulated insulin resistance is an evolved mechanism to preserve glucose for the brain in conditions of high demand or carbohy...

  12. Influence of Gut Microbiota on Subclinical Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bruno Melo; Abdalla Saad, Mario Jose

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main condition that is correlated with the appearance of insulin resistance, which is the major link among its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. Obesity affects a large number of individuals worldwide; it degrades human health and quality of life. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promoted by a bacterial diversity shift mediated by overnutrition. Whole bacteria, their products, and metabolites undergo increased translocation through the gut epithelium to the circulation due to degraded tight junctions and the consequent increase in intestinal permeability that culminates in inflammation and insulin resistance. Several strategies focusing on modulation of the gut microbiota (antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics) are being experimentally employed in metabolic derangement in order to reduce intestinal permeability, increase the production of short chain fatty acids and anorectic gut hormones, and promote insulin sensitivity to counteract the inflammatory status and insulin resistance found in obese individuals. PMID:23840101

  13. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications.

  14. Corticosterone-induced insulin resistance is not associated with alterations of insulin receptor number and kinase activity in chicken kidney.

    PubMed

    Bisbis, S; Taouis, M; Derouet, M; Chevalier, B; Simon, J

    1994-12-01

    Chicken renal insulin receptors have been recently characterized; their number and kinase activities vary in response to altered nutritional status. In the present study, the effect of chronic corticosterone treatment was examined in 5-week-old chickens. The development of an insulin resistance following corticosterone was suggested after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment by a significant increases in plasma insulin levels (1.63 +/- 0.13 vs 0.56 +/- 0.14 ng insulin/ml in controls) and in renal cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity (17.2 +/- 0.8 vs 13.7 +/- 0.7 nm/mn/mg tissue in controls). No significant changes were present at the level of insulin receptor number and kinase activity. Therefore, in kidney and, as previously observed, in muscles, corticosterone can induce insulin resistance at postreceptor steps in the cascade of events leading to insulin action.

  15. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tangvarasittichai, Surapon

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this appears to underlie the development of cardiovascular disease, T2DM and diabetic complications. Increased oxidative stress appears to be a deleterious factor leading to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately leading to T2DM. Chronic oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are particularly dangerous for β-cells from lowest levels of antioxidant, have high oxidative energy requirements, decrease the gene expression of key β-cell genes and induce cell death. If β-cell functioning is impaired, it results in an under production of insulin, impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion, fasting hyperglycemia and eventually the development of T2DM. PMID:25897356

  16. Effects of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acids on Hepatic and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lalia, Antigoni Z.; Johnson, Matthew L.; Jensen, Michael D.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Port, John D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevent insulin resistance and stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in rodents, but the findings of translational studies in humans are thus far ambiguous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of EPA and DHA on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and muscle mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic humans using a robust study design and gold-standard measurements. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-one insulin-resistant adults received 3.9 g/day EPA+DHA or placebo for 6 months in a randomized double-blind study. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with somatostatin was used to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Postprandial glucose disposal and insulin secretion were measured after a meal. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Abdominal fat distribution was evaluated by MRI. Muscle oxidative capacity was measured in isolated mitochondria using high-resolution respirometry and noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA did not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity, postprandial glucose disposal, or insulin secretion. Hepatic insulin sensitivity, determined from the suppression of endogenous glucose production by insulin, exhibited a small but significant improvement with EPA+DHA compared with placebo. Muscle mitochondrial function was unchanged by EPA+DHA or placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that dietary EPA+DHA does not improve peripheral glucose disposal, insulin secretion, or skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant nondiabetic humans. There was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity with EPA+DHA, but this was not associated with any improvements in clinically meaningful outcomes. PMID:25852206

  17. Insulin resistance: a chicken that has come to roost.

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M

    1999-11-18

    Insulin-mediated glucose disposal varies approximately 10-fold in apparently healthy human beings. Insulin (I)-resistant individuals can remain glucose tolerant if the pancreas compensates for this defect by secreting large amounts of I. Type 2 diabetes develops when I-resistant persons cannot sustain this state of compensatory hyperinsulinemia (increases I). However, the ability of increases I to prevent decompensation of glucose tolerance is a mixed blessing, and the combination of I resistance and increases I predisposes such individuals to develop a series of abnormalities that increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Given the health-related consequences of I resistance and increases I, it has been suggested that a "thrifty" genotype exists that favored evolutionary survival by enhancing I secretion and thereby promoting energy accumulation. An alternative view is that conservation of muscle mass was necessary for survival, and that muscle I resistance was the "thrifty" genotype. This latter hypothesis is more consistent with current data, and there is evidence of a genetic basis for I resistance. In either case, there is little question as to the importance of I resistance and related abnormalities in diseases of Western civilization. However, the strength of the association between I resistance and its consequences varies in magnitude, and it is necessary to emphasize that development of a clinical end-point will vary as a function of (1) degree of I resistance; (2) "closeness" of I resistance to the end-point; and (3) the ability to compensate for the effects of I resistance. I resistance is a physiological characteristic, genetically determined, that helped primitive humans to survive. It is greatly aggravated by obesity and physical inactivity, and represents a modern scourge.

  18. Myeloid cell-restricted insulin receptor deficiency protects against obesity-induced inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Jan; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Plum, Leona; Quast, Thomas; Hampel, Brigitte; Blüher, Matthias; Kolanus, Waldemar; Kahn, C Ronald; Brüning, Jens C

    2010-05-06

    A major component of obesity-related insulin resistance is the establishment of a chronic inflammatory state with invasion of white adipose tissue by mononuclear cells. This results in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn leads to insulin resistance in target tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver. To determine the role of insulin action in macrophages and monocytes in obesity-associated insulin resistance, we conditionally inactivated the insulin receptor (IR) gene in myeloid lineage cells in mice (IR(Deltamyel)-mice). While these animals exhibit unaltered glucose metabolism on a normal diet, they are protected from the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance upon high fat feeding. Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp studies demonstrate that this results from decreased basal hepatic glucose production and from increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, IR(Deltamyel)-mice exhibit decreased concentrations of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and thus reduced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in skeletal muscle upon high fat feeding, reflecting a dramatic reduction of the chronic and systemic low-grade inflammatory state associated with obesity. This is paralleled by a reduced accumulation of macrophages in white adipose tissue due to a pronounced impairment of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression and activity in these cells. These data indicate that insulin action in myeloid cells plays an unexpected, critical role in the regulation of macrophage invasion into white adipose tissue and in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  19. Cellular insulin resistance disrupts leptin-mediated control of neuronal signaling and transcription.

    PubMed

    Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Menchella, Jonathan A; Belsham, Denise D

    2013-06-01

    Central resistance to the actions of insulin and leptin is associated with the onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas leptin and insulin signaling is essential for both glucose and energy homeostasis. Although it is known that leptin resistance can lead to attenuated insulin signaling, whether insulin resistance can lead to or exacerbate leptin resistance is unknown. To investigate the molecular events underlying crosstalk between these signaling pathways, immortalized hypothalamic neuronal models, rHypoE-19 and mHypoA-2/10, were used. Prolonged insulin exposure was used to induce cellular insulin resistance, and thereafter leptin-mediated regulation of signal transduction and gene expression was assessed. Leptin directly repressed agouti-related peptide mRNA levels but induced urocortin-2, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS2, and IR transcription, through leptin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation. Neuronal insulin resistance, as assessed by attenuated Akt phosphorylation, blocked leptin-mediated signal transduction and agouti-related peptide, urocortin-2, IRS1, IRS2, and insulin receptor synthesis. Insulin resistance caused a substantial decrease in insulin receptor protein levels, forkhead box protein 1 phosphorylation, and an increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 protein levels. Cellular insulin resistance may cause or exacerbate neuronal leptin resistance and, by extension, obesity. It is essential to unravel the effects of neuronal insulin resistance given that both peripheral, as well as the less widely studied central insulin resistance, may contribute to the development of metabolic, reproductive, and cardiovascular disorders. This study provides improved understanding of the complex cellular crosstalk between insulin-leptin signal transduction that is disrupted during neuronal insulin resistance.

  20. Fucosterol activates the insulin signaling pathway in insulin resistant HepG2 cells via inhibiting PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Bhakta, Himanshu Kumar; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-10-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. This study investigated the modulatory effects of fucosterol on the insulin signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). In addition, molecular docking simulation studies were performed to predict binding energies, the specific binding site of fucosterol to PTP1B, and to identify interacting residues using Autodock 4.2 software. Glucose uptake was determined using a fluorescent D-glucose analogue and the glucose tracer 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxyglucose, and the signaling pathway was detected by Western blot analysis. We found that fucosterol enhanced insulin-provoked glucose uptake and conjointly decreased PTP1B expression level in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Moreover, fucosterol significantly reduced insulin-stimulated serine (Ser307) phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and increased phosphorylation of Akt, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and extracellular signal- regulated kinase 1 at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 µM in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Fucosterol inhibited caspase-3 activation and nuclear factor kappa B in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. These results suggest that fucosterol stimulates glucose uptake and improves insulin resistance by downregulating expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway. Thus, fucosterol has potential for development as an anti-diabetic agent.

  1. [The effect of nerobol and ecdysterone on insulin-dependent processes linked normally and in insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kosovskiĭ, M I; Syrov, V N; Mirakhmedov, M M; Katkova, S P; Khushbaktova, Z A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of substances with anabolic activity (metandienone and ecdysterone phytoecdysteroid) on the manifestation of insulin effects was studied on a model of insulin resistance in rats induced by injections of hydrocortisone or by insulin insufficiency caused by alloxan. The sensitivity of the body to i. v. infusion of insulin and the reactivity of isolated fatty tissue to the hormone were increased after administration of these substances to test animals. The above effects of steroids were determined by nonspecific synthesis of total proteins in cells rather than by an increase in insulin secretion.

  2. Exosomal biomarkers of brain insulin resistance associated with regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Roger J; Mustapic, Maja; Goetzl, Edward J; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs.

  3. Peroxynitrite mediates muscle insulin resistance in mice via nitration of IRbeta/IRS-1 and Akt

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jun; Huang Kaixun

    2009-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxynitrite (ONOO{sup -}) is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. In the current study, we investigated whether insulin resistance in vivo could be mediated by nitration of proteins involved in the early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway. Exogenous peroxynitrite donated by 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) induced in vivo nitration of the insulin receptor beta subunit (IRbeta), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) in skeletal muscle of mice and dramatically reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling. Moreover, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed insulin-resistant mice, we observed enhanced nitration of IRbeta and IRS-1 in skeletal muscle, in parallel with impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling. Reversal of nitration of these proteins by treatment with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPS yielded an improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling in HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these findings provide new mechanistic insights for the involvement of peroxynitrite in the development of insulin resistance and suggest that nitration of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin signal transduction is a novel molecular mechanism of HFD-induced muscle insulin resistance.

  4. Importance of insulin resistance to vascular repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Mercer, Ben N; Sengupta, Anshuman; Kearney, Mark T

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic insulin resistance is apparent across a spectrum of clinical disorders, including obesity and diabetes, and is characterized by an adverse clustering of cardiovascular risk factors related to abnormal cellular responses to insulin. These disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent and represent a major global public health concern because of their association with significant increases in atherosclerosis-related mortality. Endogenous repair mechanisms are thought to retard the development of vascular disease, and a growing evidence base supports the adverse impact of the insulin-resistant phenotype upon indices of vascular repair. Beyond the impact of systemic metabolic changes, emerging data from murine studies also provide support for abnormal insulin signaling at the level of vascular cells in retarding vascular repair. Interrelated pathophysiological factors, including reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, oxidative stress, altered growth factor activity, and abnormal intracellular signaling, are likely to act in conjunction to impede vascular repair while also driving vascular damage. Understanding of these processes is shaping novel therapeutic paradigms that aim to promote vascular repair and regeneration, either by recruiting endogenous mechanisms or by the administration of cell-based therapies.

  5. Role of leptin and adiponectin in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amita; Kataria, Megha A; Saini, Vandana; Yadav, Anil

    2013-02-18

    Adipose tissue is a major source of energy for the human body. It is also a source of major adipocytokines adiponectin and leptin. Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin action is impaired in adipose tissue and is more strongly linked to intra-abdominal fat than to fat in other depots. The expression of adiponectin decreases with increase in the adiposity. Adiponectin mediates insulin-sensitizing effect through binding to its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, leading to activation of adenosine monophosphate dependent kinase (AMPK), PPAR-α, and presumably other yet-unknown signalling pathways. Weight loss significantly elevates plasma adiponectin levels. Reduction of adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis in humans. The other major adipokine is leptin. Leptin levels increase in obesity and subcutaneous fat has been a major determinant of circulating leptin levels. The leptin signal is transmitted by the Janus kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription ((JAK-STAT) pathway. The net action of leptin is to inhibit appetite, stimulate thermogenesis, enhance fatty acid oxidation, decrease glucose, and reduce body weight and fat.

  6. Heart Rate Variability, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Sensitivity in Japanese Adults: The Toon Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Isao; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Nishida, Wataru; Eguchi, Eri; Kato, Tadahiro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruhiko; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. Methods Between 2009–2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30–79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Gutt’s insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD). Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and the LF:HF ratio. Results Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41–3.10). Conclusions Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals. PMID:26277879

  7. Utility of Early Insulin Response and Proinsulin to Assess Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Amy M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Hughes, Jennifer; Pomeranz, Christy; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E.; McMahon, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether obesity and premature adrenarche are additive events increasing the risk of insulin resistance and β-cell failure, using early insulin response (EIR) or the insulinogenic index and proinsulin as markers. Study design Prospective case-control study at a tertiary care academic medical center; 81 prepubertal, predominantly Hispanic children (34 M/47 F): Lean Control [(4M, 6F) age(y), 6.5±1.2; BMI-z, 0.08±0.6], Obese Control [(20M, 10F) age(y), 7.2±1.5; BMI-z, 2.5±0.5], lean premature adrenarche [(3M, 11F) age(y), 7.1±1.2; BMI-z, 0.09±0.6], and obese premature adrenarche [(7M, 20F) age(y), 7.3±1.0; BMI-z, 2.2±0.4]. Fasting glucose (G0), insulin (I0), PI0, androgen levels, IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and lipids were obtained. OGTT was performed. EIR was calculated as (I30 – I0)/(G30 – G0). Between group differences were assessed with two-way analysis of variance with interactions and associations explored with correlation/regression. Results EIR was greater in all obese patients with and without premature adrenarche. Combined analysis of the independent variables, obesity and premature adrenarche, showed that obese premature adrenarche had the greatest EIR. Obese subjects with premature adrenarche had greater fasting PI levels than their lean counterparts. Fasting PI/I ratio showed no statistical significance between groups. Conclusion We have used EIR and PI as markers to assess risk of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, and have shown that obese children with premature adrenarche may be at greater risk for the development of pre-diabetes and T2DM than their lean counterparts. PMID:19643436

  8. Supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex does not protect against insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Improper eating habits such as high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets are responsible for metabolic changes resulting in impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and ultimately diabetes. Although the essentiality of trivalent chromium for humans has been recently questioned by researchers, pharmacological dosages of this element can improve insulin sensitivity in experimental animals and diabetic subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the preventive potential of the supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) in rats fed a high-fat diet. The experiment was conducted on 32 male Wistar rats divided into four groups and fed the following diets: the control (C, AIN-93G), high-fat diets (HF, 40% energy from fat), and a high-fat diet supplemented with CrProp at dosages of 10 and 50 mg Cr/kg diet (HF + Cr10 and HF + Cr50, respectively). After 8 weeks, high-fat feeding led to an increased body mass, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, a decreased serum urea concentration, accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes, and increased renal Fe and splenic Cu contents. Supplementary CrProp in both dosages did not alleviate these changes but increased renal Cr content and normalized splenic Cu content in high-fat-fed rats. Supplementary CrProp does not prevent the development of insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  9. Insulin Resistance in Young Obese Subjects and Its Relation to Smoking (A Pilot Study).

    PubMed

    Juneja, Aarzoo; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Srivastava, D K; Chandra, Kailash

    2017-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells fail to respond to the normal actions of insulin. Dietary fat, obesity and smoking have been attributed to increase insulin resistance. However, the prevalence of insulin resistance in young obese subjects and its relation to smoking is not well established. This study comprising seventy-five healthy young adults was undertaken to find insulin resistance in obese smokers and non smokers both. Present study showed an overall prevalence of raised homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in 14.7 % otherwise healthy young subjects (20-30 years age group). Non-smokers did not show any significant correlation between insulin resistance and body mass index at either stage (normal, pre-obese as well as obese). Smokers also did not show any significant difference of insulin resistance in normal and pre-obese stages. However, marked increase in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was observed in obese smokers. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance showed a linear trend in relation to body mass index and its values were found to be higher in smokers. Obesity combined with smoking demonstrated statistically significant increase in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance.

  10. [Obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance: which role for adipokines].

    PubMed

    Antuna-Puente, Barbara; Feve, Bruno; Fellahi, Soraya; Bastard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ involved in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including inflammation. It synthesizes and secretes hormones such as leptin and adiponectin. It can secrete other products namely adipokines including cytokines and chemokines. The release of adipokines by either adipocytes or adipose tissue-infiltrated macrophages leads to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that likely plays a major role in cardiovascular complications linked to obesity and insulin resistance.

  11. Is insulin resistance the cause of the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele

    2006-01-01

    Following up on original descriptions of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (chiefly, glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension) around the presence of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome has recently been upgraded to the status of a disease entity with an inherent predictive value for cardiovascular disease. In pathophysiological terms, insulin resistance (of glucose metabolism) and the attendant compensatory hyperinsulinaemia are causally related to each of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. The physiological mechanisms are concisely reviewed here. However, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia alone is insufficient to cause these abnormalities, for which other pathogenic factors (e.g. ss-cell dysfunction for glucose intolerance) are required. The metabolic syndrome, on the other hand, has evolved from a set of statistical associations believed to carry an excess of cardiovascular risk. In the various existing definitions, a mixture of physical, metabolic and clinical variables have been used on grounds of predictive value or practical ease. These variables belong to different phenotypes, which are upstream, intermediate and proximal, respectively, in their relation to clinical disease. The resulting 'syndromes' usually lack a cogent conceptual structure, may reflect the particular data set from which they are extracted and may be of limited applicability. While overt diabetes, clinical hypertension and frank dyslipidaemia are often present together in the same patient, a subclinical syndrome with a distinct, probable aetiology and a proven power as a risk indicator remains to be identified.

  12. Association of Serum Osteocalcin with Insulin Resistance and Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the associations between serum osteocalcin level and insulin resistance, coronary atherosclerosis by using dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography. Methods A total of 98 subjects (24 men and 74 women) were selected for this retrospective cross-sectional study who voluntarily visited a health examination center for routine health check-up including the blood test for serum osteocalcin level and coronary computed tomography angiography. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which variables were independently related to osteocalcin levels and coronary atherosclerosis. Results Stepwise multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, menopausal status, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium and phosphate showed that osteocalcin negatively correlated with serum glucose (β=-0.145, P=0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β=-1.794, P=0.027) independently. The age, serum glucose, smoking status but not osteocalcin level were independent risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis by use of multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for other variables. Conclusions Serum osteocalcin level was inversely associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR, suggesting that osteocalcin is important for glucose metabolism. However, in this study, no significant difference was observed in the serum osteocalcin level according to the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27965939

  13. Nutrient sensing and insulin signaling in neuropeptide-expressing immortalized, hypothalamic neurons: A cellular model of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fick, Laura J; Belsham, Denise D

    2010-08-15

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus represent a significant global health crisis. These two interrelated diseases are typified by perturbed insulin signaling in the hypothalamus. Using novel hypothalamic cell lines, we have begun to elucidate the molecular and intracellular mechanisms involved in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. In this review, we present evidence of insulin and glucose signaling pathways that lead to changes in neuropeptide gene expression. We have identified some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of de novo hypothalamic insulin mRNA expression. And finally, we have defined key mechanisms involved in the etiology of cellular insulin resistance in hypothalamic neurons that may play a fundamental role in cases of high levels of insulin or saturated fatty acids, often linked to the exacerbation of obesity and diabetes.

  14. Cancer-drug induced insulin resistance: innocent bystander or unusual suspect.

    PubMed

    Ariaans, G; de Jong, S; Gietema, J A; Lefrandt, J D; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence strongly suggests an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. Insulin resistance, causing hyperinsulinaemia and eventually hyperglycaemia, appears to increase cancer incidence and disease progression. In addition, insulin resistance seems to reduce the efficacy of cancer therapy. Treatment with cancer therapeutics such as glucocorticoids, chemotherapy, hormonal therapies and targeted drugs can actually induce insulin resistance. The question arises whether cancer-therapy induced insulin resistance impairs anticancer treatment efficacy and disease outcome. Here, we review current literature regarding the incidence of cancer-therapy induced insulin resistance and describe the systemic and extra- and intracellular changes that occur in insulin signalling pathways and glucose metabolism. Subsequently, clinical and preclinical evidence for consequences of insulin resistance in terms of cancer progression and survival is presented. Finally, potential interventions including diabetes medication and limiting energy availability through diets and exercise are discussed.

  15. Association of obesity and leptin with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Das, Piyali; Bhattacharjee, Debojyoti; Bandyopadhyay, Subir Kumar; Bhattacharya, Gorachand; Singh, Ramji

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus are two modern epidemics. But their interrelationship is debated. Here we explored the probable association among obesity, leptin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. 60 recent onset (< 5 years) diabetics and age-sex matched 33 non diabetic controls were assessed for physical and chemical parameters like Body Mass Index, abdominal circumference, waist/hip ratio, fasting blood glucose, insulin and leptin. Degree of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR method (Homeostatic Model Assessment). All the physical parameters showed positive correlation with leptin and the HOMA-IR score, strength of association being highest between insulin resistance and abdominal circumference. Leptin and insulin resistance showed no correlation. Findings were lower in controls. Study concluded that, obesity mainly central type might be responsible for insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus where as leptin, a potential marker for obesity, may not. This perhaps points towards the multifactorial causation of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Insulin Resistant Humans Normalises Insulin Signalling but Not Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, David A. R.; May, Margaret T.; Hers, Ingeborg; Dayan, Colin M.; Andrews, Robert C.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Weight-loss after bariatric surgery improves insulin sensitivity, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. To ascertain the effect of bariatric surgery on insulin signalling, we examined glucose disposal and Akt activation in morbidly obese volunteers before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and compared this to lean volunteers. Materials and Methods The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, at five infusion rates, was used to determine glucose disposal rates (GDR) in eight morbidly obese (body mass index, BMI=47.3±2.2 kg/m2) patients, before and after RYGB, and in eight lean volunteers (BMI=20.7±0.7 kg/m2). Biopsies of brachioradialis muscle, taken at fasting and insulin concentrations that induced half-maximal (GDR50) and maximal (GDR100) GDR in each subject, were used to examine the phosphorylation of Akt-Thr308, Akt-473, and pras40, in vivo biomarkers for Akt activity. Results Pre-operatively, insulin-stimulated GDR was lower in the obese compared to the lean individuals (P<0.001). Weight-loss of 29.9±4 kg after surgery significantly improved GDR50 (P=0.004) but not GDR100 (P=0.3). These subjects still remained significantly more insulin resistant than the lean individuals (p<0.001). Weight loss increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle Akt-Thr308 and Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, P=0.02 and P=0.03 respectively (MANCOVA), and Akt activity towards the substrate PRAS40 (P=0.003, MANCOVA), and in contrast to GDR, were fully normalised after the surgery (obese vs lean, P=0.6, P=0.35, P=0.46, respectively). Conclusions Our data show that although Akt activity substantially improved after surgery, it did not lead to a full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. This suggests that a major defect downstream of, or parallel to, Akt signalling remains after significant weight-loss. PMID:25876175

  17. Mechanisms for greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in normal and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Cartee, Gregory D

    2015-12-15

    Enhanced skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity can persist for up to 24-48 h after one exercise session. This review focuses on potential mechanisms for greater postexercise and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) by muscle in individuals with normal or reduced insulin sensitivity. A model is proposed for the processes underlying this improvement; i.e., triggers initiate events that activate subsequent memory elements, which store information that is relayed to mediators, which translate memory into action by controlling an end effector that directly executes increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Several candidates are potential triggers or memory elements, but none have been conclusively verified. Regarding potential mediators in both normal and insulin-resistant individuals, elevated postexercise ISGU with a physiological insulin dose coincides with greater Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation without improved proximal insulin signaling at steps from insulin receptor binding to Akt activity. Causality remains to be established between greater AS160 phosphorylation and improved ISGU. The end effector for normal individuals is increased GLUT4 translocation, but this remains untested for insulin-resistant individuals postexercise. Following exercise, insulin-resistant individuals can attain ISGU values similar to nonexercising healthy controls, but after a comparable exercise protocol performed by both groups, ISGU for the insulin-resistant group has been consistently reported to be below postexercise values for the healthy group. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the improved postexercise ISGU in individuals with normal or subnormal insulin sensitivity and to explain the disparity between these groups after similar exercise.

  18. Insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes: experimental and modeling analyses reveal mechanisms of insulin resistance in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Brännmark, Cecilia; Nyman, Elin; Fagerholm, Siri; Bergenholm, Linnéa; Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Cedersund, Gunnar; Strålfors, Peter

    2013-04-05

    Type 2 diabetes originates in an expanding adipose tissue that for unknown reasons becomes insulin resistant. Insulin resistance reflects impairments in insulin signaling, but mechanisms involved are unclear because current research is fragmented. We report a systems level mechanistic understanding of insulin resistance, using systems wide and internally consistent data from human adipocytes. Based on quantitative steady-state and dynamic time course data on signaling intermediaries, normally and in diabetes, we developed a dynamic mathematical model of insulin signaling. The model structure and parameters are identical in the normal and diabetic states of the model, except for three parameters that change in diabetes: (i) reduced concentration of insulin receptor, (ii) reduced concentration of insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4, and (iii) changed feedback from mammalian target of rapamycin in complex with raptor (mTORC1). Modeling reveals that at the core of insulin resistance in human adipocytes is attenuation of a positive feedback from mTORC1 to the insulin receptor substrate-1, which explains reduced sensitivity and signal strength throughout the signaling network. Model simulations with inhibition of mTORC1 are comparable with experimental data on inhibition of mTORC1 using rapamycin in human adipocytes. We demonstrate the potential of the model for identification of drug targets, e.g. increasing the feedback restores insulin signaling, both at the cellular level and, using a multilevel model, at the whole body level. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in an expanded adipose tissue results from cell growth restriction to prevent cell necrosis.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shan-Bo; Zhang, Rui; Miao, Shan; Gao, Bin; Lu, Yang; Hui, Sen; Li, Long; Shi, Xiao-Peng; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2017-04-07

    Hyperglycemia is a typical pathogenic factor in a series of complications among patients with type II diabetes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol extracted from green tea and is reported to be an antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of EGCG on insulin resistance in human HepG2 cells pretreated with high concentrations of glucose. The protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) pathways were analyzed using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes treated with high glucose and/or EGCG. Cellular glycogen content was determined using a glycogen assay kit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using dihydroethidium staining and flow cytometry. c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase (JNK)/insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)/AKT/GSK signaling was explored using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells treated with high glucose and/or EGCG or N-acetyl-cysteine. High glucose significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. Pretreatment with EGCG significantly restored the activation of AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose. In HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, glycogen synthesis was improved by EGCG treatment in a dose‑dependent manner. High glucose significantly stimulated the production of ROS while EGCG protected high glucose‑induced ROS production. ROS is known to serve a major role in high glucose induced‑insulin resistance by increasing JNK and IRS1 serine phosphorylation. In the present study, EGCG was observed to enhance the insulin‑signaling pathway. EGCG ameliorated high glucose‑induced insulin resistance in the hepatocytes by potentially decreasing ROS‑induced JNK/IRS1/AKT/GSK signaling.

