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Sample records for alleviates salt stress

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

    PubMed Central

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-01-01

    Background Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. Scope This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. Conclusions The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K+ : Na+ ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na+/H+ antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes. PMID:19815570

  2. Dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Xiangkai; Chang, Cong; Jia, Dongfeng; Wei, Zhiwei; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, ion homeostasis and the response to salinity in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Both hydroponics and field-pot experiments were conducted under saline conditions. Salt-stressed plants had reduced growth and a marked decline in their net photosynthetic rates, values for Fv /Fm and chlorophyll contents. However, pretreatment with 100 or 200 μM dopamine significantly alleviated this inhibition and enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity. In addition to changing stomatal behavior, supplementation with dopamine positively influenced the uptake of K, N, P, S, Cu and Mn ions but had an inhibitory effect on Na and Cl uptake, the balance of which is responsible for managing the response to salinity by Malus plants. Dopamine pretreatment also controlled the burst of hydrogen peroxide, possibly through direct scavenging and by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. We also investigated whether dopamine might regulate salt overly sensitive pathway genes under salinity. Here, MdHKT1, MdNHX1 and MdSOS1 were greatly upregulated in roots and leaves, which possibly contributed to the maintenance of ion homeostasis and, thus, improved salinity resistance in plants exposed earlier to exogenous dopamine. These results support our conclusion that dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by regulating other mechanisms of ion homeostasis.

  3. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  4. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction.

  5. Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhai; Jia, Aijun; Ning, Tangyuan; Xu, Jialin; Li, Zengjia; Jiang, Gaoming

    2008-09-29

    A sand culture experiment was conducted to answer the question whether or not exogenous KNO(3) can alleviate adverse effects of salt stress in winter wheat by monitoring plant growth, K(+)/Na(+) accumulation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Seeds of two wheat cultivars (CVs), DK961 (salt-tolerant) and JN17 (salt-sensitive), were planted in sandboxes and controls germinated and raised with Hoagland nutrient solution (6 mM KNO(3), no NaCl). Experimental seeds were exposed to seven modified Hoagland solutions containing increased levels of KNO(3) (11, 16, 21 mM) or 100 mM NaCl in combination with the four KNO(3) concentrations (6, 11, 16 and 21 mM). Plants were harvested 30 d after imbibition, with controls approximately 22 cm in height. Both CVs showed significant reduction in plant height, root length and dry weight of shoots and roots under KNO(3) or NaCl stress. However, the combination of increased KNO(3) and NaCl alleviated symptoms of the individual salt stresses by improving growth of shoots and roots, reducing electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The salt-tolerant cultivar accumulated more K(+) in both shoots and roots compared with the higher Na(+) accumulation typical for the salt-sensitive cultivar. Soluble sugar content and activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be more stable in the salt-tolerant cultivar. Our findings suggest that the optimal K(+)/Na(+) ratio of the nutrient solution should be 16:100 for both the salt-tolerant and the salt-sensitive cultivar under the experimental conditions used, and that the alleviation of NaCl stress symptoms through simultaneously applied elevated KNO(3) was more effective in the salt-tolerant than in the salt-sensitive cultivar.

  6. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Adrees, Muhammad; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-10-01

    Drought and salinity are the main abiotic stresses limiting crop yield and quality worldwide. Improving food production in drought- and salt-prone areas is the key to meet the increasing food demands in near future. It has been widely reported that silicon (Si), a second most abundant element in soil, could reduce drought and salt stress in plants. Here, we reviewed the emerging role of Si in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in plants and highlighted the mechanisms through which Si could alleviate both drought and salt stress in plants. Silicon application increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, straw and grain yield, and quality under either drought or salt stress. Under both salt and drought stress, the key mechanisms evoked are nutrient elements homeostasis, modification of gas exchange attributes, osmotic adjustment, regulating the synthesis of compatible solutes, stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in plants. In addition, Si application decreased Na(+) uptake and translocation while increased K(+) uptake and translocation under salt stress. However, these mechanisms vary with plant species, genotype, growth conditions, duration of stress imposed, and so on. This review article highlights the potential for improving plant resistance to drought and salt stress by Si application and provides a theoretical basis for application of Si in saline soils and arid and semiarid regions worldwide. This review article also highlights the future research needs about the role of Si under drought stress and in saline soils.

  7. Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hafeez, Farhan; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem

    2017-04-03

    Drought and salt stress negatively affect soil fertility and plant growth. Application of biochar, carbon-rich material developed from combustion of biomass under no or limited oxygen supply, ameliorates the negative effects of drought and salt stress on plants. The biochar application increased the plant growth, biomass, and yield under either drought and/or salt stress and also increased photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and modified gas exchange characteristics in drought and salt-stressed plants. Under drought stress, biochar increased the water holding capacity of soil and improved the physical and biological properties of soils. Under salt stress, biochar decreased Na(+) uptake, while increased K(+) uptake by plants. Biochar-mediated increase in salt tolerance of plants is primarily associated with improvement in soil properties, thus increasing plant water status, reduction of Na(+) uptake, increasing uptake of minerals, and regulation of stomatal conductance and phytohormones. This review highlights both the potential of biochar in alleviating drought and salt stress in plants and future prospect of the role of biochar under drought and salt stress in plants.

  8. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems.

  9. Constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin in tomato alleviates salt stress-induced photoinhibition and photooxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Yu; Wang, Li-Yan; Kong, Fan-Ying; Deng, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bin; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Zeaxanthin (Z) has a role in the dissipation of excess excitation energy by participating in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and is essential in protecting the chloroplast from photooxidative damage. To investigate the physiological effects and functional mechanism of constitutive accumulation of Z in the tomato at salt stress-induced photoinhibition and photooxidation, antisense-mediated suppression of zeaxanthin epoxidase transgenic plants and the wild-type (WT) tomato were used. The ratio of Z/(V + A + Z) and (Z + 0.5A)/(V + A + Z) in antisense transgenic plants were maintained at a higher level than in WT plants under salt stress, but the value of NPQ in WT and transgenic plants was not significantly different under salt stress. However, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in transgenic plants decreased more slowly under salt stress. Furthermore, transgenic plants showed lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anion radical (O(2)(•-)) and ion leakage, lower malondialdehyde content. Compared with WT, the content of D1 protein decreased slightly in transgenic plants under salt stress. Our results suggested that the constitutive accumulation of Z in transgenic tomatoes can alleviate salt stress-induced photoinhibition because of the antioxidant role of Z in the scavenging quenching of singlet oxygen and/or free radicals in the lipid phase of the membrane.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress.

  11. Priming of seeds with nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the inhibition on wheat seed germination by salt stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Pei; Ding, Feng; Wang, Fang; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2007-06-01

    The effect of SNP, an NO donor, on seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. 'DK961') under salt stress was studied. The results showed that priming of seeds with 0.06 mmol/L SNP for 24 h markedly alleviated the decrease of the germination percentage, germination index, vigor index and imbibition rate of wheat seeds under salt stress. SNP significantly alleviated the decrease of the beta-amylase activity but almost did not affect the alpha-amylase activity of wheat seeds under salt stress. SNP slightly increased the alpha-amylase isoenzymes (especially isoenzyme 3) and significantly increased the beta-amylase isoenzymes (especially isoenzyme d, e, f and g). SNP pretreatment decreased Na(+) content, but increased the K(+) content, resulting in a mark increase of K(+)/Na(+) ratio of wheat seedlings under salt stress. These results suggested that NO is involved in promoting wheat seed germination under salt stress by increasing the beta-amylase activity.

  12. Effect of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides on salt stress alleviation and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Arora, Monu; Kaushik, A; Rani, Nisha; Kaushik, C P

    2010-09-01

    Effectof exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by a consortium of cyanobacteria on germination of three crops wheat, maize and rice was studied at different salt concentrations. Production of EPS was found to be stimulated by salts, which in turn had a significant Na+ removal capability from aqueous solution. Seed germination, vigor index and mobilization efficiency in all the three crops remarkably improved when cyanobacterial EPS was applied. While germination improved significantly by 13 to 30%, mobilization efficiency increased marginally by 1.03 to 1.1 times and vigor index increased by 1.15 to 2.4 times in these crops in response to EPS under non-saline conditions. Salinity had an inhibitory effect on seed germination of all the species showing 18 to 54% reduction. However, in the presence of EPS, the salt induced inhibition diminished to 13 to 18%. Inhibitory effect of salt on chlorophyll concentration, vigor index and mobilization efficiency of the seedlings was much less in these crops in the presence of EPS, indicating the latter's role in salt stress alleviation.

  13. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination.

  14. Alleviation of exogenous 6-benzyladenine on two genotypes of eggplant (Solanum melongena Mill.) growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuexia; He, Jie; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Shaojun; Zha, Dingshi

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinins were recently shown to control plant adaptation to environmental stresses. To characterize the roles of cytokinins in the tolerance of eggplant (Solanum melongena Mill.) to salt stress, the protective effects of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant capacity in the leaves of two eggplant cultivars Huqie12 (salt-sensitive) and Huqie4 (salt-tolerant) were investigated. Under 90 mM NaCl stress, Huqie4 showed higher biomass accumulation and less oxidative damage compared to the Huqie12. Application of exogenous 10 μM 6-BA significantly alleviated the growth suppression caused by salt stress in two eggplant genotypes. In parallel with the growth, 6-BA application in salt-stressed plants resulted in enhanced chlorophyll contents, as well as photosynthetic parameters such as net CO2 assimilation rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i). Furthermore, exogenous 6-BA also significantly reduced the O2 (-) production rate and malondialdehyde content and markedly increased the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, the antioxidant metabolites ascorbate and reduced glutathione (GSH), and proline in both genotypes under salt stress. The results indicate that exogenous 6-BA is useful to improve the salt resistance of eggplant, which is most likely related to the increase in photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity.

  15. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but combined application of NO and S resulted in well-developed chloroplast thylakoids and properly stacked grana. The leaves from plants receiving NO plus S exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress than the plants receiving NO or S. These plants also exhibited increased activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants receiving NO plus S resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH). These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation. The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic performance of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received S. PMID:27200007

  16. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  17. Nitric oxide-releasing chitosan nanoparticles alleviate the effects of salt stress in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Gomes, Bruna C R; Pelegrino, Milena T; Seabra, Amedea B

    2016-12-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. However, the application of NO donors in agriculture is hampered by the instability of these compounds. Despite the successful uses of NO-releasing nanoparticles for biomedical purposes and the variety of nanomaterials developed as carrier systems of agrochemicals, the potential applications of nanocarriers for NO delivery in plants have not yet been tested. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) containing the NO donor S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA). The efficiency of these NO-releasing NPs in mitigating the deleterious effects of salinity on maize plants was compared to that of the non-encapsulated NO donor. The NPs were synthesized through ionotropic gelation process, and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), the NO donor precursor, was encapsulated into CS NPs (91.07% encapsulation efficiency). Free thiol groups of MSA-CS NPs were nitrosated, leading to S-nitroso-MSA-CS NPs (NO-releasing NPs). The incorporation of S-nitroso-MSA into CS NPs allowed a sustained NO release. Treatments of salt-stressed maize plants with S-nitroso-MSA-CS NPs resulted in a higher leaf S-nitrosothiols content compared to that of free S-nitroso-MSA. Moreover, S-nitroso-MSA-CS NPs were more efficient than was the free NO donor in the amelioration of the deleterious effects of salinity in photosystem II activity, chlorophyll content and growth of maize plants because the protective action of the nanoencapsulated S-nitroso-MSA was achieved at lower dosages. Overall, these results demonstrate the positive impact of S-nitroso-MSA nanoencapsulation in increasing NO bioactivity in maize plants under salt stress.

  18. Alleviating salt stress in tomato seedlings using Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengfei; Chen, Daitao; He, Yanan; Zhou, Qingxia; Tian, Yongqiang; Gao, Lihong

    2016-11-01

    Salt-induced soil degradation is common in farmlands and limits the growth and development of numerous crop plants in the world. In this study, we isolated salt-tolerant bacteria from the rhizosphere of Tamarix chinensis, Suaeda salsa and Zoysia sinica, which are common wild plants grown on a saline-alkaline land, to test these bacteria's efficiency in alleviating salt stress in tomato plants. We screened out seven strains (TF1-7) that are efficient in reducing salt stress in tomato seedlings. The sequence data of 16S rRNA genes showed that these strains belong to Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium. All strains could hydrolyze casein and solubilize phosphate, and showed at least one plant growth promotion (PGP)-related gene, indicating their potential in promoting plant growth. The Arthrobacter strains TF1 and TF7 and the Bacillus megaterium strain TF2 and TF3 could produce indole acetic acid under salt stress, further demonstrating their PGP potential. Tomato seed germination, seedling length, vigor index, and plant fresh and dry weight were enhanced by inoculation of Arthrobacter and B. megaterium strains under salt stress. Our results demonstrated that salt-tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands could be used for alleviating salt stress in crop plants.

  19. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depends on the rootstock salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Josefa M; Pérez-Tornero, Olaya; Morte, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and Alemow (Citrus macrophylla Wester) were inoculated with a mixture of AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) (+AM), or left non-inoculated (-AM). From forty-five days after fungal inoculation onwards, half of +AM or -AM plants were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 50 mM NaCl. Three months later, AM significantly increased plant growth in both Cleopatra mandarin and Alemow rootstocks. Plant growth was higher in salinized +AM plants than in non-salinized -AM plants, demonstrating that AM compensates the growth limitations imposed by salinity. Whereas AM-inoculated Cleopatra mandarin seedlings had a very good response under saline treatment, inoculation in Alemow did not alleviate the negative effect of salinity. The beneficial effect of mycorrhization is unrelated with protection against the uptake of Na or Cl and the effect of AM on these ions did not explain the different response of rootstocks. This response was related with the nutritional status since our findings confirm that AM fungi can alter host responses to salinity stress, improving more the P, K, Fe and Cu plant nutrition in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow plants. AM inoculation under saline treatments also increased root Mg concentration but it was higher in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow. This could explain why AM fungus did not completely recovered chlorophyll concentrations in Alemow and consequently it had lower photosynthesis rate than control plants. AM fungi play an essential role in citrus rootstock growth and biomass production although the intensity of this response depends on the rootstock salinity tolerance.

  20. Silicon alleviates salt and drought stress of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by altering antioxidant metabolism and osmotic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjin; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Lianhong; Li, Ming; Lang, Duoyong; Zhang, Xinhui

    2017-03-13

    This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G. uralensis growth in a combined dose of NaCl and PEG dependent manner. In brief, Si addition improved germination rate, germination index, seedling vitality index and biomass under control and NaCl; Si also increased radicle length under control, NaCl and NaCl-10% PEG, decreased radicle length, seedling vitality index and germination parameters under NaCl-20% PEG. The salt and drought stress-induced-oxidative stress was modulated by Si application. Generally, Si application increased catalase (CAT) activity under control and NaCl-10% PEG, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments and glutathione (GSH) content under salt combined drought stress as compared with non-Si treatments, which resisted to the increase of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide caused by salt and drought stress and further decreased membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Si application also increased proline concentration under NaCl and NaCl-20% PEG, but decreased it under NaCl-10% PEG, indicating proline play an important role in G. uralensis seedling response to osmotic stress. In conclusion, Si could ameliorate adverse effects of salt and drought stress on G. uralensis likely by reducing oxidative stress and osmotic stress, and the oxidative stress was regulated through enhancing of antioxidants (mainly CAT, APX and GSH) and osmotic stress was regulated by proline.

  1. Alleviation of salt stress by enterobacter sp. EJ01 in tomato and Arabidopsis is accompanied by up-regulation of conserved salinity responsive factors in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-02-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways.

  2. Alleviation of Salt Stress by Enterobacter sp. EJ01 in Tomato and Arabidopsis Is Accompanied by Up-Regulation of Conserved Salinity Responsive Factors in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways. PMID:24598995

  3. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  4. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat.

  5. Do Carpets Alleviate Stress?

    PubMed Central

    HOKI, Yoko; SATO, Kunio; KASAI, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to increased complexity in the evolution of society, stress has become an important public health problem, and is responsible for more than 30 types of diseases. Most of the research on stress conducted to date has focused on physical and psychological aspects; however, there are very few reports about the association between psychological stress and elements within the residential environment, such as the home, room, and furniture. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the effects of indoor flooring in the residential environment on stress, as flooring is a feature that the human body is in contact with for long periods of time. We objectively measured the extent of psychological stress perceived while walking on carpeting and on wood flooring. Methods: Forty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study, and were asked to walk on carpeting and wood flooring for 10 min each. Their electroencephalogram (EEG) and skin impedance values were measured for each task. Results: The α-wave content percentage in EEG data and skin impedance values were significantly higher just after walking on carpet than just after walking on wood flooring. Conclusion: Walking on carpeting induces less stress than walking on wood flooring. PMID:27648413

  6. Genome Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1751: A Rhizobacterium that Controls Root Diseases and Alleviates Salt Stress for Its Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shu-Ting; Chang, Hsing-Hua; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Kamilova, Faina; Lugtenberg, Ben; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1751 is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of a greenhouse-grown tomato plant in Uzbekistan. It controls several plant root diseases caused by Fusarium fungi through the mechanism of competition for nutrients and niches (CNN). This mechanism does not rely on the production of antibiotics, so it avoids the concerns of resistance development and is environmentally safe. Additionally, this bacterium promotes plant growth by alleviating salt stress for its plant host. To investigate the genetic mechanisms that may explain these observations, we determined the complete genome sequence of this bacterium, examined its gene content, and performed comparative genomics analysis with other Pseudomonas strains. The genome of P. fluorescens PCL1751 consisted of one circular chromosome that is 6,143,950 base-pairs (bp) in size; no plasmid was found. The annotation included 19 rRNA, 70 tRNA, and 5,534 protein-coding genes. The gene content analysis identified a large number of genes involved in chemotaxis and motility, colonization of the rhizosphere, siderophore biosynthesis, and osmoprotectant production. In contrast, the pathways involved in the biosynthesis of phytohormones or antibiotics were not found. Comparison with other Pseudomonas genomes revealed extensive variations in their genome size and gene content. The presence and absence of secretion system genes were highly variable. As expected, the synteny conservation among strains decreased as a function of phylogenetic divergence. The integration of prophages appeared to be an important driver for genome rearrangements. The whole-genome gene content analysis of this plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) provided some genetic explanations to its phenotypic characteristics. The extensive and versatile substrate utilization pathways, together with the presence of many genes involved in competitive root colonization, provided further support for the finding

  7. Proline over-accumulation alleviates salt stress and protects photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Surender Reddy, P; Jogeswar, Gadi; Rasineni, Girish K; Maheswari, M; Reddy, Attipalli R; Varshney, Rajeev K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2015-09-01

    Shoot-tip derived callus cultures of Sorghum bicolor were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as well as by bombardment methods with the mutated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) gene encoding the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis from glutamate. The transgenics were selfed for three generations and T4 plants were examined for 100 mM NaCl stress tolerance in pot conditions. The effect of salt stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal carbon dioxide concentration, transpiration rates, intrinsic transpiration and water use efficiencies, proline content, MDA levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in 40-day-old transgenic lines and the results were compared with untransformed control plants. The results show that chlorophyll content declines by 65% in untransformed controls compared to 30-38% loss (significant at P < 0.05) in transgenics but not carotenoid levels. Photosynthetic rate (PSII activity) was reduced in untransformed controls almost completely, while it declined by 62-88% in different transgenic lines. Salinity induced ca 100% stomatal closure in untransformed plants, while stomatal conductance was decreased only by 64-81% in transgenics after 4 days. The intercellular CO2 decreased by ca 30% in individual transgenic lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenics compared to untransformed controls. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC1.8.1.7) were quantified in leaves exposed to 100 mM NaCl stress and found higher in transgenics. The results suggest that transgenic lines were able to cope better with salt stress than untransformed controls by protecting photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  8. Stress, salt and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Henry, J P

    1988-01-01

    Reasons are given why calcium, obesity and genetics cannot be considered primary factors in the etiology of essential hypertension. This leaves the major protagonists as salt and neuroendocrine responses to the emotions aroused by the social environment. Most essential hypertension is renin dependent and associated with the physiological changes induced by arousal of the defence response. The psychosocial stimulation associated with this arousal induces an increase in salt appetite. This makes the salt consumption of society a measure of the social stress to which it is exposed. Primitive people whose blood pressure remains normal throughout their lives may lack modern societies' physically protective achievements but their religiously prescribed social solidarity may protect them from psychosocial stress. Our chronic suppression of awareness of emotional arousal together with loss of the ritualized support of affiliative behavior may result in repressed emotional responses which find somatic expression in diseases such as essential hypertension. Hypertensiologist George Pickering proposed that the primitive's ritual and taboo (the equivalent in our society might be the Alcoholic's Anonymous belief in a 'Higher Power') protect them from much anger and despair. He gave this precedence over salt as the primary factor in essential hypertension. New evidence supports this. Despite a high salt diet the blood pressure of socially adjusted rodents remains normal throughout their lifespan. On the other hand, the hypertension that develops when they are psychosocially stimulated is not abated by a low salt diet. In humans, the blood pressure of cloistered, secluded Italian nuns on a high salt diet has remained normal for 20 years while that of nearby village women has risen at a startling 2 mmHg/annum during the same period. On the other hand, in rapidly changing Malawi mature adult, rural and urban blood pressures are rising fast despite a low salt intake. Thus the

  9. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  10. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard.

  11. Moderate salt treatment alleviates ultraviolet-B radiation caused impairment in poplar plants

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuan; Ou, Yong-Bin; Gao, Yong-Feng; Lutts, Stanley; Li, Tao-Tao; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yong-Fu; Sun, Yu-Fang; Yao, Yin-An

    2016-01-01

    The effects of moderate salinity on the responses of woody plants to UV-B radiation were investigated using two Populus species (Populus alba and Populus russkii). Under UV-B radiation, moderate salinity reduced the oxidation pressure in both species, as indicated by lower levels of cellular H2O2 and membrane peroxidation, and weakened the inhibition of photochemical efficiency expressed by O-J-I-P changes. UV-B-induced DNA lesions in chloroplast and nucleus were alleviated by salinity, which could be explained by the higher expression levels of DNA repair system genes under UV-B&salt condition, such as the PHR, DDB2, and MutSα genes. The salt-induced increase in organic osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, afforded more efficient protection against UV-B radiation. Therefore moderate salinity induced cross-tolerance to UV-B stress in poplar plants. It is thus suggested that woody plants growing in moderate salted condition would be less affected by enhanced UV-B radiation than plants growing in the absence of salt. Our results also showed that UV-B signal genes in poplar plants PaCOP1, PaSTO and PaSTH2 were quickly responding to UV-B radiation, but not to salt. The transcripts of PaHY5 and its downstream pathway genes (PaCHS1, PaCHS4, PaFLS1 and PaFLS2) were differently up-regulated by these treatments, but the flavonoid compounds were not involved in the cross-tolerance since their concentration increased to the same extent in both UV-B and combined stresses. PMID:27597726

  12. Moderate salt treatment alleviates ultraviolet-B radiation caused impairment in poplar plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xuan; Ou, Yong-Bin; Gao, Yong-Feng; Lutts, Stanley; Li, Tao-Tao; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yong-Fu; Sun, Yu-Fang; Yao, Yin-An

    2016-09-01

    The effects of moderate salinity on the responses of woody plants to UV-B radiation were investigated using two Populus species (Populus alba and Populus russkii). Under UV-B radiation, moderate salinity reduced the oxidation pressure in both species, as indicated by lower levels of cellular H2O2 and membrane peroxidation, and weakened the inhibition of photochemical efficiency expressed by O-J-I-P changes. UV-B-induced DNA lesions in chloroplast and nucleus were alleviated by salinity, which could be explained by the higher expression levels of DNA repair system genes under UV-B&salt condition, such as the PHR, DDB2, and MutSα genes. The salt-induced increase in organic osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, afforded more efficient protection against UV-B radiation. Therefore moderate salinity induced cross-tolerance to UV-B stress in poplar plants. It is thus suggested that woody plants growing in moderate salted condition would be less affected by enhanced UV-B radiation than plants growing in the absence of salt. Our results also showed that UV-B signal genes in poplar plants PaCOP1, PaSTO and PaSTH2 were quickly responding to UV-B radiation, but not to salt. The transcripts of PaHY5 and its downstream pathway genes (PaCHS1, PaCHS4, PaFLS1 and PaFLS2) were differently up-regulated by these treatments, but the flavonoid compounds were not involved in the cross-tolerance since their concentration increased to the same extent in both UV-B and combined stresses.

  13. High atmospheric carbon dioxide-dependent alleviation of salt stress is linked to RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (RBOH1)-dependent H2O2 production in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Changyu; Yao, Kaiqian; Cai, Shuyu; Li, Huizi; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine Helen; Zhou, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Plants acclimate rapidly to stressful environmental conditions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to influence tolerance to stresses such as soil salinity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. To resolve this issue, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown under ambient (380 μmol mol–1) or high (760 μmol mol–1) CO2 in the absence or presence of sodium chloride (100mM). The higher atmospheric CO2 level induced the expression of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (SlRBOH1) and enhanced H2O2 accumulation in the vascular cells of roots, stems, leaf petioles, and the leaf apoplast. Plants grown with higher CO2 levels showed improved salt tolerance, together with decreased leaf transpiration rates and lower sodium concentrations in the xylem sap, vascular tissues, and leaves. Silencing SlRBOH1 abolished high CO2 -induced salt tolerance and increased leaf transpiration rates, as well as enhancing Na+ accumulation in the plants. The higher atmospheric CO2 level increased the abundance of a subset of transcripts involved in Na+ homeostasis in the controls but not in the SlRBOH1-silenced plants. It is concluded that high atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase salt stress tolerance in an apoplastic H2O2 dependent manner, by suppressing transpiration and hence Na+ delivery from the roots to the shoots, leading to decreased leaf Na+ accumulation. PMID:26417022

  14. High atmospheric carbon dioxide-dependent alleviation of salt stress is linked to RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (RBOH1)-dependent H2O2 production in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Yi, Changyu; Yao, Kaiqian; Cai, Shuyu; Li, Huizi; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine Helen; Zhou, Yanhong

    2015-12-01

    Plants acclimate rapidly to stressful environmental conditions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to influence tolerance to stresses such as soil salinity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. To resolve this issue, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown under ambient (380 μmol mol(-1)) or high (760 μmol mol(-1)) CO2 in the absence or presence of sodium chloride (100mM). The higher atmospheric CO2 level induced the expression of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (SlRBOH1) and enhanced H2O2 accumulation in the vascular cells of roots, stems, leaf petioles, and the leaf apoplast. Plants grown with higher CO2 levels showed improved salt tolerance, together with decreased leaf transpiration rates and lower sodium concentrations in the xylem sap, vascular tissues, and leaves. Silencing SlRBOH1 abolished high CO2 -induced salt tolerance and increased leaf transpiration rates, as well as enhancing Na(+) accumulation in the plants. The higher atmospheric CO2 level increased the abundance of a subset of transcripts involved in Na(+) homeostasis in the controls but not in the SlRBOH1-silenced plants. It is concluded that high atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase salt stress tolerance in an apoplastic H2O2 dependent manner, by suppressing transpiration and hence Na(+) delivery from the roots to the shoots, leading to decreased leaf Na(+) accumulation.

  15. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  16. Alleviating stress in the workplace: advice for nurses.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    Stress is an inherent and arguably essential aspect of the nurse's role, with ongoing challenges associated with providing care for patients and their families. However, the level of stress currently being experienced in health care exceeds the capacity of many nurses, resulting in ill health and burnout. This stress can undermine the care and compassion nurses are able to give, a vital concern in health care which was highlighted by the Francis inquiry. This article explores the factors that contribute to stress and the strategies that can be used to alleviate the stresses inherent in nursing.