  20. Exercise ameliorates insulin resistance via Ca2+ signals distinct from those of insulin for GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Ryoung; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Ju; Yoon, Chung-Su; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Muscle contraction and insulin induce glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through GLUT4 membrane translocation. Beneficial effects of exercise on glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant individuals are known to be due to their distinct mechanism between contraction and insulin action on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we show that in skeletal muscle, distinct Ca(2+) second messengers regulate GLUT4 translocation by contraction and insulin treatment; d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and cyclic ADP-ribose/NAADP are main players for insulin- and contraction-induced glucose uptake, respectively. Different patterns of phosphorylation of AMPK and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II were shown in electrical stimuli (ES)- and insulin-induced glucose uptake pathways. ES-induced Ca(2+) signals and glucose uptake are dependent on glycolysis, which influences formation of NAD(P)-derived signaling messengers, whereas insulin-induced signals are not. High-fat diet (HFD) induced a defect in only insulin-mediated, but not ES-mediated, Ca(2+) signaling for glucose uptake, which is related to a specifically lower NAADP formation. Exercise decreases blood glucose levels in HFD-induced insulin resistance mice via NAADP formation. Thus we conclude that different usage of Ca(2+) signaling in contraction/insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle may account for the mechanism by which exercise ameliorates glucose homeostasis in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. PMID:26945364

  2. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer.

  3. A review on the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin resistance induced by organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Dhouib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Fazaa, Saloua; Gharbi, Najoua

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence reporting that organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) impair glucose homeostasis and cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder that defies explanation by a single etiological pathway. Formation of advanced glycation end products, accumulation of lipid metabolites, activation of inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Ultimately, these molecular processes activate a series of stress pathways involving a family of serine kinases, which in turn have a negative effect on insulin signaling. Experimental and clinical data suggest an association between these molecular mechanisms and OPs compounds. It was first reported that OPs induce hyperglycemia. Then a concomitant increase of blood glucose and insulin was pointed out. For some years only, we have begun to understand that OPs promote insulin resistance and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Overall, this review outlines various mechanisms that lead to the development of insulin resistance by OPs exposure.

  4. Relationship Between Glucocorticoids and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng-Zhen; Zhu, Yong-Mei; Zou, Guang-Hui; Sun, Yu-Xia; Xiu, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between glucocorticoids (GCs) and insulin resistance (IR) in healthy individuals by conducting a systematic meta-analysis. Material/Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using 9 electronic databases. Only case-control studies investigating fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and IR were enrolled based on strictly established selection criteria. Statistical analyses were performed by Stata software, version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Results Among 496 initially retrieved articles, only 6 papers published in English were eventually included in this meta-analysis. A total of 201 healthy individuals (105 in GC group and 96 in control group) were included in the 6 studies. In 4 of these 6 studies, dexamethasone was used, and in the other 2 studies prednisolone was given. This meta-analysis revealed that the FPG, fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels in the GC group were all significantly higher than that in the control group (FPG: SMD=2.65, 95%CI=1.42~3.88, P<0.001; FINS: SMD=2.48, 95%CI=1.01~3.95, P=0.001; HOMA-IR: SMD=38.30, 95%CI=24.38~52.22, P<0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, our present study revealed that therapies using GCs might result in elevated FPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR, and thereby contribute to IR in healthy individuals. PMID:27258456

  5. Hippocampal Insulin Resistance Impairs Spatial Learning and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Piroli, Gerardo G.; Lawrence, Robert C.; Wrighten, Shayna A.; Green, Adrienne J.; Wilson, Steven P.; Sakai, Randall R.; Kelly, Sandra J.; Wilson, Marlene A.; Mott, David D.; Reagan, Lawrence P.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptors (IRs) are expressed in discrete neuronal populations in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus. To elucidate the functional role of hippocampal IRs independent of metabolic function, we generated a model of hippocampal-specific insulin resistance using a lentiviral vector expressing an IR antisense sequence (LV-IRAS). LV-IRAS effectively downregulates IR expression in the rat hippocampus without affecting body weight, adiposity, or peripheral glucose homeostasis. Nevertheless, hippocampal neuroplasticity was impaired in LV-IRAS–treated rats. High-frequency stimulation, which evoked robust long-term potentiation (LTP) in brain slices from LV control rats, failed to evoke LTP in LV-IRAS–treated rats. GluN2B subunit levels, as well as the basal level of phosphorylation of GluA1, were reduced in the hippocampus of LV-IRAS rats. Moreover, these deficits in synaptic transmission were associated with impairments in spatial learning. We suggest that alterations in the expression and phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits underlie the alterations in LTP and that these changes are responsible for the impairment in hippocampal-dependent learning. Importantly, these learning deficits are strikingly similar to the impairments in complex task performance observed in patients with diabetes, which strengthens the hypothesis that hippocampal insulin resistance is a key mediator of cognitive deficits independent of glycemic control. PMID:26216852

  6. Monomeric Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Induces Insulin Sensitive Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lång, Pernilla; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Rydén, Mikael; Kaaman, Maria; Parini, Paolo; Carneheim, Claes; Cassady, A. Ian; Hume, David A.; Andersson, Göran; Arner, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer. Principal Findings Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PMID:18320034

  7. REGULATION OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE BY NITRIC OXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has quickly become a world-wide pandemic with few tangible and safe treatment options. While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i.e., the calories consumed are greater than are utilized, understanding how caloric balance is regulated has proven a challenge. Many “distal” causes of obesity, such as the structural environment, occupation, and social influences, are exceedingly difficult to change or manipulate. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance. This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. PMID:24878261

  8. Role of reduced insulin-stimulated bone blood flow in the pathogenesis of metabolic insulin resistance and diabetic bone fragility.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, 387 million adults live with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an additional 205 million cases are projected by 2035. Because T2D has numerous complications, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Identification of early events in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D might lead to more effective treatments that would mitigate health and monetary costs. Here, we present our hypothesis that impaired bone blood flow is an early event in the pathogenesis of whole-body metabolic insulin resistance that ultimately leads to T2D. Two recent developments in different fields form the basis for this hypothesis. First, reduced vascular function has been identified as an early event in the development of T2D. In particular, before the onset of tissue or whole body metabolic insulin resistance, insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired. Insulin resistance of the vascular endothelium reduces delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle, which leads to tissue and whole-body metabolic insulin resistance. Second is the paradigm-shifting discovery that the skeleton has an endocrine function that is essential for maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Specifically, in response to insulin signaling, osteoblasts secret osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic insulin production and enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver. Furthermore, the skeleton is not metabolically inert, but contributes to whole-body glucose utilization, consuming 20% that of skeletal muscle and 50% that of white adipose tissue. Without insulin signaling or without osteocalcin activity, experimental animals become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Currently, it is not known if insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated blood flow to bone plays a role in the development of whole body metabolic insulin resistance. We hypothesize that it is a key, early event. Microvascular dysfunction is a

  9. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and adiposity in the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study population.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Schulz, Mandy; Moore, Charity G; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations increasingly employ dietary-pattern techniques to fully integrate dietary data. The present study evaluated the relationship of dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis with measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and adiposity in the multi-ethnic, multi-centre Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, 1992-94). Cross-sectional data from 980 middle-aged adults, of whom 67 % had normal and 33 % had impaired glucose tolerance, were analysed. Usual dietary intake was obtained by an interviewer-administered, validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcomes included SI, fasting insulin (FI), BMI and waist circumference. The relationship of dietary patterns to log(SI+1), log(FI), BMI and waist circumference was modelled with multivariable linear regressions. Cluster analysis identified six distinct diet patterns--'dark bread', 'wine', 'fruits', 'low-frequency eaters', 'fries' and 'white bread'. The 'white bread' and the 'fries' patterns over-represented the Hispanic IRAS population predominantly from two centres, while the 'wine' and 'dark bread' groups were dominated by non-Hispanic whites. The dietary patterns were associated significantly with each of the outcomes first at the crude, clinical level (P<0.001). Furthermore, they were significantly associated with FI, BMI and waist circumference independent of age, sex, race or ethnicity, clinic, family history of diabetes, smoking and activity (P<0.004), whereas significance was lost for SI. Studying the total dietary behaviour via a pattern approach allowed us to focus both on the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of diet. The present study identified highly consistent associations of distinct dietary patterns with measures of insulin resistance and adiposity, which are risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

  10. Central insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) restores whole-body insulin action in a model of age-related insulin resistance and IGF-1 decline.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Derek M; Farias Quipildor, Gabriela; Mao, Kai; Zhang, Xueying; Wan, Junxiang; Apontes, Pasha; Cohen, Pinchas; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-02-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is associated with improved longevity, but is paradoxically linked with several age-related diseases in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-1 has proven to be particularly beneficial to the brain, where it confers protection against features of neuronal and cognitive decline. While aging is characterized by central insulin resistance in the face of hyperinsulinemia, the somatotropic axis markedly declines in older humans. Thus, we hypothesized that increasing IGF-1 in the brain may prove to be a novel therapeutic alternative to overcome central insulin resistance and restore whole-body insulin action in aging. Utilizing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we show that old insulin-resistant rats with age-related declines in IGF-1 level demonstrate markedly improved whole-body insulin action, when treated with central IGF-1, as compared to central vehicle or insulin (P < 0.05). Furthermore, central IGF-1, but not insulin, suppressed hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal rates in aging rats (P < 0.05). Taken together, IGF-1 action in the brain and periphery provides a 'balance' between its beneficial and detrimental actions. Therefore, we propose that strategies aimed at 'tipping the balance' of IGF-1 action centrally are the optimal approach to achieve healthy aging and longevity in humans.

  11. Impact of obstructive sleep apnoea on insulin resistance in nonobese and obese children.

    PubMed

    Koren, Dorit; Gozal, David; Philby, Mona F; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been inconsistently associated with insulin resistance and adverse metabolic states. We aimed to assess independent contributions of OSA to insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia in a large paediatric cohort.Habitually snoring children underwent overnight polysomnography, anthropometric measurements and fasting laboratory evaluations. Primary outcome measures included insulin, glucose, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, lipoproteins and sleep disturbance measures.Among 459 children aged 5-12 years, obesity was the primary driver of most associations between OSA and metabolic measures, but sleep duration was inversely associated with glucose levels, with N3 and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep being negatively associated and sleep fragmentation positively associated with insulin resistance measures. In children with mild OSA, the presence of obesity increased the odds for insulin resistance, while higher apnoea/hypopnoea index values emerged among obese children who were more insulin-resistant.The exclusive presence of interactions between OSA and obesity in the degree of insulin resistance is coupled with synergistic contributions by sleep fragmentation to insulin resistance in the context of obesity. Insufficient N3 or REM sleep may also contribute to higher glycaemia independently of obesity. Studies are needed to better delineate the roles of puberty and sleep fragmentation in insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. The Expanding Pathogenic Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease.

    PubMed

    2014-01-07

    The December 2011 issue of Diabetic Medicine celebrated the outstanding personal contributions of the renowned clinical scientist Prof. Sir Harold Himsworth in characterizing impaired insulin action in relation to phenotypes of diabetes. The commissioned articles in the special issue of the journal were assembled in recognition of the publication in 1936 of a landmark paper in which Himsworth summarized his innovative research, to which much of our current understanding of insulin resistance can be readily traced. The collection of invited articles that marked the 75th anniversary of the Lancet publication provided a state-of-the-art summary from internationally renowned investigators of what has become an increasingly diverse field reaching into myriad aspects of clinical medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Should insulin resistance be screened in lean hirsute women?

    PubMed

    Arduc, Ayse; Sarıcam, Orkun; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Tutuncu, Yasemin Ates; Isik, Serhat; Berker, Dilek; Sennaroglu, Engin; Guler, Serdar

    2015-04-01

    The role of insulin resistance (IR) is well-documented in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Controversies exist concerning the presence of IR in idiopathic hirsutism (IH) or if it is a manifestation of high body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate the presence/absence of IR in lean hirsute women. One-hundred fifty-one lean women with hirsutism [96 PCOS (group 1) and 55 IH (group 2)] and 58 age-and BMI-matched healthy controls (group 3) were recruited in the study (mean age 25.21 ± 6.1 versus 26.26 ± 4.6years; BMI 21.79 ± 1.7 versus 22.02 ± 2.2 kg/m(2), respectively). Significantly higher insulin and HOMA-IR, and significantly lower fasting glucose insulin ratio (FGIR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), reciprocal insulin, and Raynaud index were detected in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3 (p < 0.05). These IR indices were similar between groups 1 and 2. The number of patients with IR (HOMA-IR > 2, FGIR < 7.2, or QUICKI < 0.357) was significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3, but was similar between groups 1 and 2. A higher frequency of IR occurs in lean hirsute women regardless of they having PCOS or IH. IR may contribute to aetiopathogenesis of IH, or may cause some metabolic abnormalities in these patients.

  14. Hypoglycemic effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture on insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jieyun; Kuang, Jian; Chandalia, Manisha; Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Tumurbaatar, Batbayar; Abate, Nicola; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on blood glucose and insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Both wild-type (WT) and adipose ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase (ENPP1) transgenic (TG) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 wk; for each mouse, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed with or without EA at abdomen or auricular areas. A high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in both WT and TG mice. In the WT mice, EA at 3 Hz and 15 Hz, but not at 1 Hz or 100 Hz, via CV4+CV12 significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels; EA at 3 Hz was most potent. The glucose level was reduced by 61.7% at 60 min and 74.5% at 120 min with EA at 3 Hz (all P < 0.001 vs. control). Similar hypoglycemic effect was noted in the TG mice. On the contrary, EA at auricular points increased postprandial glucose level (P < 0.03). 4). EA at 3 Hz via CV4+CV12 significantly enhanced the decrease of blood glucose after insulin injection, suggesting improvement of insulin sensitivity. Plasma free fatty acid was significantly suppressed by 42.5% at 15 min and 50.8% at 30 min with EA (P < 0.01) in both WT and TG mice. EA improves glucose tolerance in both WT and TG mice fed a high-fat diet, and the effect is associated with stimulation parameters and acupoints and is probably attributed to the reduction of free fatty acid.

  15. Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by downregulating the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiquan; Xue, Liqiong; Guo, Cuicui; Han, Bing; Pan, Chunming; Zhao, Shuangxia; Song, Huaidong; Ma, Qinyun

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-{kappa}B in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-{alpha}, IL6, IL10, IL1{beta}, KC, MIP-1{alpha}, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  16. Exogenous thyroxine improves glucose intolerance in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Anaya, Guillermo; Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-03-01

    Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with glucose intolerance, calling into question the contribution of thyroid hormones (TH) on glucose regulation. TH analogues and derivatives may be effective treatment options for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR), but their potential glucoregulatory effects during conditions of impaired metabolism are not well described. To assess the effects of thyroxine (T4) on glucose intolerance in a model of insulin resistance, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed on three groups of rats (n = 8): (1) lean, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), (2) obese, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and (3) OLETF + T4 (8.0 µg/100 g BM/day × 5 weeks). T4 attenuated glucose intolerance by 15% and decreased IR index (IRI) by 34% in T4-treated OLETF compared to untreated OLETF despite a 31% decrease in muscle Glut4 mRNA expression. T4 increased the mRNA expressions of muscle monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10), deiodinase type 2 (Di2), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) by 1.8-, 2.2-, 2.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to OLETF. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor were not significantly altered suggesting that the improvements in glucose intolerance and IR were independent of enhanced insulin-mediated signaling. The results suggest that T4 treatment increased the influx of T4 in skeletal muscle and, with an increase of DI2, increased the availability of the biologically active T3 to upregulate key factors such SIRT1 and UCP2 involved in cellular metabolism and glucose homeostasis.

  17. Myoinositol and D-Chiro Inositol in Improving Insulin Resistance in Obese Male Children: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    Andreassi, Alice; Salvioni, Michela; Pelliccione, Fiore; Mantellassi, Gianna; Banderali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Myoinositol and D-chiro inositol, which are inositol isomers, have been shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to improve insulin resistance, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, it has not been determined if this relationship exists also in children. Based on these previous findings, we hypothesized that inositol could be effective in improving insulin sensitivity in children with insulin resistance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered both inositol formulations before carrying out an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a group of obese insulin-resistant male children with high basal insulin levels and compared the values obtained with an OGTT previously conducted without inositol, in the same group, with unchanged BMI. Our results confirm that myoinositol and D-chiro inositol acutely reduce insulin increase after glucose intake mainly in children with high basal insulin level. PMID:27882052

  18. Cultured hypothalamic neurons are resistant to inflammation and insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Ju; Kim, Francis; Schwartz, Michael W; Wisse, Brent E

    2010-06-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation induced by high-fat feeding causes insulin and leptin resistance and contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. Since in vitro exposure to saturated fatty acids causes inflammation and insulin resistance in many cultured cell types, we determined how cultured hypothalamic neurons respond to this stimulus. Two murine hypothalamic neuronal cell cultures, N43/5 and GT1-7, were exposed to escalating concentrations of saturated fatty acids for up to 24 h. Harvested cells were evaluated for activation of inflammation by gene expression and protein content. Insulin-treated cells were evaluated for induction of markers of insulin receptor signaling (p-IRS, p-Akt). In both hypothalamic cell lines, inflammation was induced by prototypical inflammatory mediators LPS and TNFalpha, as judged by induction of IkappaBalpha (3- to 5-fold) and IL-6 (3- to 7-fold) mRNA and p-IkappaBalpha protein, and TNFalpha pretreatment reduced insulin-mediated p-Akt activation by 30% (P < 0.05). By comparison, neither mixed saturated fatty acid (100, 250, or 500 microM for insulin resistance in cultured hypothalamic neurons, whereas they did in control muscle and endothelial cell lines. Despite the lack of evidence of inflammatory signaling, saturated fatty acid exposure in cultured hypothalamic neurons causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, induces mitogen-activated protein kinase, and causes apoptotic cell death with prolonged exposure. We conclude that saturated fatty acid exposure does not induce inflammatory signaling or insulin resistance in cultured hypothalamic neurons. Therefore, hypothalamic neuronal inflammation in the setting of DIO may involve an indirect mechanism mediated by saturated fatty acids on nonneuronal cells.

  19. Berberine reduces insulin resistance through protein kinase C-dependent up-regulation of insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Hao; Song, Dan-Qing; Xue, Rong; Zhao, Wei; Wei, Jing; Wang, Yue-Ming; Shan, Ning; Zhou, Zhen-Xian; Yang, Peng; You, Xue-Fu; Li, Zhuo-Rong; Si, Shu-Yi; Zhao, Li-Xun; Pan, Huai-Ning; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Natural product berberine (BBR) has been reported to have hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activities; however, its mechanism remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of BBR against insulin resistance. Here, we identify insulin receptor (InsR) as a target of BBR to increase insulin sensitivity. In cultured human liver cells, BBR increased InsR messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine increased InsR expression in the L6 rat skeletal muscle cells as well. Berberine-enhanced InsR expression improved cellular glucose consumption only in the presence of insulin. Silencing InsR gene with small interfering RNA or blocking the phosphoinositol-3-kinase diminished this effect. Berberine induced InsR gene expression through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of its promoter. Inhibition of PKC abolished BBR-caused InsR promoter activation and InsR mRNA transcription. In animal models, treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus rats with BBR lowered fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin, increased insulin sensitivity, and elevated InsR mRNA as well as PKC activity in the liver. In addition, BBR lowered blood glucose in KK-Ay type 2 but not in NOD/LtJ type 1 diabetes mellitus mice that were insulin deficient. Our results suggest that BBR is a unique natural medicine against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by fatty acids: importance of the mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance condition is associated to the development of several syndromes, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Although the factors linking insulin resistance to these syndromes are not precisely defined yet, evidence suggests that the elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) level plays an important role in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accordantly, in vivo and in vitro exposure of skeletal muscle and myocytes to physiological concentrations of saturated fatty acids is associated with insulin resistance condition. Several mechanisms have been postulated to account for fatty acids-induced muscle insulin resistance, including Randle cycle, oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we reviewed experimental evidence supporting the involvement of each of these propositions in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acids and propose an integrative model placing mitochondrial dysfunction as an important and common factor to the other mechanisms. PMID:22360800

  1. Adipocytokine Profile and Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    GHERLAN, Iuliana; VLADOIU, Suzana; ALEXIU, Florin; GIURCANEANU, Mihaela; OROS, Sabina; BREHAR, Andreea; PROCOPIUC, Camelia; DUMITRACHE, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adipose tissue is a veritable "endocrine organ" due to its adipocytokines secretion implied in insulin sensitivity modulation and cardiovascular complications. Objective: To identify the adipocytokines' plasmatic profile (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, TNFα) in obese children and adolescents and to assess their relationship with "classic" clinical/paraclinical markers of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Material and Methods: A case-control study comparing a study group of 38 obese children and adolescents (age 13.5±2.3 years) to a normal weight age matched control group of 24 children. We measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). The classical metabolic parameters (fasting glycemia, total cholesterol and its fractions, serum triglycerides) were measured in both groups. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using fasting insulinemia, HOMA-index and insulin-resistance summary score (IRS). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6 and TNFα were measured using ELISA method. Outcomes: Serum levels of leptin, resistin and IL-6 were signficantly higher (42.42±22.58 ng/ml versus 14.4±14.49 ng/ml, p <0.001; 9.69±3.47 ng/ml versus 7.92±2.13ng/ml, p = 0.029 and 2.66 ±2.87 pg/ml versus 0.89 ± 1.16 pg/ml, p = 0.006 respectively), while adiponectin levels were significantly lower (9.05±4.61 µg/ml versus 15.93±9.24 μg/ml, p <0.001) in the obese group compared to control group. TNFα was not statistical different between groups. In multivariate regression analysis adiponectin was negatively and significantly correlated with WC (r = - 0.463, p = 0.003); leptin was positively and significantly related to WC, diastolic BP, fasting insulinemia and resistin (r = 0.775, p <0.001); resistin was positively related to leptin and IL-6 (r = 0.499, p <0.001), IL-6 was positively and significantly related to diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.333, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Serum levels of

  2. Central role of E3 ubiquitin ligase MG53 in insulin resistance and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruisheng; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Fengxiang; Wu, Hong-Kun; Guo, Jiaojiao; Cao, Yongxing; Pi, Yanbin; Zhang, Xin; Jin, Li; Zhang, Mao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fenghua; Meng, Shaoshuai; Zhang, Xiuqin; Jiang, Ping; Cao, Chun-Mei; Xiao, Rui-Ping

    2013-02-21

    Insulin resistance is a fundamental pathogenic factor present in various metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although skeletal muscle accounts for 70-90% of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, the mechanism underlying muscle insulin resistance is poorly understood. Here we show in mice that muscle-specific mitsugumin 53 (MG53; also called TRIM72) mediates the degradation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and when upregulated, causes metabolic syndrome featuring insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. MG53 expression is markedly elevated in models of insulin resistance, and MG53 overexpression suffices to trigger muscle insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome sequentially. Conversely, ablation of MG53 prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome by preserving the insulin receptor, IRS1 and insulin signalling integrity. Mechanistically, MG53 acts as an E3 ligase targeting the insulin receptor and IRS1 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, comprising a central mechanism controlling insulin signal strength in skeletal muscle. These findings define MG53 as a novel therapeutic target for treating metabolic disorders and associated cardiovascular complications.

  3. Developmental programming of obesity and insulin resistance: does mitochondrial dysfunction in oocytes play a role?

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Robker, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key defect associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. While a number of factors have been suggested to cause defects in insulin action, there is a very strong association between inappropriate lipid deposition in insulin target tissues and the development of insulin resistance. In recent times, a large number of studies have reported changes in markers of mitochondrial metabolism in insulin-resistant individuals, leading to the theory that defects in mitochondrial substrate oxidation are responsible for the buildup of lipid intermediates and the development of insulin resistance. The primary support for the mitochondrial theory of insulin resistance comes from studies in skeletal muscle; however, there is recent evidence in murine models that mitochondrial dysfunction in oocytes may also play a role. Oocytes from obese or insulin-resistant mice have been shown to exhibit abnormalities in many different mitochondrial parameters, including mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential. Here we review the findings regarding the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and propose that abnormalities in mitochondrial metabolism in oocytes may predispose to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and thus contribute to the inter-generational programming of metabolic disease.

  4. Association of nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in nondiabetic young women.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Curhan, Gary C; Schernhammer, Eva S; Forman, John P

    2013-07-15

    Exogenous melatonin ameliorates insulin resistance in animals, while among humans, polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor gene are associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the association of endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in humans. We analyzed the association between endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion, estimated by measuring the main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, from the first morning urinary void, and the prevalence of insulin resistance based on fasting blood samples collected in a cross-sectional study of 1,075 US women (1997-1999) without diabetes, hypertension, or malignancy. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was standardized to urinary creatinine level; insulin resistance was defined as an insulin sensitivity index value (using the McAuley formula) less than 7.85. Logistic regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary glycemic index, family history of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, uric acid, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Higher nocturnal melatonin secretion was inversely associated with insulin levels and insulin resistance. In fully adjusted models, the odds ratio for insulin resistance was 0.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.74) among women in the highest quartile of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin:creatinine ratio compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nocturnal melatonin secretion is independently and inversely associated with insulin resistance.

  5. Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-03-01

    The realization that low-glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable.

  6. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  7. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ETAR during insulin resistance, ETAR expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ETAR expression, but not ETBR, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ETAR pathway suppressed insulin-induced AKT

  8. Palmitate induces insulin resistance in human HepG2 hepatocytes by enhancing ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of key insulin signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Megumi; Maeda, Ayumi; Tani, Shuji; Akagawa, Mitsugu

    2015-01-15

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. High concentrations of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are involved in the etiology of obesity-associated insulin resistance. However, the detailed mechanism by which FFAs contribute to the development of insulin resistance is not yet fully understood. We investigated the molecular basis of insulin resistance elicited by FFAs using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2. Among major human FFAs, palmitate markedly inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of key insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt, indicating that palmitate is the principal inducer of insulin resistance. We revealed that palmitate facilitates ubiquitination of the key insulin signaling molecules, and subsequently elicits their proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of ubiquitination by the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 inhibitor PYR41 significantly prevents palmitate-inducible insulin resistance but not by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, implying that ubiquitinated signaling molecules may be dysfunctional. In conclusion, inhibition of ubiquitination of the key insulin signaling molecules may be a potential strategy for preventing and treating obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  9. Insulin resistance in Alzheimer disease: Is heme oxygenase-1 an Achille's heel?

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance, clinically defined as the inability of insulin to increase glucose uptake and utilization, has been found to be associated with the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Indeed, postmortem AD brain shows all the signs of insulin resistance including: (i) reduced brain insulin receptor (IR) sensitivity, (ii) hypophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and downstream second messengers such as IRS-1, and (iii) attenuated insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression. However, the exact mechanisms driving insulin resistance have not been completely elucidated. Quite recently, the levels of the peripheral inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO-1), a well-known protein up-regulated during cell stress response, were proposed to be among the strongest positive predictors of metabolic disease, including insulin resistance. Because our group previously reported on levels, activation state and oxidative stress-induced post-translational modifications of HO-1 in AD brain and our ongoing studies to better elucidate the role of HO-1 in insulin resistance-associated AD pathology, the aim of this review is to provide reader with a critical analysis on new aspects of the interplay between HO-1 and insulin resistance and on how the available lines of evidence could be useful for further comprehension of processes in AD brain.

  10. Functional Role of Serotonin in Insulin Secretion in a Diet-Induced Insulin-Resistant State

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuho; Oh, Chang-Myung; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Park, Sangkyu; Namkung, Jun; Yadav, Vijay K.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Roe, Michael W.; Philipson, Louis H.; Karsenty, Gerard; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), in pancreatic β-cell function was previously elucidated using a pregnant mouse model. During pregnancy, 5-HT increases β-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through the Gαq-coupled 5-HT2b receptor (Htr2b) and the 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3), a ligand-gated cation channel, respectively. However, the role of 5-HT in β-cell function in an insulin-resistant state has yet to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of β-cell-specific Htr2b−/− (Htr2b βKO), Htr3a−/− (Htr3a knock-out [KO]), and β-cell-specific tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1)−/− (Tph1 βKO) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Htr2b βKO, Htr3a KO, and Tph1 βKO mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance on a standard chow diet. After 6 weeks on an HFD, beginning at 4 weeks of age, both Htr3a KO and Tph1 βKO mice developed glucose intolerance, but Htr2b βKO mice remained normoglycemic. Pancreas perfusion assays revealed defective first-phase insulin secretion in Htr3a KO mice. GSIS was impaired in islets isolated from HFD-fed Htr3a KO and Tph1 βKO mice, and 5-HT treatment improved insulin secretion from Tph1 βKO islets but not from Htr3a KO islets. Tph1 and Htr3a gene expression in pancreatic islets was not affected by an HFD, and immunostaining could not detect 5-HT in pancreatic islets from mice fed an HFD. Taken together, these results demonstrate that basal 5-HT levels in β-cells play a role in GSIS through Htr3, which becomes more evident in a diet-induced insulin-resistant state. PMID:25426873

  11. [Relationship between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance: new concepts].

    PubMed

    Fève, Bruno; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vidal, Hubert

    2006-08-01

    White adipose tissue is the main site of energy storage, but it is now recognized as an active participant in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including immunity and inflammation. It has an endocrine function by secreting at least two main hormones, leptin and adiponectin. It can secrete other products, named adipokines, including cytokines and chemokines, involved in inflammation process. The release of adipokines by either adipocytes or adipose tissue infiltrated macrophages lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in cardiovascular complications linked to obesity and insulin resistance, a risk factor to develop type-2 diabetes.

  12. Nuclear Receptors Resolve Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress to Improve Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminating in proteotoxicity contributes to the development of insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacologic interventions targeting several different nuclear receptors have emerged as potential treatments for insulin resistance. The mechanistic basis for these antidiabetic effects has primarily been attributed to multiple metabolic and inflammatory functions. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the association of ER stress with insulin resistance and the role of nuclear receptors in promoting ER stress resolution and improving insulin resistance in the liver. PMID:28236381

  13. Intramyocellular lipids: maker vs. marker of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, ZengKui

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen years ago it was discovered that intramyocellular triglyceride (imcTG) content in skeletal muscle is abnormally high in lipid oversupply models and, later, in obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolically diseased conditions. The imcTG abnormality was also found to be significantly correlated with muscle insulin resistance (MIR). As skeletal muscle is the main site for insulin-mediated glucose utilization, the research on this topic has been active since. However, to date the pathways responsible for the imcTG excess and the mechanisms underlying the imcTG-MIR correlation have not been identified. The current view is focused on a backward theory that fatty acid oxidation by muscle is impaired causing imcTG to accumulate. Therefore, an enlarged imcTG pool is merely a marker of MIR and thus is considered a non-player in the development and intervention of MIR. However, it is more likely that imcTG is a source of MIR. On one hand, an enlarged and fast turning over imcTG pool interferes with insulin signaling by producing excess amounts of signaling molecules that activate PKC pathways. On the other hand, it may promote mitochondrial β-oxidation that suppresses glucose metabolism via substrate competition. Therefore, it is hypothesized that imcTG is a source and contributor to MIR. PMID:17766054

  14. Comparisons of insulin related parameters in commercial-type chicks: Evidence for insulin resistance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun-Ichi; Yanagita, Kouichi; Fukumori, Rika; Sugino, Toshihisa; Fujita, Masanori; Kawakami, Shin-Ichi; McMurtry, John P; Bungo, Takashi

    2011-05-03

    The aim of this study is to elucidate whether insulin acts differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of two types of commercial chicks to control ingestive behavior. Male layer and broiler chicks (4-day-old) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with saline or insulin under satiated and starved conditions. Feed intake was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after treatment. Secondly, blood and hypothalamus were collected from both chick types under ad libitum feeding and fasting for 24 h. Plasma insulin concentration was measured by time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The ICV injection of insulin significantly inhibited feed consumption in layer chicks when compared with saline (P<0.05), but not broiler chicks (P>0.1). Plasma insulin concentration of both chick types significantly decreased following 24 h of fasting, while insulin concentrations in the broiler chicks were significantly higher compared to the layers fed under ad libitum conditions. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in broiler chicks than in layer ones under ad libitum feeding. Feed deprivation significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA levels in layer chicks (P<0.01), but not in broiler chicks (P>0.1). Moreover, plasma insulin concentrations correlated negatively with hypothalamic insulin receptor protein expression in the two types of chicks fed ad libitum (P<0.05). These results suggest that insulin resistance exists in the CNS of broiler chicks, possibly due to persistent hyperinsulinemia, which results in a down-regulation of CNS insulin receptor expression compared to that in layer chicks.

  15. Obesity and insulin resistance in resistant hypertension: implications for the kidney.

    PubMed

    Rao, Akhilesh; Pandya, Vishwam; Whaley-Connell, Adam

    2015-05-01

    There is recognition that the obesity epidemic contributes substantially to the increasing incidence of CKD and resistant hypertension (HTN). The mechanisms by which obesity promotes resistance are an area of active interest and intense investigation. It is thought that increases in visceral adiposity lead to a proinflammatory, pro-oxidative milieu that promote resistance to the metabolic actions of insulin. This resistance to insulin at the level of skeletal muscle tissue impairs glucose disposal/utilization through actions on the endothelium that include vascular rarefaction, reductions in vascular relaxation, and vascular remodeling. Insulin resistance derived from increased adipose tissue and obesity has system-wide implications for other tissue beds such as the kidney that affects blood pressure regulation. The additional autocrine and paracrine activities of adipose tissue contribute to inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system that promote kidney microvascular remodeling, stiffness, and sodium (Na(+)) retention that in turn promote HTN and in the CKD patient, resistance. In this review, we will summarize the important mechanisms that link obesity to CKD as they relate to resistant HTN.

  16. Sitagliptin down-regulates retinol-binding protein 4 and reduces insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized and double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Zhang, Zhendong; Ning, Hui; Sun, Hong; Ji, Xianghong

    2017-02-17

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition that affects increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. Sitagliptin was reported to alleviate symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4). We investigated the effectiveness of sitagliptin on insulin sensitivity parameters in GDM patients. Pregnant GDM women in the 2nd trimester were recruited for this study. Participants were then assigned randomly to sitagliptin treatment group or placebo treatment group, and administered sitagliptin or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles, as well as serum RBP-4 level, were measured at both baseline and end of the study. After 16 weeks of treatment, participants in the STL group exhibited significantly improved levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with those in the placebo group. Serum levels of RBP-4 were also markedly decreased in the sitagliptin treatment group, and more importantly it was positively correlated with improved insulin resistance parameters. Our study supports a potentially promising role of sitagliptin in improving insulin resistance by decreasing RBP-4 in GDM-affected women.

  17. Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Singareddy Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, Pasurla; Karuna, Rasineni; Saralakumari, Desireddy

    2009-09-01

    High intake of dietary fructose exerts a number of adverse metabolic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) alleviates high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in rats. High-fructose diet (66% of fructose) and TCAE (400 mg/kg/day) were given simultaneously for a period of 60 days. Fructose fed rats showed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired insulin sensitivity (P<0.05). TCAE treatment prevented the rise in glucose levels by 21.3%, insulin by 51.5%, triglycerides by 54.12% and glucose-insulin index by 59.8% of the fructose fed rats. Regarding liver antioxidant status, fructose fed rats showed higher values of lipid peroxidation (91.3%), protein carbonyl groups (44%) and lowered GSH levels (42.1%) and, lowered activities of enzymatic antioxidants, while TCAE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of T. cordifolia against fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of chronic diseases characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and aggravated antioxidant status.

  18. Marked insulin resistance in pregnancy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Jean M; Issa, Nizar; Kosseifi, Semaan G; Peiris, Alan N

    2006-10-01

    Pregnancy is usually accompanied by insulin resistance; however, severe insulin resistance in pregnancy requiring massive doses of insulin is rare. We report a case of a 14-year-old with acanthosis nigricans and a strong family history of Type 2 diabetes who exhibited marked insulin resistance during pregnancy. Her treatment included terbutaline for pre-term labor and dexamethasone for fetal lung maturity. Shortly after these interventions, her insulin requirements escalated to 130 units per hour. Multiple insulin regimens were used in her treatment. Investigations were negative for antinuclear antibodies, islet cell IgG auto-antibodies (GAD65 Antibody assay) and insulin antibodies. Her thyroid-stimulating hormone was within normal limits and her C-peptide level elevated at 18 ng/dL [1.1-4.8 ng/L]. A week following cessation of the dexamethasone and terbutaline, her insulin requirements dramatically decreased. We conclude that in pregnant patients with underlying insulin resistance and strong family history of diabetes, the use of agents that antagonize insulin action, such as dexamethasone and terbutaline, can result in massive insulin resistance.

  19. Hypolactasia is associated with insulin resistance in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Mattar, Rejane; Stefano, José Tadeu; da Silva-Etto, Joyce Matie Kinoshita; Diniz, Márcio Augusto; Duarte, Sebastião Mauro Bezerra; Rabelo, Fabíola; Lima, Rodrigo Vieira Costa; de Campos, Priscila Brizolla; Carrilho, Flair José; Oliveira, Claudia P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess lactase gene (LCT)-13910C>T polymorphisms in Brazilian non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS This was a transverse observational clinical study with NAFLD patients who were followed at the Hepatology Outpatient Unit of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. The polymorphism of lactase non-persistence/lactase persistence (LCT-13910C>T) was examined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 102 liver biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (steatosis in 9 and NASH in 93) and compared to those of 501 unrelated healthy volunteers. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical and liver histology data were analyzed. Continuous variables were compared using the t or Mann-Whitney tests, and categorical data were compared with the Fisher’s exact test. Univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender and age were performed. RESULTS No differences in the LCT-13910 genotype frequencies were noted between the NAFLD patients (66.67% of the patients with steatosis were CC, 33.33% were CT, and none were TT; 55.91% of the patients with NASH were CC, 39.78% were CT, and 4.3% were TT; P = 0.941) and the healthy controls (59.12% were CC, 35.67% were CT, and 5.21% were TT) or between the steatosis and NASH patients. That is, the distribution of the lactase non-persistence/lactase persistence polymorphism (LCT-13910C>T) in the patients with NAFLD was equal to that in the general population. In the NASH patients, the univariate analysis revealed that the lactase non-persistence (low lactase activity or hypolactasia) phenotype was associated with higher insulin levels (23.47 ± 15.94 μU/mL vs 15.8 ± 8.33 μU/mL, P = 0.027) and a higher frequency of insulin resistance (91.84% vs 72.22%, P = 0.02) compared with the lactase persistence phenotype. There were no associations between the LCT genotypes and diabetes (P = 0

  20. Relationship between insulin resistance and amino acids in women and men.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Ryan; Abbasi, Fahim; Hantash, Feras M; Caulfield, Michael P; Reaven, Gerald; Kim, Sun H

    2015-05-01

    Insulin resistance has been associated with higher plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, but majority of studies have used indirect measures of insulin resistance. Our main objective was to define the relationship between plasma AA concentrations and a direct measure of insulin resistance in women and men. This was a cross-sectional study of 182 nondiabetic individuals (118 women and 64 men) who had measurement of 24 AAs and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration (insulin resistance) using the insulin suppression test. Fourteen out of 24 AA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in men than women; only glycine was lower in men. Majority of these AAs were positively associated with SSPG; only glycine concentration was negatively associated. Glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, and tyrosine concentrations had the strongest correlation with SSPG (r ≥ 0.4, P < 0.001). The degree of association was similar in women and men, independent of obesity, and similar to traditional markers of insulin resistance (e.g., glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Compared with women, men tended to have a more unfavorable AA profile with higher concentration of AAs associated with insulin resistance and less glycine. However, the strength of association between a direct measurement of insulin resistance and AA concentrations were similar between sexes and equivalent to several traditional markers of insulin resistance.

  1. Determining the waist circumference in african americans which best predicts insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E; Sen, Sabyasachi; Ricks, Madia; Frempong, Barbara A; Sebring, Nancy G; Kushner, Harvey

    2008-04-01

    Total body size and central fat distribution are important determinants of insulin resistance. The BMI and waist circumference (WC) thresholds in African Americans that best predict insulin resistance are unknown. Our goal was to determine the BMI and WC values in African Americans, which optimally predict insulin resistance. The subjects were African Americans (68 men, 63 women), aged 35 +/- 8 years (mean +/- s.d.), with a BMI of 30.9 +/- 7.5, in the range of 18.5-54.7 kg/m(2), and with a WC of 98 +/- 18, in the range of 69-173 cm. Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)). The Youden index was calculated to determine the WC and BMI thresholds that predict insulin resistance with an optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity. In men the thresholds that optimally predicted insulin resistance were a BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =102 cm. For women, insulin resistance was best predicted by a BMI > or =32 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =98 cm. In African Americans, insulin resistance (in men) was best predicted by a WC > or =102 cm, and in women by a WC > or =98 cm, or by a BMI value that fell in the obese category (men: > or =30 kg/m(2), women: > or =32 kg/m(2)).

  2. Serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients and the relationship with insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mehmet; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Emre, Habib; Kemik, Ahu; Kemik, Ozgur; Esen, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Serum leptin levels have been examined in various cancers, with conflicting results. However, there is limited information regarding serum leptin levels and insulin resistance in gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate serum leptin levels, performance status, insulin levels and insulin resistance in patients with gastric cancer. In addition, we examined the relationship between these measurements and leptin levels. Material and methods Thirty-nine patients with gastric cancer and 30 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum leptin, total protein, albumin, growth hormone, insulin and glucose levels were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Results Serum levels of insulin, glucose and growth hormone and insulin resistance were significantly lower in gastric cancer patients than controls (p < 0.05 for all). In the Pearson correlation analysis, insulin resistance was found to be significantly correlated with serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients (r = 0.320, p = 0.047). We observed a significant negative correlation between performance status and insulin resistance in patients with cachexia (r = –0.512, p = 0.030), while no association was found in non-cachectic patients. Conclusions We concluded that serum leptin levels are significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. In addition, gastric cancer patients have decreases in insulin levels, insulin resistance and growth hormone levels. This study found a positive association between serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Moreover, there is a negative association between serum leptin levels and growth hormone levels. Thus, low insulin and growth hormone levels may suppress the production of leptin in gastric cancer patients. PMID:25995751

  3. Important genetic checkpoints for insulin resistance in salt-sensitive (S) Dahl rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Marlene F

    2008-01-01

    Despite the marked advances in research on insulin resistance (IR) in humans and animal models of insulin resistance, the mechanisms underlying high salt-induced insulin resistance remain unclear. Insulin resistance is a multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental factors (such as high salt) involved in its pathogenesis. High salt triggers insulin resistance in genetically susceptible patients and animal models of insulin resistance. One of the mechanisms by which high salt might precipitate insulin resistance is through its ability to enhance an oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response that disrupts the insulin signaling pathway. The aim of this hypothesis is to discuss two complementary approaches to find out how high salt might interact with genetic defects along the insulin signaling and inflammatory pathways to predispose to insulin resistance in a genetically susceptible model of insulin resistance. The first approach will consist of examining variations in genes involved in the insulin signaling pathway in the Dahl S rat (an animal model of insulin resistance and salt-sensitivity) and the Dahl R rat (an animal model of insulin sensitivity and salt-resistance), and the putative cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The second approach will consist of studying the over-expressed genes along the inflammatory pathway whose respective activation might be predictive of high salt-induced insulin resistance in Dahl S rats. Variations in genes encoding the insulin receptor substrates -1 and/or -2 (IRS-1, -2) and/or genes encoding the glucose transporter (GLUTs) proteins have been found in patients with insulin resistance. To better understand the combined contribution of excessive salt and genetic defects to the etiology of the disease, it is essential to investigate the following question: Question 1: Do variations in genes encoding the IRS -1 and -2 and/or genes encoding the GLUTs proteins predict high salt

  4. [Insulin resistance as a mechanism of adaptation during human evolution].

    PubMed

    Ricart, W; Fernández-Real, J M

    2010-10-01

    The recent application of concepts of evolution to human disease is proving useful to understand certain pathophysiological mechanisms of different entities that span genomic alterations of immunity, respiratory and hormone function, and the circulatory and neural systems. However, effort has concentrated on explaining the keys to adaptation that define human metabolism and, since the early 1960s, several theories have been developed. This article reviews some of the hypotheses postulated in recent years on the potential benefit of insulin resistance and discusses the most recent knowledge. The concept of the thrifty gene seems to have been definitively refuted by current knowledge. The current paradigm describes an interaction between the metabolic and the immune systems resulting from their coevolution, promoted by evolutionary pressures triggered by fasting, infection and intake of different foods. The activation and regulation of these ancient mechanisms in integrated and interdependent areas defines insulin resistance as a survival strategy that is critical during fasting and in the fight against infection. The relationship with some components of the diet and, particularly, with the symbiotic intestinal microflora points to new paradigms in understanding the pathophysiology of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. New markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polak, K; Czyzyk, A; Simoncini, T; Meczekalski, B

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. The diagnostic criteria include two out of three features: hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and menstrual irregularities (Rotterdam Criteria 2003). PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved in reproductive and metabolic complications of the syndrome. Several tests have been developed to measure IR, some very reliable but complex like the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp and others less precise but easier and less invasive like HOMA-IR. New markers are needed to reach a more reliable assessment of insulin resistance. To date, several surrogate markers have been proposed in the literature to facilitate and improve the determination of IR. Many new proteins are strongly involved with PCOS physiopathology and IR, such as some adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, vaspin and apelin), copeptin, irisin, PAI-1 and zonulin. Many other proteins have been proposed as potential new markers of IR in PCOS, such as resistin, leptin, RBP4, kisspetin and ghrelin, but their role is still controversial. In this review, we provide a short characterization of these new markers, recently studied as indicators of metabolic state.

  6. Hyperandrogenism-Insulin Resistance-Acanthosis Nigricans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dédjan, A. H.; Chadli, A.; El Aziz, S.; Farouqi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female hyperandrogenism is a frequent motive of consultation. It is revealed by hirsutism, acne or seborrhea, and disorders in menstruation cycle combined or not with virilisation signs. Several etiologies are incriminated but the hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome is rare. Observation. A 20-year-old girl, having had a five-year-old secondary amenorrhea. The exam revealed a patient, normotensive with a body mass index at 30 kg/m2 and a waist measurement of 120 cm, a severe hirsutism assessed to be 29 according to Ferriman Gallwey scale, virilisation signs of male morphotype, clitoridic hypertrophy and frontal alopecia, and an acanthosis nigricans behind the neck, in the armpits and elbows. The assessment carried out revealed testosteronemia at 1.28 ng/mL, which is more than twice the upper norm of the laboratory. Imaging studies were negative for both ovarian and adrenal masses. The retained diagnosis is HAIR-AN syndrome probably related to ovarian hyperthecosis and she was provided with androcur 50 mg/day and estradiol pills 2 mg/day and under hygiene-dietetic conditions. Conclusion. This case proves that HAIR-AN syndrome could be responsible for severe hyperandrogenism with virilisation signs. It must be retained after discarding the tumoral causes and when there are signs of insulin resistance. PMID:26229697

  7. Sustained βAR Stimulation Mediates Cardiac Insulin Resistance in a PKA-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Denkaew, Tananat; Phosri, Sarawuth; Pinthong, Darawan; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Shimauchi, Tsukasa; Nishida, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells are defective in response to the actions of insulin in tissue glucose uptake. Overstimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, the mechanisms by which sustained βAR stimulation affects insulin resistance in the heart are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained βAR stimulation resulted in the inhibition of insulin-induced glucose uptake, and a reduction of insulin induced glucose transporter (GLUT)4 expression that were mediated by the β2AR subtype in cardiomyocytes and heart tissue. Overstimulation of β2AR inhibited the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes. Additionally, βAR mediated cardiac insulin resistance by reducing glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression via the cAMP-dependent and protein kinase A-dependent pathways. Treatment with β-blockers, including propranolol and metoprolol antagonized isoproterenol-mediated insulin resistance in the heart. The data in this present study confirm a critical role for protein kinase A in βAR-mediated insulin resistance. PMID:26652903

  8. Insulin sensitivity indices: a proposal of cut-off points for simple identification of insulin-resistant subjects.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Koska, J; Huckova, M; Ksinantova, L; Imrich, R; Vigas, M; Trnovec, T; Langer, P; Sebokova, E; Klimes, I

    2006-05-01

    Demanding measurement of insulin sensitivity using clamp methods does not simplify the identification of insulin resistant subjects in the general population. Other approaches such as fasting- or oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity indices were proposed and validated with the euglycemic clamp. Nevertheless, a lack of reference values for these indices prevents their wider use in epidemiological studies and clinical practice. The aim of our study was therefore to define the cut-off points of insulin resistance indices as well as the ranges of the most frequently obtained values for selected indices. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in 1156 subjects from a Caucasian rural population with no previous evidence of diabetes or other dysglycemias. Insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (HOMA-IR, HOMA-IR2, ISI Cederholm, and ISI Matsuda) were calculated. The 75th percentile value as the cut-off point to define IR corresponded with a HOMA-IR of 2.29, a HOMA-IR2 of 1.21, a 25th percentile for ISI Cederholm, and ISI Matsuda of 57 and 5.0, respectively. For the first time, the cut-off points for selected indices and their most frequently obtained values were established for groups of subjects as defined by glucose homeostasis and BMI. Thus, insulin-resistant subjects can be identified using this simple approach.

  9. Intramuscular Lipid Metabolism in the Insulin Resistance of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Bryan C.; Perreault, Leigh; Hunerdosse, Devon M.; Koehler, Mary C.; Samek, Ali M.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Smoking decreases insulin action and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans. Mechanisms responsible for smoking-induced insulin resistance are unclear. We hypothesized smokers would have increased intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) concentration and decreased fractional synthesis rate (FSR) compared with nonsmokers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nonsmokers (n = 18, aged 20 ± 0.5 years, BMI 22 ± 0.4 kg/m2, body fat 20 ± 2%, 0 cigarettes per day) and smokers (n = 14, aged 21 ± 0.7 years, BMI 23 ± 0.4 kg/m2, body fat 20 ± 3%, 18 ± 0.7 cigarettes per day) were studied in a fasted condition after a standardized diet. [U-13C]palmitate was infused during 4 h of rest followed by a skeletal muscle biopsy and intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS Smokers were less insulin sensitive (Si) compared with nonsmokers (Si 5.28 ± 0.5 nonsmokers vs. 3.74 ± 0.3 smokers 10−4 · μU−1 · ml−1, P = 0.03). There were no differences in IMTG or DAG concentration (IMTG 24.2 ± 3.4 nonsmokers vs. 27.2 ± 5.9 smokers μg/mg dry wt, DAG 0.34 ± 0.02 nonsmokers vs. 0.35 ± 0.02 smokers μg/mg dry wt) or IMTG FSR between groups (0.66 ± 0.1 nonsmokers vs. 0.55 ± 0.09 smokers %/hr). Intramuscular lipid composition was different, with increased percent saturation of IMTG (32.1 ± 1.2 nonsmokers vs. 35.2 ± 1.0 smokers %, P = 0.05) and DAG (52.8 ± 1.7 nonsmokers vs. 58.8 ± 2.2 smokers %, P = 0.04) in smokers. Smokers had significantly decreased peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (1.76 ± 0.1 nonsmokers vs. 1.42 ± 0.11 smokers arbitrary units [AU], P = 0.03) and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (3.11 ± 0.41 nonsmokers vs. 4.83 ± 0.54 smokers AU, P = 0.02) mRNA expression compared with nonsmokers. We also found increased insulin receptor substrate-1 Ser636 phosphorylation in smokers compared with nonsmokers (0.73 ± 0.08 nonsmokers vs. 1.14 ± 0.09 smokers AU, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest: 1) IMTG

  10. Molecular characterization of insulin resistance and glycolytic metabolism in the rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Sun, Xue; Sun, Xiaoyan; Meng, Fanci; Hu, Min; Li, Xin; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Brännström, Mats; Shao, Ruijin; Billig, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the primary features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, how insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism affect uterine function and contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS are open questions. We treated rats with insulin alone or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and showed that peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism alter uterine morphology, cell phenotype, and cell function, especially in glandular epithelial cells. These defects are associated with an aberration in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is used as an indicator for the onset of insulin resistance in classical metabolic tissues. Concomitantly, increased GSK3β (Ser-9) phosphorylation and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rats treated with insulin and hCG were also observed. We also profiled the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoform genes in the uterus under conditions of insulin resistance and/or hyperandrogenism. Finally, we determined the expression pattern of glycolytic enzymes and intermediates during insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in the uterus. These findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways play a role in the onset of uterine insulin resistance, and they also suggest that changes in specific Glut isoform expression and alterations to glycolytic metabolism contribute to the endometrial dysfunction observed in PCOS patients. PMID:27461373

  11. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  12. Amplification and analysis of promoter region of insulin receptor gene in a patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Haruta, T; Imamura, T; Iwanishi, M; Egawa, K; Goji, K; Kobayashi, M

    1995-04-01

    A patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance was studied to identify the molecular and genetic basis for insulin resistance. Insulin binding and surface labeling of transformed lymphocytes prepared from the patient showed a significantly decreased insulin receptor number on the cell surface. Southern blot analysis of the insulin receptor gene showed no evidence of large insertions or deletions. Furthermore, direct sequencing of all 22 exons and exon-intron junctions of the insulin receptor gene failed to show any missense mutations, nonsense mutations, or mutations at exon-intron junctions. However, Northern blot analysis indicated significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA expression in the patient's cells. Moreover, restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified cDNA suggested that the expression levels of one allele were less efficient than the other. These findings suggested that the regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene might have abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene. Southern blot analysis showed no major deletions or insertions between positions -1,823 and -2 relative to the translation initiation site. A 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene spanning positions -881 approximately +7 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and introduced into a reporter plasmid carrying the human growth hormone (hGH) gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment showed two polymorphic sites at positions -603 and -500 in the patient, as well as in normal subjects. No other abnormal sequence was found in the patient. Promoter activity measured by hGH expression in transfected mouse L cells was not influenced by the polymorphism at position -603 located in a cluster of GC boxes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Deletion of exon 3 of the insulin receptor gene in a kindred with a familial form of insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Wertheimer, E.; Barbetti, F.; Accili, D.; Taylor, S.I.; Litvin, Y.; Ebstein, R.P.; Bennet, E.R.

    1994-05-01

    Molecular scanning techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), greatly facilitate screening candidate genes for mutations. The authors have used DGGE to screen for mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a family in which four of five daughters were affected by type A insulin resistance in association with acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. DGGE did not detect mutations in any of the 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene. Nevertheless, Southern blot analysis suggested that there was a deletion of exon 3 in the other paternal allele of the insulin receptor gene. Analysis of the father`s cDNA confirmed that exon 3 was deleted from mRNA molecules derived from one of his two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the father was found to be hemizygous for a polymorphic sequence (GAC{sup Asp} at codon 234) in exon 3 that was not inherited by any of the five daughters. Instead, all five daughters inherited the paternal allele with the deletion mutation. They did not detect mutations in the mother`s insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the clinical syndrome did not segregate with either of the mother`s two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Although the youngest daughter inherited the mutant allele from her father, she was not clinically affected. The explanation for the incomplete penetrance is not known. These results emphasize the importance of specifically searching for deletion mutations when screening candidate genes for mutations. Furthermore, the existence of apparently asymptomatic carriers of mutations in the insulin receptor gene, such as the father in the present study, suggests that the prevalence of mutations in the insulin receptor gene may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of the observed prevalence of patients with extreme insulin resistance. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Beneficial insulin-sensitizing and vascular effects of S15261 in the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Russell, J C; Ravel, D; Pégorier, J P; Delrat, P; Jochemsen, R; O'Brien, S F; Kelly, S E; Davidge, S T; Brindley, D N

    2000-11-01

    S15261, a compound developed for the oral treatment of type II diabetes, is cleaved by esterases to the fragments Y415 and S15511. The aim was to define the insulin-sensitizing effects of S15261, the cleavage products, and troglitazone and metformin in the JCR:LA-cp rat, an animal model of the obesity/insulin resistance syndrome that exhibits an associated vasculopathy and cardiovascular disease. Treatment of the animals from 8 to 12 weeks of age with S15261 or S15511 resulted in reductions in food intake and body weights, whereas Y415 had no effect. Troglitazone caused a small increase in food intake (P <.05). Treatment with S15261 or S15511 decreased plasma insulin levels in fed rats and prevented the postprandial peak in insulin levels in a meal tolerance test. Y415 had no effect on insulin levels. Troglitazone halved the insulin response to the test meal, but metformin gave no improvement. S15261 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase and stimulated the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and acyl-CoA synthase. S15261 also reduced the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. S15261, but not troglitazone, reduced the exaggerated contractile response of mesenteric resistance vessels to norepinephrine, and increased the maximal nitric oxide-mediated relaxation. S15261, through S15511, increased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin levels, and reduced the vasculopathy of the JCR:LA-cp rat. S15261 may thus offer effective treatment for the insulin resistance syndrome and its associated vascular complications.