  17. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  18. Elevated levels of CYP94 family gene expression alleviate the jasmonate response and enhance salt tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Kenji; Hatanaka, Saki; Toda, Yosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Tashita, Ryo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Ueda, Minoru; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-04-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate and its conjugates (JAs) have important roles in growth control, leaf senescence and defense responses against insects and microbial attacks. JA biosynthesis is induced by several stresses, including mechanical wounding, pathogen attacks, drought and salinity stresses. However, the roles of JAs under abiotic stress conditions are unclear. Here we report that increased expression of the Cyt P450 family gene CYP94C2b enhanced viability of rice plants under saline conditions. This gene encodes an enzyme closely related to CYP94C1 that catalyzes conversion of bioactive jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile) into 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile. Inactivation of JA was facilitated in a rice line with enhanced CYP94C2b expression, and responses to exogenous JA and wounding were alleviated. Moreover, salt stress-induced leaf senescence but not natural senescence was delayed in the transgenic rice. These results suggest that bioactive JAs have a negative effect on viability under salt stress conditions and demonstrate that manipulating JA metabolism confers enhanced salt tolerance in rice.

  19. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level.

  20. Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mastouri, Fatemeh; Björkman, Thomas; Harman, Gary E

    2010-11-01

    Trichoderma spp. are endophytic plant symbionts that are widely used as seed treatments to control diseases and to enhance plant growth and yield. Although some recent work has been published on their abilities to alleviate abiotic stresses, specific knowledge of mechanisms, abilities to control multiple plant stress factors, their effects on seed and seedlings is lacking. We examined the effects of seed treatment with T. harzianum strain T22 on germination of seed exposed to biotic stress (seed and seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum) and abiotic stresses (osmotic, salinity, chilling, or heat stress). We also evaluated the ability of the beneficial fungus to overcome physiological stress (poor seed quality induced by seed aging). If seed were not under any of the stresses noted above, T22 generally had little effect upon seedling performance. However, under stress, treated seed germinated consistently faster and more uniformly than untreated seeds whether the stress was osmotic, salt, or suboptimal temperatures. The consistent response to varying stresses suggests a common mechanism through which the plant-fungus association enhances tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses as well as biotic stress. A common factor that negatively affects plants under these stress conditions is accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), and we tested the hypothesis that T22 reduced damages resulting from accumulation of ROS in stressed plants. Treatment of seeds reduced accumulation of lipid peroxides in seedlings under osmotic stress or in aged seeds. In addition, we showed that the effect of exogenous application of an antioxidant, glutathione, or application of T22, resulted in a similar positive effect on seed germination under osmotic stress or in aged seed. This evidence supports the model that T. harzianum strain T22 increases seedling vigor and ameliorates stress by inducing physiological protection in plants against oxidative damage.

  1. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  2. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  3. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress.

  4. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  5. Salt affects plant Cd-stress responses by modulating growth and Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium contamination is a serious environmental problem for modern agriculture and human health. Salinity affects plant growth and development, and interactions between salt and cadmium have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms of salinity-cadmium interactions are not fully understood. Here, we show that a low concentration of salt alleviates Cd-induced growth inhibition and increases Cd accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Supplementation with low concentrations of salt reduced the reactive oxygen species level in Cd-stressed roots by increasing the contents of proline and glutathione and down-regulating the expression of RCD1, thereby protecting the plasma membrane integrity of roots under cadmium stress. Salt supplementation substantially reduces the Cd-induced elevation of IAA oxidase activity, thereby maintaining auxin levels in Cd-stressed plants, as indicated by DR5::GUS expression. Salt supply increased Cd absorption in roots and increased Cd accumulation in leaves, implying that salt enhances both Cd uptake in roots and the root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. The elevated Cd accumulation in plants in response to salt was found to be correlated with the elevated levels of phytochelatin the expression of heavy metal transporters AtHMA1-4, especially AtHMA4. Salt alleviated growth inhibition caused by Cd and increased Cd accumulation also was observed in Cd accumulator Solanum nigrum.

  6. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huan; Shao, Mingquan; He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future.

  7. Effect of Sulfated Chitooligosaccharides on Wheat Seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ping; Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; He, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Ronge; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-04-13

    In this study, sulfated chitooligosaccharide (SCOS) was applied to wheat seedlings to investigate its effect on the plants' defense response under salt stress. The antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll contents, and fluorescence characters of wheat seedlings were determined at a certain time. The results showed that treatment with exogenous SCOS could decrease the content of malondialdehyde, increase the chlorophyll contents, and modulate fluorescence characters in wheat seedlings under salt stress. In addition, SCOS was able to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of several antioxidant enzymes were efficiently modulated by SCOS. The results indicated that SCOS could alleviate the damage of salt stress by adjusting the antioxidant enzyme activities of plant. The effect of SCOS on the photochemical efficiency of wheat seedlings was associated with its enhanced capacity for antioxidant enzymes, which prevented structure degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus under NaCl stress. Furthermore, the effective activities of alleviating salt stress indicated the activities of SCOS were closely related with the sulfate group.

  8. Proteomic analysis of salt-stressed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings: effect of genotype and exogenous application of glycinebetaine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songbi; Gollop, Natan; Heuer, Bruria

    2009-01-01

    An investigation aimed at a better understanding of the molecular adaptation mechanisms of salt stress was carried out in 7-d-old tomato Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Mill cultivars Patio and ‘F144’, using a proteomic approach. Total proteins were extracted from radicles and hypocotyls collected from both non-saline control and salt-stressed seedlings, and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Liqud chromatography-electron spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) identified 23 salt stress response proteins, classified into six functional categories. The effect of exogenously applied glycinebetaine (GB) on the salt stress-induced inhibition of growth in tomato seedlings of cultivars Patio and ‘F144’ and on the protein profile was investigated. It was found that GB could alleviate the inhibition of tomato growth induced by salt stress through changing the expression abundance of six proteins in Patio and two proteins in ‘F144’ more than twice compared with salt-stressed seedlings. Furthermore, the interaction analysis based on computational bioinformatics reveals major regulating networks: photosystem II (PSII), Rubisco, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggest that it is likely that improvement of salt tolerance in tomato might be achieved through the application of exogenous compatible solutes, such as GB. Moreover, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the differentially expressed proteins of tomato under salt stress is an important step towards further elucidation of mechanisms of salt stress resistance. PMID:19336390

  9. Exogenous Melatonin Confers Salt Stress Tolerance to Watermelon by Improving Photosynthesis and Redox Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Chang, Jingjing; Chen, Hejie; Wang, Zhongyuan; Gu, Xiurong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin, a pleiotropic signal molecule, has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. Since a few species have been investigated to unveil the effect of exogenous melatonin on salt stress, the underlying mechanism of melatonin-mediated salt stress tolerance in other plant species still remains largely unknown. In this study, the effects of melatonin on leaf photosynthesis and redox homeostasis in watermelon were examined under salt stress (300 mM NaCl) along with different doses of melatonin (50, 150, and 500 μM) pretreatment. NaCl stress inhibited photosynthesis and increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage in leaves of watermelon seedlings. However, pretreatment with melatonin on roots alleviated NaCl-induced decrease in photosynthetic rate and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The protection of photosynthesis by melatonin was closely associated with the inhibition of stomatal closure and improved light energy absorption and electron transport in photosystem II, while the reduction of oxidative stress by melatonin was attributed to the improved redox homeostasis coupled with the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. This study unraveled crucial role of melatonin in salt stress mitigation and thus can be implicated in the management of salinity in watermelon cultivation.

  10. Exogenous Melatonin Confers Salt Stress Tolerance to Watermelon by Improving Photosynthesis and Redox Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Chang, Jingjing; Chen, Hejie; Wang, Zhongyuan; Gu, Xiurong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin, a pleiotropic signal molecule, has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. Since a few species have been investigated to unveil the effect of exogenous melatonin on salt stress, the underlying mechanism of melatonin-mediated salt stress tolerance in other plant species still remains largely unknown. In this study, the effects of melatonin on leaf photosynthesis and redox homeostasis in watermelon were examined under salt stress (300 mM NaCl) along with different doses of melatonin (50, 150, and 500 μM) pretreatment. NaCl stress inhibited photosynthesis and increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage in leaves of watermelon seedlings. However, pretreatment with melatonin on roots alleviated NaCl-induced decrease in photosynthetic rate and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The protection of photosynthesis by melatonin was closely associated with the inhibition of stomatal closure and improved light energy absorption and electron transport in photosystem II, while the reduction of oxidative stress by melatonin was attributed to the improved redox homeostasis coupled with the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. This study unraveled crucial role of melatonin in salt stress mitigation and thus can be implicated in the management of salinity in watermelon cultivation. PMID:28298921

  11. Residual stress alleviation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. B.; June, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods to eliminate or reduce residual stresses in aircraft metal structures reinforced by filamentary composites are discussed. Residual stress level reductions were achieved by modifying the manufacturing procedures used during adhesive bonding. The residual stress alleviation techniques involved various forms of mechanical constraint which were applied to the components during bonding. Nine methods were evaluated, covering a wide range in complexity. All methods investigated during the program affected the residual stress level. In general, residual stresses were reduced by 70 percent or more from the stress level produced by conventional adhesive bonding procedures.

  12. Brassinolide Increases Potato Root Growth In Vitro in a Dose-Dependent Way and Alleviates Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shitou; Su, Yi; Wang, Huiqun; Luo, Weigui; Su, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as root development and stress tolerance. In the present study, we showed that brassinolide (BL) affects potato root in vitro growth in a dose-dependent manner. Low BL concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 μg/L) promoted root elongation and lateral root development, whereas high BL concentrations (1–100 μg/L) inhibited root elongation. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between root activity and BL concentrations within a range from 0.01 to 100 μg/L, with the peak activity of 8.238 mg TTC·g−1 FW·h−1 at a BL concentration of 100 μg/L. Furthermore, plants treated with 50 μg/L BL showed enhanced salt stress tolerance through in vitro growth. Under this scenario, BL treatment enhanced the proline content and antioxidant enzymes' (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in potato shoots. Application of BL maintain K+ and Na+ homeostasis by improving tissue K+/Na+ ratio. Therefore, we suggested that the effects of BL on root development from stem fragments explants as well as on primary root development are dose-dependent and that BL application alleviates salt stress on potato by improving root activity, root/shoot ratio, and antioxidative capacity in shoots and maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis in potato shoots and roots. PMID:27803931

  13. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  14. Proteomic analysis of rice anthers under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sarhadi, Elham; Bazargani, Mitra Mohammadi; Sajise, Andres Godwin; Abdolahi, Shapour; Vispo, Naireen Aiza; Arceta, Marydee; Nejad, Ghasem Mohammadi; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2012-09-01

    Salinity is a major factor that limits rice production worldwide. Rice is considered generally to be sensitive to salt stress during the reproductive stage. To determine the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance at the reproductive stage, anther proteomic patterns for two contrasting rice genotypes IR64 (salt sensitive) and Cheriviruppu (salt tolerant) under salt stress were compared. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and salt stress (100 mM NaCl) was imposed at the booting stage. Anther samples were collected from control and salt-treated plants at the anthesis stage. The Na(+)/K(+) ratio in IR64 anthers under salt stress was >1.7 times greater than that under control conditions, whereas no significant change was observed in Cheriviruppu. We also observed an 83% reduction in IR64 pollen viability, whereas this reduction was only 23% in Cheriviruppu. Of 454 protein spots detected reproducibly on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, 38 showed significant changes in at least one genotype in response to stress. Using Mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) analysis, we identified 18 protein spots that were involved in several processes that might increase plant adaptation to salt stress, such as carbohydrate/energy metabolism, anther wall remodelling and metabolism, and protein synthesis and assembly. Three isoforms of fructokinase-2 were upregulated only in Cheriviruppu under salt stress. This upregulation might result in increased starch content in pollen, which would support pollen growth and development under salt stress. The results also suggested that anther and pollen wall remodelling/metabolism proteins contribute to the tolerance of rice to salt stress.

  15. A meta-analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal effects on plants grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Boughattas, Sonia; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2014-11-01

    Salt stress limits crop yield and sustainable agriculture in most arid and semiarid regions of the world. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered bio-ameliorators of soil salinity tolerance in plants. In evaluating AMF as significant predictors of mycorrhizal ecology, precise quantifiable changes in plant biomass and nutrient uptake under salt stress are crucial factors. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the magnitude of the effects of AMF inoculation on growth and nutrient uptake of plants under salt stress through meta-analyses. For this, data were compared in the context of mycorrhizal host plant species, plant family and functional group, herbaceous vs. woody plants, annual vs. perennial plants, and the level of salinity across 43 studies. Results indicate that, under saline conditions, AMF inoculation significantly increased total, shoot, and root biomass as well as phosphorous (P), nitrogen (N), and potassium (K) uptake. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase also increased significantly in mycorrhizal compared to nonmycorrhizal plants growing under salt stress. In addition, sodium (Na) uptake decreased significantly in mycorrhizal plants, while changes in proline accumulation were not significant. Across most subsets of the data analysis, identities of AMF (Glomus fasciculatum) and host plants (Acacia nilotica, herbs, woody and perennial) were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to salinity stress. For the analyzed dataset, it is concluded that under salt stress, mycorrhizal plants have extensive root traits and mycorrhizal morphological traits which help the uptake of more P and K, together with the enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes resulting in salt stress alleviation and increased plant biomass.

  16. LcSAIN1, a novel salt-induced gene from sheepgrass, confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Hou, Shenglin; Gao, Qiong; Zhao, Pincang; Chen, Shuangyan; Qi, Dongmei; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Cheng, Liqin; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we identified >1,500 genes that were induced by high salt stress in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis, Gramineae: Triticeae) when comparing the changes in their transcription levels in response to high salt stress by next-generation sequencing. Among the identified genes, a gene of unknown function (designated as Leymus chinensis salt-induced 1, LcSAIN1) showed a high sequence identity to its homologs from wheat, Hordeum vulgare and Oryza sativa, but LcSAIN1 and its homologs produce hypothetical proteins with no conserved functional domains. Transcription of the LcSAIN1 gene was up-regulated by various stresses. The overexpression of LcSAIN1 in Arabidopsis and rice increased the greening rate of cotyledons, the fresh weight, root elongation, plant height and the plant survival rate when compared with control plants and conferred a tolerance against salt stress. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that LcSAIN1 is localized predominantly in the nucleus. Our results show that the LcSAIN1 gene might play an important positive modulation role in increasing the expression of transcription factors (MYB2 and DREB2A) and functional genes (P5CS and RAB18) in transgenic plants under salt stress and that it augments stress tolerance through the accumulation of compatible solutes (proline and soluble sugar) and the alleviation of changes in reactive oxygen species. The LcSAIN1 gene could be a potential resource for engineering salinity tolerance in important crop species.

  17. Current developments in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi research and its role in salinity stress alleviation: a biotechnological perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Dames, Joanna F; Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Gilbert, Jack A; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form widespread symbiotic associations with 80% of known land plants. They play a major role in plant nutrition, growth, water absorption, nutrient cycling and protection from pathogens, and as a result, contribute to ecosystem processes. Salinity stress conditions undoubtedly limit plant productivity and, therefore, the role of AMF as a biological tool for improving plant salt stress tolerance, is gaining economic importance worldwide. However, this approach requires a better understanding of how plants and AMF intimately interact with each other in saline environments and how this interaction leads to physiological changes in plants. This knowledge is important to develop sustainable strategies for successful utilization of AMF to improve plant health under a variety of stress conditions. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, "omics" technology and advanced microscopy can provide new insight about these mechanisms of interaction between AMF and plants, as well as other microbes. This review mainly discusses the effect of salinity on AMF and plants, and role of AMF in alleviation of salinity stress including insight on methods for AMF identification. The focus remains on latest advancements in mycorrhizal research that can potentially offer an integrative understanding of the role of AMF in salinity tolerance and sustainable crop production.

  18. Effects of exogenous spermine on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in Cucumis sativus L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Ling-Yun; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ying-Hui

    2013-02-01

    The effects of exogenous spermine (Spm) on plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, ultrastructure and anti-oxidative metabolism of chloroplasts were investigated in Cucumis sativus L. under NaCl stress. Salt stress significantly reduced plant growth, chlorophylls content and F(v)/F(m). These changes could be alleviated by foliar spraying with Spm. Salt stress caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide anion [Formula: see text] generation rate in chloroplasts. Application of Spm significantly increased activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) which decreased the levels of [Formula: see text] and MDA in the salt-stressed chloroplasts. Salt stress decreased the activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in the chloroplasts and reduced the contents of dehydroascorbate (DAsA) and glutathione (GSH), but increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR, EC 1.6.5.4) activity. On the other hand, Spm significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of antioxidants in the salt-stressed chloroplasts. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that salinity induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. However, Spm application to salt-stressed plant leaves counteracted the adverse effects of salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. These results suggest that Spm alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress through regulating antioxidant systems in chloroplasts of cucumber seedlings, which is associated with an improvement of the photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  19. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  20. Invasive Knotweeds are Highly Tolerant to Salt Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Byczek, Coline; Laffray, Daniel; Piola, Florence

    2012-12-01

    Japanese knotweed s.l. are some of the most invasive plants in the world. Some genotypes are known to be tolerant to the saline concentrations found in salt marshes. Here we focus on tolerance to higher concentrations in order to assess whether the species are able to colonize and establish in highly stressful environments, or whether salt is an efficient management tool. In a first experiment, adult plants of Fallopia japonica, Fallopia × bohemica and Fallopia sachalinensis were grown under salt stress conditions by watering with saline concentrations of 6, 30, 120, or 300 g L-1 for three weeks to assess the response of the plants to a spill of salt. At the two highest concentrations, their leaves withered and fell. There were no effects on the aboveground parts at the lowest concentrations. Belowground dry weight and number of buds were reduced from 30 and 120 g L-1 of salt, respectively. In a second experiment, a single spraying of 120 g L-1 of salt was applied to individuals of F. × bohemica and their stems were clipped to assess the response to a potential control method. 60 % of the plants regenerated. Regeneration was delayed by the salt treatment and shoot growth slowed down. This study establishes the tolerance of three Fallopia taxa to strong salt stress, with no obvious differences between taxa. Their salt tolerance could be an advantage in their ability to colonize polluted environments and to survive to spills of salt.

  1. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the root system of maize plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2009-07-01

    Salt stress has become a severe global problem, and salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting plant growth and yield. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi decrease plant yield losses under salinity. With the aim of determining whether AM inoculation would give an advantage to root development under salt stress, a greenhouse experiment was carried out with AM or without AM fungi. Maize plants were grown in a sand and soil mixture with 5 NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of nonsaline pretreatment. At all salt levels, mycorrhizal plants had higher dry shoot and root mass, higher root activity, and lower root to shoot ratios than non-mycorrhizal plants. In salt-free soil, root length, root surface area, root volume, and number of root tips and forks were significantly larger in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal plants, whereas, under salt stress, average root diameter and root volume of mycorrhizal plants were larger than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. Regardless of the NaCl level, mycorrhizal plants had lower specific root length, lower percentage of root length in the 0-0.2 mm diameter class, and higher percentage of root length in both the 0.2-0.4 mm and 0.4-0.6 mm diameter classes, which suggests that the root system shows a significant shift towards a thicker root system when maize plants were inoculated with Glomus mosseae (Nicolson & Gerdemann). The results presented here indicate that the improvements in root activity and the coarse root system of mycorrhizal maize may help in alleviating salt stress on the plant.

  2. Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine leads to alleviate salt-induced potassium efflux and enhances salt tolerance in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dandan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Cuicui; Meng, Qingwei; Li, Gang; Chen, Tony H H; Yang, Xinghong

    2017-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. 'Moneymaker') was transformed with the choline oxidase gene codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, which was modified to allow for targeting to both chloroplasts and the cytosol. Glycine betaine (GB) was accumulated in transformed plants, while no detectable GB was found in wild-type (WT) plants. Compared to WT plants, transgenic lines showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates (Pn) and antioxidant enzyme activities and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the leaves when exposed to salt stress. Furthermore, compared with WT plants, K(+) efflux decreased and Na(+) efflux increased in roots of transgenic plants under salt stress; resulted in lower Na(+)/K(+) ratios in transgenic lines. The exogenous application of GB also significantly reduced NaCl-induced K(+) efflux and increased Na(+) efflux in WT plants. A qRT-PCR assay indicated that GB enhanced NaCl-induced expression of genes encoding the K(+) transporter, Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and H(+)-ATPase. These results suggest that the enhanced salt tolerance conferred by codA in transgenic tomato plants might be due to the regulation of ion channel and transporters by GB, which would allow high potassium levels and low sodium levels to be maintained in transgenic plants under salt stress condition.

  3. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P.; Donat-Torres, María P.; Llinares, Josep V.; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus–both halophytes–and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600–800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants. PMID:27490924

  4. Salubrinal Alleviates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shilpa; Sreenivasaiah, Pradeep Kumar; Cho, Chunghee; Kim, Do Han

    2017-01-01

    Pathological hypertrophy of the heart is closely associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), leading to maladaptations such as myocardial fibrosis, induction of apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunctions. Salubrinal is a known selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex involving dephosphorylation of phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit (p-eIF2)-α, the key signaling process in the ERS pathway. In this study, the effects of salubrinal were examined on cardiac hypertrophy using the mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and cell model of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Treatment of TAC-induced mice with salubrinal (0.5 mg·kg−1·day−1) alleviated cardiac hypertrophy and tissue fibrosis. Salubrinal also alleviated hypertrophic growth in endothelin 1 (ET1)-treated NRVMs. Therefore, the present results suggest that salubrinal may be a potentially efficacious drug for treating pathological cardiac remodeling. PMID:28152298

  5. Divergences in morphological changes and antioxidant responses in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice seedlings after salt stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hee; Cho, Eun Ju; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyoungwoo; Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Jae-Young; Lee, Sungbeom; Kim, Jin-Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2013-09-01

    Salinization plays a primary role in soil degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. We observed that salt stress reversed photosynthesis and reactive oxygen scavenging responses in leaves or roots of two rice cultivars, a salt-tolerant cultivar Pokkali and a salt-sensitive cultivar IR-29. Salt treatment (100 mM NaCl) on IR-29 decreased the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), thereby inhibiting photosynthetic activity. By contrast, the salt treatment on Pokkali had the converse effect on Fv/Fm and qP, while increasing the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), thereby favoring photosynthetic activity. Notably, chloroplast or root cells in Pokkali maintained their ultrastructures largely intact under the salt stress, but, IR-29 showed severe disintegration of existing grana stacks, increase of plastoglobuli, and swelling of thylakoidal membranes in addition to collapsed vascular region in adventitious roots. Pokkali is known to have higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-scavenging enzyme activities in non-treated seedlings, including ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase activities. However, these enzymatic activities were induced to a greater extent in IR-29 by the salt stress. While the level of endogenous H2O2 was lower in Pokkali than in IR-29, it was reversed upon the salt treatment. Nevertheless, the decreased amount of H2O2 in IR-29 upon the salt stress didn't result in a high scavenging activity of total cell extracts for H2O2, as well as O2(·-) and (·)OH species. The present study suggests that the tolerance to the moderate salinity in Pokkali derives largely from the constitutively maintained antioxidant enzymatic activities as well as the induced antioxidant enzyme system.

  6. A synergistic interaction between salt-tolerant Pseudomonas and Mesorhizobium strains improves growth and symbiotic performance of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Li, Li; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A

    2016-03-01

    Chinese liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish.) is a salt-tolerant medicinal legume that could be utilized for bioremediation of salt-affected soils. We studied whether co-inoculation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium sp. strain NWXJ19 or NWXJ31 with the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 could restore growth, nodulation, and shoot/root nitrogen contents of salt-stressed G. uralensis, which was grown in potting soil and irrigated with 0, 50, and 75 mM NaCl solutions under greenhouse conditions. Irrigation with NaCl solutions clearly retarded the growth of uninoculated liquorice, and the higher the NaCl concentration (75 and 100 mM NaCl), the more adverse is the effect. The two Mesorhizobium strains, added either alone or in combination with P. extremorientalis TSAU20, responded differently to the salt levels used. The strain NWXJ19 was a good symbiont for plants irrigated with 50 mM NaCl, whereas the strain NWXJ31 was more efficient for plants irrigated with water or 75 mM NaCl solution. P. extremorientalis TSAU20 combined with single Mesorhizobium strains alleviated the salt stress of liquorice plants and improved yield and nodule numbers significantly in comparison with single-strain-inoculated liquorice. Both salt stress and inoculation raised the nitrogen content of shoots and roots. The nitrogen contents were at their highest, i.e., 30 and 35 % greater compared to non-stressed uninoculated plants, when plants were inoculated with P. extremorientalis TSAU20 and Mesorhizobium sp. NWXJ31 as well as irrigated with 75 mM NaCl solution. From this study, we conclude that dual inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria could be a new approach to improve the tolerance of G. uralensis to salt stress, thereby improving its suitability for the remediation of saline lands.

  7. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  8. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  9. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Abiotic Stress Responsive Universal Stress Protein (SbUSP) Mitigates Salt and Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2− radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338

  10. Exploration for the salt stress tolerance genes from a salt-treated halophyte, Suaeda asparagoides.

    PubMed

    Ayarpadikannan, Selvam; Chung, Eunsook; Cho, Chang-Woo; So, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Soon-Ok; Jeon, Joo-Min; Kwak, Myoung-Hae; Lee, Seon-Woo; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-01-01

    Salinity stress severely affects plant growth and development causing crop loss worldwide. Suaeda asparagoides is a salt-marsh euhalophyte widely distributed in southwestern foreshore of Korea. To isolate salt tolerance genes from S. asparagoides, we constructed a cDNA library from leaf tissues of S. asparagoides that was treated with 200 mM NaCl. A total of 1,056 clones were randomly selected for EST sequencing, and 932 of them produced readable sequence. By sequence analysis, we identified 538 unigenes and registered each in National Center for Biotechnology Information. The 80 salt stress related genes were selected to study their differential expression. Reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analysis revealed that 23 genes were differentially expressed under the high salinity stress conditions in S. asparagoides. They are functionally diverse including transport, signal transduction, transcription factor, metabolism and stress associated protein, and unknown function. Among them dehydrin (SaDhn) and RNA binding protein (SaRBP1) were examined for their abiotic stress tolerance in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast overexpressing SaDhn and SaRBP1 showed enhanced tolerance to osmotic, freezing and heat shock stresses. This study provides the evidence that SaRBP1 and SaDhn from S. asparagoides exert abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. Information of salt stress related genes from S. asparagoides would contribute for the accumulating genetic resources to improve osmotic tolerance in plants.

  11. Salt stress affects mRNA editing in soybean chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nureyev F; Fonseca, Guilherme C da; Kulcheski, Franceli R; Margis, Rogério

    2017-03-02

    Soybean, a crop known by its economic and nutritional importance, has been the subject of several studies that assess the impact and the effective plant responses to abiotic stresses. Salt stress is one of the main environmental stresses and negatively impacts crop growth and yield. In this work, the RNA editing process in the chloroplast of soybean plants was evaluated in response to a salt stress. Bioinformatics approach using sRNA and mRNA libraries were employed to detect specific sites showing differences in editing efficiency. RT-qPCR was used to measure editing efficiency at selected sites. We observed that transcripts of NDHA, NDHB, RPS14 and RPS16 genes presented differences in coverage and editing rates between control and salt-treated libraries. RT-qPCR assays demonstrated an increase in editing efficiency of selected genes. The salt stress enhanced the RNA editing process in transcripts, indicating responses to components of the electron transfer chain, photosystem and translation complexes. These increases can be a response to keep the homeostasis of chloroplast protein functions in response to salt stress.

  12. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr.

  13. Expression of LeNHX isoforms in response to salt stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant tomato species.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Francisco Javier; Baghour, Mourad; Hao, Gangping; Cagnac, Olivier; Rodríguez-Rosales, María Pilar; Venema, Kees

    2012-02-01

    In general, wild tomato species are more salt tolerant than cultivated species, a trait that is related to enhanced Na(+) accumulation in aerial parts in the wild species, but the molecular basis for these differences is not known. Plant NHX proteins have been suggested to be important for salt tolerance by promoting accumulation of Na(+) or K(+) inside vacuoles. Therefore, differences in expression or activity of NHX proteins in tomato could be at the basis of the enhanced salt tolerance in wild tomato species. To test this hypothesis, we studied the expression level of four NHX genes in the salt sensitive cultivated species Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Volgogradskij and the salt tolerant wild species Solanum pimpinelifolium L in response to salt stress. First, we determined that in the absence of salt stress, the RNA abundance of LeNHX2, 3 and 4 was comparable in both species, while more LeNHX1 RNA was detected in the tolerant species. LeNHX2 and LeNHX3 showed comparable expression levels and were present in all tissues, while LeNHX4 was expressed above all in stem and fruit tissues. Next, we confirmed that the wild species was more tolerant and accumulated more Na(+) in aerial parts of the plant. This correlated with the observation that salt stress induced especially the LeNHX3 and LeNHX4 isoforms in the tolerant species. These results support a role of NHX genes as determinants of salt tolerance in tomato, inducing enhanced Na(+) accumulation observed in the wild species when grown in the presence of NaCl.

  14. Salt stress represses production of extracellular proteases in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Huang, C L; Feng, H

    2015-05-11

    Bacillus pumilus is able to secrete subtilisin-like prote-ases, one of which has been purified and characterized biochemically, demonstrating great potential for use in industrial applications. In the current study, the biosynthesis and transcription of extracellular pro-teases in B. pumilus (BA06) under salt stress were investigated using various methods, including a proteolytic assay, zymogram analysis, and real-time PCR. Our results showed that total extracellular proteolytic activity, both in fermentation broth and on milk-containing agar plates, was considerably repressed by salt in a dosage-dependent manner. As Bacillus species usually secret multiple extracellular proteases, a vari-ety of individual extracellular protease encoding genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis. It was shown that proteases encoded by the aprE and aprX genes were the major proteases in the fermentation broth in terms of their transcripts in B. pumilus. Further, transcription of aprE, aprX, and epr genes was indeed repressed by salt stress. In con-trast, transcription of other genes (e.g., vpr and wprA) was not repressed or significantly affected by the salt. Conclusively, salt stress represses total extracellular proteolytic activity in B. pumilus, which can largely be ascribed to suppression of the major protease-encoding genes (aprE, aprX) at the transcriptional level. In contrast, transcription of other pro-tease-encoding genes (e.g., vpr, wprA) was not repressed by salt stress.

  15. The role of putrescine in the regulation of proteins and fatty acids of thylakoid membranes under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Yinghui; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Wenhua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Min; Guo, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines can alleviate the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth by regulating photosynthetic efficiency. However, little information is available to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of polyamines to salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we investigated the role of putrescine (Put) on the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. We found that NaCl stress resulted in severe ion toxicity and oxidative stress in cucumber chloroplasts. In addition, salinity caused a significant increase in the saturated fatty acid contents of thylakoid membranes. Put altered unsaturated fatty acid content, thereby alleviating the disintegration of thylakoid grana lamellae and reducing the number of plastoglobuli in thylakoid membranes. BN-PAGE revealed Put up-regulated the expression of ATP synthase, CP47, D1, Qb, and psbA proteins and down-regulated CP24, D2, and LHCII type III in NaCl-stressed thylakoid membranes. qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation among 10 candidate proteins. For five of these proteins, induced transcript accumulation was consistent with the pattern of induced protein accumulation. Our results suggest that Put regulates protein expression at transcriptional and translational levels by increasing endogenous polyamines levels in thylakoid membranes, which may stabilise photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress. PMID:26435404

  16. The role of putrescine in the regulation of proteins and fatty acids of thylakoid membranes under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Yinghui; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Wenhua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Min; Guo, Shirong

    2015-10-05

    Polyamines can alleviate the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth by regulating photosynthetic efficiency. However, little information is available to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of polyamines to salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we investigated the role of putrescine (Put) on the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. We found that NaCl stress resulted in severe ion toxicity and oxidative stress in cucumber chloroplasts. In addition, salinity caused a significant increase in the saturated fatty acid contents of thylakoid membranes. Put altered unsaturated fatty acid content, thereby alleviating the disintegration of thylakoid grana lamellae and reducing the number of plastoglobuli in thylakoid membranes. BN-PAGE revealed Put up-regulated the expression of ATP synthase, CP47, D1, Qb, and psbA proteins and down-regulated CP24, D2, and LHCII type III in NaCl-stressed thylakoid membranes. qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation among 10 candidate proteins. For five of these proteins, induced transcript accumulation was consistent with the pattern of induced protein accumulation. Our results suggest that Put regulates protein expression at transcriptional and translational levels by increasing endogenous polyamines levels in thylakoid membranes, which may stabilise photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress.

  17. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress.

  18. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Georg R.; Kuehne, Andreas; Sauer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species’ taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance. PMID:26848578

  19. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O(2•-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm(-1) NaCl than those under 6 dSm(-1) NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O(2•-) and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress.

  20. Vitamin D3 pretreatment alleviates renal oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Xu, De-Xiang; Yu, De-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that reactive oxygen species plays important roles in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effects of VitD3 pretreatment on renal oxidative stress in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2.0mg/kg) to establish an animal model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. In VitD3+LPS group, mice were orally pretreated with three doses of VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 1, 24 and 48 h before LPS injection. As expected, oral pretreatment with three daily recommended doses of VitD3 markedly elevated serum 25(OH)D concentration and efficiently activated renal VDR signaling. Interestingly, LPS-induced renal GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation were markedly alleviated in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced serum and renal nitric oxide (NO) production was obviously suppressed by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced renal protein nitration, as determined by 3-nitrotyrosine residue, was obviously attenuated by VitD3 pretreatment. Further analysis showed that LPS-induced up-regulation of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) was repressed in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced up-regulation of renal p47phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were normalized by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced down-regulation of renal superoxide dismutase (sod) 1 and sod2, two antioxidant enzyme genes, was reversed in VitD3-pretreated mice. Finally, LPS-induced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL, was alleviated by VitD3 pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that VitD3 pretreatment alleviates LPS-induced renal oxidative stress through regulating oxidant and antioxidant enzyme genes.

  1. Alleviating versus stimulating effects of bicarbonate on the growth of Vallisneria natans under ammonia stress.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yanyan; Wang, Baozhong; Chen, Liangyan; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-08-01

    Bicarbonate plays a crucial role in limiting the growth of submersed aquatic macrophytes in eutrophic lakes, and high ammonia is often toxic to macrophytes. In order to evaluate the combined effect of HCO3 (-) and total ammonia (i.e., the total of NH3 and NH4 (+)) on submersed macrophytes Vallisneria natans, the growth and physiological response of V. natans in the presence of HCO3 (-) and ammonia were studied. The results showed that with the increase of ammonia, morphological parameters of V. natans declined. In contrast, increased HCO3 (-) concentration stimulated the growth of V. natans, especially when the NH4 (+)-N/NO3 (-)-N ratio was 1:7. High ammonia concentration induced excess free amino acids (FAA) accumulation and soluble carbohydrates (SC) depletion in plant tissues. However, the elevated HCO3 (-) promoted the synthesis of SC and rendered the decrease of FAA/SC ratio. The results also suggested that HCO3 (-) could partially alleviate the stress of ammonia, as evidenced by the decrease of FAA/SC ratio and the growth enhancement of V. natans when the ammonia concentration was 0.58 mg L(-1). Given the fact that HCO3 (-) is probably the dominant available carbon source in most eutrophic lakes, the ability of V. natans to use HCO3 (-) for SC synthesis may explain the alleviating effect of HCO3 (-) on V. natans under ammonia stress.

  2. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Huqail, Asma A.; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance. PMID:27486442

  3. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Al-Huqail, Asma A; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance.

  4. Effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cucumis sativus and its protection by exogenous putrescine.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ling-Yun

    2012-11-01

    With the objective to clarify the physiological significance of polyamines (PAs) in the photosynthetic apparatus, the present study investigated the effects of salt stress with and without foliar application of putrescine (Put) on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber. Salt stress at 75 mM NaCl for 7 days resulted in a severe reduction of photosynthesis. The fast chlorophyll afluorescence transient analysis showed that salt stress inhibited the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), mainly due to damage at the receptor side of PSII. In addition, salt stress decreased the density of active reaction centers and the structure performance. The microscopic analysis revealed that salt stress-induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli along with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. Besides, salt stress caused a decrease in the content of endogenous PAs, conjugated and bound forms of spermidine and spermine in particular, in thylakoid membranes. However, applications of 8 mM Put alleviated the salt stress-mediated decrease in net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and actual efficiency of PSII(Φ(PSII)). Put increased PAs in thylakoid membranes and overcame the damaging effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in salt-stressed plant leaves. Put application to control plants neither increased PAs in thylakoid membranes nor affected photosynthesis. These results indicate that PAs in chloroplasts play crucial roles in protecting the thylakoid membranes against the deleterious influences of salt stress. In addition, the present results point to the probability that the salt-induced dysfunction of photosynthesis is largely attributable to the loss of PAs in the photosynthetic apparatus.

  5. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    circulation. Supplementation of CrMet to heat-stressed chicks modulated (P < 0.01) plasma corticosterone level. The present findings indicate that dietary CrMet supplementation could alleviate heat-stress-induced growth retardation in broiler chicks. Moreover, supplemental CrMet modulated suppressive effects of heat stress on cellular and humoral immune responses.

  6. Verminoside mediates life span extension and alleviates stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pant, A; Asthana, J; Yadav, A K; Rathor, L; Srivastava, S; Gupta, M M; Pandey, R

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive molecules modulating aging in living organism promotes development of natural therapeutics for curing age-related afflictions. The progression in age-related disorders can be attributed to increment in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level. To this end, we isolated an iridoid verminoside (VMS) from Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. and evaluated its effect on Caenorhabditis elegans. The present study delineates VMS-mediated alteration of intracellular ROS, oxidative stress, and life span in C. elegans. The different tested doses of VMS (5 μM, 25 μM, and 50 μM) were able to enhance ROS scavenging and extend mean life span in C. elegans. The maximal life span extension was observed in 25 μM VMS, that is, 20.79% (P < 0.0001) followed by 9.84% (P < 0.0001) in 5 μM VMS and 8.54% (P < 0.0001) in 50 μM VMS. VMS was able to alleviate juglone-induced oxidative stress and enhanced thermotolerance in worms. The stress-modulating and ROS-scavenging potential of VMS was validated by increment in mean survival by 29.54% (P < 0.0001) in VMS-treated oxidative stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant strain. Furthermore, VMS modulates expression of DAF-16 (a FoxO transcription factor) promoting stress resistance and longevity. Altogether, our results suggest that VMS attenuates intracellular ROS and stress (oxidative and thermal) level promoting longevity. The longevity and stress modulation can be attributed to VMS-mediated alterations in daf-16 expression which regulates insulin signaling pathway. This study opens doors for development of phytomolecule-based therapeutics for prolonging life span and managing age-related severe disorders.

  7. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants. PMID:25730495

  8. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  9. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Alleviating ER Stress Induced Apoptosis in Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqian; Hu, Houxiang; Chen, Bin; Yue, Rongchuan; Zhou, Zhou; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Huan; Yu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis plays a pivotal role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Inhibiting ER stress is a major therapeutic target/strategy in treating cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that lycopene exhibits great pharmacological potential in protecting against the I/R-injury in vitro and vivo, but whether attenuation of ER stress (and) or ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to the effects remains unclear. In the present study, using neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic myocardium I/R in vivo, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that lycopene could alleviate the ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in H/R-injury. We observed that lycopene alleviated the H/R injury as revealed by improving cell viability and reducing apoptosis, suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and improved the phosphorylated AMPK expression, attenuated ER stress as evidenced by decreasing the expression of GRP78, ATF6 mRNA, sXbp-1 mRNA, eIF2α mRNA and eIF2α phosphorylation, alleviated ER stress-induced apoptosis as manifested by reducing CHOP/GADD153 expression, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-12 and caspase-3 activity in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. Thapsigargin (TG) is a potent ER stress inducer and used to elicit ER stress of cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that lycopene was able to prevent TG-induced ER stress as reflected by attenuating the protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 compared to TG group, significantly improve TG-caused a loss of cell viability and decrease apoptosis in TG-treated cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the protective effects of lycopene on H/R-injury are, at least in part, through alleviating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. PMID:26291709

  10. Black tea protects against hypertension-associated endothelial dysfunction through alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    San Cheang, Wai; Yuen Ngai, Ching; Yen Tam, Ye; Yu Tian, Xiao; Tak Wong, Wing; Zhang, Yang; Wai Lau, Chi; Chen, Zhen Yu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Huang, Yu; Ping Leung, Fung

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive patients have been found to be associated with elevated levels of homocysteine, known as hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells. This study aims to investigate whether black tea (BT) protects against hypertension-associated endothelial dysfunction through alleviation of ER stress. Rat aortae and cultured rat aortic endothelial cells were treated with Hcy, BT extract, and theaflavin-3,3’-digallate (TF3). Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce hypertension and orally administrated with BT extract at 15 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Hcy impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations of rat aortae and led to ER stress in endothelial cells, which were ameliorated by co-incubation of BT extract and TF3. The blood pressure of Ang II-infused rats and plasma Hcy level were normalized by BT consumption. Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations in renal arteries, carotid arteries and aortae, and flow-mediated dilatations in third-order mesenteric resistance arteries were improved. Elevations of ER stress markers and ROS level, plus down-regulation of Hcy metabolic enzymes in aortae from Ang II-infused rats were prevented by BT treatment. Our data reveal the novel cardiovascular benefits of BT in ameliorating vascular dysfunctions, providing insight into developing BT into beneficial dietary supplements in hypertensive patients. PMID:25976123

  11. Genotype-dependent alleviation effects of exogenous GSH on salinity stress in cotton is related to improvement in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic performance, and leaf/root ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wasim; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Xianhong; Wu, Feibo

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that is constraining crop growth and productivity. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed using salt-sensitive (cv. Zhongmian 41) and tolerant (Zhong 9806) cotton seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to salinity stress in the presence of exogenous GSH (reduced glutathione). Cotton plants grown in 150 mM NaCl showed severe reduction in plant height, root length, and shoot and root fresh/dry weight. Salinity also caused reduction in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, but increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content. However, the reduction was more in Zhongmian 41 compared to Zhong 9806. Importantly, Sodium concentration was increased in the two genotypes and the induction was more in Zhongmian 41. Calcium and magnesium concentration was decreased in Zhongmian 41; however, in Zhong 9806 there were no significant differences relative to control. Addition of 50 mg L(-1) GSH in150 mM NaCl solution (Na + GSH) significantly alleviated salinity stress. Compared with salinity treatment alone (NaCl), Na + GSH increased fresh and dry weight of the root, stem, and leaf, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content. Obvious ultrastructural alterations were observed in the saline-treated leaf- and root-tip cells. Exogenous GSH greatly ameliorated the salinity-induced damage on the leaf/root ultrastructure, especially in Zhongmian 41.These results advocate a positive role for GSH in alleviation of salinity, which is related to significant improvement in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic performance, and leaf/root ultrastructure.

  12. The impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the salt stress responses of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Zhang, Weilan; Lombardini, Leonardo; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-12-01

    Dwindling high quality water resources and growing population are forcing growers to irrigate crops with water of high salinity. It is well recognized that salinity negatively affects plant physiology and biochemistry, and represents one of the most serious threats to crop production and food security. Meanwhile, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in irrigation water and agricultural soils due to the rapid advancement of nanotechnology. Previous research has demonstrated that ENPs such as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) exert significant impact on plant growth and production. However, almost all previous studies were conducted in well controlled environment. Knowledge on how ENPs affect plant development in a stressed condition is almost empty. The goal of the present study was to understand the physiological and biochemical changes in Brassica napus L. (canola) cv. 'Dwarf Essex' under synergistic salt stress and CeO2-NPs effects. Two salinity levels: 0 (control) and 100 mM NaCl, and three CeO2-NPs concentrations: 0 (control), 200 and 1000 mg kg(-1) dry sand and clay mixture, were employed. As expected, 100 mM of NaCl significantly hindered plant growth and negatively affected the physiological processes of canola. Plants treated with CeO2-NPs had higher plant biomass, exhibited higher efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus and less stress in both fresh water and saline water irrigation conditions Overall, our results demonstrated that CeO2-NPs led to changes in canola growth and physiology which improved the plant salt stress response but did not completely alleviate the salt stress of canola.

  13. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  14. Sulfur Dioxide Enhances Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Accumulation and Alleviates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum Stress in Germinating Wheat Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dong-Bo; Hu, Kang-Di; Guo, Xi-Kai; Liu, Yong; Hu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yan-Hong; Wang, Song-Hua; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum ions are especially toxic to plants in acidic soils. Here we present evidences that SO2 protects germinating wheat grains against aluminum stress. SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3) pretreatment at 1.2 mM reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde, enhanced the activities of guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and decreased the activity of lipoxygenase in germinating wheat grains exposed to Al stress. We also observed higher accumulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in SO2-pretreated grain, suggesting the tight relation between sulfite and sulfide. Wheat grains geminated in water for 36 h were pretreated with or without 1 mM SO2 donor for 12 h prior to exposure to Al stress for 48 h and the ameliorating effects of SO2 on wheat radicles were studied. SO2 donor pretreatment reduced the content of reactive oxygen species, protected membrane integrity, and reduced Al accumulation in wheat radicles. Gene expression analysis showed that SO2 donor pretreatment decreased the expression of Al-responsive genes TaWali1, TaWali2, TaWali3, TaWali5, TaWali6, and TaALMT1 in radicles exposed to Al stress. These results suggested that SO2 could increase endogenous H2S accumulation and the antioxidant capability and decrease endogenous Al content in wheat grains to alleviate Al stress. PMID:26078810

  15. Drought and cadmium may be as effective as salinity in conferring subsequent salt stress tolerance in Cakile maritima.

    PubMed

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Ben Hamed, Karim; Asensi-Fabado, Maria Amparo; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-05-01

    Plants are often exposed to a combination of stresses, which can occur simultaneously or at different times throughout their life. In this study, the effects of salinity, drought and cadmium pre-treatments were evaluated on the subsequent response of Cakile maritima, a halophytic species, to various levels of salinity (from 100 to 800 mM NaCl) after a recovery time of 2 weeks. Studies were performed in two sets of experiments in a glasshouse under short and long photoperiod (November and July, respectively). In both experiments and in contrast to control plants (not exposed to any previous stress), plants previously exposed to drought, salt or cadmium stress showed lower levels of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, upon salt treatment, particularly at high NaCl concentrations. Oxidative stress alleviation was not only observed at 800 mM NaCl under short photoperiod, but also at 600 and 800 mM NaCl under long photoperiod in terms of reduced salt-induced increases in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels in plants previously exposed to drought, salt or cadmium stress. Previous exposure of plants to all stresses additionally caused decreased levels of jasmonic acid, which might be associated with a lower oxidative stress, differences being observed again at 800 mM NaCl only under short photoperiod and at 600 and 800 mM NaCl under long photoperiod. In conclusion, a relatively long-term stress memory was found in C. maritima pre-exposed to salinity, drought or cadmium, which resulted in a lower oxidative stress when subsequently exposed to salinity. The positive effects of drought and cadmium were of similar magnitude to those provided by salt pre-exposure, which indicated an effective cross-tolerance response in this species.

  16. Artemin protects cells and proteins against oxidative and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Takalloo, Zeinab; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Moazzenzade, Taghi

    2017-02-01

    Artemin is an abundant thermostable protein in Artemia encysted embryos under environmental stresses. It is confirmed that high regulatory expression of artemin is relevant to stress resistance in this crustacean. Here, the protective role of artemin from Artemia urmiana has been investigated on survival of bacterial cells under salt and oxidative shocks. Also, for continuous monitoring of the effect of artemin in prevention of proteins aggregation/inactivation, co-expression of artemin and luciferase (as an intracellular reporter) in bacterial cells was performed. According to the results, residual activity of luciferase in artemin expressing E. coli cells exposing to different concentrations of H2O2 and NaCl was significantly higher than non-expressing cells. The luciferase activity was rapidly lost in control cells under salt treatments while in co-transformed cells, the activity was considerably retained at higher salt concentrations. Also, analysis from cell viability assays showed that artemin-expressing cells exhibited more resistance to both stress conditions. In the present study, we document for the first time that artemin can protect proteins and bacterial cells against oxidative and salt stress conditions. These results can declare the resistance property of this crustacean against harsh environmental conditions.

  17. A New Insight of Salt Stress Signaling in Plant

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to understand plant stress responses to salinity because irrigation-dependent salt accumulation compromises crop productivity and also to understand the mechanism through which some plants thrive under saline conditions. As mechanistic understanding has increased during the last decades, discovery-oriented approaches have begun to identify genetic determinants of salt tolerance. In addition to osmolytes, osmoprotectants, radical detoxification, ion transport systems, and changes in hormone levels and hormone-guided communications, the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway has emerged to be a major defense mechanism. However, the mechanism by which the components of the SOS pathway are integrated to ultimately orchestrate plant-wide tolerance to salinity stress remains unclear. A higher-level control mechanism has recently emerged as a result of recognizing the involvement of GIGANTEA (GI), a protein involved in maintaining the plant circadian clock and control switch in flowering. The loss of GI function confers high tolerance to salt stress via its interaction with the components of the SOS pathway. The mechanism underlying this observation indicates the association between GI and the SOS pathway and thus, given the key influence of the circadian clock and the pathway on photoperiodic flowering, the association between GI and SOS can regulate growth and stress tolerance. In this review, we will analyze the components of the SOS pathways, with emphasis on the integration of components recognized as hallmarks of a halophytic lifestyle. PMID:27239814

  18. Life and death under salt stress: same players, different timing?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Takeda, Shin; Nick, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Salinity does not only stress plants but also challenges human life and the economy by posing severe constraints upon agriculture. To understand salt adaptation strategies of plants, it is central to extend agricultural production to salt-affected soils. Despite high impact and intensive research, it has been difficult to dissect the plant responses to salt stress and to define the decisive key factors for the outcome of salinity signalling. To connect the rapidly accumulating data from different systems, treatments, and organization levels (whole-plant, cellular, and molecular), and to identify the appropriate correlations among them, a clear conceptual framework is required. Similar to other stress responses, the molecular nature of the signals evoked after the onset of salt stress seems to be general, as with that observed in response to many other stimuli, and should not be considered to confer specificity per se. The focus of the current review is therefore on the temporal patterns of signals conveyed by molecules such as Ca(2+), H(+), reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, and jasmonate. We propose that the outcome of the salinity response (adaptation versus cell death) depends on the timing with which these signals appear and disappear. In this context, the often-neglected non-selective cation channels are relevant. We also propose that constraining a given signal is as important as its induction, as it is the temporal competence of signalling (signal on demand) that confers specificity.

  19. Hesperidin alleviates acetaminophen induced toxicity in Wistar rats by abrogation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Arjumand, Wani; Nafees, Sana; Seth, Amlesh; Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-01-25

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present study demonstrates the comparative hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of hesperidin (HD), a naturally occurring bioflavonoid against APAP induced toxicity. APAP induces hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as was evident by abnormal deviation in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, APAP induced renal damage by inducing apoptotic death and inflammation in renal tubular cells, manifested by an increase in the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, NFkB, iNOS, Kim-1 and decrease in Bcl-2 expression. These results were further supported by the histopathological examination of kidney. All these features of APAP toxicity were reversed by the co-administration of HD. Therefore, our study favors the view that HD may be a useful modulator in alleviating APAP induced oxidative stress and toxicity.

  20. Geraniol alleviates diabetic cardiac complications: Effect on cardiac ischemia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; Ghaleb, Hanna; Elberry, Ahmed A; Balamash, Khadijah S; Ghareib, Salah A; Azhar, Ahmad; Banjar, Zainy

    2017-04-01

    The present study was planned to assess the possible protective effect of geraniol on cardiovascular complications in an animal model with diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single streptozotocin injection. In the treated group, geraniol (150mgkg(-1)day(-1)) was administered orally starting from the 15th day after induction of diabetes, and ending after 7 weeks; diabetic control rats were given vehicle for the same period. At the end of the study, cardiac contractility was assessed by using a Millar microtip catheter in anesthetised rats, and cardiac conductivity determined by a surface ECG. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and adiponectin as well as urine 8-isoprostane were determined. In addition, cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Geraniol administration significantly alleviated the attenuated cardiac systolic function associated with diabetes as indicated by inhibiting the decrease in the rate of rise (dP/dtmax) in ventricular pressure and the increase in systolic duration observed in diabetic rats. In addition, geraniol alleviated impaired diastolic function as shown by inhibiting the decrease in the rate of fall (dP/dtmin) in ventricular pressure and increased isovolumic relaxation constant (Tau) observed in diabetic rats. ECG recordings showed that geraniol prevented any increase in QTc and T-peak-T-end intervals, and markers of LV ischemia and arrhythmogenesis, seen in diabetic animals. Geraniol suppressed the exaggerated oxidative stress as evidenced by preventing the increase in 8-isoprotane. In diabetic heart tissue, geraniol prevented the inhibition in catalase activity but did not affect the heart SOD. Geraniol partially reduced hyperglycemia, prevented the hypercholesterolemia, but did not affect the serum level of adiponectin in diabetic animals. Results obtained in this study suggest that geraniol provides a potent protective effect against cardiac dysfunction induced by diabetes. This

  1. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    PubMed

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  3. Salt stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: an integrated genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J; Arkin, Adam P; Baidoo, Edward E; Borglin, Sharon C; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Joyner, Dominique C; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding, Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling, Jay D

    2006-06-01

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  4. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity.

  5. Rootstock alleviates PEG-induced water stress in grafted pepper seedlings: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Bautista, Alberto San; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Ángeles

    2014-06-15

    nitrate reductase activity in the roots was observed, mainly in plants grafted onto the sensitive rootstocks, as well as the ungrafted plants, and this was associated with the lessened flux to the leaves. This study suggests that PEG-induced water stress can be partially alleviated by using tolerant accessions as rootstocks.

  6. Interactive role of nitric oxide and calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nasir; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a small diffusible, ubiquitous bioactive molecule, acts as prooxidant as well as antioxidant, and also regulates remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. The present work was undertaken to investigate the role of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and/or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) in the tolerance of excised mustard leaves to salt stress. After 24h, salt stressed leaves treated with SNP and/or CaCl(2), showed an improvement in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR), and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and leaf ion concentration as compared with the leaves treated with NaCl only. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in H(2)O(2) content and membrane damage which is witnessed by enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage. By contrast, such increases were blocked by the application of 0.2mM SNP and 10mM CaCl(2) to salt stressed leaves. Application of SNP and/or CaCl(2) alleviated NaCl stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and by enhancing proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) accumulation with a concomitant decrease in H(2)O(2) content, TBARS and electrolyte leakage, which is manifested in the tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Moreover, application of SNP with CaCl(2) was more effective to reduce the detrimental effects of NaCl stress on excised mustard leaves. In addition to this, ameliorating effect of SNP was not effective in presence of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]. To put all these in a nut shell, the results advocate that SNP in association with CaCl(2) plays a role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to salt stress by improving antioxidative defence system, osmolyte accumulation and ionic

  7. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H2O2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings.

  8. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates oxidative stress of bud seedlings in tomato under water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Yao, Hejin; Wu, Jiawen; Sun, Hao; Gong, Haijun

    2014-05-01

    The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants.