  15. Myotubes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells mirror in vivo insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Salvatore; Burkart, Alison M; Warren, Laura; Patti, Mary Elizabeth; Kahn, C Ronald

    2016-02-16

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) represent a unique tool for the study of the pathophysiology of human disease, because these cells can be differentiated into multiple cell types in vitro and used to generate patient- and tissue-specific disease models. Given the critical role for skeletal muscle insulin resistance in whole-body glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes, we have created a novel cellular model of human muscle insulin resistance by differentiating iPS cells from individuals with mutations in the insulin receptor (IR-Mut) into functional myotubes and characterizing their response to insulin in comparison with controls. Morphologically, IR-Mut cells differentiated normally, but had delayed expression of some muscle differentiation-related genes. Most importantly, whereas control iPS-derived myotubes exhibited in vitro responses similar to primary differentiated human myoblasts, IR-Mut myotubes demonstrated severe impairment in insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Transcriptional regulation was also perturbed in IR-Mut myotubes with reduced insulin-stimulated expression of metabolic and early growth response genes. Thus, iPS-derived myotubes from individuals with genetically determined insulin resistance demonstrate many of the defects observed in vivo in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle and provide a new model to analyze the molecular impact of muscle insulin resistance.

  16. Overexpression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle protects against fat-induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Kim, Jason K.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Collier, Emily F.; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Kahn, Mario; Chen, Yan; Yu, Chunli; Moore, Irene K.; Reznick, Richard M.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with obesity. Increased concentrations of intracellular fatty acid metabolites have been postulated to interfere with insulin signaling by activation of a serine kinase cascade involving PKCθ in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency. We therefore hypothesized that overexpression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle might protect against fat-induced insulin resistance in muscle by conversion of intramyocellular fat into thermal energy. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly insulin resistant, a result of defects in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in these tissues was associated with reduced insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1– (IRS-1–) and IRS-2–associated PI3K activity in muscle and liver, respectively. In contrast, UCP3-overexpressing mice were completely protected against fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and action in these tissues. Furthermore, these changes were associated with a lower membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol and reduced PKCθ activity in whole-body fat–matched UCP3 transgenic mice. These results suggest that increasing mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle may be an excellent therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:17571165

  17. Increased basal level of Akt-dependent insulin signaling may be responsible for the development of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Yu; Hong, Tao; Wen, Ge-Bo; Han, Jianmin; Zuo, Degen; Liu, Zhenqi

    2009-01-01

    A majority of subjects with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can maintain their blood glucose levels normal for the whole life presumably through protein kinase B (Akt)-dependent insulin signaling. In this study, we found that the basal Akt phosphorylation level was increased in liver and gastrocnemius of mice under the high-fat diet (HFD). Levels of mitochondrial DNA and expression of some mitochondrion-associated genes were decreased by the HFD primarily in liver. Triglyceride content was increased in both liver and gastrocnemius by the HFD. Oxidative stress was induced by the HFD in both liver and gastrocnemius. Insulin sensitivity was decreased by the HFD. All of these changes were largely or completely reversed by treatment of animals with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002 during the time when animals usually do not eat. Consequently, the overall insulin sensitivity was increased by treatment with LY-294002. Together, our results indicate that increased basal Akt-dependent insulin signaling suppresses mitochondrial production, increases ectopic fat accumulation, induces oxidative stress, and desensitizes insulin signaling in subjects with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:19638508

  18. Key Role for Ceramides in Mediating Insulin Resistance in Human Muscle Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, diacylglycerol and ceramide have all been associated with insulin resistance in muscle. We set out to investigate the role of intramyocellular lipid metabolites in the induction of insulin resistance in human primary myoblast cultures. Muscle cell...

  19. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  20. Effect of Vitamin K Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Older Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested a potentially beneficial role for vitamin K on insulin resistance, but this has not been examined in a randomized controlled trial. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin K supplementation for 36 months will improve insulin resistance in older men and women. This is ...

  1. Childhood wrist circumference is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ashley N; Kelly, Aaron S; Prineas, Ronald J; Marlatt, Kara L; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan R; Moran, Antoinette; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether childhood wrist circumference predicts insulin resistance in adulthood. Measures were taken in prepubertal children and then approximately 30 years later in the same subjects as adults. Our findings suggest that wrist circumference in childhood is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: Future therapeutics for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a common feature of obesity and predisposes the affected individuals to a variety of pathologies, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemias, hypertension, cardiovascular disease etc. Insulin resistance is the primary cause of T2DM and it occurs many years before the disease onset. Although Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are outstanding insulin sensitizers and are in clinical use since 1990s, however, their serious side effects such as heart attack and bladder cancer have limited their utilization. Thus, there is an unmet need to identify a new class of drugs with insulin sensitizing activity and minimal side effects. In the recent years, Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has emerged as a new molecular target in the control of insulin resistance and T2DM. The level of histone acetylation/deacetylation has been found to be altered during insulin resistance and T2DM conditions. HDAC inhibitors have been found to effectively manage insulin resistance and T2DM in various preclinical models and clinical trials. In this review we will focus on various aspects related to regulation of insulin signalling by HDACs and the future scope of HDAC inhibitors as therapeutics for insulin resistance.

  3. Insulin resistance and cancer risk: an overview of the pathogenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Biagio; Iiritano, Stefania; Nocera, Aurora; Possidente, Katiuscia; Nevolo, Maria T; Ventura, Valeria; Foti, Daniela; Chiefari, Eusebio; Brunetti, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common in individuals with obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D), in which circulating insulin levels are frequently increased. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence points to a link between insulin resistance and cancer. The mechanisms for this association are unknown, but hyperinsulinaemia (a hallmark of insulin resistance) and the increase in bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) appear to have a role in tumor initiation and progression in insulin-resistant patients. Insulin and IGF-I inhibit the hepatic synthesis of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), whereas both hormones stimulate the ovarian synthesis of sex steroids, whose effects, in breast epithelium and endometrium, can promote cellular proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, an increased risk of cancer among insulin-resistant patients can be due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage DNA contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, it is possible that the abundance of inflammatory cells in adipose tissue of obese and diabetic patients may promote systemic inflammation which can result in a protumorigenic environment. Here, we summarize recent progress on insulin resistance and cancer, focusing on various implicated mechanisms that have been described recently, and discuss how these mechanisms may contribute to cancer initiation and progression.

  4. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  5. Insulin resistance and response to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    del Campo, José A; López, Reyes Aparcero; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been found to be an independent factor predicting sustained response to peginterferon plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Insulin resistance seems to be involved in decreased sensitivity to interferon and could block interferon intracellular signaling. Insulin resistance promotes steatosis and fibrosis progression, induces pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and increases adipose tissue, decreasing interferon availability. Moreover, suppressor of cytokines 3 and protein tyrosine-phosphatase seems to be able to block interferon and insulin signaling, building a feed-forward loop. Insulin resistance can be treated with exercise, diet or through the use of drugs that improve insulin sensitivity, like biguanides or glitazones. A recent controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial (TRIC-1) examined the effect of adding metformin to standard therapy in the treatment of hepatitis C. This study demonstrated that women infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and HOMA >2 treated with metformin showed a greater drop in viral load during the first 12 weeks and a doubled sustained viral response in comparison with females receiving placebo. Pioglitazone has been used in previous nonresponders and naïve patients with disappointing results in two pilot trials. The mechanisms by which the virus promotes insulin resistance seems to be genotype-dependent and could explain, at least in part, the discrepancies between insulin sensitizers. Insulin resistance is a new target in the challenging management of chronic hepatitis C.

  6. Novel therapeutics for type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Altaf, Q-A; Barnett, A H; Tahrani, A A

    2015-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hence improving IR is a major target of treatment in patients with T2D. Obesity and lack of exercise are major causes of IR. However, recent evidence implicates sleep disorders and disorders of the circadian rhythm in the pathogenesis of IR. Weight loss and lifestyle changes are the cornerstone and most effective treatments of IR, but adherence and patient's acceptability are poor. Bariatric surgery results in significant and sustainable long-term weight loss associated with beneficial impact on IR and glucose metabolism, making this an attractive treatment option for patients with T2D. Currently available pharmacological options targeting IR (such as metformin and thiazolidinediones) do not maintain glycaemic measures within targets long term and can be associated with significant side effects. Over the last two decades, many pharmacological agents targeting different aspects of the insulin signalling pathway were developed to improve IR, but only a minority reached clinical trials. Such treatments need to be specific and reversible as many of the components of the insulin signalling pathway are involved in other cellular functions such as apoptosis. Recent evidence highlighted the role of circadian rhythm and sleep-related disorders in the pathogenesis of IR. In this article, we review the latest developments in the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions targeting IR including bariatric surgery. We will also review the role of circadian rhythm and sleep-related disorders in the development and treatment of IR.

  7. An Immunomodulatory Device Improves Insulin Resistance in Obese Porcine Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Westover, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with tissue inflammation which is a crucial etiology of insulin resistance. This inflammation centers around circulating monocytes which form proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). Specific approaches targeting monocytes/ATM may improve insulin resistance without the adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression. In this regard, a biomimetic membrane leukocyte processing device, called the selective cytopheretic device (SCD), was evaluated in an Ossabaw miniature swine model of insulin resistance with metabolic syndrome. Treatment with the SCD in this porcine model demonstrated a decline in circulating neutrophil activation parameters and monocyte counts. These changes were associated with improvements in insulin resistance as determined with intravenous glucose tolerance testing. These improvements were also reflected in lowering of homeostatic model assessment- (HOMA-) insulin resistant (IR) scores for up to 2 weeks after SCD therapy. These results allow for the planning of first-in-man studies in obese type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:27819007

  8. B Lymphocytes in obesity related adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Daniel A.; Winer, Shawn; Chng, Melissa H. Y.; Shen, Lei; Engleman, Edgar G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity related insulin resistance is a chronic inflammatory condition that often gives rise to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Much evidence supports a role for pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages in promoting local inflammation in tissues such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT) leading to insulin resistance. More recently, B cells have emerged as an additional critical player in orchestrating these processes. B cells infiltrate VAT and display functional and phenotypic changes in response to diet induced obesity. B cells contribute to insulin resistance by presenting antigens to T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and producing pathogenic antibodies. B cell manipulation represents a novel approach to the treatment of obesity related insulin resistance and potentially to the prevention of T2D. This review summarizes the roles of B cells in governing VAT inflammation and the mechanisms by which these cells contribute to altered glucose homeostasis in insulin resistance. PMID:24127133

  9. Epigenetics of insulin resistance: an emerging field in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we review the current knowledge of and recent insights into the role of epigenetic factors in the development of insulin resistance (IR), with emphasis on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A or PGC1α) methylation on fetal programming and liver modulation of glucose-related phenotypes. We discuss the pathogenesis of IR beyond the integrity of β-cell function and illustrate the novel concept of mitochondrial epigenetics to explain the pathobiology of metabolic-syndrome-related phenotypes. Moreover, we discuss whether epigenetic marks in genes of the circadian rhythm system are able to modulate insulin/glucose-related metabolic functions and place hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF1α) as a part of the master CLOCK gene/protein interaction network that might modulate IR. Finally, we highlight relevant information about epigenetic marks and IR so that clinicians practicing in the community may envision future areas of medical intervention and predict putative biomarkers for early disease detection.

  10. Antibiotic Resistance: What are the Opportunities for Primary Care in Alleviating the Crisis?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C.; McCullough, Amanda R.; van Driel, Mieke L.; Del Mar, Chris B.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous opportunities are available in primary care for alleviating the crisis of increasing antibiotic resistance. Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection (ARI) will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures such as physical barriers and hand hygiene, and possibly vaccination and exercise, may be effective. Also, a large range of complementary and alternative medicines (e.g. zinc, vitamin C and probiotics) are proposed for preventing and treating ARIs, but evidence for efficacy is scarce. General practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing are a major factor in the prescribing for ARIs. Professional interventions with educational components are effective, although they have modest effects, and are expensive. GPs’ perceptions – that mistakenly assume as a default that patients want antibiotics for their ARIs – are often wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits. Furthermore, GPs’ diagnostic uncertainty – often leading to an antibiotic prescription “just in case” – might be addressed by exploiting strategies such as safety-netting, e.g., establishing with the patient a priori clearly defined actions to take if the course of the illness deviates from the expected. None of these strategies or interventions on their own will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future. PMID:25759809

  11. Reversal of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inducible genetic ablation of GRK2

    PubMed Central

    Vila-Bedmar, Rocio; Cruces-Sande, Marta; Lucas, Elisa; Willemen, Hanneke L.D.M.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Mayor, Federico; Murga, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a common feature of obesity and predisposes individuals to various prevalent pathological conditions. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) integrates several signal transduction pathways and is emerging as a physiologically relevant inhibitor of insulin signaling. GRK2 abundanceis increased in humans with metabolic syndrome and in different murine models of insulin resistance. To support GRK2 as a potential drug target in type 2 diabetes and obesity, we investigated whether lowering GRK2 abundance reversed an ongoing systemic insulin-resistant phenotype, using a mouse model of tamoxifen-induced GRK2 ablation after high fat diet-dependent obesity and insulin resistance. Tamoxifen-triggered GRK2 deletion impeded further body weight gain, normalized fa sting glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and was associated with preserved insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and liver, thereby maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Moreover, when continued to be fed a high fat diet, these animals displayed reduced fat mass and smaller adipocytes, were resistant to the development of liver steatosis, and showed reduced expression of pro-inflammatory markers in the liver. Our results indicate that GRK2 acts as a hub to control metabolic functions in different tissues, which is key to controlling insulin resistance development in vivo. These data suggest that inhibiting GRK2 could reverse an established insulin-resistant and obese phenotype, thereby putting forward this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target linking glucose homeostasis and regulation of adiposity. PMID:26198359

  12. Obesity and insulin resistance associated with lower plasma vitamin B12 in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cemil; Cengiz, Sevim Dinçer; Satiroğlu, Hakan

    2009-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) shares some or most components of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome, manifested by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis. It has been previously demonstrated that folate and vitamin B(12) treatment improved insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. This study first investigated whether PCOS patients have lower or higher vitamin B(12), folate and homocysteine concentrations when compared with healthy, age and body mass index matched controls, and, then examined associations between vitamin B(12), folate, homocysteine and insulin resistance and obesity in PCOS patients. Homocysteine concentrations and homeostasis model assessment index were higher, whereas concentrations of vitamin B(12) were lower in PCOS patients with insulin resistance compared with those without insulin resistance. Serum vitamin B(12) concentrations were significantly lower in obese PCOS women in comparison with obese control women (P < 0.05). Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and homocysteine are independent determinants of serum vitamin B(12) concentrations in PCOS patients. Insulin resistance, obesity, and elevated homocysteine were associated with lower serum vitamin B(12) concentrations in PCOS patients.

  13. Chromium picolinate enhances skeletal muscle cellular insulin signaling in vivo in obese, insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong Q; Zhang, Xian H; Russell, James C; Hulver, Matthew; Cefalu, William T

    2006-02-01

    Chromium is one of the few trace minerals for which a specific cellular mechanism of action has not been identified. Recent in vitro studies suggest that chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin receptor signaling, but this has not been demonstrated in vivo. We investigated the effect of chromium supplementation on insulin receptor signaling in an insulin-resistant rat model, the JCR:LA-corpulent rat. Male JCR:LA-cp rats (4 mo of age) were randomly assigned to receive chromium picolinate (CrPic) (obese n=6, lean n=5) or vehicle (obese n=5, lean n=5) for 3 mo. The CrPic was provided in the water, and based on calculated water intake, rats randomized to CrPic received 80 microg/(kg.d). At the end of the study, skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 5, 15, and 30 min postinsulin stimulation to assess insulin signaling. Obese rats treated with CrPic had significantly improved glucose disposal rates and demonstrated a significant increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase activity in skeletal muscle compared with obese controls. The increase in cellular signaling was not associated with increased protein levels of the IRS proteins, PI-3 kinase or Akt. However, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) levels were significantly lower in obese rats administered CrPic than obese controls. When corrected for protein content, PTP1B activity was also significantly lower in obese rats administered CrPic than obese controls. Our data suggest that chromium supplementation of obese, insulin-resistant rats may improve insulin action by enhancing intracellular signaling.

  14. Normoglycemic Diabetic Nephropathy: The Role of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Edward J.; Gupta, Astha; Farber, John L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is complex and incompletely understood. Whereas hyperglycemia is clearly important, the role of insulin resistance (IR) is increasingly recognized. We present the case of a normotensive non-smoking obese woman with nephrotic syndrome who was found to have DN by biopsy. All measures of glucose metabolism, including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance testing, were repeatedly normal with little exception. IR was documented, however, based on the presence of the metabolic syndrome and an elevated homeostasis model assessment of IR. We posit that this IR is central to the pathogenesis of our patient's lesion, and this may explain other cases of DN with normoglycemia. The literature supporting this concept is discussed. PMID:25076962

  15. Endogenous epinephrine protects against obesity induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Michael G; Milic, Milos; Sun, Ping; Tang, Chih-Min; Elayan, Hamzeh; Bao, Xuping; Cheung, Wai Wilson; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2011-07-05

    Epinephrine (E) is a hormone released from the adrenal medulla in response to low blood sugar and other stresses. E and related β2-adrenergic agonists are used to treat asthma, but a side effect is high blood sugar. C57BL/6 mice prone to overfeeding induced type II diabetes had the PNMT gene knocked out to prevent E synthesis. These E deficient mice were very similar to control animals on a 14% fat diet. On a 40.6% fat diet they gained 20 to 33% more weight than control animals and increased their blood glucose response to a glucose tolerance test because they became resistant to insulin. Although the short term effect of β2-agonists such as E is to raise blood glucose, some long acting β2-agonists improve muscle glucose uptake. Endogenous E protects against overfeeding induced diabetes. Since adrenal E release can be impaired with aging and diabetes, endogenous E may help prevent adult onset diabetes.

  16. Does Inflammation Mediate the Association Between Obesity and Insulin Resistance?

    PubMed

    Adabimohazab, Razieh; Garfinkel, Amanda; Milam, Emily C; Frosch, Olivia; Mangone, Alexander; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    In adult obesity, low-grade systemic inflammation is considered an important step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The association between obesity and inflammation is less well established in adolescents. Here, we ascertain the importance of inflammation in IR among obese adolescents by utilizing either random forest (RF) classification or mediation analysis approaches. The inflammation balance score, composed of eight pro- and anti-inflammatory makers, as well as most of the individual inflammatory markers differed significantly between lean and overweight/obese. In contrast, adiponectin was the only individual marker selected as a predictor of IR by RF, and the balance score only revealed a medium-to-low importance score. Neither adiponectin nor the inflammation balance score was found to mediate the relationship between obesity and IR. These findings do not support the premise that low-grade systemic inflammation is a key for the expression of IR in the human. Prospective longitudinal studies should confirm these findings.

  17. Relationship between leptin, insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Atamer, A; Alisir Ecder, S; Akkus, Z; Kocyigit, Y; Atamer, Y; Ilhan, N; Ecder, T

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and common routine parameters were measured in 45 patients (23 males and 22 females) with CKD and 45 healthy controls matched for age, gender and body mass index. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured using a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Leptin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A homeostasis model assessment computer-solved model was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Levels of serum leptin, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and HOMA-IR were significantly increased in patients with CKD compared with healthy subjects, whereas fasting blood glucose was not significantly different between the two groups. In patients with CKD, the serum leptin level was significantly correlated with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and HOMA-IR. In conclusion, this study suggests that there is an interaction between leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin resistance in patients with CKD.

  18. Low-salt diet increases insulin resistance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh; Williams, Gordon H; Hurwitz, Shelley; Brown, Nancy J; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K

    2011-07-01

    Low-salt (LS) diet activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, both of which can increase insulin resistance (IR). We investigated the hypothesis that LS diet is associated with an increase in IR in healthy subjects. Healthy individuals were studied after 7 days of LS diet (urine sodium <20 mmol/d) and 7 days of high-salt (HS) diet (urine sodium >150 mmol/d) in a random order. Insulin resistance was measured after each diet and compared statistically, unadjusted and adjusted for important covariates. One hundred fifty-two healthy men and women, aged 39.1 ± 12.5 years (range, 18-65) and with body mass index of 25.3 ± 4.0 kg/m(2), were included in this study. Mean (SD) homeostasis model assessment index was significantly higher on LS compared with HS diet (2.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.4 ± 1.7, P < .01). Serum aldosterone (21.0 ± 14.3 vs 3.4 ± 1.5 ng/dL, P < .001), 24-hour urine aldosterone (63.0 ± 34.0 vs 9.5 ± 6.5 μg/d, P < .001), and 24-hour urine norepinephrine excretion (78.0 ± 36.7 vs 67.9 ± 39.8 μg/d, P < .05) were higher on LS diet compared with HS diet. Low-salt diet was significantly associated with higher homeostasis model assessment index independent of age, sex, blood pressure, body mass index, serum sodium and potassium, serum angiotensin II, plasma renin activity, serum and urine aldosterone, and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine. Low-salt diet is associated with an increase in IR. The impact of our findings on the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease needs further investigation.

  19. Adropin deficiency is associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, K; Zhang, Jingying; Gao, Su; Rossi, Jari; McGuinness, Owen P; Halem, Heather H; Culler, Michael D; Mynatt, Randall L; Butler, Andrew A

    2012-07-01

    Adropin is a secreted peptide that improves hepatic steatosis and glucose homeostasis when administered to diet-induced obese mice. It is not clear if adropin is a peptide hormone regulated by signals of metabolic state. Moreover, the significance of a decline in adropin expression with obesity with respect to metabolic disease is also not clear. We investigated the regulation of serum adropin by metabolic status and diet. Serum adropin levels were high in chow-fed conditions and were suppressed by fasting and diet-induced obesity (DIO). High adropin levels were observed in mice fed a high-fat low carbohydrate diet, whereas lower levels were observed in mice fed a low-fat high carbohydrate diet. To investigate the role of adropin deficiency in metabolic homeostasis, we generated adropin knockout mice (AdrKO) on the C57BL/6J background. AdrKO displayed a 50%-increase in increase in adiposity, although food intake and energy expenditure were normal. AdrKO also exhibited dyslipidemia and impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production (EndoR(a)) in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions, suggesting insulin resistance. While homo- and heterozygous carriers of the null adropin allele exhibited normal DIO relative to controls, impaired glucose tolerance associated with weight gain was more severe in both groups. In summary, adropin is a peptide hormone regulated by fasting and feeding. In fed conditions, adropin levels are regulated dietary macronutrients, and increase with dietary fat content. Adropin is not required for regulating food intake, however, its functions impact on adiposity and are involved in preventing insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance.

  20. Adropin Deficiency Is Associated With Increased Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Ganesh; Zhang, Jingying; Gao, Su; Rossi, Jari; McGuinness, Owen P.; Halem, Heather H.; Culler, Michael D.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Butler, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Adropin is a secreted peptide that improves hepatic steatosis and glucose homeostasis when administered to diet-induced obese mice. It is not clear if adropin is a peptide hormone regulated by signals of metabolic state. Moreover, the significance of a decline in adropin expression with obesity with respect to metabolic disease is also not clear. We investigated the regulation of serum adropin by metabolic status and diet. Serum adropin levels were high in chow-fed conditions and were suppressed by fasting and diet-induced obesity (DIO). High adropin levels were observed in mice fed a high-fat low carbohydrate diet, whereas lower levels were observed in mice fed a low-fat high carbohydrate diet. To investigate the role of adropin deficiency in metabolic homeostasis, we generated adropin knockout mice (AdrKO) on the C57BL/6J background. AdrKO displayed a 50%-increase in increase in adiposity, although food intake and energy expenditure were normal. AdrKO also exhibited dyslipidemia and impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production (EndoRa) in hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp conditions, suggesting insulin resistance. While homo- and heterozygous carriers of the null adropin allele exhibited normal DIO relative to controls, impaired glucose tolerance associated with weight gain was more severe in both groups. In summary, adropin is a peptide hormone regulated by fasting and feeding. In fed conditions, adropin levels are regulated dietary macronutrients, and increase with dietary fat content. Adropin is not required for regulating food intake, however, its functions impact on adiposity and are involved in preventing insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:22318315

  1. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET{sub A}R during insulin resistance, ET{sub A}R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET{sub A}R expression, but not ET{sub B}R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET{sub A}R pathway

  2. Effect of BI-1 on insulin resistance through regulation of CYP2E1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geum-Hwa; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Han, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hwa-Young; Park, Keun-Gyu; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity is a major contributing factor to the progression of hepatic insulin resistance. Increased free fatty acids in liver enhances endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both are directly responsible for dysregulation of hepatic insulin signaling. BI-1, a recently studied ER stress regulator, was examined to investigate its association with ER stress and ROS in insulin resistance models. To induce obesity and insulin resistance, BI-1 wild type and BI-1 knock-out mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. The BI-1 knock-out mice had hyperglycemia, was associated with impaired glucose and insulin tolerance under high-fat diet conditions. Increased activity of NADPH-dependent CYP reductase-associated cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and exacerbation of ER stress in the livers of BI-1 knock-out mice was also observed. Conversely, stable expression of BI-1 in HepG2 hepatocytes was shown to reduce palmitate-induced ER stress and CYP2E1-dependent ROS production, resulting in the preservation of intact insulin signaling. Stable expression of CYP2E1 led to increased ROS production and dysregulation of insulin signaling in hepatic cells, mimicking palmitate-mediated hepatic insulin resistance. We propose that BI-1 protects against obesity-induced hepatic insulin resistance by regulating CYP2E1 activity and ROS production. PMID:27576594

  3. Association of insulin resistance with breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers in non-diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanwan; Lu, Jieli; Wu, Shengli; Bi, Yufang; Mu, Yiming; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Lulu; Shi, Lixin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Yan, Li; Wan, Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Guixia; Luo, Zuojie; Tang, Xulei; Chen, Gang; Huo, Yanan; Gao, Zhengnan; Su, Qing; Ye, Zhen; Wang, Youmin; Qin, Guijun; Deng, Huacong; Yu, Xuefeng; Shen, Feixia; Chen, Li; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Di; Lai, Shenghan; Li, Donghui; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were reported to play a crucial role in diabetes-cancer relationship. This study aimed to explore the associations between insulin resistance and several female cancers in a non-diabetic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121,230 middle-aged and elderly non-diabetic women. Cancer diagnosis was self-reported and further validated by medical records. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.50. The prevalence of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, postmenopausal ovarian cancer and premenopausal endometrial cancer were higher in insulin-resistant participants than in insulin-sensitive participants (premenopausal breast cancer, 0.45 vs 0.28%; postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.86 vs 0.63%; postmenopausal ovarian cancer, 0.17 vs 0.09%; premenopausal endometrial cancer, 0.43 vs 0.25%, respectively, all P < 0.05). Individuals with insulin resistance had higher odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer, both premenopausal and postmenopausal (OR 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.32; OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.63), postmenopausal ovarian cancer (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) as well as total endometrial cancer (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.12). Subgroup analysis revealed that the possitive association between insulin resistance and risk of prevalent breast cancer was observed in popualtion with younger age, overweight or obesity, higher education and impaired glucose tolerance (IGR). No relationships were observed for the risk of prevalent cervical cancers with insulin resistance. Non-diabetic women with insulin resistance had higher risk of prevalent breast, ovarian and endomatrial cancer, which suggests special attentions to these female cancer screening and prevention.