  9. Genome duplication improves rice root resistance to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity is a stressful environmental factor that limits the productivity of crop plants, and roots form the major interface between plants and various abiotic stresses. Rice is a salt-sensitive crop and its polyploid shows advantages in terms of stress resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of genome duplication on rice root resistance to salt stress. Results Both diploid rice (HN2026-2x and Nipponbare-2x) and their corresponding tetraploid rice (HN2026-4x and Nipponbare-4x) were cultured in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 150 mM NaCl for 3 and 5 days. Accumulations of proline, soluble sugar, malondialdehyde (MDA), Na+ content, H+ (proton) flux at root tips, and the microstructure and ultrastructure in rice roots were examined. We found that tetraploid rice showed less root growth inhibition, accumulated higher proline content and lower MDA content, and exhibited a higher frequency of normal epidermal cells than diploid rice. In addition, a protective gap appeared between the cortex and pericycle cells in tetraploid rice. Next, ultrastructural analysis showed that genome duplication improved membrane, organelle, and nuclei stability. Furthermore, Na+ in tetraploid rice roots significantly decreased while root tip H+ efflux in tetraploid rice significantly increased. Conclusions Our results suggest that genome duplication improves root resistance to salt stress, and that enhanced proton transport to the root surface may play a role in reducing Na+ entrance into the roots. PMID:25184027

  10. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Alleviates Salinity Stress in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Patanun, Onsaya; Ueda, Minoru; Itouga, Misao; Kato, Yukari; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Matsui, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Utsumi, Chikako; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Minoru; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Seki, Motoaki

    2017-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) demand has been rising because of its various applications. High salinity stress is a major environmental factor that interferes with normal plant growth and limits crop productivity. As well as genetic engineering to enhance stress tolerance, the use of small molecules is considered as an alternative methodology to modify plants with desired traits. The effectiveness of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for increasing tolerance to salinity stress has recently been reported. Here we use the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), to enhance tolerance to high salinity in cassava. Immunoblotting analysis reveals that SAHA treatment induces strong hyper-acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in roots, suggesting that SAHA functions as the HDAC inhibitor in cassava. Consistent with increased tolerance to salt stress under SAHA treatment, reduced Na+ content and increased K+/Na+ ratio were detected in SAHA-treated plants. Transcriptome analysis to discover mechanisms underlying salinity stress tolerance mediated through SAHA treatment reveals that SAHA enhances the expression of 421 genes in roots under normal condition, and 745 genes at 2 h and 268 genes at 24 h under both SAHA and NaCl treatment. The mRNA expression of genes, involved in phytohormone [abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and gibberellin] biosynthesis pathways, is up-regulated after high salinity treatment in SAHA-pretreated roots. Among them, an allene oxide cyclase (MeAOC4) involved in a crucial step of JA biosynthesis is strongly up-regulated by SAHA treatment under salinity stress conditions, implying that JA pathway might contribute to increasing salinity tolerance by SAHA treatment. Our results suggest that epigenetic manipulation might enhance tolerance to high salinity stress in cassava. PMID:28119717

  11. Turning Anxiety into Creativity: Using Postmodern Principles to Alleviate Anxiety and Stress through the Art Curriculum and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, Lisa Marie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study is to help students alleviate their anxiety and stress symptoms using activities based on Olivia Gude's postmodern principles. The activities included are the participants own take-along visual art journal kit and classroom projects. Professional learning outcomes include the knowledge to equip teachers…

  12. Strawberry consumption alleviates doxorubicin-induced toxicity by suppressing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Bompadre, Stefano; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Astolfi, Paola; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Quiles, Josè L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most used chemotherapeutic agents, is known to generate oxidative stress and block DNA synthesis, which result in severe dose-limiting toxicity. A strategy to protect against Dox toxic effects could be to use dietary antioxidants of which fruits and vegetable are a rich source. In this context, strawberry consumption is associated with the maintenance of good health and the prevention of several diseases, thanks to the antioxidant capacities of its bioactive compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of strawberry consumption against oxidative stress induced by Dox in rats. Animals were fed with strawberry enriched diet (15% of the total calories) for two months and Dox (10 mg/kg; i.p.) was injected at the end of the experimental period. Strawberry consumption significantly inhibited ROS production and oxidative damage biomarkers accumulation in plasma and liver tissue and alleviated histopathological changes in rat livers treated with Dox. The reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities was significantly mitigated after strawberry consumption. In addition, strawberry enriched diet ameliorated liver mitochondrial antioxidant levels and functionality. In conclusion, strawberry intake protects against Dox-induced toxicity, at plasma, liver and mitochondrial levels thanks to its high contents of bioactive compounds.

  13. Polyhydroxyfullerene Binds Cadmium Ions and Alleviates Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Arunava; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Seena, Sahadevan; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble polyhydroxyfullerene (PHF) is a functionalized carbon nanomaterial with several industrial and commercial applications. There have been controversial reports on the toxicity and/or antioxidant properties of fullerenes and their derivatives. Conversely, metals have been recognized as toxic mainly due to their ability to induce oxidative stress in living organisms. We investigated the interactive effects of PHF and cadmium ions (Cd) on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exposing cells to Cd (≤5 mg liter−1) in the absence or presence of PHF (≤500 mg liter−1) at different pHs (5.8 to 6.8). In the absence of Cd, PHF stimulated yeast growth up to 10.4%. Cd inhibited growth up to 79.7%, induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and promoted plasma membrane disruption in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. The negative effects of Cd on growth were attenuated by the presence of PHF, and maximum growth recovery (53.8%) was obtained at the highest PHF concentration and pH. The coexposure to Cd and PHF decreased ROS accumulation up to 36.7% and membrane disruption up to 30.7% in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. Two mechanisms helped to explain the role of PHF in alleviating Cd toxicity to yeasts: PHF decreased Cd-induced oxidative stress and bound significant amounts of Cd in the extracellular medium, reducing its bioavailability to the cells. PMID:25038095

  14. Hydrogen sulfide and proline cooperate to alleviate cadmium stress in foxtail millet seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baohua; Qiao, Zengjie; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Pei, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and some functional amino acids in crops have been involved in the defense system against heavy-metal pollution. Here we report the relationships and functions of H2S and proline to cadmium (Cd) stress. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) pretreatment decreased the electrolytic leakage and the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents while enhancing photosynthesis in Cd-treated seedlings. Furthermore, pretreatment with NaHS markedly exacerbated Cd-induced alterations in proline content, the activities of proline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH), and the transcript levels of P5CR and PDH. When endogenous H2S was scavenged or inhibited by various H2S modulators, the Cd-induced increase in endogenous proline was weakened. Combined pretreatment with H2S and proline was moderately higher in the Cd-stressed growth status, stomata movements and oxidative damage of seedlings compared to a single treatment with H2S or proline. These results suggest that H2S and proline cooperate to alleviate Cd-damage in foxtail millet.

  15. Endophytic fungal pre-treatments of seeds alleviates salinity stress effects in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Khan, Abdul Latif; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, four endophytic fungi (GM-1, GM-2, GM-3, and GM-4) were tested for their ability to improve soybean plant growth under salinity stress conditions. The seed germination and plant growth were higher in seeds pretreated with endophytic fungal cultures than their controls. The positive influence of fungi on plant growth was supported by gibberellins analysis of culture filtrate (CF), which showed wide diversity and various concentrations of GAs. Specifically, GA4, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, and GA20 were found in fungal CFs. Under salinity stress conditions, GM-1 significantly enhanced the length and fresh weight of soybean plants relative to other fungal treatments. GM-1 effectively mitigated the adverse effects of salinity by limiting lipid peroxidation and accumulating protein content. GM-2, GM-3, and GM-4 also counteracted the salinity induced oxidative stress in soybean plants through reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of protein content, maintaining the length and fresh weight of shoots. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were inhibited in salinity exposed plants, while GM-1 significantly enhanced these antioxidant enzyme activities in plants under salt stress. GM-1 treatment also showed lower levels of abscisic acid and elevated levels of salicylic acid in plants under salinity stress. Hence, GM-1 was identified as Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) isolate RK01 based on its DNA sequence homology. These results suggest that endophytic fungal (F. verticillioides) pre-treatment of soybean seeds would be an effective method to promote soybean plant growth under salinity stress conditions.

  16. Shengmai Injection Improved Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Alleviating Myocardial Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Caspase-12 Dependent Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Tang, Yong; Xiang, Yin; Xie, Yu-Quan; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Apoptosis plays vital roles in the progression of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy (DOX-CM). Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) could induce specific apoptosis by caspase-12 dependent pathway. Shengmai Injection (SMI), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine, could alleviate the heart damage via inhibiting myocardial apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether SMI can alleviate ER stress and its specific apoptosis in the setting of DOX-CM. Objective. To explore the effects of SMI on heart function, myocardial ER stress, and apoptosis of DOX-CM rats. Methods. Rats with DOX-CM were treated by SMI. Heart function was assessed by echocardiography and brain natriuretic peptide. Myocardial apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. ER stress was assessed by detecting the expressions of GRP78 and caspase-12. Results. At the end of eight-week, compared to control, significant heart dysfunction happened in DOX group. The ratio of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and the expressions of GRP78 and caspase-12 increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared to DOX group, the apoptotic ratio and the expressions of GRP78 and caspase-12 significantly decreased in DOX + SMI group (P < 0.05), accompanied with improved heart function. Conclusion. SMI could alleviate myocardial ER stress and caspase-12 dependent apoptosis, which subsequently helped to improve the heart function of rats with DOX-CM. PMID:25839043

  17. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Imparts Partial Protection from Salt Stress Injury to Maize Seedlings by Improving Photosynthesis and Upregulating Osmoprotectants and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Meng, Yao; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2017-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has high physiological activity in plant stress physiology. This study showed that the application of exogenous GABA by root drenching to moderately (MS, 150 mM salt concentration) and severely salt-stressed (SS, 300 mM salt concentration) plants significantly increased endogenous GABA concentration and improved maize seedling growth but decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity compared with non-treated ones. Exogenous GABA alleviated damage to membranes, increased in proline and soluble sugar content in leaves, and reduced water loss. After the application of GABA, maize seedling leaves suffered less oxidative damage in terms of superoxide anion (O2·−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. GABA-treated MS and SS maize seedlings showed increased enzymatic antioxidant activity compared with that of untreated controls, and GABA-treated MS maize seedlings had a greater increase in enzymatic antioxidant activity than SS maize seedlings. Salt stress severely damaged cell function and inhibited photosynthesis, especially in SS maize seedlings. Exogenous GABA application could reduce the accumulation of harmful substances, help maintain cell morphology, and improve the function of cells during salt stress. These effects could reduce the damage to the photosynthetic system from salt stress and improve photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. GABA enhanced the salt tolerance of maize seedlings. PMID:28272438

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2008-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on characteristics of the growth, water status, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize plants under salt stress was studied in the greenhouse. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with five NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of non-saline pretreatment. Under salt stress, mycorrhizal maize plants had higher dry weight of shoot and root, higher relative chlorophyll content, better water status (decreased water saturation deficit, increased water use efficiency, and relative water content), higher gas exchange capacity (increased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO(2) concentration), higher non-photochemistry efficiency [increased non-photochemical quenching values (NPQ)], and higher photochemistry efficiency [increased the maximum quantum yield in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), the maximum quantum yield in the light-adapted sate (Fv'/Fm'), the actual quantum yield in the light-adapted steady state (phiPSII) and the photochemical quenching values (qP)], compared with non-mycorrhizal maize plants. In addition, AM symbiosis could trigger the regulation of the energy biturcation between photochemical and non-photochemical events reflected in the deexcitation rate constants (kN, kN', kP, and kP'). All the results show that G. mosseae alleviates the deleterious effect of salt stress on plant growth, through improving plant water status, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic capacity, while the influence of AM symbiosis on photosynthetic capacity of maize plants can be indirectly affected by soil salinity and mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of water status, but not by the mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of chlorophyll concentration and plant biomass.

  19. Rhizobial symbiosis alleviates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced systematic oxidative stress via brassinosteroids signaling in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomi; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ning; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-14

    The role of symbiotic rhizobia in the alleviation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced phytotoxicity in alfalfa and the brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling involved were investigated during phytoremediation. The association between alfalfa and Sinorhizobium meliloti was adopted as a remediation model. Phytotoxicity due to PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) exerted adverse impacts on plant performance (biomass accumulation and photosynthesis) and elicited cellular oxidative stress (overproduction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and cell necrosis) which was largely attenuated by pre-inoculation with S. meliloti strain NM. The protective role may have been achieved as a result of strengthening of basic antioxidant defense before stress as evidenced by the augmented activity and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes (peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase) of both leaves and roots. In nodulated seedlings peroxidase showed additive increased activity following PCB exposure but the activities of the other four enzymes tended to remain stable after stress. Furthermore, application of strain NM and brassinolide both triggered the accumulation of endogenous BRs and the antioxidant network, while pre-treatment of seedlings with a biosynthetic inhibitor of BRs, brassinazole, abolished the rhizobia-induced activation of detoxification responses towards PCB. These observations indicate that association with S. meliloti NM enhanced the systemic antioxidant defenses of alfalfa to detoxify PCB, at least in part, via BR-dependent signaling pathways. These results contribute to our knowledge of the 'logistic role' played by rhizobia in assisting the phytoremediation of PCB-contaminated soils and suggest an optimum manipulation strategy for bioremediation.

  20. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  1. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, M. B.; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A.; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 (SOS1) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants. PMID:28303151

  2. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Rubio, M B; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 (SOS1) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants.

  3. A salt-inducible chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase from halophyte Avicennia marina confers salt stress tolerance on transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Kumaresan; George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-10-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Avicennia marina, a halophytic mangrove, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in salt stress tolerance. A large scale random EST sequencing from a salt stressed leaf tissue cDNA library of one month old A. marina plants resulted in identification of a clone showing maximum homology to Monodehydroascorbate reductase (Am-MDAR). MDAR plays a key role in regeneration of ascorbate from monodehydroascorbate for ROS scavenging. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco of this salt inducible Am-MDAR. A transit peptide at the N-terminal region of Am-MDAR suggested that it encodes a chloroplastic isoform. The chloroplastic localization was confirmed by stable transformation and expression of the Am-MDAR-GFP fusion protein in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Am-MDAR survived better under conditions of salt stress compared to untransformed control plants. Assays of enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle revealed an enhanced activity of MDAR and ascorbate peroxidase whereas the activity of dehyroascorbate reductase was reduced under salt stressed and unstressed conditions in Am-MDAR transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed an enhanced redox state of ascorbate and reduced levels of malondialdehyde indicating its enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for genetic engineering of economically important plants tolerant to salt stress.

  4. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  5. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dongshuang; Li, Mingxia; Shi, Lianxuan

    2016-01-01

    Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars. PMID:27442489

  6. Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Issam; Chtourou, Yacine; Djebali, Wahbi

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenium (Se) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of sunflower seedlings to 20μM Cd inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations and strongly increased accumulation of Cd in both roots and shoots. Similarly, Cd enhanced hydrogen peroxides content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking seeds with Se (5, 10 and 20μM) alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. Furthermore, Se enhanced the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, but lowered that of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. As important antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione contents in sunflower leaves exposed to Cd were significantly decreased by Se treatment. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of Se during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Cd, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity.

  7. Phosphorus improves arsenic phytoremediation by Anadenanthera peregrina by alleviating induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M P; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, G S; Marques, T C L L S M; Garcia, Q S; Guilherme, L R G; Soares, A M

    2013-01-01

    Due to similarities in their chemical behaviors, studies examining interactions between arsenic (As)--in special arsenate--and phosphorus (P) are important for better understanding arsenate uptake, toxicity, and accumulation in plants. We evaluated the effects of phosphate addition on plant biomass and on arsenate and phosphate uptake by Anadenanthera peregrina, an important Brazilian savanna legume. Plants were grown for 35 days in substrates that received combinations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) arsenate and 0, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1) phosphate. The addition of P increased the arsenic-phytoremediation capacity of A. peregrina by increasing As accumulation, while also alleviating As-induced oxidative stress. Arsenate phytotoxicity in A. peregrina is due to lipid peroxidation, but not hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Added P also increased the activity of important reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) that help prevent lipid peroxidation in leaves. Our findings suggest that applying P represents a feasible strategy for more efficient As phytoremediation using A. peregrina.

  8. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  9. Isorhamnetin-3-glucoside alleviates oxidative stress and opacification in selenite cataract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Devi, V Gayathri; Rooban, B N; Sasikala, V; Sahasranamam, V; Abraham, Annie

    2010-09-01

    Oxidative stress has long been recognized as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of cataract and the goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of isorhamnetin-3-glucoside (IR3G) in alleviating the toxicity induced by sodium selenite in in vitro culture condition. IR3G is the bioactive flavonoid isolated and characterized from the leaves of Cochlospermum religiosum. Enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing M-199 medium alone (G-I), supplemented with 0.1 mM selenite (G-II) and selenite + 25 microg/ml IR3G (G-III). Treatment to G-III was from the second to fifth day while selenite administration to G-II & III was done on the third day. The antioxidant potential of the compound was assessed by Cu(2+) induced lipoprotein diene formation and superoxide scavenging assays. Morphological examination of the lenses also gave a supporting data. Antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly lower, while TBARS showed an increase in G-II than that in G-III and G-I lenses. Activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase was decreased and level of calcium was increased in G-II than G-III and G-I lenses. These data suggest that IR3G is able to significantly retard selenite cataract in vitro by virtue of its antioxidant property.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants.

  11. CPPU elevates photosynthetic abilities, growth performances and yield traits in salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) via free proline and sugar accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gashaw, Arega; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2014-01-01

    Application of N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea (CPPU) to salt susceptible cultivar of indica rice (cv. PTT1) effected on free proline and soluble sugar accumulation and regulated the physio-morphological responses when subjected to salt stress condition was firstly demonstrated in this study. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose, in leaf blade and leaf sheath were enriched in 0.1 mM CPPU pretreated plants subsequently exposed to 16.6 dS m(-1) NaCl for 10 days. In the long period (15 days) salt stress, free proline content in the leaf blade and leaf sheath were evidently peaked to act as osmotic adjustment in the salt-stressed plants. In addition, the photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, were maintained by the functional regulation of soluble sugar and free proline in the cellular levels, thereby leading to higher net photosynthetic rate. Further, the stomatal closure and transpiration rate in CPPU pretreated plants were retained under salt stress, thereby resulting in alleviation of growth performance and yield traits. This study suggested that exogenous application of CPPU may alternatively play effective role to improve the salt tolerant abilities of salt susceptible rice crop.

  12. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens supplementation alleviates immunological stress in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers at early age.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Yang, M X; Zhang, L L; Lu, Z X; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ( BA: ) on the immune function of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS: ). 192 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly distributed into four treatments: 1) broilers fed a basal diet; 2) broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with BA; 3) LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet; and 4) LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with BA. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with eight broilers per replicate. Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 500 μg LPS per kg body weight or sterile saline at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily gain ( ADG: , P = 0.001) and average daily feed intake (P = 0.001). The decreased ADG (P = 0.009) and increased feed conversion ratio (P = 0.047) in LPS-challenged broilers were alleviated by BA. LPS increased the relative spleen weight (P = 0.001). Relative spleen (P = 0.014) and bursa (P = 0.024) weights in the LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by BA. LPS increased white blood cell ( WBC: ) numbers (P = 0.001). However, the WBC numbers (P = 0.042) and the ratio of lymphocytes to WBC (P = 0.020) in LPS-challenged broilers were decreased with BA treatment. LPS decreased plasma lysozyme activity (P = 0.001), but increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone (P = 0.012) and IL-2 (P = 0.020). In contrast, BA increased lysozyme activity in plasma (P = 0.040). LPS increased mRNA abundances of splenic toll-like receptor 4 (P = 0.046), interferon γ (P = 0.008), IL-1β (P = 0.045) and IL-6, (P = 0.006). IL-2 (P = 0.014) and IL-6 (P = 0.074) mRNA abundances in LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by BA, although BA had an opposite effect for IL-10 mRNA expression in those broilers (P = 0.004). In conclusion, BA supplementation could partially alleviate the compromised growth performance and immune status of broilers under immune stress induced by LPS challenge at early age.

  13. Physiological Response of Lactobacillus plantarum to Salt and Nonelectrolyte Stress

    PubMed Central

    Glaasker, Erwin; Tjan, Frans S. B.; Ter Steeg, Pieter F.; Konings, Wil N.; Poolman, Bert

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we compared the effects on the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum of raising the medium molarity by high concentrations of KCl or NaCl and iso-osmotic concentrations of nonionic compounds. Analysis of cellular extracts for organic constituents by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that salt-stressed cells do not contain detectable amounts of organic osmolytes, whereas sugar-stressed cells contain sugar (and some sugar-derived) compounds. The cytoplasmic concentrations of lactose and sucrose in growing cells are always similar to the concentrations in the medium. By using the activity of the glycine betaine transport system as a measure of hyperosmotic conditions, we show that, in contrast to KCl and NaCl, high concentrations of sugars (lactose or sucrose) impose only a transient osmotic stress because external and internal sugars equilibrate after some time. Analysis of lactose (and sucrose) uptake also indicates that the corresponding transport systems are neither significantly induced nor activated directly by hyperosmotic conditions. The systems operate by facilitated diffusion and have very high apparent affinity constants for transport (>50 mM for lactose), which explains why low sugar concentrations do not protect against hyperosmotic conditions. We conclude that the more severe growth inhibition by salt stress than by equiosmolal concentrations of sugars reflects the inability of the cells to accumulate K+ (or Na+) to levels high enough to restore turgor as well as deleterious effects of the electrolytes intracellularly. PMID:9721316

  14. Responses of tolerant and susceptible Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) germplasm to salt stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of semi-arid western North America is salt-affected, and utilizing turfgrasses in salty areas can be challenging. Kentucky bluegrass is relatively susceptible to salt stress, showing reduced growth, osmotic and ionic stress, and eventual death at moderate or high salt concentrations. Consider...

  15. Effects of hot-salt stress corrosion on titanium alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-1Mo-0.2Si (679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (6242), Ti-6Al-4V (64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co (643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al (13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si (5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible, depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat variations and processing conditions. Residual compressive stresses reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the generality of a previously proposed hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  16. Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

    2007-02-15

    The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots.

  17. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel by iptakalim normalizes stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behaviour by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Zhan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Cao, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Ling; Ji, Juan; Gu, Jun; Huang, Ji-Ye; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2017-02-01

    Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior. We employed 2 stress paradigms: 8 weeks of continuous restraint stress (chronic restraint stress, CRS) and 2h of restraint stress (acute restraint stress, ARS), to mimic both chronic stress and severe acute stress. Prolonged (4 weeks) and short-term (a single injection) Ipt treatment was administered 30min before each stress paradigm. We found that HPA axis was altered after stress, with different responses to CRS (lower ACTH and CORT, higher AVP, but normal CRH) and ARS (higher CRH, ACTH and CORT, but normal AVP). Both prolonged and short-term Ipt treatment normalized stress-induced HPA axis disorders and abnormal behaviors in mice. CRS and ARS up-regulated mRNA levels of inflammation-related molecules (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and TLR4) and oxidative stress molecules (gp91phox, iNOS and Nrf2) in the mouse hypothalamus. Double immunofluorescence showed CRS and ARS increased microglia activation (CD11b and TNFα) and oxidative stress in neurons (NeuN and gp91phox), which were alleviated by Ipt. Therefore, the present study reveals that Ipt could prevent against stress-induced HPA axis disorders and depressive behavior by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus.

  18. Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase-producing fluorescent pseudomonads, to alleviate salinity stress on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Farzad; Khavazi, Kazem; Pazira, Ebrahim; Nejati, Alireza; Rahmani, Hadi Asadi; Sadaghiani, Hasan Rasuli; Miransari, Mohammad

    2009-04-01

    Salinity stress is of great importance in arid and semi-arid areas of the world due to its impact in reducing crop yield. Under salinity stress, the amount of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a precursor for ethylene production in plants, increases. Here, we conducted research under the hypothesis that isolated ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida can alleviate the stressful effects of salinity on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth. The experiments were conducted in the Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran. Seven experimental stages were conducted to isolate and characterize ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and to determine factors enhancing their growth and, consequently, their effects on the germination of canola seeds. Under salinity stress, in 14% of the isolates, ACC deaminase activity was observed, indicating that they were able to utilize ACC as the sole N-source. Bacterial strains differed in their ability to synthesize auxin and hydrogen cyanide compounds, as well as in their ACC deaminase activity. Under salinity stress, the rate of germinating seeds inoculated with the strains of ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and seedling growth was significantly higher. These results indicate the significance of soil biological activities, including the activities of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in the alleviation of soil stresses such as salinity on plant growth.

  19. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    PubMed

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants.

  20. Salt-Related MYB1 Coordinates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling during Salt Stress in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Tohge, Takayuki; Ivakov, Alexander; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mutwil, Marek; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Persson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cause global yield loss of all major crop plants. Factors and mechanisms that can aid in plant breeding for salt stress tolerance are therefore of great importance for food and feed production. Here, we identified a MYB-like transcription factor, Salt-Related MYB1 (SRM1), that negatively affects Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed germination under saline conditions by regulating the levels of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Accordingly, several ABA biosynthesis and signaling genes act directly downstream of SRM1, including SALT TOLERANT1/NINE-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE3, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION26, and Arabidopsis NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN19. Furthermore, SRM1 impacts vegetative growth and leaf shape. We show that SRM1 is an important transcriptional regulator that directly targets ABA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes and therefore may be regarded as an important regulator of ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance. PMID:26243618

  1. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  2. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients. PMID:25140348

  3. Carbon dioxide enrichment alleviates heat stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis through an ABA-independent process in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Ahammed, G J; Zhang, Y Q; Zhang, G Q; Sun, Z H; Zhou, J; Zhou, Y H; Xia, X J; Yu, J Q; Shi, K

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO₂ and high temperature are critically regulated through a complex network of phytohormones and redox homeostasis. However, the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in plant adaptation to heat stress under elevated CO₂ conditions has not been thoroughly studied. This study investigated the interactive effects of elevated CO₂ (800 μmol·mol(-1) ) and heat stress (42 °C for 24 h) on the endogenous level of ABA and the cellular redox state of two genotypes of tomato with different ABA biosynthesis capacities. Heat stress significantly decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and leaf water potential, but also increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both genotypes. Heat-induced damage was more severe in the ABA-deficient mutant notabilis (not) than in its parental cultivar Ailsa Craig (Ailsa), suggesting that a certain level of endogenous ABA is required to minimise the heat-induced oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Irrespective of genotype, the enrichment of CO₂ remarkably stimulated Fv/Fm, MDA and EL in heat-stressed plants towards enhanced tolerance. In addition, elevated CO₂ significantly strengthened the antioxidant capacity of heat-stressed tomato seedlings towards a reduced cellular redox state for a prolonged period, thereby mitigating oxidative stress. However, elevated CO₂ and heat stress did not alter the endogenous level of ABA or the expression of its biosynthetic gene NCED2 in either genotype, indicating that ABA is not involved in elevated CO₂ -induced heat stress alleviation. The results of this study suggest that elevated CO₂ alleviated heat stress through efficient regulation of the cellular redox poise in an ABA-independent manner in tomato plants.

  4. Choline Synthesis in Spinach in Relation to Salt Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, P. S.; Weretilnyk, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Choline metabolism was examined in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants growing under nonsaline and saline conditions. In spinach, choline is required for phosphatidylcholine synthesis and as a precursor for the compatible osmolyte glycine betaine (betaine). When control (nonsalinized) leaf discs were incubated for up to 2 h with [1,2-14C]ethanolamine, label appeared in the N-methylated derivatives of phosphoethanolamine including phosphomono-, phosphodi-, and phosphotri- (i.e. phosphocholine) methyl-ethanolamine, as well as in choline and betaine, whereas no radioactivity could be detected in the mono- and dimethylated derivatives of the free base ethanolamine. Leaf discs from salinized plants showed the same pattern of labeling, although the proportion of label that accumulated in betaine was almost 3-fold higher in the salinized leaf discs. Enzymes involved in choline metabolism were assayed in crude leaf extracts of plants. The activites of ethanolamine kinase and of the three S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-base N-methyltransferase enzymes responsible for N-methylating phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine were all higher in extracts of plants salinized step-wise to 100, 200, or 300 mM NaCI compared with controls. In contrast, choline kinase, phosphocholine phosphatase, and cytidine 5[prime]-triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activities showed little variation with salt stress. Thus, the increased diversion of choline to betaine in salt-stressed spinach appears to be mediated by the increased activity of several key enzymes involved in choline biosynthesis. PMID:12232019

  5. Salt stress-induced modulations in the shoot proteome of Brassica juncea genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahmad, Altaf; Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] is cultivated mainly in the northwestern agroclimatic region of India and suffers huge losses in productivity due to salinization. In an effort to figure out adaptation strategies of Indian mustard to salt stress, we conducted a comparative proteome analysis of shoots of its two genotypes, with contrasting sensitivity to salt stress. Differential expression of 21 proteins was observed during the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The identified salt-stress-responsive proteins were associated with different functional processes including osmoregulation, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, ion homeostasis, protein synthesis and stabilization, energy metabolism, and antioxidant defense system. Salt-tolerant genotype (CS-52) showed a relatively higher expression of proteins involved in turgor regulation, stabilization of photosystems and proteins, and salt compartmentalization, as compared to salt-sensitive genotype (Pusa Varuna). Our results suggest that modulating the expression of salt-responsive proteins can pave the way for developing salt tolerance in the Indian mustard plants.