  4. Association of insulin resistance with breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers in non-diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanwan; Lu, Jieli; Wu, Shengli; Bi, Yufang; Mu, Yiming; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Lulu; Shi, Lixin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Yan, Li; Wan, Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Guixia; Luo, Zuojie; Tang, Xulei; Chen, Gang; Huo, Yanan; Gao, Zhengnan; Su, Qing; Ye, Zhen; Wang, Youmin; Qin, Guijun; Deng, Huacong; Yu, Xuefeng; Shen, Feixia; Chen, Li; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Di; Lai, Shenghan; Li, Donghui; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were reported to play a crucial role in diabetes-cancer relationship. This study aimed to explore the associations between insulin resistance and several female cancers in a non-diabetic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121,230 middle-aged and elderly non-diabetic women. Cancer diagnosis was self-reported and further validated by medical records. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.50. The prevalence of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, postmenopausal ovarian cancer and premenopausal endometrial cancer were higher in insulin-resistant participants than in insulin-sensitive participants (premenopausal breast cancer, 0.45 vs 0.28%; postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.86 vs 0.63%; postmenopausal ovarian cancer, 0.17 vs 0.09%; premenopausal endometrial cancer, 0.43 vs 0.25%, respectively, all P < 0.05). Individuals with insulin resistance had higher odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer, both premenopausal and postmenopausal (OR 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.32; OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.63), postmenopausal ovarian cancer (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) as well as total endometrial cancer (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.12). Subgroup analysis revealed that the possitive association between insulin resistance and risk of prevalent breast cancer was observed in popualtion with younger age, overweight or obesity, higher education and impaired glucose tolerance (IGR). No relationships were observed for the risk of prevalent cervical cancers with insulin resistance. Non-diabetic women with insulin resistance had higher risk of prevalent breast, ovarian and endomatrial cancer, which suggests special attentions to these female cancer screening and prevention. PMID:27822422

  5. CXCL5 is an adipose tissue derived factor that links obesity to insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chavey, Carine; Lazennec, Gwendal; Lagarrigue, Sylviane; Clapé, Cyrielle; Iankova, Irena; Teyssier, Jacques; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Schmidt, Julien; Mataki, Chikage; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Sanches, Rosario; Guma, Anna; Stich, Vladimir; Vitkova, Michaela; Jardin-Watelet, Bénédicte; Renard, Eric; Strieter, Robert; Tuthill, Antoinette; Hotamisligil, Gôkhan S.; Vidal-Puig, Toni; Zorzano, Antonio; Langin, Dominique; Fajas, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    We show here high levels of expression and secretion of the chemokine CXCL5 in the macrophage fraction of white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, we find that CXCL5 is dramatically increased in serum of human obese compared to lean subjects. Conversely, CXCL5 concentration is decreased in obese subjects after a weight reduction program, or in obese non-insulin resistant, compared to insulin resistant obese subjects. Most importantly we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant CXCL5 blocks insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle in mice. CXCL5 blocks insulin signaling by activating the Jak2/STAT5/SOCS2 pathway. Finally, by treating obese, insulin resistant mice with either anti-CXCL5 neutralizing antibodies or antagonists of CXCR2, which is the CXCL5 receptor we demonstrate that CXCL5 mediates insulin resistance. Furthermore CXCR2−/− mice are protected against obesity-induced insulin resistance. Taken together, these results show that secretion of CXCL5 by WAT resident macrophages represents a link between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:19356715

  6. Nox2 mediates skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Souto Padron de Figueiredo, Alvaro; Salmon, Adam B; Bruno, Francesca; Jimenez, Fabio; Martinez, Herman G; Halade, Ganesh V; Ahuja, Seema S; Clark, Robert A; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abboud, Hanna E; El Jamali, Amina

    2015-05-22

    Inflammation and oxidative stress through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are consistently associated with metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes. Although the role of Nox2, a major ROS-generating enzyme, is well described in host defense and inflammation, little is known about its potential role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet was mitigated in Nox2-null mice compared with wild-type mice after 3 or 9 months on the diet. High fat feeding increased Nox2 expression, superoxide production, and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle tissue of wild-type mice but not in Nox2-null mice. Exposure of C2C12 cultured myotubes to either high glucose concentration, palmitate, or H2O2 decreases insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Pretreatment with catalase abrogated these effects, indicating a key role for H2O2 in mediating insulin resistance. Down-regulation of Nox2 in C2C12 cells by shRNA prevented insulin resistance induced by high glucose or palmitate but not H2O2. These data indicate that increased production of ROS in insulin resistance induced by high glucose in skeletal muscle cells is a consequence of Nox2 activation. This is the first report to show that Nox2 is a key mediator of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  7. TAB3 involves in hepatic insulin resistance through activation of MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Tang, Zhuqi; Zhu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xueqin; Wang, Cuifang; Zhang, Wanlu; Xia, Nana; Wang, Suxin; Huang, Jieru; Cui, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance is often accompanied by chronic inflammatory responses. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is rapidly activated in response to many inflammatory cytokines. But the functional role of MAPKs in palmitate-induced insulin resistance has yet to be clarified. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor β-activated kinase binding protein-3 (TAB3) was up-regulated in insulin resistance. Considering the relationship between transforming growth factor β-activated kinase (TAK1) and MAPK pathway, we assumed TAB3 involved in insulin resistance through activation of MAPK pathway. To certify this hypothesis, we knocked down TAB3 in palmitate treated HepG2 cells and detected subsequent biological responses. Importantly, TAB3 siRNA directly reversed insulin sensitivity by improving insulin signal transduction. Moreover, silencing of TAB3 could facilitate hepatic glucose uptake, reverse gluconeogenesis and improve ectopic fat accumulation. Meanwhile, we found that the positive effect of knocking down TAB3 was more significant when insulin resistance occurred. All these results indicate that TAB3 acts as a negative regulator in insulin resistance through activation of MAPK pathway.

  8. Nanomicelles loaded with doxorubicin and curcumin for alleviating multidrug resistance in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yue; Li, Jing; Li, Yang; Song, Lei; Li, Dan; Peng, Liping; Wan, Ying; Hua, Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A new type of polymeric micelle (PM) was assembled using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked (PEGylated) amphiphilic copolymer and d-tocopheryl PEG1000 succinate (TPGS1000). The micelles were used to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (CUR) for alleviating multidrug resistance (MDR) in lung cancer cells while enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of DOX. Methods Micelles loaded with DOX and CUR were assembled using a film-forming technique. Micelles were used to treat A549/Adr cells to find out whether micelles had the ability to reverse the MDR of A549/Adr cells. Some investigations were conducted using tumor-bearing mice to assess whether these micelles had enhanced antitumor efficacy as compared to DOX alone or the combination of DOX and CUR. Results Some micelles (DOX + CUR)–PMs had a small average size of about 17 nm and showed definite ability to deliver both DOX and CUR into DOX-resistant A549/Adr cells. The PMs had high cytotoxicity toward A549/Adr cells when the applied equivalent DOX dose was 1 µg/mL or higher. The cellular uptake of (DOX + CUR)–PMs into A549/Adr cells was found to be associated with an energy-dependent, caveolae-mediated, and clathrin-independent mechanism. (DOX + CUR)–PMs helped to prolong the circulation of DOX or CUR as compared to the individual administration of DOX or CUR, and they exhibited high inhibiting efficiency against the growth of tumors and were able to reduce the side effects of DOX. Conclusion TPGS1000 and CUR could synergistically reverse DOX-resistance of A549/Adr cells. In vivo examinations confirmed that the micelles had the capability to increase the plasma concentration of DOX or CUR, as well as to prolong their respective blood circulation. These micelles were able to significantly inhibit tumor growth in Lewis lung carcinoma tumor-bearing mice while reducing the side effects of DOX. The micelles showed potential in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27843316

  9. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance.

  10. A peroxiredoxin, PRDX-2, is required for insulin secretion and insulin/IIS-dependent regulation of stress resistance and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Oláhová, Monika; Veal, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant thiol peroxidases with a conserved anti-ageing role. In contrast to most animals, the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a single cytosolic 2-Cys Prx, PRDX-2, rendering it an excellent model for examining how peroxiredoxins affect animal physiology and ageing. Our previous work revealed that, although PRDX-2 protects against the toxicity of peroxides, enigmatically, prdx-2-mutant animals are hyper-resistant to other forms of oxidative stress. Here, we have investigated the basis for this increased resistance. Mammalian FOXO and Nrf2 transcription factors directly promote the expression of a range of detoxification enzymes. We show that the FOXO orthologue, DAF-16, and the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, are required for the increased stress resistance of prdx-2-mutant worms. Our data suggest that PRDX-2 is required for normal levels of insulin secretion and hence the inhibition of DAF-16 and SKN-1 by insulin/IGF-1-like signalling (IIS) under nutrient-rich conditions. Intriguingly, loss of PRDX-2 increases DAF-16 and SKN-1 activities sufficiently to increase arsenite resistance without initiating other IIS-inhibited processes. Together, these data suggest that loss of peroxiredoxin function may increase stress resistance by reducing insulin secretion, but that further changes in insulin signalling are required for the reprogramming of development and fat metabolism. In addition, we reveal that the temperature-dependent prolongevity function of PRDX-2 is required for the extended lifespan associated with several pathways, including further reductions in IIS. PMID:25808059

  11. Joint effect of insulin signalling genes on cardiovascular events and on whole body and endothelial insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Simonetta; Prudente, Sabrina; Copetti, Massimiliano; Spoto, Belinda; Rizza, Stefano; Baratta, Roberto; Di Pietro, Natalia; Morini, Eleonora; Di Paola, Rosa; Testa, Alessandra; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Mercuri, Luana; Di Silvestre, Sara; Lauro, Renato; Malatino, Lorenzo; Consoli, Agostino; Pellegrini, Fabio; Pandolfi, Assunta; Frittitta, Lucia; Zoccali, Carmine; Federici, Massimo; Doria, Alessandro; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share a common soil. We investigated the combined role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting insulin signaling (ENPP1 K121Q, rs1044498; IRS1 G972R, rs1801278; TRIB3 Q84R, rs2295490) on CVD, age at myocardial infarction (MI), in vivo insulin sensitivity and in vitro insulin-stimulated nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Design and Setting 1. We first studied, incident cardiovascular events (a composite endpoint comprising myocardial infarction -MI-, stroke and cardiovascular death) in 733 patients (2,186 person-years, 175 events). 2. In a replication attempt, age at MI was tested in 331 individuals. 3. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was assessed in 829 individuals with fasting glucose < 126 mg/dl. 4. NOS activity was measured in 40 strains of human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results 1. Risk variants jointly predicted cardiovascular events (HR=1.181; p=0.0009) and, when added to clinical risk factors, significantly improved survival C-statistics; they also allowed a significantly correct reclassification (by net reclassification index) in the whole sample (135/733 individuals) and, even more, in obese patients (116/204 individuals). 2. Risk variants were jointly associated with age at MI (p=0.006). 3. A significant association was also observed with ISI (p=0.02). 4. Finally, risk variants were jointly associated with insulin-stimulated NOS activity in HUVECs (p=0.009). Conclusions Insulin signaling genes variants jointly affect cardiovascular disease, very likely by promoting whole body and endothelium-specific insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to address whether their genotyping help identify very high-risk patients who need specific and/or more aggressive preventive strategies. PMID:23107043

  12. Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Inflammation, and Depression in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Biobehavioral Mechanisms and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Kristen; Antoni, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this review is to summarize physiological and psychological characteristics that are common among women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and provide evidence suggesting that addressing psychological disturbances can reduce or alleviate physical symptoms of PCOS via behavioral pathways and physiological pathways. Methods Empirical studies and expert consensuses pertaining to physiological, psychological and medical management aspects of PCOS were identified and presented in this review. Papers were identified via searching Pubmed, PsycInfo, Medline ISI, CINAHL, or a web browser (i.e., Google) using numerous combinations of terms pertaining to physiological, psychological, and medical management aspects of PCOS. A paper was chosen to be included in this review if it reported findings and/or provided information that related to and helped support the main purpose(s) of this review paper. Results Available literature on the physiological (i.e., hyperandrogenism, central obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance) and psychological (i.e., depression, anxiety, eating disorders) factors among women with PCOS provides evidence that these various aspects of PCOS are strongly inter-related. Discussion The existence of these relationships among physiological and psychological factors strongly suggests that medical management of PCOS would greatly benefit from inclusion of psychological and behavioral approaches. PMID:20471009

  13. Effects of stevioside on glucose transport activity in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lailerd, Narissara; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Sloniger, Julie A; Toskulkao, Chaivat; Henriksen, Erik J

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside (SVS), a natural sweetener extracted from Stevia rebaudiana, has been used as an antihyperglycemic agent. However, little is known regarding its potential action on skeletal muscle, the major site of glucose disposal. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of SVS treatment on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity in both insulin-sensitive lean (Fa/-) and insulin-resistant obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. SVS was administered (500 mg/kg body weight by gavage) 2 hours before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Whereas the glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC(glucose)) was not affected by SVS in lean Zucker rats, the insulin incremental area under the curve (IAUC(insulin)) and the glucose-insulin index (product of glucose and insulin IAUCs and inversely related to whole-body insulin sensitivity) were decreased (P<.05) by 42% and 45%, respectively. Interestingly, in the obese Zucker rat, SVS also reduced the IAUC(insulin) by 44%, and significantly decreased the IAUC(glucose) (30%) and the glucose-insulin index (57%). Muscle glucose transport was assessed following in vitro SVS treatment. In lean Zucker rats, basal glucose transport in type I soleus and type IIb epitrochlearis muscles was not altered by 0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L SVS. In contrast, 0.1 mmol/L SVS enhanced insulin-stimulated (2 mU/mL) glucose transport in both epitrochlearis (15%) and soleus (48%). At 0.5 mmol/L or higher, the SVS effect was reversed. Similarly, basal glucose transport in soleus and epitrochlearis muscles in obese Zucker rats was not changed by lower doses of SVS (0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L). However, these lower doses of SVS significantly increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in both obese epitrochlearis and soleus (15% to 20%). In conclusion, acute oral SVS increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, and low concentrations of SVS (0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L) modestly improved in vitro insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport in both lean

  14. Contribution of zinc deficiency to insulin resistance in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Himoto, Takashi; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Kurokochi, Kazutaka; Inukai, Michio; Masugata, Hisashi; Goda, Fuminori; Haba, Reiji; Watanabe, Seishiro; Senda, Shoichi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between metabolic abnormalities of trace elements and insulin resistance has been established. Recent studies have revealed that insulin resistance is associated with autoimmune responses. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between zinc or copper metabolism and insulin resistance in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Sixteen patients with PBC were divided into two groups: early and advanced stage disease. The overall value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with advanced stage PBC was significantly higher than that in patients with early stage PBC, although the mean value in advanced stage PBC was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. There was an inverse correlation between serum zinc concentrations and HOMA-IR values in patients with PBC, while we found no correlation between serum copper levels and HOMA-IR values. HOMA-IR values were inversely associated with peripheral platelet counts, indicating the relationship between insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis. These results suggest that zinc deficiency plays important roles of insulin resistance and subsequent hepatic fibrosis in patients with PBC, although insulin resistance in advanced stage PBC was significantly milder than that in HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  15. Insulin resistance modifies the association between obesity and current asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Cardet, Juan Carlos; Ash, Samuel; Kusa, Tope; Camargo, Carlos A; Israel, Elliot

    2016-08-01

    Insulin resistance potentiates the association between obesity and childhood asthma, but this relationship appears inconsistent in relatively small studies of adults. We investigated effect modification in adults using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012, a large, nationally representative database.Insulin resistance and a history of physician-diagnosed current asthma were obtained from 12 421 adults, ages 18-85 years. We used logistic regression to determine associations between obesity and current asthma, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio and smoking status. An interaction term evaluated effect modification by insulin resistance of the obesity-asthma association.As expected, obesity was positively associated with current asthma. Insulin resistance modified this association, with obesity measured as body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio. The relationship between obesity and current asthma was stronger with increasing insulin resistance tertiles (OR 2.05, 95% CI 2.76-3.00; p-value for interaction 0.03). This association was robust to adjustments for other components of the metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and systemic inflammation). None of these components were themselves effect modifiers of the obesity-asthma association.In this large, nationally representative sample, insulin resistance modified the association between obesity and current asthma in adults. Targeting insulin resistance may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for obese patients with asthma.

  16. Excessive caloric intake acutely causes oxidative stress, GLUT4 carbonylation, and insulin resistance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Homko, Carol; Barrero, Carlos A; Stein, T Peter; Chen, Xinhua; Cheung, Peter; Fecchio, Chiara; Koller, Sarah; Merali, Salim

    2015-09-09

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance greatly increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, together known as the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome. How obesity promotes insulin resistance remains incompletely understood. Plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum ( ER) stress, and oxidative stress are all elevated in obesity and have been shown to induce insulin resistance. However, they may be late events that only develop after chronic excessive nutrient intake. The nature of the initial event that produces insulin resistance at the beginning of excess caloric intake and weight gain remains unknown. We show that feeding healthy men with ~6000 kcal/day of the common U.S. diet [~50% carbohydrate (CHO), ~ 35% fat, and ~15% protein] for 1 week produced a rapid weight gain of 3.5 kg and the rapid onset (after 2 to 3 days) of systemic and adipose tissue insulin resistance and oxidative stress but no inflammatory or ER stress. In adipose tissue, the oxidative stress resulted in extensive oxidation and carbonylation of numerous proteins, including carbonylation of GLUT4 near the glucose transport channel, which likely resulted in loss of GLUT4 activity. These results suggest that the initial event caused by overnutrition may be oxidative stress, which produces insulin resistance, at least in part, via carbonylation and oxidation-induced inactivation of GLUT4.

  17. Short-term in vivo inhibition of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and increased adiposity.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eliana P; De Souza, Cláudio T; Gasparetti, Alessandra L; Ueno, Mirian; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mário J A; Velloso, Lício A

    2005-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has an important role as an early intermediary between the insulin and IGF receptors and downstream molecules that participate in insulin and IGF-I signal transduction. Here we employed an antisense oligonucleotide (IRS-1AS) to inhibit whole-body expression of IRS-1 in vivo and evaluate the consequences of short-term inhibition of IRS-1 in Wistar rats. Four days of treatment with IRS-1AS reduced the expression of IRS-1 by 80, 75, and 65% (P < 0.05) in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, respectively. This was accompanied by a 40% (P < 0.05) reduction in the constant of glucose decay during an insulin tolerance test, a 78% (P < 0.05) reduction in glucose consumption during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and a 90% (P < 0.05) increase in basal plasma insulin level. The metabolic effects produced by IRS-1AS were accompanied by a significant reduction in insulin-induced [Ser (473)] Akt phosphorylation in liver (85%, P < 0.05), skeletal muscle (40%, P < 0.05), and adipose tissue (85%, P < 0.05) and a significant reduction in insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK in liver (20%, P < 0.05) and skeletal muscle (30%, P < 0.05). However, insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK was significantly increased (60%, P < 0.05) in adipose tissue of IRS-1AS-treated rats. In rats treated with IRS-1AS for 8 d, a 100% increase (P < 0.05) in relative epididymal fat weight and a 120% (P < 0.05) increase in nuclear expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma were observed. Thus, acute inhibition of IRS-1 expression in rats leads to insulin resistance accompanied by activation of a growth-related pathway exclusively in white adipose tissue.

  18. Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

  19. Curcumin and insulin resistance-Molecular targets and clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; Monroy, Adriana; Alavez, Silvestre

    2016-11-12

    Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the main component of the Indian spice turmeric, has been used in traditional medicine to improve diabetes and its comorbidities. Since the last two decades, scientific research has shown that in addition to its antioxidant properties, curcumin could also work as protein homeostasis regulator and it is able to modulate other intracellular pathways. Curcumin supplementation has been proposed to improve insulin resistance (IR) through the activation of the insulin receptor and its downstream pathways in several experimental models, pointing out that its clinical use may be a good and innocuous strategy to improve IR-related diseases. IR is associated with many diseases and syndromes like carbohydrate intolerance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is imperative to identify safe therapeutic interventions aimed to reduce side effects that could lead the patient to leave the treatment. To date, many clinical trials have been carried out using turmeric and curcumin to improve metabolic syndrome, carbohydrate intolerance, diabetes, and obesity in individuals with IR. Results so far are inconclusive because dose, time of treatment, and type of curcumin can change the study outcome significantly. However, there is some clinical evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of curcumin on IR. In this review, we discuss the factors that could influence curcumin effects in clinical trials aimed to improve IR and related diseases, and the conclusions that can be drawn from results obtained so far. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):561-580, 2016.

  20. Oxidative stress in severely obese persons is greater in those with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tinahones, Francisco J; Murri-Pierri, Mora; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; García-Almeida, Jose M; García-Serrano, Sara; García-Arnés, Juan; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    The postprandial state seems to have a direct influence on oxidative status and insulin resistance. We determined the effect of an increase in plasma triglycerides after a high-fat meal on oxidative stress in severely obese patients with differing degrees of insulin resistance. The study was undertaken in 60 severely obese persons who received a 60-g fat overload with a commercial preparation. Measurements were made of insulin resistance, the plasma activity of various antioxidant enzymes, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The patients with greater insulin resistance had a lower plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05) and a greater glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P < 0.05). The high-fat meal caused a significant reduction in SOD activity and an increase in the plasma concentration of TBARS in all the patients. Only the patients with lower insulin resistance experienced a significant increase in plasma catalase activity (2.22 +/- 1.02 vs. 2.93 +/- 1.22 nmol/min/ml, P < 0.01), remaining stable in the patients with greater insulin resistance. These latter patients had a reduction in plasma TAC (6.92 +/- 1.93 vs. 6.29 +/- 1.80 mmol/l, P < 0.01). In conclusion, our results show a close association between the degree of insulin resistance and markers of oxidative stress, both before and after a high-fat meal. The postprandial state causes an important increase in oxidative stress, especially in severely obese persons with greater insulin resistance. However, we are unable to determine from this study whether there is first an increase in oxidative stress or in insulin resistance.

  1. Investigation of the Relationship Between Chronic Stress and Insulin Resistance in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Xiao, Huan-Bo; Wang, Si-Si; Zhao, Jing; He, Yan; Wang, Wei; Dong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic stress may facilitate the development of metabolic diseases. Insulin resistance is present long before the clinical manifestations of individual metabolic abnormalities. To explore whether chronic stress is an independent risk factor of insulin resistance, we investigated the relationship between the stress system, selected parameters of energy homeostasis, and insulin resistance in a Chinese population. Methods We recruited 766 workers employed at four companies in Beijing. The degree of insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The highest quartile of HOMA-IR among all study subjects was further defined as insulin resistance in our study. The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between cortisol level and HOMA-IR and components of metabolic syndrome, with stratification by gender. The relationship between cortisol and HOMA-IR independent of obesity was analyzed using a linear mixed model with company as a cluster unit. Results The values of the two scales of COPSOQ, including “demands at work” and “insecurity at work”, were significantly associated with insulin resistance and cortisol concentration (P < 0.05). Cortisol was significantly positively correlated with glucose, HOMA-IR, and waist circumference in males and females (P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, cortisol was an independent positive predictor for HOMA-IR (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings showed that chronic stress was associated with insulin resistance and may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26830350

  2. Basal insulin hypersecretion in insulin-resistant Zucker diabetic and Zucker fatty rats: role of enhanced fuel metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y P; Cockburn, B N; Pugh, W; Polonsky, K S

    1999-07-01

    The biochemical mechanisms responsible for basal hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant states have not been fully defined. We therefore studied pancreatic beta-cell function in vitro to characterize the relative importance of fuel metabolism or secretion via a constitutive pathway in the maintenance of high basal insulin secretion in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Insulin secretion from ZF (10+/-1.8 v 5+/-0.6 pmol/ng DNA/h) and ZDF (30+/-4 v 7+/-0.8 pmol/ng DNA/h) islets at 2.8 mmol/L glucose was two to four times greater than secretion from islets of lean littermate control rats. In response to a decreasing glucose concentration (from 12 to 0 mmol/L), a paradoxical increase in insulin secretion was observed in perfused ZDF rat pancreas. Insulin secretion at 2.8 mmol/L glucose was suppressed approximately 70% to 80% in islets from ZDF and ZF rats following exposure to diazoxide, a K+-adenosine triphosphate (K(ATP)) channel opener that inhibits membrane depolarization, or rotenone and oligomycin, agents that inhibit ATP production, or by incubation at 23 degrees C. Inhibition of glycolysis with mannoheptulose, 2-deoxyglucose, and iodoacetate or fatty acid oxidation with a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor also significantly inhibited basal insulin secretion in islets of ZDF and ZF rats but not their lean littermates. Furthermore, the glycolytic flux at 2.8 mmol/L glucose was significantly higher in ZDF islets versus ZDF lean littermate (ZLC) islets (2.2+/-0.1 v 3.7+/-0.3 pmol/ng DNA/2 h, P < .01) and was suppressed by mannoheptulose. In ZDF and ZF islets, high basal insulin secretion was maintained despite a 50% reduction in the rate of proinsulin/insulin biosynthesis at 2.8 mmol/L glucose. The rate of proinsulin to insulin conversion and the ratio of proinsulin to insulin secretion by islets of ZDF rats were similar to the values in the lean littermates. Thus, basal hypersecretion in these two insulin-resistant models appears to be

  3. Neurogenic insulin resistance in guinea-pigs with cisplatin-induced neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Szilvássy, Judit; Sziklai, István; Sári, Réka; Németh, József; Peitl, Barna; Porszasz, Robert; Lonovics, János; Szilvássy, Zoltán

    2006-02-15

    The aim of the present work was to study whether neurotoxicity produced by cisplatin modified tissue insulin sensitivity in guinea-pigs. One week after selective sensory denervation of the anterior hepatic plexus by means of perineurial 2% capsaicin treatment, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp were performed to estimate insulin sensitivity in male guinea-pigs. The guinea-pigs underwent regional sensory denervation of the anterior hepatic plexus exhibited insulin resistance, whereas systemic capsaicin desensitization increased insulin sensitivity. Intraportal administration of L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME decreased, whereas capsaicin increased insulin sensitivity. Neither atropine nor acetylcholine produced any significant effect. In animals with preceding regional capsaicin desensitization, none of the pharmacological maneuvers modified the resulting insulin resistant state. Cisplatin pretreatment induced sensory neuropathy and decreased insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity did not change after either regional or systemic capsaicin desensitization in the cisplatin-treated animals. CGRP(8-37), a nonselective calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist (50 microg/kg i.v.), significantly increased insulin sensitivity in normal animals but only a tendency to insulin sensitization was seen after cisplatin treatment. Cisplatin treatment, similar to regional capsaicin desensitization of the anterior hepatic plexus, produced a significant decrease in insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxy-D [L-14C] glucose in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscle with no effect on percentage suppression of endogenous glucose production by hyperinsulinaemia. We conclude that the majority of cisplatin-induced insulin resistance is related to functional deterioration of the hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS) mechanism.

  4. Long-term high-fat diet induces hippocampal microvascular insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Nesil, Tanseli; Li, Ming D; Aylor, Kevin W; Liu, Zhenqi

    2017-02-01

    Insulin action on hippocampus improves cognitive function, and obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with decreased cognitive function. Cerebral microvasculature plays a critical role in maintaining cerebral vitality and function by supplying nutrients, oxygen, and hormones such as insulin to cerebral parenchyma, including hippocampus. In skeletal muscle, insulin actively regulates microvascular opening and closure, and this action is impaired in the insulin-resistant states. To examine insulin's action on hippocampal microvasculature and parenchyma and the impact of diet-induced obesity, we determined cognitive function and microvascular insulin responses, parenchyma insulin responses, and capillary density in the hippocampus in 2- and 8-mo-old rats on chow diet and 8-mo-old rats on a long-term high-fat diet (6 mo). Insulin infusion increased hippocampal microvascular perfusion in rats on chow diet by ~80-90%. High-fat diet feeding completely abolished insulin-mediated microvascular responses and protein kinase B phosphorylation but did not alter the capillary density in the hippocampus. This was associated with a significantly decreased cognitive function assessed using both the two-trial spontaneous alternation behavior test and the novel object recognition test. As the microvasculature provides the needed endothelial surface area for delivery of nutrients, oxygen, and insulin to hippocampal parenchyma, we conclude that hippocampal microvascular insulin resistance may play a critical role in the development of cognitive impairment seen in obesity and diabetes. Our results suggest that improvement in hippocampal microvascular insulin sensitivity might help improve or reverse cognitive function in the insulin-resistant states.

  5. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats.

    PubMed

    Solberg Woods, Leah C; Holl, Katie L; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D.

  6. Severe insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in patients with congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, H; Klein, H H; Hansen, T; Müller, J; Skovby, F; Bjørbaek, C; Røder, M E; Pedersen, O

    1995-04-01

    Congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy (CFTDM) is a chronic, nonprogressive muscle disorder characterized by universal muscle hypotrophy and growth retardation. Histomorphometric examination of muscle shows a preponderance of smaller than normal type 1 fibers and overall fiber size heterogeneity. Concomitant endocrine dysfunctions have not been described. We report the findings of altered insulin secretion and insulin action in two brothers affected with CFTDM and glucose intolerance as well as in their nonconsanguineous glucose-tolerant parents. Results are compared with those of six normoglycemic control subjects. All study participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin secretion. The oldest boy and his parents volunteered for studies of whole-body insulin sensitivity consisting of a 4-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in combination with indirect calorimetry. Insulin receptor function and glycogen synthase (GS) activity and expression were examined in biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle. Despite a 45-90-fold increase in both fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels, both CFTDM patients had diabetes mellitus. Clamp studies revealed that the oldest boy had severe insulin resistance of both liver and peripheral tissues. The impaired insulin-stimulated glucose disposal to peripheral tissues was primarily due to reduced nonoxidative glucose metabolism. These changes were paralleled by reduced basal values of muscle GS total activity, allosterical activation of GS by glucose-6-phosphate, GS protein, and GS mRNA. The father expressed a lesser degree of insulin resistance, and studies of muscle insulin receptor function showed a severe impairment of receptor kinase activity. In conclusion, CFTDM is a novel form of severe hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Whether insulin resistance is causally related to the muscle disorder awaits to be clarified.

  7. Insulin resistance in penile arteries from a rat model of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Cristina; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Pilar; Raposo, Rafaela; Climent, Belén; García-Sacristán, Albino; Benedito, Sara; Prieto, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities accompanying metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension, are all associated with endothelial dysfunction and are independent risk factors for erectile dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the vascular effects of insulin in penile arteries and whether these effects are impaired in a rat model of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZR) and their counterpart, lean Zucker rats (LZR), were mounted on microvascular myographs and the effects of insulin were assessed in the absence and presence of endothelium and of specific inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Insulin-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i were also examined. KEY RESULTS OZR exhibited mild hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertryglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin induced endothelium- and NO-dependent relaxations in LZR that were impaired in OZR. Inhibition of PI3K reduced relaxation induced by insulin and by the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline, mainly in arteries from LZR. Antagonism of endothelin 1 (ET-1) receptors did not alter insulin-induced relaxation in either LZR or OZR, but MAPK blockade increased the responses in OZR. Insulin decreased [Ca2+]i, a response impaired in OZR. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Insulin-induced relaxation was impaired in penile arteries of OZR due to altered NO release through the PI3K pathway and unmasking of a MAPK-mediated vasoconstriction. This vascular insulin resistance is likely to contribute to the endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction associated with insulin resistant states. PMID:20735420

  8. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John C; Elliott, Paul; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Yun; Froguel, Philippe; Balding, David; Scott, James; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2008-06-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (318,237 SNPs) for insulin resistance and related phenotypes in 2,684 Indian Asians, with further testing in 11,955 individuals of Indian Asian or European ancestry. We found associations of rs12970134 near MC4R with waist circumference (P = 1.7 x 10(-9)) and, independently, with insulin resistance. Homozygotes for the risk allele of rs12970134 have approximately 2 cm increased waist circumference. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with risk of adiposity and insulin resistance.

  9. Acute inhibition of central c-Jun N-terminal kinase restores hypothalamic insulin signalling and alleviates glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Benzler, J; Ganjam, G K; Legler, K; Stöhr, S; Krüger, M; Steger, J; Tups, A

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been identified as a main insulin target tissue for regulating normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Recent observations suggest that c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signalling plays a crucial role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance because neuronal JNK-1 ablation in the mouse prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and increased energy expenditure, as well as insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated whether central JNK inhibition is associated with sensitisation of hypothalamic insulin signalling in mice fed a high-fat diet for 3 weeks and in leptin-deficient mice. We determined whether i.c.v. injection of a pharmacological JNK-inhibitor (SP600125) improved impaired glucose homeostasis. By immunohistochemistry, we first observed that JNK activity was increased in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in both mouse models, relative to normoglycaemic controls. This suggests that up-regulation of JNK in these regions is associated with glucose intolerance and obesity, independent of leptin levels. Acute i.c.v. injection of SP600125 ameliorated glucose tolerance within 30 min in both leptin-deficient and DIO mice. Given the acute nature of i.c.v. injections, these effects cannot be attributed to changes in food intake or energy balance. In a hypothalamic cell line, and in the ARC and VMH of leptin-deficient mice, JNK inhibition by SP600125 consistently improved impaired insulin signalling. This was determined by a reduction of phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 [IRS-1(Ser612)] protein in a hypothalamic cell line and a decline in the number of pIRS-1(Ser612) immunoreactive cells in the ARC and VMH. Serine 612 phosphorylation of IRS-1 is assumed to negatively regulate insulin signalling. In leptin-deficient mice, in both nuclei, central inhibition of JNK increased the number of cells immunoreactive for phospho-Akt (Ser473) and phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9), which are important

  10. High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Mohammed; Ghareeb, Doaa Ahmad; Talat, Heba Allah; Sarhan, Eman Mohammed

    2013-11-01

    This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8μg/Kg/day) for two weeks. HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients.

  11. [Iron chelation therapy and its influence on the alleviation of EPO resistance in MDS patients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Chao; Gu, Shu-Cheng; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2014-08-01

    in some patients was decreased. It is concluded that iron chelation therapy can improve the efficacy of EPO to alleviate EPO resistance in patients wtih anemic MDS, decrease the pathological level of EPO, enhance Hb levels and reduce the dependency on blood transfusion.

  12. Amyloid-β induces hepatic insulin resistance in vivo via JAK2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ben; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Yuangao; Le, Yingying; Zhai, Qiwei

    2013-04-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ), a natural product of cell metabolism, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies indicate patients with AD have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aβ can induce insulin resistance in cultured hepatocytes by activating the JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 signaling pathway. Amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 double-transgenic AD mouse models with increased circulating Aβ level show impaired glucose/insulin tolerance and hepatic insulin resistance. However, whether Aβ induces hepatic insulin resistance in vivo is still unclear. Here we show C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally injected with Aβ42 exhibit increased fasting blood glucose level, impaired insulin tolerance, and hepatic insulin signaling. Moreover, the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 AD model mice intraperitoneally injected with anti-Aβ neutralizing antibodies show decreased fasting blood glucose level and improved insulin sensitivity. Injection of Aβ42 activates hepatic JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 signaling, and neutralization of Aβ in APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice inhibits liver JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 signaling. Furthermore, knockdown of hepatic JAK2 by tail vein injection of adenovirus inhibits JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 signaling and improves glucose/insulin tolerance and hepatic insulin sensitivity in APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. Our results demonstrate that Aβ induces hepatic insulin resistance in vivo via JAK2, suggesting that inhibition of Aβ signaling is a new strategy toward resolving insulin resistance and T2DM.

  13. Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Tomlinson, Patsy; Payne, Felicity; Gast, Alexandra; Sleigh, Alison; Bottomley, William; Harris, Julie; Daly, Allan; Rocha, Nuno; Rudge, Simon; Clark, Jonathan; Kwok, Albert; Romeo, Stefano; McCann, Emma; Müksch, Barbara; Dattani, Mehul; Zucchini, Stefano; Wakelam, Michael; Foukas, Lazaros C.; Savage, David B.; Murphy, Rinki; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27766312

  14. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance: Underlying Causes and Modification by Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Christian K.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Barnard, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Regardless of the true definition, based on current population estimates, nearly 100 million have MS. It is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major underpinning link between physical inactivity and MS. The purpose of this review is to: (i) provide an overview of the history, causes and clinical aspects of MS, (ii) review the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and the causes of insulin resistance, and (iii) discuss the epidemiological and intervention data on the effects of exercise on MS and insulin sensitivity. PMID:23720280

  16. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: underlying causes and modification by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christian K; Hevener, Andrea L; Barnard, R James

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Regardless of the true definition, based on current population estimates, nearly 100 million have MS. It is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major underpinning link between physical inactivity and MS. The purpose of this review is to: (i) provide an overview of the history, causes and clinical aspects of MS, (ii) review the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and the causes of insulin resistance, and (iii) discuss the epidemiological and intervention data on the effects of exercise on MS and insulin sensitivity.

  17. Unaltered Prion Pathogenesis in a Mouse Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caihong; Schwarz, Petra; Abakumova, Irina; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental animal studies suggest a strong correlation between insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s disease. In fact, type-2 diabetes is considered an important risk factor of developing Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, impaired insulin signaling in the Alzheimer’s disease brain may promote Aβ production, impair Aβ clearance and induce tau hyperphosphorylation, thereby leading to deterioration of the disease. The pathological prion protein, PrPSc, deposits in the form of extracellular aggregates and leads to dementia, raising the question as to whether prion pathogenesis may also be affected by insulin resistance. We therefore established high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in tga20 mice, which overexpress the prion protein. We then inoculated the insulin-resistant mice with prions. We found that insulin resistance in tga20 mice did not affect prion disease progression, PrPSc deposition, astrogliosis or microglial activation, and had no effect on survival. Our study demonstrates that in a mouse model, insulin resistance does not significantly contribute to prion pathogenesis. PMID:26658276

  18. Interplay between insulin resistance and estrogen deficiency as co- activators in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-04-01

    Both insulin resistance and estrogen deficiency result in complex metabolic disorder based mainly on defective cellular glucose uptake and on an atherogenic serum lipid profile. These alterations may be regarded as high risks for several life-threatening human diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular lesions and malignancies. Insulin resistance and estrogen deficiency are concomitant disorders with mutual interrelationship. Insulin resistance and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia provoke increased androgen synthesis at the expense of decreased estrogen production. Similarly, a moderate or severe decrease in serum estrogen levels enhances the prevalence of insulin resistant states both in men and women. Healthy premenopausal women enjoy the defensive effect of estrogens against metabolic and hormonal disorders. However, even a slight decrease in their circulatory estrogen levels associated with insulin resistance may increase the risk for cancers, particularly in the organs having high estrogen demand (breast, endometrium and ovary). On the other hand, postmenopausal state with profound estrogen deficiency confers high risk for cancers in different organs with either high or moderate estrogen demand. After menopause, hormone replacement therapy improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the enhanced inclination to malignancies in postmenopausal women. Recognition of the thorough interplay between insulin resistance and estrogen deficiency may illuminate many apparently controversial experimental and clinical findings concerning cancer development and therapeutic possibilities. Moreover, their interactions in the initiation and progression of human malignancies may supply new strategies in primary cancer prevention and cancer cure.

  19. Retention of acetylcarnitine in chronic kidney disease causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yasunori; Miyazaki, Teruo; Honda, Akira; Shimohata, Homare; Hirayama, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the mechanisms of insulin resistance associated with chronic kidney disease are unclear. It is known that an increase in the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (AcCoA)/CoA ratio causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this ratio is regulated by carnitine acetyltransferase that exchanges acetyl moiety between CoA and carnitine. Because excess acetyl moiety of AcCoA is excreted in urine as acetylcarnitine, we hypothesized that retention of acetylcarnitine might be a cause of insulin resistance in chronic kidney disease patients. Serum acetylcarnitine concentrations were measured in chronic kidney disease patients, and were significantly increased with reduction of renal function. The effects of excess extracellular acetylcarnitine on insulin resistance were studied in cultured skeletal muscle cells (C2C12 and human myotubes), and insulin-dependent glucose uptake was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by addition of acetylcarnitine. The added acetylcarnitine was converted to carnitine via reverse carnitine acetyltransferase reaction, and thus the AcCoA concentration and AcCoA/CoA ratio in mitochondria were significantly elevated. The results suggest that increased serum acetylcarnitine in CKD patients causes AcCoA accumulation in mitochondria by stimulating reverse carnitine acetyltransferase reaction, which leads to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:27895387

  20. The association between TNF-α and insulin resistance in euglycemic women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer M; McGowan, Ciara A; Byrne, Jacinta A; Rath, Ann; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2013-10-01

    Chronic low levels of inflammation have links to obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. We sought to assess the relationship between cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and insulin resistance in a healthy, euglycemic population. This is a prospective study of 574 non-diabetic mother and infant pairs. Maternal body mass index (BMI), TNF-α, glucose and insulin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA index. At delivery birthweight was recorded and cord blood analysed for fetal C-peptide and TNF-α. In a multivariate model, maternal TNF-α in early pregnancy was predicted by maternal insulin resistance at the same time-point, (β=0.54, p<0.01), and maternal TNF-α at 28 weeks was predicted by maternal insulin resistance in early pregnancy (β=0.24, p<0.01) and at 28 weeks (β=0.39, p<0.01). These results, in a large cohort of healthy, non-diabetic women have shown that insulin resistance, even at levels below those diagnostic of gestational diabetes, is associated with maternal and fetal inflammatory response. These findings have important implications for defining the pathways of fetal programming of later metabolic syndrome and childhood obesity.

  1. The Impact of Macrophage Insulin Resistance on Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression

    PubMed Central

    Tabas, Ira; Tall, Alan; Accili, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is the major cause of death and disability in obese and diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. Although increased systemic risk factors in the setting of insulin resistance contribute to this problem, it is likely exacerbated by direct effects of insulin resistance on the arterial wall cells that participate in atherosclerosis. A critical process in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions to those that cause clinical disease is necrotic breakdown of plaques. Plaque necrosis, which is particularly prominent in the lesions of diabetics, is caused by the combination of macrophage apoptosis and defective clearance, or efferocytosis, of the apoptotic macrophages. One cause of macrophage apoptosis in advanced plaques is activation of a pro-apoptotic branch of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Macrophages have a functional insulin receptor signal transduction pathway, and down regulation of this pathway in the setting insulin resistance enhances UPR-induced apoptosis. Moreover, other aspects of the obesity/insulin-resistance syndrome may adversely affect efferocytosis. These processes may therefore provide an important mechanistic link among insulin resistance, plaque necrosis, and atherothrombotic vascular disease and suggest novel therapeutic approaches to this expanding health problem. PMID:20056946

  2. Fas (CD95) expression in myeloid cells promotes obesity-induced muscle insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wueest, Stephan; Mueller, Rouven; Blüher, Matthias; Item, Flurin; Chin, Annie S H; Wiedemann, Michael S F; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Kovtonyuk, Larisa; Chervonsky, Alexander V; Schoenle, Eugen J; Manz, Markus G; Konrad, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue and liver has been implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Yet, the contribution of inflammatory cells to the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. In a large cohort of obese human individuals, blood monocyte Fas (CD95) expression correlated with systemic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. To test a causal role for myeloid cell Fas expression in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, we generated myeloid/haematopoietic cell-specific Fas-depleted mice. Myeloid/haematopoietic Fas deficiency prevented the development of glucose intolerance in high fat-fed mice, in ob/ob mice, and in mice acutely challenged by LPS. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated preservation of muscle insulin responsiveness with no effect on adipose tissue or liver. Studies using neutralizing antibodies demonstrated a role for TNFα as mediator between myeloid Fas and skeletal muscle insulin resistance, supported by significant correlations between monocyte Fas expression and circulating TNFα in humans. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an unanticipated crosstalk between myeloid cells and skeletal muscle in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:24203314

  3. Adipocyte JAK2 mediates growth hormone–induced hepatic insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Corbit, Kevin C.; Camporez, João Paulo G.; Tran, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Camella G.; Lowe, Dylan A.; Nordstrom, Sarah M.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Perry, Rachel J.; Weiss, Ethan J.

    2017-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, growth hormone (GH) has been known to affect insulin sensitivity and risk of diabetes. However, the tissue governing the effects of GH signaling on insulin and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Excess GH reduces fat mass and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, GH insensitivity (GHI) is associated with increased adiposity, augmented insulin sensitivity, and protection from diabetes. Here, we induce adipocyte-specific GHI through conditional deletion of Jak2 (JAK2A), an obligate transducer of GH signaling. Similar to whole-body GHI, JAK2A mice had increased adiposity and extreme insulin sensitivity. Loss of adipocyte Jak2 augmented hepatic insulin sensitivity and conferred resistance to diet-induced metabolic stress without overt changes in circulating fatty acids. While GH injections induced hepatic insulin resistance in control mice, the diabetogenic action was absent in JAK2A mice. Adipocyte GH signaling directly impinged on both adipose and hepatic insulin signal transduction. Collectively, our results show that adipose tissue governs the effects of GH on insulin and glucose homeostasis. Further, we show that JAK2 mediates liver insulin sensitivity via an extrahepatic, adipose tissue–dependent mechanism. PMID:28194444

  4. Improvement of insulin resistance, blood pressure and interstitial pH in early developmental stage of insulin resistance in OLETF rats by intake of propolis extracts.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Wataru; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Niisato, Naomi; Yokoyama, Noriko; Hayata, Hiroki; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Fukuda, Takuya; Fukui, Michiaki; Nakamura, Naoto; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2013-03-22

    Propolis, a resinous mixture collected from plants by the Apis mellifera bee, contains high level nutrient factors including vitamins, polyphenols, and amino acids that would be expected to improve insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance would secondarily cause elevation of blood pressure and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of propolis extracts on blood glucose levels and blood pressures in an early developmental stage of insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats (10 weeks old) were divided into three different groups: normal diet, 0.1% propolis diet, and 0.5% propolis diet. After 8 weeks, blood glucose levels, blood pressures, plasma metabolic factors and hormones, and interstitial fluid pH were measured. Casual blood glucose levels were decreased associated with a reduction of plasma insulin levels in both propolis diet groups compared with normal diet group. Propolis decreased systolic blood pressure with no significant changes in plasma aldosterone levels. We also found that interstitial fluid pH in ascites, liver, and skeletal muscle was higher in rats fed propolis diet than rats fed normal diet. These data suggests that dietary propolis improves insulin sensitivity and blood pressures in the early stage of the process in development of insulin resistance, which may be mediated by suppression of metabolic acidosis.

  5. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  6. Gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin and insulin resistance in older men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (OC), a protein synthesized in bone, may influence glucose and insulin metabolism. Objective: Our purpose was to examine the cross-sectional associations between circulating ucOC and measures of insulin resistance and inflammation in humans. Design , ...

  7. Insulin resistance for glucose metabolism in disused soleus muscle of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seider, M. J.; Nicholson, W. F.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of this study on mice provide the first direct evidence of insulin resistance for glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle that has undergone a previous period of reduced muscle usage. This lack of responsiveness to insulin developed in one day and in the presence of hypoinsulinemia. Future studies will utilize the model of hindlimb immobilization to determine the causes of these changes.

  8. S961, an insulin receptor antagonist causes hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistance and depletion of energy stores in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Ajit; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields}Insulin receptor antagonist S961 causes hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in rats. {yields}Peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone improves S961 induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. {yields}Long term treatment with insulin receptor antagonist S961 results in the decreased adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. {yields}Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. -- Abstract: Impairment in the insulin receptor signaling and insulin mediated effects are the key features of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that S961, a peptide insulin receptor antagonist induces hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia ({approx}18-fold), glucose intolerance and impairment in the insulin mediated glucose disposal in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, long-term S961 treatment (15 day, 10 nM/kg/day) depletes energy storage as evident from decrease in the adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. However, peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone significantly (P < 0.001) restored S961 induced hyperglycemia (196.73 {+-} 16.32 vs. 126.37 {+-} 27.07 mg/dl) and glucose intolerance ({approx}78%). Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. Further, results of the present study reconfirms and provide direct evidence to the crucial role of insulin receptor signaling in the glucose homeostasis and fuel metabolism.

  9. Molecular and functional resistance to insulin in hypothalamus of rats exposed to cold.

    PubMed

    Torsoni, Márcio A; Carvalheira, José B; Pereira-Da-Silva, Márcio; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco A; Saad, Mário J A; Velloso, Lício A

    2003-07-01

    Insulin and leptin act in the hypothalamus, providing robust anorexigenic signals. The exposure of homeothermic animals to a cold environment leads to increased feeding, accompanied by sustained low levels of insulin and leptin. In the present study, the initial and intermediate steps of the insulin-signaling cascade were evaluated in the hypothalamus of cold-exposed Wistar rats. By immunohistochemistry, most insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) immunoreactivity localized to the arcuate nucleus. Basal levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS-2 were increased in cold-exposed rats compared with rats maintained at room temperature. However, after an acute, peripheral infusion of exogenous insulin, significantly lower increases of IR and IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation were detected in the hypothalamus of cold-exposed rats. Insulin-induced association of p85/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with IRS-2, Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK was significantly reduced in the hypothalamus of cold-exposed rats. To test the hypothesis of functional impairment of insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, intracerebroventricularly cannulated rats were acutely treated with insulin, and food ingestion was measured over a period of 12 h. Cold-exposed animals presented a significantly lower insulin-induced reduction in food consumption compared with animals maintained at room temperature. Hence, the present studies reveal that animals exposed to cold are resistant, both at the molecular and the functional level, to the actions of insulin in the hypothalamus.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetics and reduced insulin production in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Esteghamati, A; Aryan, Z; Esteghamati, Ar; Nakhjavani, M

    2015-04-01

    It is not known whether the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with glycemic measurements of individuals without diabetes is similar to those with diabetes or not. This study is aimed to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D with glycemic markers of diabetics, nondiabetics, and prediabetics. A case-control study was conducted on age and sex matched 1,195 patients with type 2 DM, 121 prediabetics, and 209 healthy controls. Anthropometric variables, lipid profile, glycemic measurements, and serum 25(OH)D levels were recorded. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels were also measured. All glycemic measurements were compared between diabetics and nondiabetics and prediabetics at different vitamin D status. Patients with DM had lower serum 25(OH)D compared to prediabetics and healthy controls. Endogenous insulin production in response to food intake and in fasting was significantly lower in vitamin D deficient patients with DM compared to those with serum 25(OH)D>40 ng/ml. Diabetic women with serum 25(OH)D<20 ng/ml had lower beta cell function as estimated by lower HOMA-B compared to their counterparts with serum 25(OH)D>40 ng/ml. Healthy individuals with serum 25(OH)D<20 ng/ml had signs of insulin resistance as estimated by significant increase of HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). In addition, we found that serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin resistance. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetics, which is independent of obesity. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency is associated with reduced insulin production in type 2 diabetics, which was mainly observed in men. Accordingly, a gender disparity also exists in association of serum 25(OH)D with glycemic measurements.

  11. A mutation in the insulin receptor gene that impairs transport of the receptor to the plasma membrane and causes insulin-resistant diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Accili, D; Frapier, C; Mosthaf, L; McKeon, C; Elbein, S C; Permutt, M A; Ramos, E; Lander, E; Ullrich, A; Taylor, S I

    1989-01-01

    Insulin binds to a receptor on the cell surface, thereby triggering a biological response within the target cell. Mutations in the insulin receptor gene can render the cell resistant to the biological action of insulin. We have studied a family in which two sisters have a genetic form of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The technique of homozygosity mapping has been used to demonstrate that the mutation causing diabetes in this consanguineous family is genetically linked to the insulin receptor gene. The two insulin-resistant sisters are homozygous for a mutation encoding substitution of valine for phenylalanine at position 382 in the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor. Transfection of mutant insulin receptor cDNA into NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that the Val382 mutation impaired post-translational processing and retarded transport of the insulin receptor to the plasma membrane. Thus, the mutation causes insulin resistance by decreasing the number of insulin receptors on the surface of the patients' cells. Images PMID:2573522

  12. G Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Plays a Relevant Role in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Guerra, Lucia; Nieto-Vazquez, Iria; Vila-Bedmar, Rocio; Jurado-Pueyo, María; Zalba, Guillermo; Díez, Javier; Murga, Cristina; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Mayor, Federico; Lorenzo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Given the emerging role of signal transduction in these syndromes, we set out to explore the possible role that G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein–coupled receptor regulator, could have as a modulator of insulin responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed the influence of GRK2 levels in insulin signaling in myoblasts and adipocytes with experimentally increased or silenced levels of GRK2, as well as in GRK2 hemizygous animals expressing 50% lower levels of this kinase in three different models of insulin resistance: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) infusion, aging, and high-fat diet (HFD). Glucose transport, whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance, the activation status of insulin pathway components, and the circulating levels of important mediators were measured. The development of obesity and adipocyte size with age and HFD was analyzed. RESULTS Altering GRK2 levels markedly modifies insulin-mediated signaling in cultured adipocytes and myocytes. GRK2 levels are increased by ∼2-fold in muscle and adipose tissue in the animal models tested, as well as in lymphocytes from metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, hemizygous GRK2 mice show enhanced insulin sensitivity and do not develop insulin resistance by TNF-α, aging, or HFD. Furthermore, reduced GRK2 levels induce a lean phenotype and decrease age-related adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Overall, our data identify GRK2 as an important negative regulator of insulin effects, key to the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, which uncovers this protein as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:20627936

  13. A Small Amount of Dietary Carbohydrate Can Promote the HFD-Induced Insulin Resistance to a Maximal Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huailan; Gu, Haihua; Zha, Longying; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Bennett, Brian J.; He, Ling; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    Both dietary fat and carbohydrates (Carbs) may play important roles in the development of insulin resistance. The main goal of this study was to further define the roles for fat and dietary carbs in insulin resistance. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow diet (CD) or HFD containing 0.1–25.5% carbs for 5 weeks, followed by evaluations of calorie consumption, body weight and fat gains, insulin sensitivity, intratissue insulin signaling, ectopic fat, and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle. The role of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the HFD-induced insulin resistance was determined in mice. The role of fat in insulin resistance was also examined in cultured cells. HFD with little carbs (0.1%) induced severe insulin resistance. Addition of 5% carbs to HFD dramatically elevated insulin resistance and 10% carbs in HFD was sufficient to induce a maximal level of insulin resistance. HFD with little carbs induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle and addition of carbs to HFD dramatically enhanced ectopic fat and oxidative stress. HFD increased hepatic expression of key gluconeogenic genes and the increase was most dramatic by HFD with little carbs, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis prevented the HFD-induced insulin resistance. In cultured cells, development of insulin resistance induced by a pathological level of insulin was prevented in the absence of fat. Together, fat is essential for development of insulin resistance and dietary carb is not necessary for HFD-induced insulin resistance due to the presence of hepatic gluconeogenesis but a very small amount of it can promote HFD-induced insulin resistance to a maximal level. PMID:25055153

  14. Evolution of insulin resistance in coronary artery disease patients on four different pharmacological therapies

    PubMed Central

    Piedrola, G.; Novo, E.; Serrano-Gotarredo..., J.; de Teresa, M. L.; Garcia-Robles, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the evolution of insulin sensitivity in a group of patients with stable coronary artery disease receiving one of four different pharmacological therapies. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using an insulin suppression test in 40 newly diagnosed patients with coronary artery disease and no previous history of metabolic disorders, who were not taking any medication which might affect insulin sensitivity. The insulin suppression test consisted of a constant infusion of glucose, insulin and somatostatin for 150 min; insulin resistance was estimated by determining the steady-state plasma glucose concentrations during the last 60 minutes of the test. The insulin sensitivity index was calculated by the formula: insulin sensitivity index = (glucose infusion rate/steady state plasma glucose concentrations) × 103. A second insulin suppression test was performed after 6 months' therapy with either isosorbide mononitrate, atenolol, diltiazem or captopril in 30 of the 40 patients.
  There were no differences between any of the groups before therapy was initiated. After 6 months, patients treated with captopril and, to a lesser extent, those treated with diltiazem showed statistically significantly decreased steady state plasma glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity index compared to basal values. No statistically significant differences were found in the other two groups. We conclude that captopril and, to a lesser extent, diltiazem improve insulin sensitivity in patients with stable coronary artery disease.


Keywords: insulin resistance; coronary artery disease; captopril; diltiazem PMID:10396583

  15. Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Rother, Kristina I; Cizza, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In the last 50 years, the average self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by 1.5–2 hours in parallel with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between short or disturbed sleep, obesity, and abnormalities in glucose metabolism. This relationship is likely to be bidirectional and causal in nature, but many aspects remain to be elucidated. Sleep and the internal circadian clock influence a host of endocrine parameters. Sleep curtailment in humans alters multiple metabolic pathways, leading to more insulin resistance, possibly decreased energy expenditure, increased appetite, and immunological changes. On the other hand, psychological, endocrine, and anatomical abnormalities in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes can interfere with sleep duration and quality, thus creating a vicious cycle. In this review, we address mechanisms linking sleep with metabolism, highlight the need for studies conducted in real-life settings, and explore therapeutic interventions to improve sleep, with a potential beneficial effect on obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:22827862

  16. Obesity-related insulin resistance: implications for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tewari, N; Awad, S; Macdonald, I A; Lobo, D N

    2015-11-01

    In healthy surgical patients, preoperative fasting and major surgery induce development of insulin resistance (IR). IR can be present in up to 41% of obese patients without diabetes and this can rise in the postoperative period, leading to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Inflammation is implicated in the aetiology of IR. This review examines obesity-associated IR and its implications for the surgical patient. Searches of the Medline and Science Citation Index databases were performed using various key words in combinations with the Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT. Key journals, nutrition and metabolism textbooks and the reference lists of key articles were also hand searched. Adipose tissue has been identified as an active endocrine organ and the chemokines secreted as a result of macrophage infiltration have a role in the pathogenesis of IR. Visceral adipose tissue appears to be the most metabolically active, although results across studies are not consistent. Results from animal and human studies often provide conflicting results, which has rendered the pursuit of a common mechanistic pathway challenging. Obesity-associated IR appears, in part, to be related to inflammatory changes associated with increased adiposity. Postoperatively, the surgical patient is in a proinflammatory state, so this finding has important implications for the obese surgical patient.