  6. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p<0.01). HS reduced plasma flux rate of milk goats (p<0.01), but the plasma flux rate increased when the animal was under the conditions of the thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). The VE supplementation lowered dairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed between the control and YC treatment in rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p>0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA

  7. Pea lectin receptor-like kinase functions in salinity adaptation without yield penalty, by alleviating osmotic and ionic stresses and upregulating stress-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Neha; Pandey, Prashant; Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-05-01

    Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) are members of RLK family composed of lectin-like extracellular recognition domain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic kinase domain. LecRLKs are plasma membrane proteins believed to be involved in signal transduction. However, most of the members of the protein family even in plants have not been functionally well characterized. Herein, we show that Pisum sativum LecRLK (PsLecRLK) localized in plasma membrane systems and/or other regions of the cell and its transcript upregulated under salinity stress. Overexpression of PsLecRLK in transgenic tobacco plants confers salinity stress tolerance by alleviating both the ionic as well the osmotic component of salinity stress. The transgenic plants show better tissue compartmentalization of Na(+) and higher ROS scavenging activity which probably results in lower membrane damage, improved growth and yield maintenance even under salinity stress. Also, expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsLecRLK overexpression. Alleviation of osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress along with reduced oxidative damage and upregulation of stress-responsive genes in transgenic plants under salinity stress conditions could be possible mechanism facilitating enhanced stress tolerance. This study presents PsLecRLK as a promising candidate for crop improvement and also opens up new avenue to investigate its signalling pathway.

  8. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yu-Han; Liu, Ming; Bai, Yang; Liang, Li-Ye; Wang, Huai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA), and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ). Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity. PMID:28303170

  9. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Gu, Yu-Han; Liu, Ming; Bai, Yang; Liang, Li-Ye; Wang, Huai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA), and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ). Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity.

  10. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  11. Alleviation of Hyperglycemia Induced Vascular Endothelial Injury by Exenatide Might Be Related to the Reduction of Nitrooxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Xu, Chun-ling; Xiong, Hai-yan; Huang, Wen; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Yun; Wang, Si-yu

    2013-01-01

    We will investigate the effects of exenatide on vascular endothelial injury and nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia both in vivo and in vitro and explore the role of nitrooxidative stress in endothelium-protective action of exenatide. Healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM) model, low dose of exenatide treatment, and high dose of exenatide treatment. In vitro study showed that, compared with control group, the DM rats exhibited a lowered endothelium-dependent relaxation and damaged structural integrity of thoracic aortas, and there was a significant increase in plasma nitrotyrosine concentration. These parameters were improved after treatment with either low dose or high dose of exenatide for 45 days. In vitro study showed that exendin-4 (the active ingredient of exenatide) attenuated HUVECs injury induced by high glucose, with improving cell viability and attenuating cell apoptosis. Exendin-4 also significantly alleviated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrotyrosine content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by high glucose in HUVECs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exenatide treatment can alleviate the vascular endothelial injury, as well as attenuating the nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia, implying that the endothelium-protective effect of exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress. PMID:24371833

  12. Induction of alternative respiratory pathway involves nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and ethylene under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huahua; Huang, Junjun; Bi, Yurong

    2010-12-01

    Alternative respiratory pathway (AP) plays an important role in plant thermogenesis, fruit ripening and responses to environmental stresses. AP may participate in the adaptation to salt stress since salt stress increased the activity of the AP. Recently, new evidence revealed that ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are involved in the salt-induced increase of the AP, which plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis callus, and ethylene may be acting downstream of H(2)O(2). Recent observations also indicated both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) act as signaling molecules in responses to salt stress, and ethylene may be a part of the downstream signal molecular in NO action. In this addendum, a hypothetical model for NO function in regulation of H(2)O(2)- and ethylene-mediated induction of AP under salt stress is presented.

  13. The combined effect of salt stress and heat shock on proteome profiling in Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Chunyan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2011-10-15

    Under natural conditions or in the field, plants are often subjected to a combination of different stresses such as salt stress and heat shock. Although salt stress and heat shock have been extensively studied, little is known about how their combination affects plants. We used proteomics, coupled with physiological measurements, to investigate the effect of salt stress, heat shock, and their combination on Suaeda salsa plants. A combination of salt stress and heat shock resulted in suppression of CO(2) assimilation and the photosystem II efficiency. Approximately 440 protein spots changed their expression levels upon salt stress, heat shock and their combination, and 57 proteins were identified by MS. These proteins were classified into several categories including disease/defense, photosynthesis, energy production, material transport, and signal transduction. Some proteins induced during salt stress, e.g. choline monooxygenase, chloroplastic ATP synthase subunit beta, and V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A, and some proteins induced during heat shock, e.g. heat shock 70kDa protein, probable ion channel DMI1, and two component sensor histidine kinase, were either unchanged or suppressed during a combination of salt stress and heat shock. In contrast, the expression of some proteins, including nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, chlorophyll a/b binding protein, and ABC transporter I family member 1, was specifically induced during a combination of salt stress and heat shock. The potential roles of the stress-responsive proteins are discussed.

  14. Coexpression of bile salt hydrolase gene and catalase gene remarkably improves oxidative stress and bile salt resistance in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohong; Yin, Sheng; An, Haoran; Chen, Shangwu; Hao, Yanling

    2011-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encounter various types of stress during industrial processes and gastrointestinal transit. Catalase (CAT) and bile salt hydrolase (BSH) can protect bacteria from oxidative stress or damage caused by bile salts by decomposing hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or deconjugating the bile salts, respectively. Lactobacillus casei is a valuable probiotic strain and is often deficient in both CAT and BSH. In order to improve the resistance of L. casei to both oxidative and bile salts stress, the catalase gene katA from L. sakei and the bile salt hydrolase gene bsh1 from L. plantarum were coexpressed in L. casei HX01. The enzyme activities of CAT and BSH were 2.41 μmol H(2)O(2)/min/10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) and 2.11 μmol glycine/min/ml in the recombinant L. casei CB, respectively. After incubation with 8 mM H(2)O(2), survival ratio of L. casei CB was 40-fold higher than that of L. casei CK. Treatment of L. casei CB with various concentrations of sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDCA) showed that ~10(5) CFU/ml cells survived after incubation with 0.5% GDCA, whereas almost all the L. casei CK cells were killed when treaded with 0.4% GDCA. These results indicate that the coexpression of CAT and BSH confers high-level resistance to both oxidative and bile salts stress conditions in L. casei HX01.

  15. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  16. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  17. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Fengjuan Qi, Shengdong Li, Hui Liu, Pu Li, Pengcheng Wu, Changai Zheng, Chengchao Huang, Jinguang

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice.

  19. A proteomic analysis of salt stress response in seedlings of two African rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Li, Ming; Liu, Yanli; Chen, Xi; Murage, Hunja; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-11-01

    Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses threatening future agricultural production and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the salt stress response of two rice seedlings, which were screened from 28 Kenya rice cultivars. A proteomic analysis was carried out and Mapman bin codes employed in protein function categorization. Proteins in the redox, stress, and signaling categories were identified, and whose expression differed between the salt tolerant and the salt sensitive samples employed in the present study. 104 and 102 root proteins were observed as significantly altered during salt stress in the tolerant and sensitive samples, respectively and 13 proteins were commonly expressed. Among the 13 proteins, ketol-acid reductoisomerase protein was upregulated in both 1 and 3days of salt treatment in the tolerant sample, while it was down-regulated in both 1 and 3days of salt treatment in the sensitive sample. Actin-7, tubulin alpha, V-type proton ATPase, SOD (Cu-Zn), SOD (Mn), and pyruvate decarboxylase were among the observed salt-induced proteins. In general, this study improves our understanding about salt stress response mechanisms in rice.

  20. Restoration of autophagy alleviates hepatic ER stress and impaired insulin signalling transduction in high fructose-fed male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Ruo-Qiong; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Xiu; Li, Songpei; Jo, Eunjung; Molero, Juan C; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-carbohydrate (mainly fructose) consumption is a major dietary factor for hepatic insulin resistance, involving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid accumulation. Because autophagy has been implicated in ER stress, the present study investigated the role of autophagy in high-fructose (HFru) diet-induced hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. The results show that chronic HFru feeding induced glucose intolerance and impaired insulin signaling transduction in the liver, associated with ER stress and the accumulation of lipids. Intriguingly, hepatic autophagy was suppressed as a result of activation of mammalian target of rapamycin. The suppressed autophagy was detected within 6 hours after HFru feeding along with activation of both inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase pathways. These events occurred prior to lipid accumulation or lipogenesis and were sufficient to blunt insulin signaling transduction with activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/inhibitory-κB kinase and serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1. The stimulation of autophagy attenuated ER stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/inhibitory-κB kinase-associated impairment in insulin signaling transduction in a mammalian target of rapamycin -independent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that restoration of autophagy functions disrupted by fructose is able to alleviate ER stress and improve insulin signaling transduction.

  1. Modification of plasma membrane proton pumps in cucumber roots as an adaptation mechanism to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2013-07-01

    The effect of salt stress (50mM NaCl) on modification of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber roots was studied. Plants were grown under salt stress for 1, 3 or 6 days. In salt-stressed plants, weak stimulation of ATP hydrolytic activity of PM H(+)-ATPase and significant stimulation of proton transport through the plasma membrane were observed. The H(+)/ATP coupling ratio in the plasma membrane of plants subjected to salt stress significantly increased. The greatest stimulation of PM H(+)-ATPase was in 6-day stressed plants. Increased H2O2 accumulation under salt stress conditions in cucumber roots was also observed, with the greatest accumulation observed in 6-day stressed plants. Additionally, during the sixth day of salinity, there appeared heat shock proteins (HSPs) 17.7 and 101, suggesting that repair processes and adaptation to stress occurred in plants. Under salt stress conditions, fast post-translational modifications took place. Protein blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 proteins showed that, under salinity, the level of those elements increased. Additionally, under salt stress, activity changes of PM H(+)-ATPase can partly result from changes in the pattern of expression of PM H(+)-ATPase genes. In cucumber seedlings, there was increased expression of CsHA10 under salt stress and the transcript of a new PM H(+)-ATPase gene isoform, CsHA1, also appeared. Accumulation of the CsHA1 transcript was induced by NaCl exposure, and was not expressed at detectable levels in roots of control plants. The appearance of a new PM H(+)-ATPase transcript, in addition to the increase in enzyme activity, indicates the important role of the enzyme in maintaining ion homeostasis in plants under salt stress.

  2. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot.

  3. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates He-Ne laser-induced adaptive responses in salt stressed-tall fescue leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Limei; Han, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous nitric oxide in protective effects of He-Ne laser on salt stressed-tall fescue leaves. Salt stress resulted in significant increases of membrane injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, polyamine accumulation, and activities of SOD, POD, and APX, while pronounced decreases of antioxidant contents, CAT activity and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in seedlings leaves. He-Ne laser illumination caused a distinct alleviation of cellular injury that was reflected by the lower MDA amounts, polyamine accumulation and ROS levels at the stress period. In contrast, the laser treatment displayed a higher Ca(2+) concentration, antioxidant amounts, NO release, antioxidant enzyme, and NOS activities. These responses could be blocked due to the inhibition of NO biosynthesis by PTIO (NO scavenger) or LNNA (NOS inhibitor). The presented results demonstrated that endogenous NO might be involved in the progress of He-Ne laser-induced plant antioxidant system activation and ROS degradation in order to enhance adaptive responses of tall fescue to prolonged saline conditions.

  4. The promoters of 3 celery salt-induced phloem-specific genes as new tools for monitoring salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Jeauffre, Julien; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Genes induced by a progressive 3 week salt stress (final NaCl concentration 300 mM) were identified in the phloem of celery (Apium graveolens L., cv Vert d'Elne). A subtractive library was constructed and screened for salt-induced, phloem-specific genes. Work was focused on phloem due to its central role in inter-organ exchanges. Three genes were studied in more details, 2 coding for metallothioneins (AgMT2 and AgMT3) and one for a new mannitol transporter (AgMaT3). Expression of a reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis under control of promoter of each gene was located in the phloem. pAgMT2 has a typical phloem pattern with slight induction by salt stress. pAgMT3 and pAgMaT3 expression was induced by salt stress, except in minor veins. pAgMaT3 was highly active in stressed roots. The promoters described here could be regarded as new tools for engineering salt-resistant plants.

  5. Nitrate and Ammonium Contribute to the Distinct Nitrogen Metabolism of Populus simonii during Moderate Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sen; Su, Li; Li, Yiming; Wang, Yinjuan; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stressor affecting plant growth. Salinity affects nitrification and ammonification in the soil, however, limited information is available on the influence of different N sources on N metabolism during salt stress. To understand the N metabolism changes in response to different N sources during moderate salt stress, we investigated N uptake, assimilation and the transcript abundance of associated genes in Populus simonii seedlings treated with moderate salt stress (75mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture conditions with nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). Salt stress negatively affected plant growth in both NH4+-fed and NO3--fed plants. Both NH4+ uptake and the total N concentration were significantly increased in the roots of the NH4+-fed plants during salt stress. However, the NO3- uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity primarily depended on the NO3- supply and was not influenced by salt stress. Salt stress decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity in the roots and leaves. Most genes associated with NO3-uptake, reduction and N metabolism were down-regulated or remained unchanged; while two NH4+ transporter genes closely associated with NH4+ uptake (AMT1;2 and AMT1;6) were up-regulated in response to salt stress in the NH4+-fed plants. The accumulation of different amino acid compounds was observed in the NH4+- and NO3-- fed plants during salt treatment. The results suggested that N metabolism in P. simonii plants exposed to salt enhanced salt resistance in the plants that were fed with NO3- instead of NH4+ as the sole N source. PMID:26950941

  6. Treadmill exercise alleviates stress-induced impairment of social interaction through 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Kijeong; Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors tyrosine kinase B (trkB), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) have been suggested as the neurobiological risk factors causing depressive disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. We in-vestigated the effect of treadmill exercise on social interaction in relation with BDNF and 5-HT expressions following stress in rats. Stress was induced by applying inescapable 0.2 mA electric foot shock to the rats for 7 days. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. Social interaction test and western blot for BDNF, TrkB, pCREB, and 5-HT1A in the hippocampus were performed. The results indicate that the spend time with unfamiliar partner was decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise increased the spending time in the stress-induced rats. Expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB were decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB in the stress-induced rats. In addition, 5-HT1A receptor expression was de-creased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced 5-HT1A expression in the stress-induced rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise alleviated stress-induced social interaction impairment through enhancing hippocampal plasticity and serotonergic function in the hippocampus. These effects of treadmill exercise are achieved through 5-HT1A receptor activation. PMID:26331133

  7. Cysteamine alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Yong; Yang, Ming-Feng; Wang, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Liu, Yun-Lin; Zhang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Bao-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to assess whether cysteamine prevents post-SAH oxidative stress injury via its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. It was observed that intraperitoneal administration of cysteamine (20 mg/kg/day) could significantly alleviate EBI (including neurobehavioral deficits, brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and cortical neuron apoptosis) after SAH in rats. Meanwhile, cysteamine treatment reduced post-SAH elevated the reactive oxygen species level, the concentration of malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and increased the glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity, the concentration of glutathione and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain cortex at 48 h after SAH. These results indicated that administration of cysteamine may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH in rat models.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment induces salt-stress acclimation in maize plants.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Neto, André Dias; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Enéas-Filho, Joaquim; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Gomes-Filho, Enéas

    2005-10-01

    The effect of exogenously applied H2O2 on salt stress acclimation was studied with regard to plant growth, lipid peroxidation, and activity of antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of a salt-sensitive maize genotype. Pre-treatment by addition of 1 microM H2O2 to the hydroponic solution for 2 days induced an increase in salt tolerance during subsequent exposure to salt stress. This was evidenced by plant growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes measurements. In both leaves and roots the variations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) activities of both acclimated and unacclimated plants, suggest that differences in the antioxidative enzyme activities may, at least in part, explain the increased tolerance of acclimated plants to salt stress, and that H2O2 metabolism is involved as signal in the processes of maize salt acclimation.

  9. Teacher Stress: What It Is, Why It's Important, How It Can Be Alleviated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilleltensky, Isaac; Neff, Marilyn; Bessell, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Teacher stress can be conceptualized as an imbalance between risk and protective factors. Stress emanates from risk factors at the personal, interpersonal, and organizational levels. When risk factors exceed protective factors, teacher ability to cope with adversity is inhibited, likely resulting in stress and pernicious consequences. In this…

  10. How Do You Spell Relief? Alleviating Job Stress Caused by Organizations and Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

    1991-01-01

    College business officers should examine whether they and their institutions are practicing stress-inducing activities, and modify current practice to reduce stress on employees. Stresses can originate in the organizational framework, managerial style, or manager personality. Review of individual and organizational actions possible causing stress…

  11. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  12. Endogenous Cytokinin Overproduction Modulates ROS Homeostasis and Decreases Salt Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Shen, Wenzhong; Chan, Zhulong; Wu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8) and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26635831

  13. Endogenous Cytokinin Overproduction Modulates ROS Homeostasis and Decreases Salt Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Shen, Wenzhong; Chan, Zhulong; Wu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8) and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis.

  14. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase UGT85A5 enhances salt stress tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Guo; Wang, Bo; Jin, Shang-Hui; Qu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses greatly influence plant growth and productivity. While glycosyltransferases are widely distributed in plant kingdom, their biological roles in response to abiotic stresses are largely unknown. In this study, a novel Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase gene UGT85A5 was identified as significantly induced by salt stress. Ectopic expression of UGT85A5 in tobacco enhanced the salt stress tolerance in the transgenic plants. There were higher seed germination rates, better plant growth and less chlorophyll loss in transgenic lines compared to wild type plants under salt stress. This enhanced tolerance of salt stress was correlated with increased accumulations of proline and soluble sugars, but with decreases in malondialdehyde accumulation and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in UGT85A5-expressing tobacco. Furthermore, during salt stress, expression of several carbohydrate metabolism-related genes including those for sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, hexose transporter and a group2 LEA protein were obviously upregulated in UGT85A5-expressing transgenic plants compared with wild type controls. Thus, these findings suggest a specific protective role of this glycosyltransferase against salt stress and provide a genetic engineering strategy to improve salt tolerance of crops.

  15. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Qurashi, Aisha Waheed; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2012-01-01

    To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98) growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity. PMID:24031943

  16. Physiological and Proteomic Analyses of Saccharum spp. Grown under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Aline Melro; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Franco, Augusto Cesar; Takahashi, Frederico Scherr Caldeira; de Oliveira-, Nelson Gomes; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the world most productive sugar producing crop, making an understanding of its stress physiology key to increasing both sugar and ethanol production. To understand the behavior and salt tolerance mechanisms of sugarcane, two cultivars commonly used in Brazilian agriculture, RB867515 and RB855536, were submitted to salt stress for 48 days. Physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, water potential, dry root and shoot mass and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of leaves were determined. Control plants of the two cultivars showed similar values for most traits apart from higher root dry mass in RB867515. Both cultivars behaved similarly during salt stress, except for MDA levels for which there was a delay in the response for cultivar RB867515. Analysis of leaf macro- and micronutrients concentrations was performed and the concentration of Mn2+ increased on day 48 for both cultivars. In parallel, to observe the effects of salt stress on protein levels in leaves of the RB867515 cultivar, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis was performed. Four proteins were differentially expressed between control and salt-treated plants. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was down-regulated, a germin-like protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed increased expression levels under salt stress, and heat-shock protein 70 was expressed only in salt-treated plants. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism and defense-related responses and we suggest that they may be involved in protection mechanisms against salt stress in sugarcane. PMID:24893295

  17. Applying hyperspectral imaging to explore natural plant diversity towards improving salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Olsovska, Katarina; Kovar, Marek; Shao, Hongbo; He, Xiaolan

    2017-02-01

    Salinity represents an abiotic stress constraint affecting growth and productivity of plants in many regions of the world. One of the possible solutions is to improve the level of salt resistance using natural genetic variability within crop species. In the context of recent knowledge on salt stress effects and mechanisms of salt tolerance, this review present useful phenomic approach employing different non-invasive imaging systems for detection of quantitative and qualitative changes caused by salt stress at the plant and canopy level. The focus is put on hyperspectral imaging technique, which provides unique opportunities for fast and reliable estimate of numerous characteristics associated both with various structural, biochemical and physiological traits. The method also provides possibilities to combine plant and canopy analyses with a direct determination of salinity in soil. The future perspectives in salt stress applications as well as some limits of the method are also identified.

  18. Putrescine differently influences the effect of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene synthesis in rice cultivars differing in salt resistance.

    PubMed

    Quinet, Muriel; Ndayiragije, Alexis; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lambillotte, Béatrice; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C; Lutts, Stanley

    2010-06-01

    Effects of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene production were examined in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars [I Kong Pao (IKP), salt sensitive; and Pokkali, salt resistant] grown for 5 d and 12 d in nutrient solution in the presence or absence of putrescine (1 mM) and 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The salt-sensitive (IKP) and salt-resistant (Pokkali) cultivars differ not only in their mean levels of putrescine, but also in the physiological functions assumed by this molecule in stressed tissues. Salt stress increased the proportion of conjugated putrescine in salt-resistant Pokkali and decreased it in the salt-sensitive IKP, suggesting a possible protective function in response to NaCl. Activities of the enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) involved in putrescine synthesis were higher in salt-resistant Pokkali than in salt-sensitive IKP. Both enzymes were involved in the response to salt stress. Salt stress also increased diamine oxidase (DAO; 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidase (PAO EC 1.5.3.11) activities in the roots of salt-resistant Pokkali and in the shoots of salt-sensitive IKP. Gene expression followed by reverse transcription-PCR suggested that putrescine could have a post-translational impact on genes coding for ADC (ADCa) and ODC (ODCa and ODCb) but could induce a transcriptional activation of genes coding for PAO (PAOb) mainly in the shoot of salt-stressed plants. The salt-resistant cultivar Pokkali produced higher amounts of ethylene than the salt-sensitive cultivar IKP, and exogenous putrescine increased ethylene synthesis in both cultivars, suggesting no direct antagonism between polyamine and ethylene pathways in rice.

  19. Putrescine differently influences the effect of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene synthesis in rice cultivars differing in salt resistance

    PubMed Central

    Quinet, Muriel; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lambillotte, Béatrice; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C.; Lutts, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Effects of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene production were examined in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars [I Kong Pao (IKP), salt sensitive; and Pokkali, salt resistant] grown for 5 d and 12 d in nutrient solution in the presence or absence of putrescine (1 mM) and 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The salt-sensitive (IKP) and salt-resistant (Pokkali) cultivars differ not only in their mean levels of putrescine, but also in the physiological functions assumed by this molecule in stressed tissues. Salt stress increased the proportion of conjugated putrescine in salt-resistant Pokkali and decreased it in the salt-sensitive IKP, suggesting a possible protective function in response to NaCl. Activities of the enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) involved in putrescine synthesis were higher in salt-resistant Pokkali than in salt-sensitive IKP. Both enzymes were involved in the response to salt stress. Salt stress also increased diamine oxidase (DAO; 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidase (PAO EC 1.5.3.11) activities in the roots of salt-resistant Pokkali and in the shoots of salt-sensitive IKP. Gene expression followed by reverse transcription-PCR suggested that putrescine could have a post-translational impact on genes coding for ADC (ADCa) and ODC (ODCa and ODCb) but could induce a transcriptional activation of genes coding for PAO (PAOb) mainly in the shoot of salt-stressed plants. The salt-resistant cultivar Pokkali produced higher amounts of ethylene than the salt-sensitive cultivar IKP, and exogenous putrescine increased ethylene synthesis in both cultivars, suggesting no direct antagonism between polyamine and ethylene pathways in rice. PMID:20472577

  20. SKIP Confers Osmotic Tolerance during Salt Stress by Controlling Alternative Gene Splicing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinlin; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Zhaoxu; Lu, Yaru; Yu, Junya; Zheng, Qian; Yan, Shuning; Zhang, Wenjiao; He, Hang; Ma, Ligeng; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms underlying plant responses to abiotic stress is key for improving plant stress resistance. Much is known about the regulation of gene expression in response to salt stress at the transcriptional level; however, little is known about this process at the posttranscriptional level. Recently, we demonstrated that SKIP is a component of spliceosome that interacts with clock gene pre-mRNAs and is essential for regulating their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. In this study, we found that skip-1 plants are hypersensitive to both salt and osmotic stresses, and that SKIP is required for the alternative splicing and mRNA maturation of several salt-tolerance genes, including NHX1, CBL1, P5CS1, RCI2A, and PAT10. A genome-wide analysis revealed that SKIP mediates the alternative splicing of many genes under salt-stress conditions, and that most of the alternative splicing events in skip-1 involve intron retention and can generate a premature termination codon in the transcribed mRNA. SKIP also controls alternative splicing by modulating the recognition or cleavage of 5' and 3' splice donor and acceptor sites under salt-stress conditions. Therefore, this study addresses the fundamental question of how the mRNA splicing machinery in plants contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, and provides a link between alternative splicing and salt tolerance.

  1. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength. PMID:24198726

  2. Glucocorticoids Prevent Enterovirus 71 Capsid Protein VP1 Induced Calreticulin Surface Exposure by Alleviating Neuronal ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan-Dan; Mai, Jian-Ning; He, Li-Ya; Li, Pei-Qing; Chen, Wen-Xiong; Yan, Jian-Jiang; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Deng, Li; Wei, Dan; Liu, Di-Hui; Yang, Si-Da; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2017-02-01

    Severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) always accompanies with inflammation and neuronal damage in the central nervous system (CNS). During neuronal injuries, cell surface-exposed calreticulin (Ecto-CRT) is an important mediator for primary phagocytosis of viable neurons by microglia. Our data confirmed that brainstem neurons underwent neuronophagia by glia in EV71-induced death cases of HFMD. EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, or VP4 did not induce apoptosis of brainstem neurons. Interestingly, we found VP1-activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy could promote Ecto-CRT upregulation, but ER stress or autophagy alone was not sufficient to induce CRT exposure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that VP1-induced autophagy activation was mediated by ER stress. Meaningfully, we found dexamethasone treatment could attenuate Ecto-CRT upregulation by alleviating VP1-induced ER stress. Altogether, these findings identify VP1-promoted Ecto-CRT upregulation as a novel mechanism of EV71-induced neuronal cell damage and highlight the potential of the use of glucocorticoids to treat severe HFMD patients with CNS complications.

  3. Silicon (Si) alleviates cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from zinc (Zn) toxicity stress by limiting Zn uptake and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Anwaar, Shad Ali; Ali, Shafaqat; Ali, Skhawat; Ishaque, Wajid; Farid, Mujahid; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Najeeb, Ullah; Abbas, Farhat; Sharif, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Silicon (Si) is as an important fertilizer element, which has been found effective in enhancing plant tolerance to variety of biotic and a-biotic stresses. This study investigates the Si potential to alleviate zinc (Zn) toxicity stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponics and exposed to different Zn concentration, 0, 25, and 50 μM, alone and/or in combination with 1 mM Si. Incremental Zn concentration in growth media instigated the cellular oxidative damage that was evident from elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and consequently inhibited cotton growth, biomass, chlorophyll pigments, and photosynthetic process. Application of Si significantly suppressed Zn accumulation in various plant parts, i.e., roots, stems, and leaves and thus promoted biomass, photosynthetic, growth parameters, and antioxidant enzymes activity of Zn-stressed as well unstressed plants. In addition, Si reduced the MDA and H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage suggesting its role in protecting cotton plants from Zn toxicity-induced oxidative damage. Thus, the study indicated that exogenous Si application could improve growth and development of cotton crop experiencing Zn toxicity stress by limiting Zn bioavailability and oxidative damage.

  4. Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

  5. Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi capacity to alleviate abiotic stress of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants at different transplant conditions.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth.

  6. Glucocorticoids alleviate intestinal ER stress by enhancing protein folding and degradation of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Das, Indrajit; Png, Chin Wen; Oancea, Iulia; Hasnain, Sumaira Z; Lourie, Rohan; Proctor, Martina; Eri, Rajaraman D; Sheng, Yong; Crane, Denis I; Florin, Timothy H; McGuckin, Michael A

    2013-06-03

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory cells has been linked with colitis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous intestinal glucocorticoids are important for homeostasis and glucocorticoid drugs are efficacious in IBD. In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) suppressed ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), substantially restoring goblet cell Muc2 production. In mice lacking inflammation, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist increased ER stress, and DEX suppressed ER stress induced by the N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (Tm). In cultured human intestinal secretory cells, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, DEX suppressed ER stress and UPR activation induced by blocking N-glycosylation, reducing ER Ca(2+) or depleting glucose. DEX up-regulated genes encoding chaperones and elements of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including EDEM1. Silencing EDEM1 partially inhibited DEX's suppression of misfolding-induced ER stress, showing that DEX enhances ERAD. DEX inhibited Tm-induced MUC2 precursor accumulation, promoted production of mature mucin, and restored ER exit and secretion of Winnie mutant recombinant Muc2 domains, consistent with enhanced protein folding. In IBD, glucocorticoids are likely to ameliorate ER stress by promoting correct folding of secreted proteins and enhancing removal of misfolded proteins from the ER.

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals that distinct metabolic pathways operate in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive upland cotton varieties subjected to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinyan; Shi, Gongyao; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Yumei; Su, Zhen; Hua, Jinping

    2015-09-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses in crop plants. As a moderately salt-tolerant crop, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major cash crop in saline areas and a suitable model for salt stress tolerance research. In this study, we compared the transcriptome changes between the salt-tolerant upland cotton cultivar Zhong 07 and salt-sensitive cultivar Zhong G5 in response to NaCl treatments. Transcriptional regulation, signal transduction and secondary metabolism in two varieties showed significant differences, all of which might be related to mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. The transcriptional profiles presented here provide a foundation for deciphering the mechanism underlying salt tolerance. Based on our findings, we proposed several candidate genes that might be used to improve salt tolerance in upland cotton.

  8. Phosphate-Dependent Root System Architecture Responses to Salt Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, Hector Montero; ter Horst, Anneliek; Haring, Michel A.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect the growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability affects the root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and how Pi levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Pi starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Columbia-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75 mm) on all measured RSA components. At higher salt concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid signaling compared with the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general, lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied, and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By genome-wide association mapping, 12 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses. PMID:27208277

  9. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiti; Li, Le; Gao, Zhaozhou; Wu, Honghong; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-09-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl(2) exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+), and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis.

  10. Lead and cadmium-induced oxidative stress impacting mycelial growth of Oudemansiella radicata in liquid medium alleviated by microbial siderophores.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan-Ru; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Deng, Jia-Yu; Zhao, Qi-Qi; Xu, Heng

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the effects of siderophores produced by six bacteria on mycelium growth, Cd and Pb accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein content and antioxidant enzyme in Oudemansiella radicata were investigated in Cd and Pb-containing liquid medium. The results showed that inoculation with siderophore-containing filtrates (SCF) partly enhanced the growth of O. radicata after 15 days, with 0.8-32.4% biomass increase for Cd and 0.7-20.8% for Pb compared to control(s), which lacked siderophore. The maximum enhancement for accumulation were found to be confined to Bacillus sp. FFQ2(s) (26.5%) for Cd and Pseudomonas sp. CY63(s) (158.9%) for Pb. A significant decrease in MDA content indicated that lipid peroxidation in O. radicata was alleviated by siderophores. Besides, antioxidant enzyme SOD and POD activities also displayed obviously decrease in SCF-treated mycelium compared to control(s) treatment, while CAT activity did not present significant change. Protein level in O. radicata treated by SCF increased from 0.3 to 138.0% for Cd and from 10.9 to 107.1% for Pb compared to control(s). Therefore, the present work suggests that microbial siderophores can reduce the toxicity of metals to mycelium and then alleviate heavy metals-inducing oxidative stress in O. radicata.

  11. A salt-regulated peptide derived from the CAP superfamily protein negatively regulates salt-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chien, Pei-Shan; Nam, Hong Gil; Chen, Yet-Ran

    2015-08-01

    High salinity has negative impacts on plant growth through altered water uptake and ion-specific toxicities. Plants have therefore evolved an intricate regulatory network in which plant hormones play significant roles in modulating physiological responses to salinity. However, current understanding of the plant peptides involved in this regulatory network remains limited. Here, we identified a salt-regulated peptide in Arabidopsis. The peptide was 11 aa and was derived from the C terminus of a cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP) superfamily. This peptide was found by searching homologues in Arabidopsis using the precursor of a tomato CAP-derived peptide (CAPE) that was initially identified as an immune signal. In searching for a CAPE involved in salt responses, we screened CAPE precursor genes that showed salt-responsive expression and found that the PROAtCAPE1 (AT4G33730) gene was regulated by salinity. We confirmed the endogenous Arabidopsis CAP-derived peptide 1 (AtCAPE1) by mass spectrometry and found that a key amino acid residue in PROAtCAPE1 is critical for AtCAPE1 production. Moreover, although PROAtCAPE1 was expressed mainly in the roots, AtCAPE1 was discovered to be upregulated systemically upon salt treatment. The salt-induced AtCAPE1 negatively regulated salt tolerance by suppressing several salt-tolerance genes functioning in the production of osmolytes, detoxification, stomatal closure control, and cell membrane protection. This discovery demonstrates that AtCAPE1, a homologue of tomato immune regulator CAPE1, plays an important role in the regulation of salt stress responses. Our discovery thus suggests that the peptide may function in a trade-off between pathogen defence and salt tolerance.

  12. Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  13. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  14. Weak microwave can alleviate water deficit induced by osmotic stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Jia, Jing-Fen; Han, Xiao-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the effect of microwave pretreatment of wheat seeds on the resistance of seedlings to osmotic stress. Changes in biophysical, physiological and biochemical characters were measured. The results showed: (1) The magnetic field intensity and seeds temperature increased progressively with microwave pretreatments of 5, 10, 15, 20 s and 25 s compared with controls. Although each microwave pretreatment resulted in an increase in alpha-amylase activity and photon emission intensity, the increase of alpha-amylase activity and photon emission intensity was maximal at a microwave pretreatment of 10 s. (2) Osmotic stress induced by PEG treatment enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde, while decreasing the activities of nitricoxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentration of nitric oxide, ascorbic acid, glutathione in the seedlings compared with controls. However, compared to osmotic stress alone, in the seedlings treated with microwave irradiation plus osmotic stress the concentration of malondialdehyde decreased, while the activities of nitricoxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentration of nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione increased. These results suggest that a suitable dose of microwave radiation can enhance the capability to eliminate free radicals induced by osmotic stress in wheat seedlings resulting in an increase in resistance to osmotic stress.

  15. Sympathoexcitation by oxidative stress in the brain mediates arterial pressure elevation in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Megumi; Ando, Katsuyuki; Nagae, Ai; Fujita, Toshiro

    2007-08-01

    Central sympathoexcitation is involved in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension. We have suggested that oxidative stress in the brain modulates the sympathetic regulation of arterial pressure. Thus, we investigated whether oxidative stress could mediate central sympathoexcitation in salt-sensitive hypertension. Five- to 6-week-old male Dahl salt-sensitive rats and salt-resistant rats were fed with a normal (0.3%) or high- (8%) salt diet for 4 weeks. In urethane-anesthetized and artificially ventilated rats, arterial pressure, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and heart rate decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, when 20 or 40 micromol of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, was infused into the lateral cerebral ventricle. The same degree of reduction was noted in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats without salt loading. Salt loading significantly increased central tempol-induced reductions in arterial pressure (-29.1+/-4.8% versus -10.6+/-3.3% at 40 micromol; P<0.01), sympathetic nerve activity (-18.7+/-2.0% versus -7.1+/-1.8%; P<0.01), and heart rate (-10.7+/-2.8% versus -2.0+/-0.7%; P<0.05) in salt-sensitive rats but not in salt-resistant rats. Intracerebroventricular diphenyleneiodonium, a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor, also elicited significantly greater reduction in each parameter in salt-loaded salt-sensitive rats. Moreover, salt loading increased reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent superoxide production in the hypothalamus in salt-sensitive rats but not in salt-resistant rats. In addition, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits p22(phox), p47(phox), and gp91(phox) mRNA expression significantly increased in the hypothalamus of salt-loaded salt-sensitive rats. In conclusion, in salt-sensitive hypertension, increased oxidative stress in the brain, possibly via activation of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase

  16. Betaine prevented fructose-induced NAFLD by regulating LXRα/PPARα pathway and alleviating ER stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chen-Xu; Yu, Rong; Xu, Min-Xuan; Li, Pei-Qin; Fan, Chen-Yu; Li, Jian-Mei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2016-01-05

    Betaine has been proven effective in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models, however, its molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The aims of this study were to explore the mechanisms mediating the anti-inflammatory and anti-lipogenic actions of betaine in fructose-fed rats. In this study, betaine improved insulin resistance, reduced body weight gain and serum lipid levels, and prevented hepatic lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats. It up-regulated hepatic expression of liver X receptor-alpha (LXRα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), with the attenuation of the changes of their target genes, including hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) 1α, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1, apolipoprotein B, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and adipocyte differentiation-related protein, involved in fatty acid oxidation and lipid storage in these model rats. Furthermore, betaine alleviated ER stress and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, CPT II, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and fatty acid synthase expression involved in fatty acid synthesis in the liver of fructose-fed rats. Betaine suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis in fructose-fed rats by moderating protein kinase B -forkhead box protein O1 pathway, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin activity. Moreover, betaine inhibited hepatic nuclear factor kappa B /nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 inflammasome activation-mediated inflammation in this animal model. These results demonstrated that betaine ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation through restoring LXRα and PPARα expression and alleviating ER stress in fructose-fed rats. This study provides the potential mechanisms of betaine involved in the treatment of NAFLD.

  17. Analysis of petunia hybrida in response to salt stress using high throughput RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salt and drought are among the greatest challenges to crop and native plants in meeting their yield and reproductive potentials. DNA sequencing-enabled transcriptome profiling provides a means of assessing what genes are responding to salt or drought stress so as to better understand the molecular ...

  18. Dexmedetomidine alleviates anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Jia, Min; Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Liu, Wen-Xue; Xie, Zhong-Cong; Wang, Zhong-Yun; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2014-10-03

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disease that has substantial health implications, including high rates of health morbidity and mortality, as well as increased health-related costs. Although many pharmacological agents have proven the effects on the development of PTSD, current pharmacotherapies typically only produce partial improvement of PTSD symptoms. Dexmedetomidine is a selective, short-acting α2-adrenoceptor agonist, which has anxiolytic, sedative, and analgesic effects. We therefore hypothesized that dexmedetomidine possesses the ability to prevent the development of PTSD and alleviate its symptoms. By using the rat model of PTSD induced by five electric foot shocks followed by three weekly exposures to situational reminders, we showed that the stressed rats displayed pronounced anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments compared to the controls. Notably, repeated administration of 20μg/kg dexmedetomidine showed impaired fear conditioning memory, decreased anxiety-like behaviors, and improved spatial cognitive impairments compared to the vehicle-treated stressed rats. These data suggest that dexmedetomidine may exert preventive and protective effects against anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments in the rats with PTSD after repeated administration.

  19. Selenium Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Lung Damage Induced by Aluminum Chloride in Adult Rats: Biochemical and Histological Approach.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Chaabane, Mariem; Jamoussi, Kamel; Mnif, Hela; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-03-01

    Our study pertains to the potential ability of selenium, used as a nutritional supplement, to alleviate oxidative stress induced by aluminum chloride in the lung tissue. Rats have received during 21 days either aluminum chloride (AlCl3) (400 ppm) via drinking water, AlCl3 associated with Na2SeO3 (0.5 mg/kg of diet), or only Na2SeO3. Exposure of rats to AlCl3 induced lung oxidative stress with an increase of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and protein carbonyls levels. An alteration of lactate dehydrogenase activities and antioxidant redox status, enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase), and non-enzymatic (non-protein thiols, glutathione, metallothionein, and vitamin C) was also observed. These biochemical modifications were substantiated by histopathological data showing alveolar edema, a large number of hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and emphysema. Se supplementation attenuated the levels of oxidative stress by restoring antioxidant state and improved lung histological damage. Our results revealed that Se, a trace element with antioxidant properties, was effective in preventing lung damage.

  20. Transcript identification and profiling during salt stress and recovery of Populus euphratica.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ruisheng; Fonseca, Sandra; Puskás, László G; Hackler, László; Zvara, Agnes; Dudits, Dénes; Pais, Maria S

    2004-03-01

    Populus euphratica Oli. is a salt-tolerant species that can cope with up to 450 mM NaCl under hydroponic conditions and can tolerate high accumulations of Na+ and Cl- in roots and leaves when grown in 300 mM NaCl. Transcript responses to salt stress and recovery were monitored by microarray hybridization of 315 cDNAs preselected by suppression subtractive hybridization. Transcripts of a heat-shock protein and a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein accumulated 1.5 and 3 h, respectively, after adding 300 mM NaCl to the culture medium. Transcripts significantly up-regulated by salt stress included ionic and osmotic homeostasis elements such as magnesium transporter-like protein, syntaxin-like protein, seed imbibition protein and plasma membrane intrinsic protein; metabolism regulators like cytochrome P450, zinc finger protein, cleavage factor and aminotransferase; and the photosynthesis-activating enzyme Rubisco activase and photorespiration-related glycolate oxidase. Several photosynthesis-related transcripts were down-regulated in response to 72 h of salt stress but were up-regulated after long-term recovery (48 h). Sucrose synthase, ABC transporter, calmodulin, Pop3 peptide and aquaporin appeared to be actively involved in the process of plant recovery from salt stress. Several transcripts encoding proteins of unknown function were regulated by salt stress. Selected transcripts exhibiting altered transcript profiles in response to salt stress were also analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Transcript analysis during salt stress and recovery of this woody species revealed several genes and corresponding proteins deserving special attention in future studies of salt tolerance in woody species.

  1. Biochar alleviates combined stress of ammonium and acids by firstly enriching Methanosaeta and then Methanosarcina.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Luo, Chenghao; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of biochar of different particle sizes in alleviating ammonium (NH4(+)) inhibition (up to 7 g-N/L) during anaerobic digestion of 6 g/L glucose. Compared to the control treatment without biochar addition, treatments that included biochar particles 2-5 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 75-150 μm in size reduced the methanization lag phase by 23.9%, 23.8% and 5.9%, respectively, and increased the maximum methane production rate by 47.1%, 23.5% and 44.1%, respectively. These results confirmed that biochar accelerated the initiation of methanization during anaerobic digestion under double inhibition risk from both ammonium and acids. Furthermore, fine biochar significantly promoted the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Comparative analysis on the archaeal and bacterial diversity at the early and later stages of digestion, and in the suspended, biochar loosely bound, and biochar tightly bound fractions suggested that, in suspended fractions, hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium was actively resistant to ammonium. However, acetoclastic Methanosaeta can survive at VFAs concentrations up to 60-80 mmol-C/L by improved affinity to conductive biochar, resulting in the accelerated initiation of acetate degradation. Improved methanogenesis was followed by the colonization of the biochar tightly bound fractions by Methanosarcina. The selection of appropriate biochar particles sizes was important in facilitating the initial colonization of microbial cells.

  2. Regulation of Na+ and K+ homeostasis in plants: towards improved salt stress tolerance in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Oliveira, M Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J M

    2017-03-27

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that results in considerable crop yield losses worldwide. However, some plant genotypes show a high tolerance to soil salinity, as they manage to maintain a high K+/Na+ ratio in the cytosol, in contrast to salt stress susceptible genotypes. Although, different plant genotypes show different salt tolerance mechanisms, they all rely on the regulation and function of K+ and Na+ transporters and H+ pumps, which generate the driving force for K+ and Na+ transport. In this review we will introduce salt stress responses in plants and summarize the current knowledge about the most important ion transporters that facilitate intra- and intercellular K+ and Na+ homeostasis in these organisms. We will describe and discuss the regulation and function of the H+-ATPases, H+-PPases, SOS1, HKTs, and NHXs, including the specific tissues where they work and their response to salt stress.

  3. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-27

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management.

  4. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R.; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management. PMID:25583516

  5. Endophytic infection alleviates Pb(2+) stress effects on photosystem II functioning of Oryza sativa leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-09-15

    The aims of this study were to examine the effect of Pb(2+) stress on the primary reaction of photosynthesis and to assess the potential benefits of endophytic infection on the Pb(2+) tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice inoculated with an endophytic fungus (E+) and non-inoculated (E-) were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM Pb(2+). The responses to Pb(2+) stress were characterized by the analysis of Chl a fluorescence. A comparison of E- with E+ rice seedlings, as evaluated by their performance index (PI(ABS) and PI(tot)), revealed the inhibitory effects of Pb(2+) on photosystem II (PSII) connectivity, the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), and on the J step of the induction curves, which is associated with an inhibition of electron transport from the quinone acceptor Q(A) to Q(B). Furthermore, the changes of the donor and the acceptor parameters of PSII were greater in E- than in E+ under Pb(2+) stress. These observations suggest that the efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb(2+) stress, and the photosynthetic energy conservation in E+ was more effective than in E-. We showed that endophytic infection plays an important role in enhancing the photosynthetic mechanism of rice seedlings exposed to Pb(2+) stress.

  6. Contrasting Proteomic and Metabolomic Responses of Bermudagrass to Drought and Salt Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Fan; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of tolerant grass species to drought and salt. The comparative analyses of bermudagrass in response to drought and salt stresses at the physiological, proteomic, and metabolomic levels were performed in this study. The physiological results indicated that osmolytes accumulation, ROS level and antioxidant enzyme activities were extensively changed by drought and salt stresses. Through comparative proteomic analyses, we successfully identified a total of 77 proteins involved in photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis, and redox metabolic pathways when exposed to drought and salt stresses. Among them, 36 proteins were commonly regulated by both treatments, while other 40 and 13 proteins were specifically regulated by drought and salt, respectively. Totally 15 proteins were involved in carbon metabolic pathway. Moreover, contents of 37 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by drought and salt treatments. Among them, 18 commonly modulated metabolites were involved in carbon and amino acid metabolic pathways. Drought treatment for 21 days caused less accumulation of sugars and sugar alcohols and increased ROS level in bermudagrass which led to relatively more severe cell membrane reflected by high EL-value and lower survival rate when compared to 400 mM salt treatment for 21 days. These results suggested that drought and 400 mM NaCl stresses for 21 days treatment affected common and specific changes in bermudagrass, which would provide new insights to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms and metabolic homeostasis of bermudagrass in responses to abiotic stresses. PMID:27891145

  7. ABA Is Required for Plant Acclimation to a Combination of Salt and Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Bassil, Elias; Hamilton, Jason S.; Inupakutika, Madhuri A.; Zandalinas, Sara Izquierdo; Tripathy, Deesha; Luo, Yuting; Dion, Erin; Fukui, Ginga; Kumazaki, Ayana; Nakano, Ruka; Rivero, Rosa M.; Verbeck, Guido F.; Azad, Rajeev K.; Blumwald, Eduardo; Mittler, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are a major cause of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Here we report on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to a combination of salt and heat stress using transcriptome analysis, physiological measurements and mutants deficient in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Arabidopsis plants were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress compared to each of the different stresses applied individually. The stress combination resulted in a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in leaves and caused the enhanced expression of 699 transcripts unique to the stress combination. Interestingly, many of the transcripts that specifically accumulated in plants in response to the salt and heat stress combination were associated with the plant hormone abscisic acid. In accordance with this finding, mutants deficient in abscisic acid metabolism and signaling were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress than wild type plants. Our study highlights the important role abscisic acid plays in the acclimation of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses. PMID:26824246

  8. ABA Is Required for Plant Acclimation to a Combination of Salt and Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Bassil, Elias; Hamilton, Jason S; Inupakutika, Madhuri A; Zandalinas, Sara Izquierdo; Tripathy, Deesha; Luo, Yuting; Dion, Erin; Fukui, Ginga; Kumazaki, Ayana; Nakano, Ruka; Rivero, Rosa M; Verbeck, Guido F; Azad, Rajeev K; Blumwald, Eduardo; Mittler, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are a major cause of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Here we report on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to a combination of salt and heat stress using transcriptome analysis, physiological measurements and mutants deficient in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Arabidopsis plants were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress compared to each of the different stresses applied individually. The stress combination resulted in a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in leaves and caused the enhanced expression of 699 transcripts unique to the stress combination. Interestingly, many of the transcripts that specifically accumulated in plants in response to the salt and heat stress combination were associated with the plant hormone abscisic acid. In accordance with this finding, mutants deficient in abscisic acid metabolism and signaling were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress than wild type plants. Our study highlights the important role abscisic acid plays in the acclimation of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses.

  9. Spermine Alleviates Drought Stress in White Clover with Different Resistance by Influencing Carbohydrate Metabolism and Dehydrins Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Jing, Wen; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Xin Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin Kai; Yan, Yan-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. ‘Ladino’ and drought-resistant cv. ‘Haifa’) under controlled drying conditions for 10 days. The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars. Exogenous Spm led to accumulation of more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), sucrose, fructose and sorbitol in both cultivars under drought stress, and also significantly elevated glucose content in leaves of drought-resistant cv. ‘Haifa’, but had no effect on drought-susceptible cv. ‘Ladino’. Accordingly, the key enzyme activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolism changed along with the application of Spm under drought stress. Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought. In addition, the improved accumulation of dehydrins induced by exogenous Spm coincided with three genes expression which was responsible for dehydrins synthesis. But Spm-induced transcript level of dehydrin genes increased earlier in cv. ‘Ladino’ than that in cv. ‘Haifa’. Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis. There are differences between drought-susceptible and -resistant white clover cultivars related to Spm regulation of WSC metabolism and dehydrins expression. PMID:25835290

  10. Salt Stress Phenotypes in Listeria monocytogenes Vary by Genetic Lineage and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Fortes, Esther D.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow under wide-ranging environmental stress conditions encountered both in foods and in the host. The ability of certain L. monocytogenes subtypes to thrive under stress conditions present in specific niches was hypothesized to reflect genetic characteristics and phenotypic capabilities conserved among strains within a subtype. To quantify variations in salt stress phenotypes among 40 strains selected to represent the diversity of the three major L. monocytogenes genetic lineages and to determine if salt stress phenotypes were associated with genetic relatedness, we measured growth under salt stress at both 7°C and 37°C. At 7°C, in brain–heart infusion with 6% NaCl, average growth rates among the lineages were similar. A comparison of doubling times after exposure to salt stress at 7°C or 37°C indicated that growth at 7°C provided crossprotection to subsequent salt stress for strains in lineages I and II. At 37°C, in brain–heart infusion with 6% NaCl, lineage I and III strains grew significantly faster (p < 0.0001) than lineage II strains. Under salt stress at 37°C, differences in growth parameters were significantly (p < 0.005) associated with genetic relatedness of the strains. Compatible solute uptake is part of the L. monocytogenes salt stress response, but growth differences between the lineages were not related to differences in transcript levels of osmolyte transporter-encoding genes betL, gbuA, oppA, and opuCA. The combination of phylogenetic and phenotypic data suggests that L. monocytogenes lineage I and III strains, which are most commonly associated with human and animal disease, may be better adapted to osmotic stress at 37°C, conditions that are present in the host gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20707723

  11. Nitric oxide alleviates oxidative damage induced by high temperature stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Bavita, A; Shashi, B; Navtej, S B

    2012-05-01

    Effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) was examined in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, C 306 (heat tolerant) and PBW 550 (comparatively heat susceptible) to study the extent of oxidative injury and activities of antioxidant enzyme in relation to high temperature (HT) stress. HT stress resulted in a marked decrease in membrane thermostability (MTS) and 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) cell viability whereas content of lipid peroxide increased in both the cultivars. The tolerant cultivar C 306 registered less damage to cellular membranes compared to PBW 550 under HT stress. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaicol peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased with HT in both the cultivars. Following treatment with SNP, activities of all antioxidant enzymes further increased in correspondence with an increase in MTS and TTC. Apparently, lipid peroxide content was reduced by SNP more in shoots of heat tolerant cultivar C 306 indicating better protection over roots under HT stress. The up-regulation of the antioxidant system by NO possibly contributed to better tolerance against HT induced oxidative damage in wheat.

  12. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  13. Adaptive changes of the yeast mitochondrial proteome in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pastor, Mar; Proft, Markus; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with the capacity to adapt to environmental stimuli and stress. Here we use yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in combination with proteomic approaches to quantify the changes in the protein composition of mitochondria in the presence of salt stress provoked by NaCl. We identified 15 proteins that were more than twofold overrepresented in salt adapted mitochondria. These proteins are mainly involved in the oxidative stress defense, the biosynthesis of amino acids and ubiquinone or in the metabolism of pyruvate and acetate. Loss of function of most of the upregulated proteins did not result in a significant growth phenotype under high salt conditions. However, all identified proteins were necessary to sustain efficient growth under oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, a subset of outer mitochondrial membrane proteins was shown to be upregulated upon salt stress. We furthermore identified nine proteins that were more than threefold underrepresented in salt adapted mitochondria. These proteins were mainly glycolytic enzymes or proteins with a predominant localization at the endoplasmatic reticulum. Our results underline the complex nature of the stress adaptation of mitochondria and identify functional groups of proteins whose specific role in salt resistance should be revealed in the future.

  14. Assessing the soil microbial carbon budget: Probing with salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The amount of carbon stored as soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a pool more than double the size of the atmospheric carbon pool. Soil respiration represents one of the largest fluxes of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. A large fraction of the CO2 released by soils is produced by the microbial decomposition of SOM. The microbial carbon budget is characterized by their carbon use efficiency, i.e. the partitioning of substrate into growth and respiration. This will shape the role of the soil as a net source or sink for carbon. One of the canonical factors known to influence microbial processes in soil is pH. In aquatic systems salinity has been found to have a comparably strong influence as pH. However salinity remains understudied in soil, despite its growing relevance due to land use change and agricultural practices. The aim of this project is to understand how microbial carbon dynamics respond to disturbance by changing environmental conditions, using salinity as a reversible stressor. First, we compiled a comparative analysis of the sensitivity of different microbial processes to increasing salt concentrations. Second, we compared different salts to determine whether salt toxicity depended on the identity of the salt. Third, we used samples from a natural salinity gradient to assess if a legacy of salt exposure can influence the microbial response to changing salt concentrations. If salt had an ecologically significant effect in shaping these communities, we would assume that microbial processes would be less sensitive to an increase in salt concentrations. The sensitivity of microbial processes to salt was investigated by establishing inhibition curves in order to estimate EC50 values (the concentration resulting in 50% inhibition). These EC50 values were used to compare bacterial and fungal growth responses, as well as catabolic processes such as respiration and nitrogen mineralisation. Initial results suggest that growth related

  15. Auxin redistribution modulates plastic development of root system architecture under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Li, Xia

    2009-10-15

    Auxin plays an important role in the modulation of root system architecture. The effect of salinity on primary root growth has been extensively studied. However, how salinity affects lateral root development and its underlying molecular mechanisms is still unclear. Here, we report that high salt exposure suppresses lateral root initiation and organogenesis, resulting in the abortion of lateral root development. In contrast, salt stress markedly promotes lateral root elongation. Histochemical staining showed that the quantity of auxin and its patterning in roots were both greatly altered by exposure to high concentrations of salt, as compared with those found in the untreated control. Physiological experiments using transport inhibitors and genetic analysis revealed that the auxin transport pathway is important for salt-induced root development. These results demonstrate that auxin transport activities are required for remodeling lateral root formation and elongation and for adaptive root system development under salt stress.