  17. Obesity, insulin resistance and comorbidities – Mechanisms of association

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ana Valeria B.; Kolka, Cathryn M.; Kim, Stella P.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Overall excess of fat, usually defined by the body mass index, is associated with metabolic (e.g. glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia) and non-metabolic disorders (e.g. neoplasias, polycystic ovary syndrome, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, glomerulopathy, bone fragility etc.). However, more than its total amount, the distribution of adipose tissue throughout the body is a better predictor of the risk to the development of those disorders. Fat accumulation in the abdominal area and in non-adipose tissue (ectopic fat), for example, is associated with increased risk to develop metabolic and non-metabolic derangements. On the other hand, observations suggest that individuals who present peripheral adiposity, characterized by large hip and thigh circumferences, have better glucose tolerance, reduced incidence of T2DM and of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the main culprits in the association between obesity, particularly visceral, and metabolic as well as non-metabolic diseases. In this review we will highlight the current pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms possibly involved in the link between increased VAT, ectopic fat, IR and comorbidities. We will also provide some insights in the identification of these abnormalities. PMID:25211442

  18. Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Rother, Kristina I; Cizza, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    In the last 50 years, the average self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by 1.5-2 hours in parallel with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between short or disturbed sleep, obesity, and abnormalities in glucose metabolism. This relationship is likely to be bidirectional and causal in nature, but many aspects remain to be elucidated. Sleep and the internal circadian clock influence a host of endocrine parameters. Sleep curtailment in humans alters multiple metabolic pathways, leading to more insulin resistance, possibly decreased energy expenditure, increased appetite, and immunological changes. On the other hand, psychological, endocrine, and anatomical abnormalities in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes can interfere with sleep duration and quality, thus creating a vicious cycle. In this review, we address mechanisms linking sleep with metabolism, highlight the need for studies conducted in real-life settings, and explore therapeutic interventions to improve sleep, with a potential beneficial effect on obesity and its comorbidities.

  19. Long-term, intermittent, insulin-induced hypoglycemia produces marked obesity without hyperphagia or insulin resistance: a model for weight gain with intensive insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    McNay, Ewan C; Teske, Jennifer A; Kotz, Catherine M; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Levin, Barry E; McCrimmon, Rory J; Sherwin, Robert S

    2013-01-15

    A major side effect of insulin treatment of diabetes is weight gain, which limits patient compliance and may pose additional health risks. Although the mechanisms responsible for this weight gain are poorly understood, it has been suggested that there may be a link to the incidence of recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia. Here we present a rodent model of marked weight gain associated with weekly insulin-induced hypoglycemic episodes in the absence of diabetes. Insulin treatment caused a significant increase in both body weight and fat mass, accompanied by reduced motor activity, lowered thermogenesis in response to a cold challenge, and reduced brown fat uncoupling protein mRNA. However, there was no effect of insulin treatment on total food intake nor on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y or proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression, and insulin-treated animals did not become insulin-resistant. Our results suggest that repeated iatrogenic hypoglycemia leads to weight gain, and that such weight gain is associated with a multifaceted deficit in metabolic regulation rather than to a chronic increase in caloric intake.

  20. Chenodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous FXR ligand alters adipokines and reverses insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Roy, Debasish; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-10-15

    Adipose tissue secretes adipokines that regulate insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and other peripheral tissues critical to glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance is associated with severe alterations in adipokines characterized by release of increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue. The role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation on adipokines in relation to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance is not completely explored. For the first time, we have evaluated the ability of Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR ligand, in restoring the disturbance in adipokine secretion and insulin resistance in palmitate treated 3T3-L1 cells and adipose tissues of High fat diet (HFD) rats. CDCA suppressed several of the tested pro-inflammatory adipokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, Chemerin, PAI, RBP4, resistin, vaspin), and enhanced the major anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing adipokines (adiponectin, leptin). CDCA suppressed the activation of critical inflammatory regulators such as NF-κB and IKKβ which are activated by palmitate treatment in differentiated cells and HFD in rats. We show the altered adipokines in insulin resistance, its association with inflammatory regulators, and the role of CDCA in amelioration of insulin resistance by modulation of adipokines.

  1. (-)-Epicatechin mitigates high-fructose-associated insulin resistance by modulating redox signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Miatello, Roberto M; Haj, Fawaz G; Fraga, César G; Oteiza, Patricia I

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the capacity of dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) to mitigate insulin resistance through the modulation of redox-regulated mechanisms in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Adolescent rats were fed a regular chow diet without or with high fructose (HFr; 10% w/v) in drinking water for 8 weeks, and a group of HFr-fed rats was supplemented with EC in the diet. HFr-fed rats developed insulin resistance, which was mitigated by EC supplementation. Accordingly, the activation of components of the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor, IRS1, Akt, and ERK1/2) was impaired, whereas negative regulators (PKC, IKK, JNK, and PTP1B) were upregulated in the liver and adipose tissue of HFr rats. These alterations were partially or totally prevented by EC supplementation. In addition, EC inhibited events that contribute to insulin resistance: HFr-associated increased expression and activity of NADPH oxidase, activation of redox-sensitive signals, expression of NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and some sub-arms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that EC supplementation can mitigate HFr-induced insulin resistance and are relevant for defining interventions that can prevent/mitigate MetS-associated insulin resistance.

  2. Association of Oxidative Stress and Obesity with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Das, P; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, S; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs due to delicate imbalance between pro-oxidant and anti oxidant forces in our system. It has been found to be associated with many morbidities but its association with obesity and insulin resistance is still controversial. Here in our study we examined 167 patients of recent onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and 60 age sex matched non-diabetic control. Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal circumference, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and plasma Malondealdehyde (MDA, marker for oxidative stress) were measured in them. On the basis of BMI, subjects were divided into obese (BMI≥25) and non obese (BMI<25) groups. Insulin resistance scores were calculated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Physical parameters (BMI, abdominal circumference) as well as levels of insulin and MDA were found to be significantly higher in subjects with diabetes than their non diabetic controls. The said parameters also showed significant difference in obese and non-obese sub groups. Insulin resistance score showed positive correlation with BMI, abdominal circumference, and plasma MDA, strength of association being highest with abdominal circumference. Plasma MDA was found to have positive correlation with physical parameters. Study concludes that, obesity mainly central type may predispose to insulin resistance and oxidative stress may be a crucial factor in its pathogenesis. Thus, oxidative stress may be the connecting link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two on going global epidemics.

  3. Perilipin polymorphism interacts with saturated fat and carbohydrates to modulate insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient intakes and genetic variants have been shown to interact to alter insulin resistance, but replications of gene-nutrient interactions across independent populations are rare, despite their critical importance in establishing credibility. We aimed to investigate a previously demonstrated...

  4. Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction Constitute a Common Therapeutic Target in Cardiometabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, G.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, promote endothelial dysfunction and lead to development of metabolic syndrome which constitutes an introduction to cardiovascular disease. The insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction cross talk between each other by numerous metabolic pathways. Hence, targeting one of these pathologies with pleiotropic treatment exerts beneficial effect on another one. Combined and expletive treatment of hypertension, lipid disorders, and insulin resistance with nonpharmacological interventions and conventional pharmacotherapy may inhibit the transformation of metabolic disturbances to fully developed cardiovascular disease. This paper summarises the common therapeutic targets for insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammatory reaction at molecular level and analyses the potential pleiotropic effects of drugs used currently in management of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:27413253

  5. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Brozinick, Joseph T; Wang, Li-Ping; Hawkins, Eric D; Sargent, Katherine M; Liu, Yanqi; Narra, Krishna; Hoehn, Kyle L; Knotts, Trina A; Siesky, Angela; Nelson, Don H; Karathanasis, Sotirios K; Fontenot, Greg K; Birnbaum, Morris J; Summers, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in 20%-25% of the human population, and the condition is a chief component of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the sphingolipid ceramide is a common molecular intermediate linking several different pathological metabolic stresses (i.e., glucocorticoids and saturated fats, but not unsaturated fats) to the induction of insulin resistance. Moreover, inhibition of ceramide synthesis markedly improves glucose tolerance and prevents the onset of frank diabetes in obese rodents. Collectively, these data have two important implications. First, they indicate that different fatty acids induce insulin resistance by distinct mechanisms discerned by their reliance on sphingolipid synthesis. Second, they identify enzymes required for ceramide synthesis as therapeutic targets for combating insulin resistance caused by nutrient excess or glucocorticoid therapy.

  6. Does Retinal Neurodegeneration Seen in Diabetic Patients Begin in the Insulin Resistance Stage?

    PubMed Central

    Arıkan, Sedat; Erşan, İsmail; Eroğlu, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Mehmet; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Gencer, Baran; Kara, Selçuk; Aşık, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether retinal neurodegeneration and impairment in contrast sensitivity (CS), which have been demonstrated to begin in diabetic patients before the presence of signs of diabetic retinal vasculopathy, also occur in the stage of insulin resistance. Materials and Methods: The average, minimum and sectoral (inferior, superior, inferonasal, superonasal, inferotemporal and superotemporal) thicknesses of the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) measured using optical coherence tomography were compared between an insulin-resistant group and control group in order to evaluate the presence of retinal neurodegeneration. The CS of the two groups was also compared according to the logarithmic values measured at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree in photopic light using functional acuity contrast test (FACT). Results: Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with insulin resistance (insulin resistant group) and 25 eyes of 25 healthy subjects (control group) were included in this study. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any of the spatial frequencies in the FACT. The mean average GCIPL thickness and mean GCIPL thickness in the inferotemporal sector were significantly less in the insulin-resistant group when compared with the control group (mean average GCIPL thicknesses in the insulin-resistant and control groups were 83.6±4.7 µm and 86.7±3.7 µm respectively, p=0.01; mean inferotemporal GCIPL thicknesses in the insulin-resistant and control groups were 83±6.0 µm and 86.7±4.6 µm respectively, p=0.02). Conclusion: Although it may not lead to functional visual impairment such as CS loss, the retinal neurodegeneration seen in diabetic patients may begin in the insulin resistance stage. PMID:28050322

  7. Gene-Specific DNA Methylation may Mediate Atypical Antipsychotic-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Kyle J.; Goodrich, Jacyln M.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Ellingrod, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Atypical Antipsychotics (AAPs) carry a significant risk of cardiometabolic side effects including insulin resistance. It is thought that the insulin resistance resulting from the use of AAP may be associated with changes in DNA methylation. We aimed to identify and validate a candidate gene associated with AAP-induced insulin resistance by using a multi-step approach that included an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and validation with site-specific methylation and metabolomics data. Methods Bipolar subjects treated with AAPs or lithium monotherapy were recruited for a cross-sectional visit to analyze peripheral blood DNA methylation and insulin resistance. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was analyzed in a discovery sample (n=48) using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Validation analyses of the epigenome-wide findings occurred in a separate sample (n=72) using site-specific methylation with pyrosequencing and untargeted metabolomics data. Regression analyses were conducted controlling for known confounders in all analyses and a mediation analysis was performed to investigate if AAP-induced insulin resistance occurs through changes in DNA methylation. Results A differentially methylated probe associated with insulin resistance was discovered and validated in the Fatty Acyl CoA Reductase 2 (FAR2) gene of Chromosome 12. Functional associations of this DNA methylation site on untargeted phospholipid-related metabolites were also detected. Our results identified a mediating effect of this FAR2 methylation site on AAP-induced insulin resistance. Conclusions Going forward, prospective, longitudinal studies assessing comprehensive changes in FAR2 DNA methylation, expression, and lipid metabolism before and after AAP treatment are required to assess its potential role in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:27542345

  8. Predictors of insulin resistance and metabolic complications in polycystic ovarian syndrome in an eastern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Anindya; Khan, Aparna; Banerjee, Ushasi; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Pal, Mrinal; Chowdhury, Kanika M; Dasgupta, Sayantan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive values of central obesity and hyperandrogenemia in development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients in our region. Differences of fasting blood glucose level, insulin resistance index HOMA-IR, lipid parameters, waist hip ratio (WHR), body mass index, LH/FSH ratio and testosterone levels between 45 PCOS cases and 35 age matched controls were obtained. Strength of association between different parameters in the case group was assayed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Dependence of insulin resistance and WHR on different predictors was assessed by multiple linear regression assay. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, LH, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, WHR and insulin resistance were significantly higher in the case group (p < 0.05). Serum testosterone showed strong correlation with insulin resistance and LH/FSH ratio (r = 0.432 and 0.747, p = 0.01 and 0.001 respectively) in the PCOS patients while WHR and serum testosterone level stood out to be most significant predictors for the insulin resistance (β = 0.361 and 0.498; p = 0.048 and 0.049 respectively). Hyperandrogenemia and central obesity were the major factors predicting development of insulin resistance and its related metabolic and cardiovascular complications in our PCOS patients. We suggest early monitoring for androgen level and WHR in these patients for predicting an ensuing insulin resistance and modulating the treatment procedure accordingly to minimise future cardiovascular risks.

  9. Acyl Ghrelin Induces Insulin Resistance Independently of GH, Cortisol, and Free Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Esben T.; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin produced in the gut stimulates GH and ACTH secretion from the pituitary and also stimulates appetite and gastric emptying. We have shown that ghrelin also induces insulin resistance via GH-independent mechanisms, but it is unknown if this effect depends on ambient fatty acid (FFA) levels. We investigated the impact of ghrelin and pharmacological antilipolysis (acipimox) on insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism in 8 adult hypopituitary patients on stable replacement with GH and hydrocortisone using a 2 × 2 factorial design: Ghrelin infusion, saline infusion, ghrelin plus short-term acipimox, and acipimox alone. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was determined with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in combination with a glucose tracer infusion. Insulin signaling was assayed in muscle biopsies. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was reduced by ghrelin independently of ambient FFA concentrations and was increased by acipimox independently of ghrelin. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was increased by acipimox. Insulin signaling pathways in skeletal muscle were not consistently regulated by ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that ghrelin induces peripheral insulin resistance independently of GH, cortisol, and FFA. The molecular mechanisms remain elusive, but we speculate that ghrelin is a hitherto unrecognized direct regulator of substrate metabolism. We also suggest that acipimox per se improves hepatic insulin sensitivity. PMID:28198428

  10. Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Induce Severe Hepatic Insulin Resistance in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stella P.; Broussard, Josiane L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anesthesia induces insulin resistance, which may contribute to elevated blood glucose and adverse post-operative outcomes in critically ill patients, and impair glycemic control in surgical patients with diabetes. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which anesthesia impairs insulin sensitivity. Here we investigate the effects of anesthesia on insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues. Methods Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed in 32 lean (control diet; n = 16 conscious versus n = 16 anesthetized) and 24 fat-fed (6 weeks fat-feeding; n = 16 conscious versus n = 8 anesthetized) adult male mongrel dogs in conjunction with tracer methodology to differentiate hepatic versus peripheral insulin sensitivity. Propofol was administered as an intravenous bolus (3mg/kg) to initiate anesthesia, which was then maintained with inhaled sevoflurane or isoflurane (2–3%) for the duration of the procedure. Results Anesthesia reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity by approximately 50% in both lean and fat-fed animals as compared to conscious animals, and insulin action at the liver was almost completely suppressed during anesthesia such that hepatic insulin sensitivity was decreased by 75.5% and; 116.2% in lean and fat-fed groups, respectively. Conclusion Inhaled anesthesia induces severe hepatic insulin resistance in a canine model. Countermeasures that preserve hepatic insulin sensitivity may represent a therapeutic target that could improve surgical outcomes in both diabetic and healthy patients. PMID:27802272

  11. Insulin resistance and delayed clearance of peptide hormones in cirrhotic rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, T.P.; Drake, S.; Solomon, S.S.

    1987-06-01

    Clearance of porcine insulin, glucagon, and human growth hormone was measured in intact perfused cirrhotic and normal rat livers. Binding and degradation of /sup 125/I-insulin by hepatocytes isolated from cirrhotic and normal livers were also studied. The half-lives (t/sub 1/2/) of immunoreactive insulin and glucagon were 14.0 +/- 3.1 and 9.6 +/- 2.1 min in normal livers and 26.0 +/- 6.1 and 25.0 +/- 7.1 min in cirrhotic livers. Insulin binding and degradation by hepatocytes from control and cirrhotic livers showed no significant differences. Intraportal insulin infusion in perfusion studies suppressed glucagon-stimulated increases in glucose output from control livers but failed to suppress glucose production by cirrhotic livers, suggesting the presence of hepatic insulin resistance in cirrhosis. Impaired clearance of insulin and glucagon by the intact cirrhotic liver and normal binding and degradation of insulin by isolated hepatocytes suggest that factors such as intrahepatic fibrosis and shunting and postbinding defects may be responsible for the impaired hormone clearance and hepatic insulin resistance.

  12. Acanthosis Nigricans as a Clinical Predictor of Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the utility of acanthosis nigricans (AN) severity as an index for predicting insulin resistance in obese children. Methods The subjects comprised 74 obese pediatric patients who attended the Department of Pediatrics at Chosun University Hospital between January 2013 and March 2016. Waist circumference; body mass index; blood pressure; fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels; lipid profile; aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glycated hemoglobin, C-peptide, and uric acid levels; and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin check sensitivity index (QUICKI) scores were compared between subjects with AN and those without AN. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to investigate the utility of the AN score in predicting insulin resistance. HOMA-IR and QUICKI were compared according to AN severity. Results The With AN group had higher fasting insulin levels (24.1±21.0 mU/L vs. 9.8±3.6 mU/L, p<0.001) and HOMA-IR score (5.74±4.71 vs. 2.14±0.86, p<0.001) than the Without AN group. The AN score used to predict insulin resistance was 3 points or more (sensitivity 56.8%, specificity 83.9%). HOMA-IR scores increased with AN severity, from the Without AN group (mean, 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-2.57) to the Mild AN (mean, 4.15; 95% CI, 3.04-5.25) and Severe AN groups (mean, 7.22; 95% CI, 5.08-9.35; p<0.001). Conclusion Insulin resistance worsens with increasing AN severity, and patients with Severe AN (AN score ≥3) are at increased risk of insulin resistance. PMID:28090470

  13. Diet-induced obesity induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the amygdala of rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gisele; C. Areias, Maria Fernanda; Weissmann, Lais; Quaresma, Paula G.F.; Katashima, Carlos K.; Saad, Mario J.A.; Prada, Patricia O.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin acts in the hypothalamus, decreasing food intake (FI) by the IR/PI3K/Akt pathway. This pathway is impaired in obese animals and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and low-grade inflammation are possible mechanisms involved in this impairment. Here, we highlighted the amygdala as an important brain region for FI regulation in response to insulin. This regulation was dependent on PI3K/AKT pathway similar to the hypothalamus. Insulin was able to decrease neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increase oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala via PI3K, which may contribute to hypophagia. Additionally, obese rats did not reduce FI in response to insulin and AKT phosphorylation was decreased in the amygdala, suggesting insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was associated with ER stress and low-grade inflammation in this brain region. The inhibition of ER stress with PBA reverses insulin action/signaling, decreases NPY and increases oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala from obese rats, suggesting that ER stress is probably one of the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance in the amygdala. PMID:24251109

  14. In Vivo Interrelationship between Insulin Resistance and Interferon Gamma Production: Protective and Therapeutic Effect of Berberine

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, Heba Abdelghany; Elshehawy, Ashraf Abdelhamed; Elsayed, Mohammad Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate if there is a relation between insulin resistance incidence and inhibition of interferon gamma production or not. Firstly, insulin resistance was induced by high fat diet (HFD) intake for 6 weeks. Secondly, berberine was used as protective/curative compound for insulin resistance. Results revealed that feeding rats HFD for 6 weeks developed features of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. These features presented in increased body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia (with increased LDL-cholesterol and decreased HDL-cholesterol), and hypertriglyceridemia. Level of antioxidant enzymes in HFD group was higher than in normal one. Also there was an increasing in level of proinflammatory cytokines as interleukin- (IL-) 6 and IL-12 in HFD group. Feeding rats HFD for 6 weeks also decreased level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The decreased level of IFN-γ has been shown to predict infection with infectious diseases especially viral infection. Treatment and protection with berberine 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks were found to be effective against the features of insulin resistance syndrome, improved levels of insulin resistance parameters, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, and IFN-γ. PMID:27642351

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: is there a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Enzevaei, Anahita; Salehpour, Saghar; Tohidi, Maryam; Saharkhiz, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hyperandrogenic disorder among women and is often defined as hyperandrogenic syndrome. These patients are at risk for oligo/amenorrhea, chronic anovulation, infertility, obesity, spontaneous abortion, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome. Thyroid disorders especially hypothyroidism is more common in these people. In PCOS patients, subclinical hypothyroidism may aggravate insulin resistance. Objective: The goal was to find any relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study we included all PCOS patients coming to infertility clinic of Taleghani Hospital in 2010-2012 who had the criteria of Rotterdam for PCOS. Then the clinical examination was done for them and height, weight, body mass index and lab data were measured including thyroid hormone and biochemical profile. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results: Among 75 PCOS patients, 19 (25.5%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 56 patients (74.4%) were euthyroid. The prevalence of insulin resistance was 22.7% and 77.3% of patients had no insulin resistance were normal. Conclusion: We could find no relationship between insulin resistance and subclinical hypothyroidism in PCOS patients. PMID:25114670

  16. The role of uric acid in the insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda, Josiane Aparecida; Almeida, Guilherme Gomide; Martins, Raissa Isabelle Leão; Cunha, Mariana Botrel; Belo, Vanessa Almeida; dos Santos, José Eduardo Tanus; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Lanna, Carla Márcia Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between serum uric acid levels and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 245 children and adolescents (134 obese and 111 controls), aged 8-18 years. The anthropometric variables (weight, height and waist circumference), blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected. The clinical characteristics of the groups were analyzed by t-test or chi-square test. To evaluate the association between uric acid levels and insulin resistance the Pearson's test and logistic regression were applied. Results: The prevalence of insulin resistance was 26.9%. The anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biochemical variables were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001), except for the high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a positive and significant correlation between anthropometric variables and uric acid with HOMA-IR in the obese and in the control groups, which was higher in the obese group and in the total sample. The logistic regression model that included age, gender and obesity, showed an odds ratio of uric acid as a variable associated with insulin resistance of 1.91 (95%CI 1.40-2.62; p<−0.001). Conclusions: The increase in serum uric acid showed a positive statistical correlation with insulin resistance and it is associated with and increased risk of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. PMID:26300523

  17. Insulin resistance is associated with gallstones even in non-obese, non-diabetic Korean men.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Eunju; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Yong-Woo; Jang, Yu Mi; Park, Minseon

    2008-08-01

    It remains unclear as to whether insulin resistance alone or in the presence of wellknown risk factors, such as diabetes or obesity, is associated with gallstones in men. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is associated independently with gallstone disease in non-diabetic men, regardless of obesity. Study subjects were 19,503 Korean men, aged 30-69 yr, with fasting blood glucose level <126 mg/dL and without a documented history of diabetes. Gallbladder status was assessed via abdominal ultrasonography after overnight fast. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in the subjects with gallstones were higher than in those without. The prevalence of elevated HOMA (>75 percentile) in subjects with gallstones was significantly higher than in those without, and this association remained even after the obesity stratification was applied. In multiple logistic regression analyses, only age and HOMA proved to be independent predictors of gallstones. Insulin resistance was positively associated with gallstones in non-diabetic Korean men, and this occurred regardless of obesity. Gallstones appear to be a marker for insulin resistance, even in non-diabetic, nonobese men.

  18. Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Brenta, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance. PMID:21941681

  19. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on markers of insulin resistance in breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Bruno, E; Roveda, E; Vitale, J; Montaruli, A; Berrino, F; Villarini, A; Venturelli, E; Gargano, G; Galasso, L; Caumo, A; Carandente, F; Pasanisi, P

    2016-12-07

    Insulin may affect breast cancer (BC) risk and prognosis. Exercise reduces insulin in obese BC survivors. We designed a randomised controlled trial to test the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention (AEI) on insulin parameters and body composition in non-obese BC women without insulin resistance. Thirty-eight BC women were randomised into an intervention group (IG = 18) or control group (CG = 20). IG participated in a structured AEI for 3 months, while CG received only the Word Cancer Research Fund/American Institute Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendation to be physically active. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, metabolic parameters and body composition were collected at baseline and after the AEI. IG reduced insulin and HOMA-IR index by 15% and 14%, while CG increased these parameters (+12% and +16%). Insulin changed differently over time in the two randomised groups (pinteraction  = .04). The between-group differences in the change of insulin (IG = -1.2 μU/ml versus CG = +0.8 μU/ml) and HOMA-IR index (IG = -0.26 versus CG = +0.25) were respectively significant (p = .04) and non-significant (p = .06). IG significantly improved lower limb muscle mass in comparison with CG (p = .03). A structured AEI may improve insulin, HOMA-IR index and body composition in non-obese BC survivors without insulin resistance.

  20. Serum Fetuin-A levels, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enli, Yasar; Fenkci, Semin Melahat; Fenkci, Veysel; Oztekin, Ozer

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to determine serum Fetuin-A levels and establish whether serum Fetuin-A level is related with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, ovarian hyperandrogenism and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-two patients with PCOS and twenty-one healthy control women were evaluated in this controlled clinical study. Serum Fetuin-A, lipid fractions, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other hormone (gonadotropins, androgens) levels were measured. The estimate of insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R). The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum fasting glucose, insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), MDA, Fetuin-A levels, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, free androgen index (FAI), HOMA-IR than healthy women. However, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and GSH levels were significantly lower in patients with PCOS compared with controls. Fetuin-A was positively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and FAI. Multiple regression analysis revealed that FAI was strong predictor of serum Fetuin-A level. Serum Fetuin-A level was related with insulin resistance and ovarian hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. These results suggest that Fetuin-A may have a role in triggering the processes leading to insulin resistance and androgen excess in PCOS.

  1. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle proteomics are challenging. This review describes the technical limitations of skeletal muscle proteomics as well as emerging developments in proteomics workflow with respect to samples preparation, liquid chromatography (LC), MS and computational analysis. These technologies have not yet been fully exploited in the field of skeletal muscle proteomics. Future studies that involve state-of-the-art proteomics technology will broaden our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations as well as molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:28248217

  2. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  3. Mechanisms underlying the onset of oral lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance in humans.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Bettina; Zahiragic, Lejla; Krog, Dorothea; Nowotny, Peter J; Herder, Christian; Carstensen, Maren; Yoshimura, Toru; Szendroedi, Julia; Phielix, Esther; Schadewaldt, Peter; Schloot, Nanette C; Shulman, Gerald I; Roden, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Several mechanisms, such as innate immune responses via Toll-like receptor-4, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAG)/ceramides, and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), are considered to underlie skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In this study, we examined initial events occurring during the onset of insulin resistance upon oral high-fat loading compared with lipid and low-dose endotoxin infusion. Sixteen lean insulin-sensitive volunteers received intravenous fat (iv fat), oral fat (po fat), intravenous endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and intravenous glycerol as control. After 6 h, whole-body insulin sensitivity was reduced by iv fat, po fat, and LPS to 60, 67, and 48%, respectively (all P < 0.01), which was due to decreased nonoxidative glucose utilization, while hepatic insulin sensitivity was unaffected. Muscle PKCθ activation increased by 50% after iv and po fat, membrane Di-C18:2 DAG species doubled after iv fat and correlated with PKCθ activation after po fat, whereas ceramides were unchanged. Only after LPS, circulating inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), their mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and circulating cortisol were elevated. Po fat ingestion rapidly induces insulin resistance by reducing nonoxidative glucose disposal, which associates with PKCθ activation and a rise in distinct myocellular membrane DAG, while endotoxin-induced insulin resistance is exclusively associated with stimulation of inflammatory pathways.