  16. Berberis vulgaris root extract alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quails.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Borawska, Maria H; Jabłonski, Jakub; Guler, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the action mode of Berberis vulgaris root extract in the alleviation of oxidative stress, female Japanese quails (n 180, aged 5 weeks) were reared, either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS), and fed one of three diets: diets containing 0, 100 or 200 mg of B. vulgaris root extract per kg for 12 weeks. Exposure to HS depressed feed intake by 8·5% and egg production by 12·1%, increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 98·0% and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities by 23·5, 35·4 and 55·7%, respectively (P<0·001 for all). There were also aggravations in expressions of hepatic NF-κB and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) by 42 and 43%, respectively and suppressions in expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and haeme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by 57 and 61%, respectively, in heat-stressed quails (P<0·001 for all). As supplemental B. vulgaris extract increased, there were linear increases in performance parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions (P<0·001 for all) and linear decreases in hepatic MDA level and NF-κB and HSP70 expressions at a greater extent in quails reared under TN condition and those reared under HS condition. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of B. vulgaris root extract to quails reduces the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from HS via activating the host defence system at the cellular level.

  17. Curcumin improves vascular function and alleviates oxidative stress in non-lethal lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Sompamit, Kwanjit; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2009-08-15

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various pathological conditions, including septic shock, and other diseases associated with local or systemic inflammation. Curcumin, a major component from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possesses diverse anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on modulation of vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg), administered intragastrically, either before or after intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg). Fifteen hours after LPS administration, arterial blood pressure was measured and vascular response to vasoactive agents were assessed. Aortic tissues and blood samples were taken for assays of antioxidant and oxidative stress markers. LPS caused marked hypotension, tachycardia and vascular hyporeactivity. The mean arterial pressures in responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside of LPS-treated mice were significantly decreased when compared with the untreated controls. Curcumin modulated heart rate and restored arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in both protectively- and therapeutically-treated regimens. Furthermore, the vascular responsiveness of LPS-treated mice was improved by curcumin. Interestingly, the improvements of haemodynamics and vascular response during endotoxaemia were related to alleviation of oxidative stress by reducing aortic-derived superoxide production, suppression of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and decrease in urinary nitric oxide metabolites with preservation of the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide. This study provides the first evidence for the potential role of curcumin in prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunction in mice with endotoxaemia elicited by LPS.

  18. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Hydrogen Sulfide Is Partially Related to the Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Han, Qiaoxia; Hou, Junfeng; Lu, Hongfang; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available describing the effects of exogenous H2S on the ABA pathway in the acquisition of drought tolerance in wheat. In this study, we investigated the physiological parameters, the transcription levels of several genes involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism pathway, and the ABA and H2S contents in wheat leaves and roots under drought stress in response to exogenous NaHS treatment. The results showed that pretreatment with NaHS significantly increased plant height and the leaf relative water content of seedlings under drought stress. Compared with drought stress treatment alone, H2S application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced MDA and H2O2 contents in both leaves and roots. NaHS pretreatment increased the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA reactivation genes in leaves; whereas the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism genes were up-regulated in roots. These results indicated that ABA participates in drought tolerance induced by exogenous H2S, and that the responses in leaves and roots are different. The transcription levels of genes encoding ABA receptors were up-regulated in response to NaHS pretreatment under drought conditions in both leaves and roots. Correspondingly, the H2S contents in leaves and roots were increased by NaHS pretreatment, while the ABA contents of leaves and roots decreased. This implied that there is complex crosstalk between these two signal molecules, and that the alleviation of drought stress by H2S, at least in part, involves the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:27649534

  19. Multicyclic jet-flap control for alleviation of helicopter blade stresses and fuselage vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccloud, J. L., III; Kretz, M.

    1974-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests of a 12-meter-diameter rotor utilizing multicyclic jet-flap control deflection are presented. Analyses of these results are shown, and experimental transfer functions are determined by which optimal control vectors are developed. These vectors are calculated to eliminate specific harmonic bending stresses, minimize rms levels (a measure of the peak-to-peak stresses), or minimize vertical vibratory loads that would be transmitted to the fuselage. Although the specific results and the ideal control vectors presented are for a specific jet-flap driven rotor, the method employed for the analyses is applicable to similar investigations. A discussion of possible alternative methods of multicyclic control by mechanical flaps or nonpropulsive jet-flaps is presented.

  20. Tranilast-induced stress alleviation in solid tumors improves the efficacy of chemo- and nanotherapeutics in a size-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Polydorou, Christiana; Mpekris, Fotios; Voutouri, Chrysovalantis; Agathokleous, Eliana; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of mechanical stresses during cancer progression can induce blood and lymphatic vessel compression, creating hypo-perfusion, hypoxia and interstitial hypertension which decrease the efficacy of chemo- and nanotherapies. Stress alleviation treatment has been recently proposed to reduce mechanical stresses in order to decompress tumor vessels and improve perfusion and chemotherapy. However, it remains unclear if it improves the efficacy of nanomedicines, which present numerous advantages over traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. Furthermore, we need to identify safe and well-tolerated pharmaceutical agents that reduce stress levels and may be added to cancer patients’ treatment regimen. Here, we show mathematically and with a series of in vivo experiments that stress alleviation improves the delivery of drugs in a size-independent manner. Importantly, we propose the repurposing of tranilast, a clinically approved anti-fibrotic drug as stress-alleviating agent. Using two orthotopic mammary tumor models, we demonstrate that tranilast reduces mechanical stresses, decreases interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), improves tumor perfusion and significantly enhances the efficacy of different-sized drugs, doxorubicin, Abraxane and Doxil, by suppressing TGFβ signaling and expression of extracellular matrix components. Our findings strongly suggest that repurposing tranilast could be directly used as a promising strategy to enhance, not only chemotherapy, but also the efficacy of cancer nanomedicine. PMID:28393881

  1. Global Microarray Analysis of Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 Salt Stress Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liang; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    The alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 is often exposed to salt stress in its natural habitats. In this study, we used one-colour microarrays to investigate adaptive responses of Bacillus sp. N16-5 transcriptome to long-term growth at different salinity levels (0%, 2%, 8%, and 15% NaCl) and to a sudden salt increase from 0% to 8% NaCl. The common strategies used by bacteria to survive and grow at high salt conditions, such as K+ uptake, Na+ efflux, and the accumulation of organic compatible solutes (glycine betaine and ectoine), were observed in Bacillus sp. N16-5. The genes of SigB regulon involved in general stress responses and chaperone-encoding genes were also induced by high salt concentration. Moreover, the genes regulating swarming ability and the composition of the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall were also differentially expressed. The genes involved in iron uptake were down-regulated, whereas the iron homeostasis regulator Fur was up-regulated, suggesting that Fur may play a role in the salt adaption of Bacillus sp. N16-5. In summary, we present a comprehensive gene expression profiling of alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5 cells exposed to high salt stress, which would help elucidate the mechanisms underlying alkaliphilic Bacillus spp. survival in and adaptation to salt stress.

  2. Ageing-Associated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Are Alleviated by Products from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with increased incidence of a variety of chronic disease states which share oxidative stress and inflammation as causative role players. Furthermore, data point to a role for both cumulative oxidative stress and low grade inflammation in the normal ageing process, independently of disease. Therefore, arguably the best route with which to address premature ageing, as well as age-associated diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and dementia, is preventative medicine aimed at modulation of these two responses, which are intricately interlinked. In this review, we provide a detailed account of the literature on the communication of these systems in the context of ageing, but with inclusion of relevant data obtained in other models. In doing so, we attempted to more clearly elucidate or identify the most probable cellular or molecular targets for preventative intervention. In addition, given the absence of a clear pharmaceutical solution in this context, together with the ever-increasing consumer bias for natural medicine, we provide an overview of the literature on grape (Vitis vinifera) derived products, for which beneficial effects are consistently reported in the context of both oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:27034739

  3. Extension of the M-D model for treating stress drops in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; DeVries, K.L.; Fossum, A.F.; Callahan, G.D.

    1993-07-01

    Development of the multimechanism deformation (M-D) constitutive model for steady state creep, which incorporates irreversible workhardening and recovery transient strains, was motivated by the need to predict very long term closures in underground rooms for radioactive waste repositories in salt. The multimechanism deformation model for the creep deformation of salt is extended to treat the response of salt to imposed stress drops. Stress drop tests produce a very distinctive behavior where both reversible elastic strain and reversible time dependent strain occur. These transient strains are negative compared to the positive transient strains produced by the normal creep workhardening and recovery processes. A simple micromechanical evolutionary process is defined to account for the accumulation of these reversible strains, and their subsequent release with decreases in stress. A number of experimental stress drop tests for various stress drop magnitudes and temperatures are adequately simulated with the model.

  4. Alleviation of water stress effects on MR220 rice by application of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zain, Nurul Amalina Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Mahmood, Maziah; Puteh, Adam; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz

    2014-02-05

    The use of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization may enhance rice tolerance to drought stress and improve the crop's instantaneous water use efficiency without much yield reduction. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different periodical water stress combined with potassium fertilization regimes on growth, yield, leaf gas exchanges and biochemical changes in rice grown in pots and compare them with standard local rice grower practices. Five treatments including (1) standard local grower's practice (control, 80CF = 80 kg K2O/ha + control flooding); (2) 120PW15 = 120 kg K2O/ha + periodical water stress for 15 days; (3) 120DS15V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the vegetative stage; (4) 120DS25V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 25 days and (5) 120DS15R = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the reproductive stage, were evaluated in this experiment. Control and 120PW15 treatments were stopped at 100 DAS, and continuously saturated conditions were applied until harvest. It was found that rice under 120PW15 treatment showed tolerance to drought stress evidenced by increased water use efficiency, peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and proline levels, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and lower minimal fluorescence (fo), compared to other treatments. Path coefficient analysis revealed that most of parameters contribute directly rather than indirectly to rice yield. In this experiment, there were four factors that are directly involved with rice yield: grain soluble sugar, photosynthesis, water use efficiency and total chlorophyll content. The residual factors affecting rice yield are observed to be quite low in the experiment (0.350), confirming that rice yield was mostly influenced by the parameters measured during the study.

  5. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·−, MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·− and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets. PMID:28295023

  6. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Martínez, Yordan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE) on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0), a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1), a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2), and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3). SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly compared to T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets. PMID:28386308

  7. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-03-15

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·(-), MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·(-) and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets.

  8. Multi-layered control of peroxisomal activity upon salt stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Estreder, Sara; Espí-Bardisa, Joan; Alarcón, Benito; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2017-03-21

    Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner. Moreover, Na(+) and Li(+) stress increases the number of peroxisomes per cell in a Hog1-independent manner, which depends instead of the retrograde pathway and the dynamin related GTPases Dnm1 and Vps1. The strong activation of the Faa1 fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, which specifically localizes to lipid particles and peroxisomes, indicates that adaptation to salt stress requires the enhanced mobilization of fatty acids from internal lipid stores. Furthermore, the activation of mitochondrial respiration during stress depends on peroxisomes, mitochondrial acetyl-carnitine uptake is essential for salt resistance, and the number of peroxisomes attached to the mitochondrial network increases during salt adaptation, which altogether indicates that stress-induced peroxisomal β-oxidation triggers enhanced respiration upon salt shock. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. [Influence of salt stress on the genetically polymorphic system of Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula].

    PubMed

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Roumiantseva, M L; Simarov, B V

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of salt stress (75 mM NaC1) on the ecological efficiency of the genetically polymorphic Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula system were studied. Its impact on a symbiotic system results in an increase of the partners' variability for symbiotic traits and of the symbiosis integrity as indicated by: a) the specificity of the partners' interactions--the nonadditive inputs of their genotypes into the variation of symbiotic parameters; and b) the correlative links between these parameters. The structure of the nodDI locus and the content correlates to the efficiency of the symbiosis between S. meliloti and M. truncatula genotypes under stress conditions more sufficiently than in the absence of stress. Correlations between the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia strains and their growth rate outside symbiosis are expressed under stress conditions, not in the absence of stress. Under salt stress symbiotic effectiveness was decreased for M. truncatula line F83005.5, which was salt sensitive for mineral nutrition. The inhibition of symbiotic activity for this line is linked with decreased nodule formation, whereas for Jemalong 6 and DZA315.16 lines it is associated with repressed N2-fixation. It was demonstrated for the first time that salt stress impairs the M. truncatula habitus (the mass : height ratio increased 2- to 6-fold), which in the salt-resistant cultivar Jemalong 6 is normalized as the result of rhizobia inoculation.

  10. Finite Element Modeling of In-Situ Stresses near Salt Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, P.; Gray, G.; Albertz, M.

    2011-12-01

    The in-situ stress field is modified around salt bodies because salt rock has no ability to sustain shear stresses. A reliable prediction of stresses near salt is important for planning safe and economic drilling programs. A better understanding of in-situ stresses before drilling can be achieved using finite element models that account for the creeping salt behavior and the elastoplastic response of the surrounding sediments. Two different geomechanical modeling techniques can be distinguished: "dynamic" modeling and "static" modeling. "Dynamic" models, also known as forward models, simulate the development of structural processes in geologic time. This technique provides the evolution of stresses and so it is used to simulate the initiation and development of structural features, such as, faults, folds, fractures, and salt diapers. The original or initial configuration and the unknown final configuration of forward models are usually significantly different therefore geometric non-linearities need to be considered. These models may be difficult to constrain when different tectonic, deposition, and erosion events, and the timing among them, needs to be accounted for. While dynamic models provide insight into the stress evolution, in many cases is very challenging, if not impossible, to forward model a configuration to its known present-day geometry; particularly in the case of salt layers that evolve into highly irregular and complex geometries. Alternatively, "static" models use the present-day geometry and present-day far-field stresses to estimate the present-day in-situ stress field inside a domain. In this case, it is appropriate to use a small deformation approach because initial and final configurations should be very similar, and more important, because the equilibrium of stresses should be stated in the present-day initial configuration. The initial stresses and the applied boundary conditions are constrained by the geologic setting and available data

  11. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources.

    PubMed

    Teuber, M; Zimmer, I; Kreuzwieser, J; Ache, P; Polle, A; Rennenberg, H; Schnitzler, J-P

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition and salt stress experiments were performed in a greenhouse with hydroponic-cultured, salt-sensitive Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants to study the combined influence of different N sources (either 1 mm NO(3) (-) or NH(4)(+)) and salt (up to 75 mm NaCl) on leaf gas exchange, isoprene biosynthesis and VOC emissions. Net assimilation and transpiration proved to be highly sensitive to salt stress and were reduced by approximately 90% at leaf sodium concentrations higher than 1,800 microg Na g dry weight (dw)(-1). In contrast, emissions of isoprene and oxygenated VOC (i.e. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) were unaffected. There was no significant effect of combinations of salt stress and N source, and neither NO(3)(-) or NH(4)(+) influenced the salt stress response in the Grey poplar leaves. Also, transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR) and isoprene synthase (PcISPS) did not respond to the different N sources and only responded slightly to salt application, although isoprene synthase (PcISPS) activity was negatively affected at least in one of two experiments, despite high isoprene emission rates. A significant salt effect was the strong reduction of leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) content, probably due to restricted availability of photosynthates for DMADP biosynthesis. Further consequences of reduced photosynthetic gas exchange and maintaining VOC emissions are a very high C loss, up to 50%, from VOC emissions related to net CO(2) uptake and a strong increase in leaf internal isoprene concentrations, with maximum mean values up to 6.6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed.

  12. Hot-salt stress-corrosion of titanium alloys as related to turbine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    In an effort to simulate typical compressor operating conditions of current turbine engines, special test facilities were designed. Air velocity, air pressure, air dewpoint, salt deposition temperature, salt concentration, and specimen surface condition were systematically controlled and their influence on hot-salt stress-corrosion evaluated. The influence of both continuous and cyclic stress-temperature exposures was determined. The relative susceptibility of a variety of titanium alloys in commonly used heat-treated conditions was determined. The effects of both environmental and material variables were used to interpret the behavior of titanium alloys under hot-salt stress-corrosion conditions found in jet engines and to appraise their future potential under such conditions.

  13. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-01-01

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ0). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent. PMID:28357227

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  15. Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Marcińska, Izabela; Czyczyło-Mysza, Ilona; Skrzypek, Edyta; Grzesiak, Maciej T.; Janowiak, Franciszek; Filek, Maria; Dziurka, Michał; Dziurka, Kinga; Waligórski, Piotr; Juzoń, Katarzyna; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1) and drought resistant (CS) wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM) or ABA (0.1 μM) to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (−0.75 MPa). The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA) was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity

  16. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation. PMID:26579166

  17. Plant Leucine Aminopeptidases Moonlight as Molecular Chaperones to Alleviate Stress-induced Damage*

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Melissa A.; Yee, Ashley; Park, Sang-Youl; Walling, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are present in animals, plants, and microbes. In plants, there are two classes of LAPs. The neutral LAPs (LAP-N and its orthologs) are constitutively expressed and detected in all plants, whereas the stress-induced acidic LAPs (LAP-A) are expressed only in a subset of the Solanaceae. LAPs have a role in insect defense and act as a regulator of the late branch of wound signaling in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Although the mechanism of LAP-A action is unknown, it has been presumed that LAP peptidase activity is essential for regulating wound signaling. Here we show that plant LAPs are bifunctional. Using three assays to monitor protein protection from heat-induced damage, it was shown that the tomato LAP-A and LAP-N and the Arabidopsis thaliana LAP1 and LAP2 are molecular chaperones. Assays using LAP-A catalytic site mutants demonstrated that LAP-A chaperone activity was independent of its peptidase activity. Furthermore, disruption of the LAP-A hexameric structure increased chaperone activity. Together, these data identify a new class of molecular chaperones and a new function for the plant LAPs as well as suggesting new mechanisms for LAP action in the defense of solanaceous plants against stress. PMID:22493451

  18. Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Yin, Lianhong; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Zheng, Lingli; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the effects of dioscin against alcohol-, carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage have been found. However, the activity of it against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced acute liver injury remained unknown. In the present study, dioscin markedly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and decreased the levels of MDA, iNOS and NO. Mechanism study showed that dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IκBα, p50 and p65 through regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway to rehabilitate inflammation. In addition, dioscin markedly up-regulated the expression levels of SIRT1, HO-1, NQO1, GST and GCLM through increasing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 against oxidative stress. Furthermore, dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of FasL, Fas, p53, Bak, Caspase-3/9, and upregulated Bcl-2 level through decreasing IRF9 level against apoptosis. In conclusion, dioscin showed protective effect against DMN-induced acute liver injury via ameliorating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as a new candidate for the treatment of acute liver injury in the future.

  19. Chronic Oral Pelargonidin Alleviates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Hyperalgesia in Rat: Involvement of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mirshekar, Mohammadali; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Arab Moazzen, Saiedeh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in some clinical cases is accompanied with hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the possible beneficial effect of chronic pelargonidin (PG) treatment on hyperalgesia in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic neuropathic rat. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 56) were divided into seven groups, i.e. control, diabetic, PG-treated control, PG (single- and multiple-dose)-treated diabetic, and sodium salicylate-treated control and diabetics. For induction of diabetes, STZ was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. PG was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg once and/or on alternate days for 8 weeks; 1 week after diabetes induction. After two months, hyperalgesia was assessed using standard formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Meanwhile, markers of oxidative stress in brain were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Diabetic rats showed a marked chemical and thermal hyperalgesia, indicating that development of diabetic neuropathy and PG treatment (especially multiple-doses) significantly ameliorated the alteration in hyperalgesia (P<0.05-0.01) in diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics. PG (multiple doses) also significantly decreased diabetes-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation and non-significantly reversed elevation of nitrite level and reduction of antioxidant defensive enzyme superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: These results clearly suggest that PG prevents diabetic neuropathic hyperalgesia through attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:20683496

  20. Olanzapine alleviates oxidative stress in the liver of socially isolated rats.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljevic, Andrijana; Peric, Ivana; Pantelic, Marija; Filipovic, Dragana M

    2016-12-22

    Olanzapine, an antipsychotic drug, is used to treat depressive disorder, but its effects on the liver, the main site of drug metabolism, still remain elusive. We studied the effects of 3 weeks of olanzapine treatment (7.5 mg/kg per day) on the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) contents, protein expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as catalase (CAT) protein expression and activity levels in the liver cytosol of rats exposed to 6 weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), which causes depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Increased cytosolic MDA in CSIS rats (vehicle- or olanzapine-treated) indicated hepatic oxidative stress. Increase in PCO and CAT activity associated with unchanged total SOD activity following CSIS also confirm the presence of oxidative stress. Chronic olanzapine treatment in CSIS prevented increase in PCO without an effect on MDA content. Increased SOD activity in olanzapine-treated (controls and CSIS) groups compared with corresponding vehicle-treated groups and decreased CAT activity in olanzapine-treated CSIS rats compared with vehicle-treated CSIS group was found. The data suggest that chronic olanzapine treatment has a protective effect on hepatic protein oxidation and improves antioxidant defense. The beneficial effects of olanzapine may be due to its free radical scavenging properties and antioxidant activity.

  1. Plant leucine aminopeptidases moonlight as molecular chaperones to alleviate stress-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Scranton, Melissa A; Yee, Ashley; Park, Sang-Youl; Walling, Linda L

    2012-05-25

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are present in animals, plants, and microbes. In plants, there are two classes of LAPs. The neutral LAPs (LAP-N and its orthologs) are constitutively expressed and detected in all plants, whereas the stress-induced acidic LAPs (LAP-A) are expressed only in a subset of the Solanaceae. LAPs have a role in insect defense and act as a regulator of the late branch of wound signaling in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Although the mechanism of LAP-A action is unknown, it has been presumed that LAP peptidase activity is essential for regulating wound signaling. Here we show that plant LAPs are bifunctional. Using three assays to monitor protein protection from heat-induced damage, it was shown that the tomato LAP-A and LAP-N and the Arabidopsis thaliana LAP1 and LAP2 are molecular chaperones. Assays using LAP-A catalytic site mutants demonstrated that LAP-A chaperone activity was independent of its peptidase activity. Furthermore, disruption of the LAP-A hexameric structure increased chaperone activity. Together, these data identify a new class of molecular chaperones and a new function for the plant LAPs as well as suggesting new mechanisms for LAP action in the defense of solanaceous plants against stress.

  2. Salt-responsive ERF1 regulates reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling during the initial response to salt stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Romy; Mieulet, Delphine; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Obata, Toshihiro; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fisahn, Joachim; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schippers, Jos H M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-06-01

    Early detection of salt stress is vital for plant survival and growth. Still, the molecular processes controlling early salt stress perception and signaling are not fully understood. Here, we identified salt-responsive ERF1 (SERF1), a rice (Oryza sativa) transcription factor (TF) gene that shows a root-specific induction upon salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Loss of SERF1 impairs the salt-inducible expression of genes encoding members of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and salt tolerance-mediating TFs. Furthermore, we show that SERF1-dependent genes are H2O2 responsive and demonstrate that SERF1 binds to the promoters of MAPK kinase kinase6 (MAP3K6), MAPK5, dehydration-responsive element bindinG2A (DREB2A), and zinc finger protein179 (ZFP179) in vitro and in vivo. SERF1 also directly induces its own gene expression. In addition, SERF1 is a phosphorylation target of MAPK5, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity of SERF1 toward its direct target genes. In agreement, plants deficient for SERF1 are more sensitive to salt stress compared with the wild type, while constitutive overexpression of SERF1 improves salinity tolerance. We propose that SERF1 amplifies the reactive oxygen species-activated MAPK cascade signal during the initial phase of salt stress and translates the salt-induced signal into an appropriate expressional response resulting in salt tolerance.

  3. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  4. Alleviative effect of myricetin on ochratoxin A-induced oxidative stress in rat renal cortex: histological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    El-Haleem, Manal R Abdel; Kattaia, Asmaa A A; El-Baset, Samia A Abdel; Mostafa, Heba El Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The detoxification of OTA has been of major interest due to its widespread threat to human health. We aimed to investigate the possible alleviative effect of myricetin (MYR) against OTA-induced damage in renal cortex of rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: control (untreated), vehicle control (0.5 ml corn oil/day including dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MYR (100 mg MYR/kg b.w./day in distilled water), OTA (0.5 mg OTA/kg b.w./day; dissolved in 10% DMSO and then corn oil) and OTA + MYR group (received OTA and MYR at similar doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, renal cortices were processed for light and electron microscope examinations. Immunohistochemical staining for localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was carried out. Biochemical analysis of tissue glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined to evaluate oxidative stress. OTA administration induced deleterious renal injury evidenced by the structural and ultra-structural changes. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, PCNA and TGF-β1 were significantly up regulated compared with control. Alterations in antioxidant parameters supported that oxidative stress was one of the mechanisms involved in OTA toxicity. On the contrary, co-administration of MRY partially ameliorated OTA-induced renal injury. We suggest the potential effectiveness of MYR to counteract OTA-induced toxic oxidative stress on the renal cortex.

  5. Rearrangement of nitrogen metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianwen; Huang, Xi; Lan, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress is an important environmental condition limiting the agricultural production. The reprogram of protein expression is one of the strategies of plants to cope with salt stress. We have previously analyzed the photosynthesis, antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation involved in the carbon metabolism and the redox metabolism in rice seedlings under salt stress. Here, we focused on the proteins involved in nitrogen metabolic response. As it was reported that the nitrite uptake was enhanced in Arabidopsis PII knock-out mutants, the down-regulation of P-II nitrogen sensing protein in rice probably contributes to the accumulation of amino acids under stress. In addition, the protein synthesis is limited by the decrease of related proteins, and more amino acids could be used as the compatible solute. Hence, our study indicates that the rearrangement of nitrogen metabolism under salt stress could accumulate more amino acids as the compatible solute rather than the components of proteins. This study provides information for an improved understanding of nitrogen metabolic response to salt stress in rice.

  6. Salt stress reduces kernel number of corn by inhibiting plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephan; Hütsch, Birgit W; Schubert, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Salt stress affects yield formation of corn (Zea mays L.) at various physiological levels resulting in an overall grain yield decrease. In this study we investigated how salt stress affects kernel development of two corn cultivars (cvs. Pioneer 3906 and Fabregas) at and shortly after pollination. In an earlier study, we found an accumulation of hexoses in the kernel tissue. Therefore, it was hypothesized that hexose uptake into developing endosperm and embryo might be inhibited. Hexoses are transported into the developing endosperm by carriers localized in the plasma membrane (PM). The transport is driven by the pH gradient which is built up by the PM H(+)-ATPase. It was investigated whether the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in developing corn kernels was inhibited by salt stress, which would cause a lower pH gradient resulting in impaired hexose import and finally in kernel abortion. Corn grown under control and salt stress conditions was harvested 0 and 2 days after pollination (DAP). Under salt stress sucrose and hexose concentrations in kernel tissue were higher 0 and 2 DAP. Kernel PM H(+)-ATPase activity was not affected at 0 DAP, but it was reduced at 2 DAP. This is in agreement with the finding, that kernel growth and thus kernel setting was not affected in the salt stress treatment at pollination, but it was reduced 2 days later. It is concluded that inhibition of PM H(+)-ATPase under salt stress impaired the energization of hexose transporters into the cells, resulting in lower kernel growth and finally in kernel abortion.