  4. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  5. Effect of Insulin Resistance in Assessing the Clinical Outcome of Clinical and Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    MN, Suma; KM, Srinath; Prashant, Akila; Doddamani, Parveen; SV, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of thyroid status on insulin sensitivity is of great interest but despite various studies there is conflicting data on this subject. Hypothyroidism has been associated with disorders of glucose and insulin metabolism involving defective insulin secretion in response to glucose, hyperinsulinemia, altered peripheral glucose disposal and insulin resistance. Thyroid dysfunction leads to alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The dyslipidemia and insulin resistance should be managed aggressively to reduce the impending risk. Objectives: The prime objectives of the study were as follows: 1. To compare and correlate insulin resistance levels with T3, T4, and TSH in hypothyroidism patients. 2. To compare and correlate lipid profile with T3, T4, and TSH in hypothyroidism patients with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty hypothyroidism patients and Forty healthy age and sex matched controls in the age group of 18 to 45 years were taken for the study. The venous blood samples collected were used for estimation of thyroid hormones, insulin, glucose and lipid profile. Results and Discussion: There is significant increase in insulin, Homa-IR and glucose levels in hypothyroidism cases when compared to controls. Cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides were significantly increased, whereas HDL was significantly decreased in hypothyroidism cases when compared with controls. Insulin was moderately correlated with cholesterol but there was no correlation with other lipid profile parameters in hypothyroidism patients. Homa-IR was significantly correlated with TSH in hypothyroidism cases when compared with controls. TSH was significantly correlated with cholesterol and LDL in hypothyroidism cases (both clinical and subclinical) when compared with controls. The present study helps to evaluate changes in insulin resistance and lipid risk factors. These factors should be managed

  6. Evaluation of Association of Hyperuricaemia with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Naveen Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) ranges from <10% to as much as 84% depending on region and composition of the population studied. The MetS is a growing public health problem in the world. Aim To evaluate association of hyperuricaemia with components of MetS and insulin resistance. Materials and Methods Sixty patients with MetS were conveniently recruited. MetS was defined as per Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. For the purpose of analysis study participants were grouped into, group-I (controls - normal serum uric acid levels) and group-II (cases - hyperuricaemia). Hyperuricaemia was defined with cut-off >6.8mg/dl in both men and women. Associated work up for MetS and insulin resistance like fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, fasting insulin, serum uric acid was done. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist circumferences were measured and BMI was calculated. HOMA IR method was used to measure the degree of insulin resistance. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate association of hyperuricaemia with MetS and insulin resistance. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) was plotted to find out optimum cut-off value for insulin resistance. Results A significant increase in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001) and triglyceride levels (p=0.027) were observed in hyperuricaemia subjects when compared to controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, Insulin resistance (HOMA IR >3.4) was independently associated with hyperuricaemia (OR=5.79, 95% CI=1.6- 20.69, p=0.007). Conclusion Insulin resistance beyond a threshold is independently associated with hyperuricaemia in subjects with MetS. PMID:28208909

  7. FOXO1 Mediates Vitamin D Deficiency-induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcang; Villalta, Armando; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This is supported by recent trials showing that vitamin D supplementation in prediabetic or insulin-resistant patients with inadequate vitamin D levels improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-induced insulin resistance and DM2 remain unknown. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a primary defect in the majority of patients with DM2. While sustained activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and FOXO1 activation in muscle is unknown. We generated skeletal muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice and discovered that these mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance accompanied by increased expression and activity of FOXO1. We also found sustained FOXO1 activation in the skeletal muscle of global VDR-null mice. Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD3) reduced FOXO1 expression, nuclear translocation, and activity. The VD3-dependent suppression of FOXO1 activation disappeared by knockdown of VDR, indicating that it is VDR-dependent. Taken together, these results suggest that FOXO1 is a critical target mediating VDR-null signaling in skeletal muscle. The novel findings provide the conceptual support that persistent FOXO1 activation may be responsible for insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in vitamin D signaling-deficient mice, as well as evidence for the utility of vitamin D supplementation for intervention in DM2. PMID:26462119

  8. Skin Manifestations of Insulin Resistance: From a Biochemical Stance to a Clinical Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    González-Saldivar, Gloria; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; González-González, José Gerardo; Gómez-Flores, Minerva

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, and around 600 million people suffer from obesity. Similarly, ~382 million individuals live with diabetes, and 40-50% of the global population is labeled at "high risk" (i.e., prediabetes). The impact of these two chronic conditions relies not only on the burden of illnesses per se (i.e., associated increased morbidity and mortality), but also on their increased cost, burden of treatment, and decreased health-related quality of life. For this review a comprehensive search in several databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. In both diabetes and obesity, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors overlap and are inclusive rather than exclusive. De facto, 70-80% of the patients with obesity and virtually every patient with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a well-known pathophysiologic factor in the development of type 2 diabetes, characteristically appearing years before its diagnosis. The gold standard for insulin resistance diagnosis (the euglycemic insulin clamp) is a complex, invasive, costly, and hence unfeasible test to implement in clinical practice. Likewise, laboratory measures and derived indexes [e.g., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR-)] are indirect, imprecise, and not highly accurate and reproducible tests. However, skin manifestations of insulin resistance (e.g., acrochordons, acanthosis nigricans, androgenetic alopecia, acne, hirsutism) offer a reliable, straightforward, and real-time way to detect insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to aid clinicians in recognizing skin manifestations of insulin resistance. Diagnosing these skin manifestations accurately may cascade positively in the patient's health by triggering an adequate metabolic evaluation, a timely treatment or referral with the ultimate objective of decreasing diabetes and obesity burden, and improving the

  9. FOXO1 Mediates Vitamin D Deficiency-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcang; Villalta, S Armando; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-03-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This is supported by recent trials showing that vitamin D supplementation in prediabetic or insulin-resistant patients with inadequate vitamin D levels improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-induced insulin resistance and DM2 remain unknown. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a primary defect in the majority of patients with DM2. Although sustained activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and FOXO1 activation in muscle is unknown. We generated skeletal muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice and discovered that these mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance accompanied by increased expression and activity of FOXO1. We also found sustained FOXO1 activation in the skeletal muscle of global VDR-null mice. Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD3) reduced FOXO1 expression, nuclear translocation, and activity. The VD3-dependent suppression of FOXO1 activation disappeared by knockdown of VDR, indicating that it is VDR-dependent. Taken together, these results suggest that FOXO1 is a critical target mediating VDR-null signaling in skeletal muscle. The novel findings provide the conceptual support that persistent FOXO1 activation may be responsible for insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in vitamin D signaling-deficient mice, as well as evidence for the utility of vitamin D supplementation for intervention in DM2.

  10. Does Cardiorespiratory Fitness Modify the Association between Birth Weight and Insulin Resistance in Adult Life?

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Tomoko; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Numata, Takeyuki; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tabata, Izumi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. Methods The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females) aged 20–64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject’s or his/her mother’s memory. Results The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.141, p = 0.003), even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = −0.148, p = 0.001), although VO2max (β = −0.376, p<0.001) was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. Conclusions The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual’s low birth weight. PMID:24069257

  11. Knockdown of LYRM1 rescues insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by FCCP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Qin, Zhen-Ying; Dai, Yong-mei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Guan-zhong; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Ji, Chen-Bo; Zhu, Jin-Gai; Shi, Chun-Mei; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Xin-Guo; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2014-09-01

    LYR motif-containing 1 (LYRM1) was recently discovered to be involved in adipose tissue homeostasis and obesity-associated insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that LYRM1 overexpression might contribute to insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, knockdown of LYRM1 enhanced insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We investigated whether knockdown of LYRM1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes could rescue insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrion uncoupler, to further ascertain the mechanism by which LYRM1 is involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 1 µM FCCP for 12 h decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, reduced intracellular ATP synthesis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, impaired insulin-stimulated Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and diminished insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and serine phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B (Akt). Knockdown of LYRM1 restored insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, rescued intracellular ATP synthesis, reduced intracellular ROS production, restored insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and rescued insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and serine phosphorylation of Akt in FCCP-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This study indicates that FCCP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance are ameliorated by knockdown of LYRM1.

  12. The adaptive immune system as a fundamental regulator of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Winer, Shawn; Winer, Daniel A

    2012-09-01

    Over the past decade, chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has gained acceptance as a lead promoter of insulin resistance in obesity. A great deal of evidence has pointed to the role of adipokines and innate immune cells, in particular, adipose tissue macrophages, in the regulation of fat inflammation and glucose homeostasis. However, more recently, cells of the adaptive immune system, specifically B and T lymphocytes, have emerged as unexpected promoters and controllers of insulin resistance. These adaptive immune cells infiltrate obesity expanded VAT and through cytokine secretion and macrophage modulation dictate the extent of the local inflammatory response, thereby directly impacting insulin resistance. The remarkable ability of our adaptive immune system to regulate insulin sensitivity and metabolism has unmasked a novel physiological function of this system, and promises new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage the disease. This review highlights critical roles of adipose tissue lymphocytes in governing glucose homeostasis.

  13. Insulin resistance in Mexican Americans--a precursor to obesity and diabetes?

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1993-10-01

    Mexican Americans appear to have a strong genetic predisposition to insulin resistance, android obesity, and type II diabetes, apparently as a function of Native American genetic heritage. Theoretical considerations suggest that insulin resistance may be a primary factor that plays a causative role in the induction of both obesity and diabetes. Measures which promote optimal insulin sensitivity--chromium picolinate, brewer's yeast, soluble fiber supplements, metformin, very-low-fat diet, exercise training--may have value for preventing, treating, or retarding the onset of obesity and diabetes, and merit clinical evaluation in this regard. Correction of insulin resistance may also lessen cardiovascular risk, in part by reducing LDL cholesterol and improving risk factors associated with Syndrome X. These comments are likely to be valid for other Native American groups at high risk for diabetes.

  14. Insulin Resistance, Diabetes Mellitus, and Brain Structure in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Tomas; Calkin, Cynthia; Blagdon, Ryan; Slaney, Claire; Uher, Rudolf; Alda, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) damages the brain, especially the hippocampus, and frequently co-occurs with bipolar disorders (BD). Reduced hippocampal volumes are found only in some studies of BD subjects and may thus be secondary to the presence of certain clinical variables. Studying BD patients with abnormal glucose metabolism could help identify preventable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy in BD. We compared brain structure using optimized voxel-based morphometry of 1.5T MRI scans in 33 BD subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (19 with insulin resistance/glucose intolerance (IR/GI), 14 with T2DM), 15 euglycemic BD participants and 11 euglycemic, nonpsychiatric controls. The group of BD patients with IR, GI or T2DM had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes than the euglycemic BD participants (corrected p=0.02) or euglycemic, nonpsychiatric controls (corrected p=0.004). Already the BD subjects with IR/GI had smaller hippocampal volumes than euglycemic BD participants (t(32)=−3.15, p=0.004). Age was significantly more negatively associated with hippocampal volumes in BD subjects with IR/GI/T2DM than in the euglycemic BD participants (F(2, 44)=9.96, p=0.0003). The gray matter reductions in dysglycemic subjects extended to the cerebral cortex, including the insula. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that T2DM or even prediabetes may be risk factors for smaller hippocampal and cortical volumes in BD. Abnormal glucose metabolism may accelerate the age-related decline in hippocampal volumes in BD. These findings raise the possibility that improving diabetes care among BD subjects and intervening already at the level of prediabetes could slow brain aging in BD. PMID:25074491

  15. Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue but Not in Liver Is Associated with Aortic Valve Calcification.

    PubMed

    Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; González-Salazar, María Del Carmen; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with cardiovascular calcification has yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance on the presence of coronary artery (CAC > 0) and aortic valve calcification (AVC > 0). Methods. In 1201 subjects (52% women, 53.6 ± 9.3 years old) without familiar and personal history of coronary heart disease, CAC and AVC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented and lipid profile, inflammation markers, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured. Hepatic insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) indices were calculated. Results. There was a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices (r = 0.758, p < 0.001). Participants in the highest quartiles of HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices had a more adverse cardiovascular profile and higher prevalence of CAC > 0 and AVC > 0. After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of Adipo-IR index had higher odds of AVC > 0 (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.30-4.43), as compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Adipo-IR was independently associated with AVC > 0. This suggests that abnormal adipose tissue function favors insulin resistance that may promote the development and progression of AVC.

  16. Defective NOD2 peptidoglycan sensing promotes diet-induced inflammation, dysbiosis, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Denou, Emmanuel; Lolmède, Karine; Garidou, Lucile; Pomie, Celine; Chabo, Chantal; Lau, Trevor C; Fullerton, Morgan D; Nigro, Giulia; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Luche, Elodie; Garret, Céline; Serino, Matteo; Amar, Jacques; Courtney, Michael; Cavallari, Joseph F; Henriksbo, Brandyn D; Barra, Nicole G; Foley, Kevin P; McPhee, Joseph B; Duggan, Brittany M; O'Neill, Hayley M; Lee, Amanda J; Sansonetti, Philippe; Ashkar, Ali A; Khan, Waliul I; Surette, Michael G; Bouloumié, Anne; Steinberg, Gregory R; Burcelin, Rémy; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors link metabolite and bacteria-derived inflammation to insulin resistance during obesity. We demonstrate that NOD2 detection of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PGN) regulates metabolic inflammation and insulin sensitivity. An obesity-promoting high-fat diet (HFD) increased NOD2 in hepatocytes and adipocytes, and NOD2(-/-) mice have increased adipose tissue and liver inflammation and exacerbated insulin resistance during a HFD. This effect is independent of altered adiposity or NOD2 in hematopoietic-derived immune cells. Instead, increased metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance in NOD2(-/-) mice is associated with increased commensal bacterial translocation from the gut into adipose tissue and liver. An intact PGN-NOD2 sensing system regulated gut mucosal bacterial colonization and a metabolic tissue dysbiosis that is a potential trigger for increased metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Gut dysbiosis in HFD-fed NOD2(-/-) mice is an independent and transmissible factor that contributes to metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance when transferred to WT, germ-free mice. These findings warrant scrutiny of bacterial component detection, dysbiosis, and protective immune responses in the links between inflammatory gut and metabolic diseases, including diabetes.

  17. Defective NOD2 peptidoglycan sensing promotes diet-induced inflammation, dysbiosis, and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Denou, Emmanuel; Lolmède, Karine; Garidou, Lucile; Pomie, Celine; Chabo, Chantal; Lau, Trevor C; Fullerton, Morgan D; Nigro, Giulia; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Luche, Elodie; Garret, Céline; Serino, Matteo; Amar, Jacques; Courtney, Michael; Cavallari, Joseph F; Henriksbo, Brandyn D; Barra, Nicole G; Foley, Kevin P; McPhee, Joseph B; Duggan, Brittany M; O'Neill, Hayley M; Lee, Amanda J; Sansonetti, Philippe; Ashkar, Ali A; Khan, Waliul I; Surette, Michael G; Bouloumié, Anne; Steinberg, Gregory R; Burcelin, Rémy; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors link metabolite and bacteria-derived inflammation to insulin resistance during obesity. We demonstrate that NOD2 detection of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PGN) regulates metabolic inflammation and insulin sensitivity. An obesity-promoting high-fat diet (HFD) increased NOD2 in hepatocytes and adipocytes, and NOD2−/− mice have increased adipose tissue and liver inflammation and exacerbated insulin resistance during a HFD. This effect is independent of altered adiposity or NOD2 in hematopoietic-derived immune cells. Instead, increased metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance in NOD2−/− mice is associated with increased commensal bacterial translocation from the gut into adipose tissue and liver. An intact PGN-NOD2 sensing system regulated gut mucosal bacterial colonization and a metabolic tissue dysbiosis that is a potential trigger for increased metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Gut dysbiosis in HFD-fed NOD2−/− mice is an independent and transmissible factor that contributes to metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance when transferred to WT, germ-free mice. These findings warrant scrutiny of bacterial component detection, dysbiosis, and protective immune responses in the links between inflammatory gut and metabolic diseases, including diabetes. PMID:25666722

  18. Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue but Not in Liver Is Associated with Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A.; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; González-Salazar, María del Carmen; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with cardiovascular calcification has yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance on the presence of coronary artery (CAC > 0) and aortic valve calcification (AVC > 0). Methods. In 1201 subjects (52% women, 53.6 ± 9.3 years old) without familiar and personal history of coronary heart disease, CAC and AVC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented and lipid profile, inflammation markers, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured. Hepatic insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) indices were calculated. Results. There was a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices (r = 0.758, p < 0.001). Participants in the highest quartiles of HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices had a more adverse cardiovascular profile and higher prevalence of CAC > 0 and AVC > 0. After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of Adipo-IR index had higher odds of AVC > 0 (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.30–4.43), as compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Adipo-IR was independently associated with AVC > 0. This suggests that abnormal adipose tissue function favors insulin resistance that may promote the development and progression of AVC. PMID:28127113

  19. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  20. Integrative genomic analysis implicates limited peripheral adipose storage capacity in the pathogenesis of human insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Lotta, Luca A; Gulati, Pawan; Day, Felix R; Payne, Felicity; Ongen, Halit; van de Bunt, Martijn; Gaulton, Kyle J; Eicher, John D; Sharp, Stephen J; Luan, Jian'an; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Stewart, Isobel D; Wheeler, Eleanor; Willems, Sara M; Adams, Claire; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Johnson, Andrew D; Semple, Robert K; Frayling, Timothy; Perry, John R B; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; McCarthy, Mark I; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Savage, David B; Langenberg, Claudia; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Scott, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key mediator of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease, yet the mechanisms underlying this link remain obscure. Using an integrative genomic approach, we identify 53 genomic regions associated with insulin resistance phenotypes (higher fasting insulin levels adjusted for BMI, lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher triglyceride levels) and provide evidence that their link with higher cardiometabolic risk is underpinned by an association with lower adipose mass in peripheral compartments. Using these 53 loci, we show a polygenic contribution to familial partial lipodystrophy type 1, a severe form of insulin resistance, and highlight shared molecular mechanisms in common/mild and rare/severe insulin resistance. Population-level genetic analyses combined with experiments in cellular models implicate CCDC92, DNAH10 and L3MBTL3 as previously unrecognized molecules influencing adipocyte differentiation. Our findings support the notion that limited storage capacity of peripheral adipose tissue is an important etiological component in insulin-resistant cardiometabolic disease and highlight genes and mechanisms underpinning this link.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-15

    Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, however is paucity of studies investigating the effects of ER stress in skeletal muscle on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM. ER stress proteins IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were upregulated in skeletal muscle of obese pregnant women, whereas IRE1α was increased in GDM women. Suppression of ER stress, using ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or siRNA knockdown of IRE1α and GRP78, significantly downregulated LPS-, poly(I:C)- or IL-1β-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and MCP-1. Furthermore, LPS-, poly(I:C)- or TNF-α-induced insulin resistance was improved following suppression of ER stress, by increasing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR-β, IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. In summary, our inducible obesity and GDM-like models suggests that the development of GDM may be involved in activating ER stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle.

  2. Potential Roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Abrogating Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, W. I. W.; Adam, Zainah; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Aishah

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in metabolic disorders like hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which are promoted by obesity and may later lead to Type II diabetes mellitus. In recent years, researchers have identified links between insulin resistance and many noncommunicable illnesses other than diabetes. Hence, studying insulin resistance is of particular importance in unravelling the pathways employed by such diseases. In this review, mechanisms involving free fatty acids, adipocytokines such as TNFα and PPARγ and serine kinases like JNK and IKKβ, asserted to be responsible in the development of insulin resistance, will be discussed. Suggested mechanisms for actions in normal and disrupted states were also visualised in several manually constructed diagrams to capture an overall view of the insulin-signalling pathway and its related components. The underlying constituents of medicinal significance found in the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant (among other plants that potentiate antihyperglycemic activities) were explored in further depth. Understanding these factors and their mechanisms may be essential for comprehending the progression of insulin resistance towards the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24324517

  3. Potential Roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Abrogating Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, W I W; Adam, Zainah; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Aishah

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in metabolic disorders like hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which are promoted by obesity and may later lead to Type II diabetes mellitus. In recent years, researchers have identified links between insulin resistance and many noncommunicable illnesses other than diabetes. Hence, studying insulin resistance is of particular importance in unravelling the pathways employed by such diseases. In this review, mechanisms involving free fatty acids, adipocytokines such as TNF α and PPAR γ and serine kinases like JNK and IKK β , asserted to be responsible in the development of insulin resistance, will be discussed. Suggested mechanisms for actions in normal and disrupted states were also visualised in several manually constructed diagrams to capture an overall view of the insulin-signalling pathway and its related components. The underlying constituents of medicinal significance found in the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant (among other plants that potentiate antihyperglycemic activities) were explored in further depth. Understanding these factors and their mechanisms may be essential for comprehending the progression of insulin resistance towards the development of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Activation of Proteinase 3 Contributes to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Erik JM; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine TN; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo AB

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human α-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin-resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3-deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after being fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high–fat–diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1–/– mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with α-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 d of a 16-wk high-fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential. PMID:27261776

  5. Activation of proteinase 3 contributes to Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Erik J M; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine T N; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-05-24

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human alpha-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after fed a high fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1(-/-) mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 days of a 16 week high fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential.

  6. High dietary selenium intake is associated with less insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongbo; Lin, Meiju; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Du, Jianling; Vikram, Chandurkar; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2017-01-01

    As an essential nutrient, Selenium (Se) is involved in many metabolic activities including mimicking insulin function. Data on Se in various biological samples and insulin resistance are contradictory, moreover there is no large study available regarding the relationship of dietary Se intake with insulin resistance in the general population. To investigate the association between dietary Se intake and variation of insulin resistance in a large population based study, a total of 2420 subjects without diabetes from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary Se intake was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were used for the measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of covariance showed that high HOMA-IR groups in both males and females had the lowest dietary Se intake (μg/kg/day) (p < 0.01), being 18% and 11% lower than low HOMA-IR groups respectively. Insulin resistance decreased with the increase of dietary Se intake in females but not in males after controlling for age, total calorie intake, physical activity level, serum calcium, serum magnesium, and body fat percentage (p < 0.01). Partial correlation analysis showed that dietary Se intake was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for the Se confounding factors in subjects whose dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day (r = -0.121 for males and -0.153 for females, p < 0.05). However, the negative correlation was no longer significant when dietary Se intake was above 1.6 μg/kg/day. Our findings suggest that higher dietary Se intake is beneficially correlated with lower insulin resistance when total dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day. Above this cutoff, this beneficial effect disappears.

  7. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance as a precursor to Diabetes: Beyond glucoregulation.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas P; Brown, Jacob L; Rosa-Caldwell, Megan E; Lee, David E; Blackwell, Thomas A; Washington, Tyrone A

    2016-11-22

    Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic levels in Western societies. T2DM begins with the development of peripheral insulin resistance which prior research suggests may commonly originate within skeletal muscle. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the development of muscle insulin resistance including those of classical glucose handling, but also other cellular derangements observed in this disease which include mitochondrial degeneration, alterations in muscle protein turnover and early evidences for dysregulation of microRNAs. The purpose of the current review is to examine current findings on these latter aspects of mitochondrial maintenance, protein turnover and microRNA dysregulation along with the potential implications for these derangements in the development of insulin resistance and hence T2DM. We summarize multiple evidences for the degeneration of mitochondria and known elements of the processes regulating mitochondrial quality. Subsequently, we examine current findings of alterations in muscle protein synthesis and autophagic protein degradation in T2DM and potential feedback of these systems onto canonical insulin signaling. Finally, evidences are emerging for the dysregulation of microRNAs in muscle insulin resistance. Of note early data point to several microRNAs altered by the insulin resistant state which exhibit relations to classic insulin signaling and the other processes discussed here. Considering that T2DM may be initiated with muscle insulin resistance, improved understanding of the dysregulation of these metabolic parameters of skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of T2DM may be key to develop efficacious therapeutic modalities to prevent and treat this condition.

  8. Baicalin against obesity and insulin resistance through activation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Dan; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-03-27

    Obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite great advances in medicine, people still keep exploring novel and effective drugs for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to survey if baicalin might ameliorate obesity-induced insulin resistance and to explore its signal mechanisms in skeletal muscles of mice. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were given 50 mg/kg baicalin intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 21 days, and C2C12 myotubes were treated with 100, 200, 400 μM baicalin for 12 h in this study. Then insulin resistance indexes and insulin signal protein levels in skeletal muscles were examined. We discovered that administration of baicalin decreased food intake, body weight, HOMA-IR and NT-PGC-1α levels, but enhanced GLUT4, PGC-1α, pP38MAPK, pAKT and pAS160 contents, as well as GLUT4 mRNA, PGC-1α mRNA, PPARγ mRNA, GLUT1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscles of obese mice and myotubes of C2C12 cells, and reversed high fat diet-induced glucose and insulin intolerance, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the mice. These results suggest that baicalin is a powerful and promising agent for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance via Akt/AS160/GLUT4 and P38MAPK/PGC1α/GLUT4 pathway.

  9. Adrenomedullin: possible predictor of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahin, I; Celik, O; Celik, N; Keskin, L; Dogru, A; Dogru, I; Yürekli, M; Yologlu, S

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate adrenomedullin (ADM) levels and its relation with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-nine women with PCOS and 29 age- and body mass index (BMI)- matched control subjects were included in the study. PCOS was defined according to criteria by the Rotterdam European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ESHRE/ASRM)-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. A full clinical and biochemical examination including basal hormones and metabolic profile was performed. Insulin resistance was calculated by using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Plasma ADM levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. Plasma ADM, fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in patients with PCOS than the control group. ADM levels were positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR index. The best cut-off value of ADM levels to identify the presence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.7) was 30.44 ng/ml. Calculated odds ratio of insulin resistance by using logistic regression analysis, as predicted by ADM, was 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.037-0.628; p=0.009). In multiple regression analysis, ADM level was an independent predictor of HOMA-IR index. Our finding indicated that ADM levels increased in women with PCOS in accordance with HOMA-IR. ADM could be a significant independent determinant of insulin resistance in women with PCOS.

  10. Impaired translocation of GLUT4 results in insulin resistance of atrophic soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  11. [Mechanisms of the role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in attenuating insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong-yu; Wang, Wen-fei; Xu, Peng-fei; Yuan, Qing-yan; Liu, Shuang-qing; Zhnag, Tong; Ren, Gui-ping; Li, De-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) on type 2 diabetic mice model and to provide mechanistic insights into its therapeutic effect. Type 2 diabetic animal model was established with high calorie fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Mice were then randomized into 5 groups: model control, FGF21 0.25 and 0.05 μmol x kg(-1) x d(-1) groups, insulin treatment group. Ten age-matched normal KM mouse administered with saline were used as normal controls. Serum glucose, insulin, lipid products and the change of serum and liver tissue inflammation factor levels between five groups of mouse were determined. The results showed that blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides, and inflammatory factor average FGF-21 of type 2 diabetes model group and normal control group were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while compared with insulin group, no difference was significant. Average blood glucose, insulin, blood lipid and inflammatory factor of FGF-21 treatment group compared with type 2 diabetes group was significantly lower (P < 0.01) and insulin group has no difference with the model control group. The results of OGTT and HOMA-IR showed that insulin resistance state was significantly relieved in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study demonstrates that FGF-21 significantly remits type 2 diabetic mice model's insulin resistance state and participates in the regulation of inflammatory factor levels and type 2 diabetes metabolic disorders.

  12. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-W; Biggar, K K; Storey, K B

    2013-01-01

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor-21 restores insulin sensitivity but induces aberrant bone microstructure in obese insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpun; Wang, Xiaojie; Liang, Guang; Li, Xiaokun; Jiang, Chao; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2017-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a potent endocrine factor that improves insulin resistance and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. However, concomitant activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ by FGF-21 makes bone susceptible to osteopenia and fragility fracture. Since an increase in body weight often induced adaptive change in bone by making it resistant to fracture, it was unclear whether FGF-21 would still induce bone defects in overweight rats. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate bone microstructure and its mechanical properties in high fat diet (HF)-fed rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day FGF-21. Eighteen male rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet or HF for 12 weeks. HF rats were then divided into two subgroups to receive either vehicle or FGF-21 for 4 weeks. The results showed that HF led to obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, as indicated by hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia. In HF rats, there was an increase in tibial yield displacement (an indicator of ability to be deformed without losing toughness, as determined by 3-point bending) without changes in tibial trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) or cortical bone parameters, e.g., cortical thickness and bone area. FGF-21 treatment strongly improved the metabolic parameters and increased insulin sensitivity in HF rats. However, FGF-21-treated HF rats showed lower yield displacement, trabecular vBMD, trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, and osteoblast surface compared with vehicle-treated HF rats. These findings suggest that, despite being a potent antagonist of insulin resistance and visceral fat accumulation, FGF-21 is associated with bone defects in HF rats.

  14. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Angelica acutiloba root attenuates insulin resistance induced by high-fructose diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, I-Min; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju

    2011-09-01

    Angelica acutiloba root (Japanese Dong Quai), used for treatment of gynecological disorders, is currently cultivated in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the preventative effect of Angelica acutiloba root (Japanese Dong Quai) on the induction of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced in rats by feeding a high fructose diet for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the rats were maintained on the same diet and treated with oral A. acutiloba root extract or pioglitazone once daily for 8 weeks. At t