  7. The RING Finger E3 Ligase SpRing is a Positive Regulator of Salt Stress Signaling in Salt-Tolerant Wild Tomato Species.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shilian; Lin, Qingfang; Zhu, Huishan; Gao, Fenghua; Zhang, Wenhao; Hua, Xuejun

    2016-03-01

    Protein ubiquitination in plants plays critical roles in many biological processes, including adaptation to abiotic stresses. Previously, RING finger E3 ligase has been characterized during salt stress response in several plant species, but little is known about its function in tomato. Here, we report that SpRing, a stress-inducible gene, is involved in salt stress signaling in wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium 'PI365967'. In vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that SpRing is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and the RING finger conserved region is required for its activity. SpRing is expressed in all tissues of wild tomato and up-regulated by salt, drought and osmotic stresses, but repressed by low temperature. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion analysis showed that SpRing is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. Silencing of SpRing through a virus-induced gene silencing approach led to increased sensitivity to salt stress in wild tomato. Overexpression of SpRing in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in enhanced salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling development. The expression levels of certain key stress-related genes are altered both in SpRing-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants and virus-induced gene silenced tomato seedlings. Taken together, our results indicate that SpRing is involved in salt stress and functions as a positive regulator of salt tolerance.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis elicits shoot proteome changes that are modified during cadmium stress alleviation in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which engage a mutualistic symbiosis with the roots of most plant species, have received much attention for their ability to alleviate heavy metal stress in plants, including cadmium (Cd). While the molecular bases of Cd tolerance displayed by mycorrhizal plants have been extensively analysed in roots, very little is known regarding the mechanisms by which legume aboveground organs can escape metal toxicity upon AM symbiosis. As a model system to address this question, we used Glomus irregulare-colonised Medicago truncatula plants, which were previously shown to accumulate and tolerate heavy metal in their shoots when grown in a substrate spiked with 2 mg Cd kg-1. Results The measurement of three indicators for metal phytoextraction showed that shoots of mycorrhizal M. truncatula plants have a capacity for extracting Cd that is not related to an increase in root-to-shoot translocation rate, but to a high level of allocation plasticity. When analysing the photosynthetic performance in metal-treated mycorrhizal plants relative to those only Cd-supplied, it turned out that the presence of G. irregulare partially alleviated the negative effects of Cd on photosynthesis. To test the mechanisms by which shoots of Cd-treated mycorrhizal plants avoid metal toxicity, we performed a 2-DE/MALDI/TOF-based comparative proteomic analysis of the M. truncatula shoot responses upon mycorrhization and Cd exposure. Whereas the metal-responsive shoot proteins currently identified in non-mycorrhizal M. truncatula indicated that Cd impaired CO2 assimilation, the mycorrhiza-responsive shoot proteome was characterised by an increase in photosynthesis-related proteins coupled to a reduction in glugoneogenesis/glycolysis and antioxidant processes. By contrast, Cd was found to trigger the opposite response coupled the up-accumulation of molecular chaperones in shoot of mycorrhizal plants relative to those metal-free. Conclusion Besides drawing a

  9. Factors involved in alleviating water stress by partial crop removal in pear trees.

    PubMed

    Marsal, Jordi; Mata, Merce; Arbones, Amadeu; Del Campo, Jesus; Girona, Joan; Lopez, Gerardo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the relief of water stress associated with fruit thinning in pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees during drought to determine what mechanisms, other than stomatal adjustment, were involved. Combinations of control irrigation (equal to crop water use less effective rainfall) and deficit irrigation (equal to 20% of control irrigation), fruit load (unthinned and thinned to 40 fruits per tree) and root pruning (pruned and unpruned) treatments were applied to pear (cv. 'Conference') trees during Stage II of fruit development. Daily patterns of midday stem water potential (Psi(stem)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (g(l)) of deficit-irrigated trees differed after fruit thinning. In response to fruit thinning, gl progressively declined with water stress until 30 days after fruit thinning and then leveled off, whereas the effects of decreased fruit load on Psi(stem) peaked 30-40 days after fruit thinning and then tended to decline. Soil water depletion was significantly correlated with fruit load during drought. Our results indicate that stomatal adjustment and the resulting soil water conservation were the factors determining the Psi(stem) response to fruit thinning. However, these factors could not explain differences in daily patterns between g(l) and Psi(stem) after fruit thinning. In all cases, effects of root pruning treatments on Psi(stem) in deficit-irrigated trees were transitory (Psi(stem) recovered from root pruning in less than 30 days), but the recovery of Psi(stem) after root pruning was faster in trees with low fruit loads. This behavior is compatible with the concept that the water balance (reflected by Psi(stem) values) was better in trees with low fruit loads compared with unthinned trees, perhaps because more carbon was available for root growth. Thus, a root growth component is hypothesized as a mechanism to explain the bimodal Psi(stem) response to fruit thinning during drought.

  10. Dexamethasone Pretreatment Alleviates Isoniazid/Lipopolysaccharide Hepatotoxicity: Inhibition of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Hozeifa M.; Guo, Hongli; Yousef, Bashir A.; Ping-Ping, Ding; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2017-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) remains a cornerstone key constitute of the current tuberculosis management strategy, but its hepatotoxic potentiality remains a significant clinical problem. Our previous findings succeed to establish a rat model of INH hepatotoxicity employing the inflammatory stress theory in which non-injurious doses of inflammatory-mediating agent bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) augmented the toxicity of INH that assist to uncover the mechanisms behind INH hepatotoxicity. Following LPS exposure, several inflammatory cells are activated and it is likely that the consequences of this activation rather than direct hepatocellular effects of LPS underlie the ability of LPS to augment toxic responses. In this study, we investigated the potential protective role of the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (DEX), a potent synthetic glucocorticoid, in INH/LPS hepatotoxic rat model. DEX pre-treatment successfully eliminates the components of the inflammatory stress as shown through analysis of blood biochemistry and liver histopathology. DEX potentiated hepatic anti-oxidant mechanisms while serum and hepatic lipid profiles were reduced. However, DEX administration was not able to revoke the principal effects of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in INH/LPS-induced liver damage. In conclusion, this study illustrated the DEX-preventive capabilities on INH/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity model through DEX-induced potent anti-inflammatory activity whereas the partial toxicity seen in the model could be attributed to the expression of hepatic CYP2E1. These findings potentiate the clinical applications of DEX co-administration with INH therapy in order to reduce the potential incidences of hepatotoxicity. PMID:28360859

  11. PFKFB3 modulates glycolytic metabolism and alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress in human osteoarthritis cartilage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jining; Lu, Daigang; Guo, Hua; Miao, Wusheng; Wu, Ge; Zhou, Meifen

    2016-03-01

    Glycolytic disorder has been demonstrated to be a major cause of osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocyte dysfunction. The present work aimed to investigate the expression and role of the glycolytic regulator 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in OA cartilage. It was found that PFKFB3 expression was down-regulated in human OA cartilage tissues and in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α- or interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes. The glycolytic metabolism appeared as glucose utilization and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, and lactate production was stunted in OA cartilage. However, the impaired glycolytic process in OA cartilage was improved by PFKFB3 overexpression, which was confirmed in TNF-α- or IL-1β-treated chondrocytes. Furthermore, the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated genes including PERK, ATF3, IRE1, phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α) and MMP13 were enhanced in OA cartilage explants, while they were decreased by AdPFKFB3 transfection. PFKFB3 also modulated the expressions of PERK, ATF3, IRE1, p-eIF2α and MMP13 in tunicamycin-exposed chondrocytes. Additionally, PFKFB3 improved the cell viability of OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes through the PI3K/Akt/C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) signalling pathway. The transfection of AdPFKFB3 also significantly reduced caspase 3 activation and promoted aggrecan and type II collagen expressions in OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes. In all, this study characterizes a novel role of PFKFB3 in glycolytic metabolism and ER stress of OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes. The study might provide a potential target for OA prevention or therapy.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the salt-stress response in Triticum aestivum cv. Kharchia Local

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Etika; Amit, Singh K.; Singh, Ravi S.; Mahato, Ajay K.; Chand, Suresh; Kanika, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Kharchia Local wheat variety is an Indian salt tolerant land race known for its tolerance to salinity. However, there is a lack of detailed information regarding molecular mechanism imparting tolerance to high salinity in this bread wheat. In the present study, differential root transcriptome analysis identifying salt stress responsive gene networks and functional annotation under salt stress in Kharchia Local was performed. A total of 453,882 reads were obtained after quality filtering, using Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium sequencing technology. From these reads 22,241 ESTs were generated out of which, 17,911 unigenes were obtained. A total of 14,898 unigenes were annotated against nr protein database. Seventy seven transcription factors families in 826 unigenes and 11,002 SSRs in 6,939 unigenes were identified. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 310 metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of few selected genes was compared during the time course of salt stress treatment between salt-tolerant (Kharchia Local) and susceptible (HD2687). The transcriptome data is the first report, which offers an insight into the mechanisms and genes involved in salt tolerance. This information can be used to improve salt tolerance in elite wheat cultivars and to develop tolerant germplasm for other cereal crops. PMID:27293111

  13. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  14. Genetic Adaptation to Salt Stress in Experimental Evolution of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Aifen; Hillesland, Kristina; He, Zhili; Joachimiak, Marcin; Zane, Grant; Dehal, Paramvir; Arkin, Adam; Stahl, David; Wall, Judy; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong; Baidoo, Edward; Benke, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    High salinity is one of the most common environmental stressors. In order to understand how environmental organisms adapt to salty environment, an experiment evolution with sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough was conducted. Control lines and salt-stressed lines (6 lines each) grown in minimal medium LS4D or LS4D + 100 mM NaCl were transferred for 1200 generations. The salt tolerance was tested with LS4D supplemented with 250 mM NaCl. Statistical analysis of the growth data suggested that all lines adapted to their evolutionary environment. In addition, the control lines performed better than the ancestor with faster growth rate, higher biomass yield and shorter lag phase under salty environment they did not evolve in. However, the salt-adapted lines performed better than the control lines on measures of growth rate and yield under salty environment, suggesting that the salt?evolved lines acquired mutations specific to having extra salt in LS4D. Growth data and gene transcription data suggested that populations tended to improve till 1000 generations and active mutations tended to be fixed at the stage of 1000 generations. Point mutations and insertion/deletions were identified in isolated colonies from salt-adapted and control lines via whole genome sequencing. Glu, Gln and Ala appears to be the major osmoprotectant in evolved salt-stressed line. Ongoing studies are now characterizing the contribution of specific mutations identified in the salt-evolved D. vulgaris.

  15. Regulation of mRNA decay in plant responses to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Dorota; Testerink, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Plant acclimation to environmental stresses requires fast signaling to initiate changes in developmental and metabolic responses. Regulation of gene expression by transcription factors and protein kinases acting upstream are important elements of responses to salt and drought. Gene expression can be also controlled at the post-transcriptional level. Recent analyses on mutants in mRNA metabolism factors suggest their contribution to stress signaling. Here we highlight the components of mRNA decay pathways that contribute to responses to osmotic and salt stress. We hypothesize that phosphorylation state of proteins involved in mRNA decapping affect their substrate specificity.

  16. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    PubMed

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  17. The Acetic Acid Tolerance Response induces cross-protection to salt stress in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, E J; Brocklehurst, T F

    2006-10-15

    Salmonella typhimurium induces an Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) upon exposure to mildly acidic conditions in order to protect itself against severe acid shock. This response can also induce cross-protection to other stresses such as heat and salt. We investigated whether both the acetic acid induced and lactic acid induced ATR in S. typhimurium provided cross-protection to a salt stress at 20 degrees C. Acid-adapted cells were challenged with both a sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) shock and their ability to survive ascertained. Acetic acid adaptation provided cells with protection against both NaCl and KCl stress. However, lactic acid adaptation did not protect against either osmotic stressor and rendered cells hypersensitive to NaCl. These results have implications for the food industry where hurdle technology means multiple sub-lethal stresses such as mild pH and low salt are commonly used in the preservation of products.

  18. Dietary inclusion of local salt substitutes induces oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Araoye, Obafemi O; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier report has shown that salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo) contain some toxic heavy metals. This study, therefore, investigated the effect of the dietary inclusion of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo), namely, salt "A" and "B", on biomarkers of oxidative stress and renal function in rats. Salt "A", which has a gray color, is the product of a process in which ash is produced by burning palm kernel shaft soaked in water overnight and extracting the residue to produce the salt substitute while Salt "B", which has a white color, is a rock salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at 0.5% and 1.0% for 21 days. The dietary inclusion of the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma activities of creatinine, urea, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen compared with the control. Meanwhile, the dietary inclusion of the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in renal superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione level, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities with a concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde level compared with the control. Furthermore, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the concentrations of heavy metals, such as Pb, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn and Cr, in kidney of rats fed with the salt substitute Obu-Otoyo. Therefore, this finding indicates that Obu-Otoyo induces nephrotoxicity in rats. The nephrotoxicity of Obu-Otoyo could be attributed to the induction of oxidative stress as a result of the presence of some heavy metals, suggesting possible health hazards in subjects who consume it.

  19. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na(+), (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and hormonal balance.

  20. Myricitrin Alleviates Oxidative Stress-induced Inflammation and Apoptosis and Protects Mice against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Shen, Qiang; Chen, Yaping; Pan, Ruile; Kuang, Shihuan; Liu, Guiyan; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) has been increasingly considered as a main cause of heart failure and death in diabetic patients. At present, no effective treatment exists to prevent its development. In the present study, we describe the potential protective effects and mechanisms of myricitrin (Myr) on the cardiac function of streptozotosin-induced diabetic mice and on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with Myr significantly decreased AGEs-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, limited an increase in ROS levels, and reduced cell apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. These effects are correlated with Nrf2 activation and NF-κB inhibition. In vivo investigation demonstrated that oral administration of Myr at 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks remarkably decreased the expression of enzymes associated with cardiomyopathy, as well as the expression of inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic proteins. Finally, Myr improved diastolic dysfunction and attenuated histological abnormalities. Mechanistically, Myr attenuated diabetes-induced Nrf2 inhibition via the regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation in the diabetic heart. Collectively, these results strongly indicate that Myr exerts cardioprotective effects against DCM through the blockage of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. This suggests that Myr might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of DCM. PMID:28287141

  1. Autophagy protects intestinal epithelial cells against deoxynivalenol toxicity by alleviating oxidative stress via IKK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Jianjun; Li, Fengna; Hu, Chien-An A; Liao, Peng; Tan, Kunrong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process of homeostatic degradation that promotes cell survival under various stressors. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungal toxin, often causes diarrhea and disturbs the homeostasis of the intestinal system. To investigate the function of intestinal autophagy in response to DON and associated mechanisms, we firstly knocked out ATG5 (autophagy-related gene 5) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. When treated with DON, autophagy was induced in IPEC-J2 cells but not in IPEC-J2.Atg5ko cells. The deficiency in autophagy increased DON-induced apoptosis in IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells, in part, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cellular stress response can be restored in IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells by overexpressing proteins involved in protein folding. Interestingly, we found that autophagy deficiency downregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum folding proteins BiP and PDI when IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells were treated with DON. In addition, we investigated the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in the IKK, AMPK, and mTOR signaling pathway and found that Bay-117082 and Compound C, specific inhibitors for IKK and AMPK, respectively, inhibited the induction of autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy is pivotal for protection against DON in pig intestinal cells.

  2. Alleviation of iron induced oxidative stress by the grape fruit flavanone naringin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Reddy, Tiyagura Koti

    2011-04-25

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. The protective effect of naringin, a grape fruit flavanone, was studied in iron overloaded isolated mouse liver mitochondria, where the isolated mitochondrial fraction was incubated with various concentrations of naringin before ferric ion loading. Iron overloading of mitochondrial fraction resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, whereas iron overload reduced the glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Pretreatment of mitochondrial fraction with naringin inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage. Conversely, naringin supplementation arrested iron-induced depletion in the GSH contents, GSHPx, GST, SOD and catalase activities significantly. Ferric iron reduction assay revealed that naringin could not reduce ferric iron into ferrous iron indicating that it did not exhibit prooxidant activity. Iron free coordination site assay indicated that naringin was unable to occupy all the active sites of iron indicating that naringin did not completely chelate iron. Our study demonstrates that naringin was able to share the burden of endogenous oxidants by inhibiting the iron-induced depletion of all important antioxidant enzymes as well as GSH and may act as a good antioxidant.

  3. Myricitrin Alleviates Oxidative Stress-induced Inflammation and Apoptosis and Protects Mice against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Shen, Qiang; Chen, Yaping; Pan, Ruile; Kuang, Shihuan; Liu, Guiyan; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-03-13

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) has been increasingly considered as a main cause of heart failure and death in diabetic patients. At present, no effective treatment exists to prevent its development. In the present study, we describe the potential protective effects and mechanisms of myricitrin (Myr) on the cardiac function of streptozotosin-induced diabetic mice and on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with Myr significantly decreased AGEs-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, limited an increase in ROS levels, and reduced cell apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. These effects are correlated with Nrf2 activation and NF-κB inhibition. In vivo investigation demonstrated that oral administration of Myr at 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks remarkably decreased the expression of enzymes associated with cardiomyopathy, as well as the expression of inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic proteins. Finally, Myr improved diastolic dysfunction and attenuated histological abnormalities. Mechanistically, Myr attenuated diabetes-induced Nrf2 inhibition via the regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation in the diabetic heart. Collectively, these results strongly indicate that Myr exerts cardioprotective effects against DCM through the blockage of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. This suggests that Myr might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of DCM.

  4. Epalrestat protects against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting polyol pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-rong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhou, Wei; Fan, Shou-rui; Ma, Run; Xue, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Ya-shan; Tan, Hong-li; Shao, Qing-hua; Yang, Hong-ying

    2016-01-01

    Epalrestat is a noncompetitive and reversible aldose reductase inhibitor used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. This study assumed that epalrestat had a protective effect on diabetic peripheral nerve injury by suppressing the expression of aldose reductase in peripheral nerves of diabetes mellitus rats. The high-fat and high-carbohydrate model rats were established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Peripheral neuropathy occurred in these rats after sustaining high blood glucose for 8 weeks. At 12 weeks after streptozotocin injection, rats were intragastrically administered epalrestat 100 mg/kg daily for 6 weeks. Transmission electron microscope revealed that the injuries to myelinated nerve fibers, non-myelinated nerve fibers and Schwann cells of rat sciatic nerves had reduced compared to rats without epalrestat administuation. Western blot assay and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after intervention with epalrestat, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase gradually increased, but aldose reductase protein expression gradually diminished. Results confirmed that epalrestat could protect against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by relieving oxidative stress and suppressing the polyol pathway. PMID:27073391

  5. Heterologous Overexpression of Poplar SnRK2 Genes Enhanced Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xueqing; Yu, Xiang; Hori, Chiaki; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Subfamily 2 of SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK2) plays important roles in plant abiotic stress responses as a global positive regulator of abscisic acid signaling. In the genome of the model tree Populus trichocarpa, 12 SnRK2 genes have been identified, and some are upregulated by abiotic stresses. In this study, we heterologously overexpressed the PtSnRK2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that overexpression of PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 genes enhanced stress tolerance. In the PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 overexpressors, chlorophyll content, and root elongation were maintained under salt stress conditions, leading to higher survival rates under salt stress compared with those in the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PtSnRK2.7 overexpression affected stress-related metabolic genes, including lipid metabolism and flavonoid metabolism, even under normal growth conditions. However, the stress response genes reported to be upregulated in Arabidopsis SRK2C/SnRK2.6 and wheat SnRK2.8 overexpressors were not changed by PtSnRK2.7 overexpression. Furthermore, PtSnRK2.7 overexpression widely and largely influenced the transcriptome in response to salt stress; genes related to transport activity, including anion transport-related genes, were characteristically upregulated, and a variety of metabolic genes were specifically downregulated. We also found that the salt stress response genes were greatly upregulated in the PtSnRK2.7 overexpressor. Taken together, poplar subclass 2 PtSnRK2 genes can modulate salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, through the activation of cellular signaling pathways in a different manner from that by herbal subclass 2 SnRK2 genes. PMID:27242819

  6. Oxidative Stress Alleviation by Sage Essential Oil in Co-amoxiclav induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Hosseiny, L S; Alqurashy, N N; Sheweita, S A

    2016-06-01

    Clinical studies have shown that several classes of antibiotics are evidenced in drug induced liver injury. The combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is commonly cited in such cases. Accordingly, the present study investigated the potential hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant efficacy of sage essential oil in Co-amoxiclav induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sage essential oil was hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L. and its compositional analysis was characterized by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy. Rats were treated singly or concomitantly with Co-amoxiclav and sage essential oil for a period of seven days. The major components of sage oil as identified by GC-MS were 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphor, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and α-caryophyllene comprising 26.3%, 14.4%, 10.9%, 7.8%, 6% and 2.5% respectively. The in vivo exposure of rats to Co-amoxiclav resulted in hepatotoxicity biochemically evidenced by the significant elevation of serum AST, ALT, ALP, γ-GT, total bilirubin and histologically conveyed by hydropic, inflammatory and cholestatic changes in rats' liver. Oxidative stress mediated the hepatic injury as indicated by the significant escalation in lipid peroxidation, as well as, the significant depletion of both glutathione level and glutathione dependent enzymes' activities. The concomitant administration of sage essential oil with Co-amoxiclav exerted a hepatoprotective effect via inducing an in vivo antioxidant defense response eventually regressing, to some extent, the hepatoarchitectural changes induced by Co-amoxiclav. Results suggest that sage essential oil is a potential candidate for counteracting hepatic injury associating Co-amoxiclav and this effect is in part related to the complexity of its chemical composition.

  7. Oxidative Stress Alleviation by Sage Essential Oil in Co-amoxiclav induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Hosseiny, L. S.; Alqurashy, N. N.; Sheweita, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that several classes of antibiotics are evidenced in drug induced liver injury. The combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is commonly cited in such cases. Accordingly, the present study investigated the potential hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant efficacy of sage essential oil in Co-amoxiclav induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sage essential oil was hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L. and its compositional analysis was characterized by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy. Rats were treated singly or concomitantly with Co-amoxiclav and sage essential oil for a period of seven days. The major components of sage oil as identified by GC-MS were 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphor, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and α-caryophyllene comprising 26.3%, 14.4%, 10.9%, 7.8%, 6% and 2.5% respectively. The in vivo exposure of rats to Co-amoxiclav resulted in hepatotoxicity biochemically evidenced by the significant elevation of serum AST, ALT, ALP, γ-GT, total bilirubin and histologically conveyed by hydropic, inflammatory and cholestatic changes in rats’ liver. Oxidative stress mediated the hepatic injury as indicated by the significant escalation in lipid peroxidation, as well as, the significant depletion of both glutathione level and glutathione dependent enzymes’ activities. The concomitant administration of sage essential oil with Co-amoxiclav exerted a hepatoprotective effect via inducing an in vivo antioxidant defense response eventually regressing, to some extent, the hepatoarchitectural changes induced by Co-amoxiclav. Results suggest that sage essential oil is a potential candidate for counteracting hepatic injury associating Co-amoxiclav and this effect is in part related to the complexity of its chemical composition. PMID:27493593

  8. Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zengrong; Zhao, Long; Chen, Dandan; Liang, Mingxiang; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Long, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Canola (Brassica napus) under Salt Stress at the Germination Stage

    PubMed Central

    Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control) and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance. PMID:25679513

  10. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus) under salt stress at the germination stage.

    PubMed

    Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control) and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  12. Chitin receptor CERK1 links salt stress and chitin-triggered innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Catherine; Liang, Yan; Stacey, Gary

    2017-03-01

    In nature, plants need to respond to multiple environmental stresses that require the involvement and fine-tuning of different stress signaling pathways. Cross-tolerance, in which plants pre-treated with chitin (a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern) have improved salt tolerance, was observed in Arabidopsis, but is not well understood. Here, we show a unique link between chitin and salt signaling mediated by the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1). Transcriptome analysis revealed that salt stress-induced genes are highly correlated with chitin-induced genes, although this was not observed with other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or with other abiotic stresses. The cerk1 mutant was more susceptible to NaCl than was the wild type. cerk1 plants had an irregular increase of cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ) after NaCl treatment. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that CERK1 physically interacts with ANNEXIN 1 (ANN1), which was reported to form a calcium-permeable channel that contributes to the NaCl-induced [Ca(2+) ]cyt signal. In turn, ann1 mutants showed elevated chitin-induced rapid responses. In short, molecular components previously shown to function in chitin or salt signaling physically interact and intimately link the downstream responses to fungal attack and salt stress.

  13. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alleviate oxidative stress and decreases Nrf-2/HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Reem M; Rashd, Laila A; Hashem, Khalid S; Soliman, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Translocation of the master regulator of antioxidant-response element-driven antioxidant gene, nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf-2) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and triggering the transcription of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) to counteract the oxidative stress is a key feature in D-galactoseamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GALN/LPS) induced hepatotoxicity. We mainly aimed to study the effect of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles on Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway whereas; it has previously shown to have an antioxidant effect in liver models. Administration of CeO2 nanoparticles significantly decreased the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 with a concomitant decrement in the gene expression of HO-1 as it reveals a powerful antioxidative effect as indicated by the significant increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In synchronization, a substantial decrement in the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TBARS and percentage of DNA fragmentation was established. These results were confirmed by histopathology examination which showed a severe degeneration, haemorrhages, widened sinusoids and focal leukocyte infiltration in D-GALN/LPS treatment and these features were alleviated with CeO2 administration. In conclusion, CeO2 is a potential antioxidant that can effectively decrease the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 into the nucleus and decrease HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Progesterone alleviates acute brain injury via reducing apoptosis and oxidative stress in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Cao, Shenglong; Chen, Jingyin; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying

    2015-07-23

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of progesterone on acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) by endovascular perforation. Progesterone (8 mg/kg or 16 mg/kg) was administered to rats at 1, 6, and 12h after SAH. Mortality, neurologic deficits, cell apoptosis, expression of apoptotic markers, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed at 24h after experimental SAH. Mortality, cell apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 were decreased, and improved neurological function was observed in the progesterone-treated SAH rats. Further, exploration demonstrated that progesterone significantly reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and attenuated the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Progesterone also induced anti-oxidative effects by elevating the activity of SOD and decreasing MDA content after SAH. Furthermore, dose-response relationships for progesterone treatment were observed, and high doses of progesterone enhanced the neuroprotective effects. Progesterone treatment could alleviate acute brain injury after SAH by inhibiting cell apoptosis and decreasing damage due to oxidative stress. The mechanism involved in the anti-apoptotic effect was related to the mitochondrial pathway. These results indicate that progesterone possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute brain injury after SAH.

  15. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2·−), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H2O2, O2·−, and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H2O2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H2O2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H2O2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant. PMID:28176859

  16. Protective effect of spermidine on salt stress induced oxidative damage in two Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Puyang, Xuehua; An, Mengying; Han, Liebao; Zhang, Xunzhong

    2015-07-01

    To improve the salinity tolerance of turfgrass and investigate the effect of spermidine (Spd) on antioxidant metabolism and gene expression under salinity stress condition, exogenous Spd was applied before two kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars ('Kenblue' and 'Midnight') were exposed to 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) stress for 28 d. Salinity stress decreased the turfgrass quality, increased the content of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion (O₂(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), and enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and isozymes intensity in both cultivars. In addition, the expression level of Cu/ZnSOD was down-regulated in 'Kenblue' but up-regulated in 'Midnight' after salt treatment. Salinity stress also enhanced the expression of APX but inhibited the expression of CAT and POD in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd treatment alleviated the salinity-induced oxidative stress through decreasing MDA, H₂O₂ and O₂(·-) contents in both cultivars. Besides, exogenous Spd further enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX accompanied with the increased intensity of specific isozymes of SOD, CAT and APX in both cultivars and POD in 'Kenblue'. Moreover, Spd further up-regulated expression levels of Cu/ZnSOD and APX, but down-regulated those of CAT and POD in both cultivars. These results indicated that exogenous Spd might improve turfgrass quality and promote the salinity tolerance in the two cultivars of kentucky bluegrass through reducing oxidative damages and increasing enzyme activity both at protein and transcriptional levels.

  17. Growth response to ionic and osmotic stress of NaCl in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive maize.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke-Fu; Song, Jie; Fan, Hai; Zhou, San; Zhao, Meng

    2010-05-01

    Salt-tolerant maize (STM) and salt-sensitive maize (SSM) were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 1, 3 and 6 d and the contents of Na+ and Cl(-) (cps) of different organelles of leaf cells determined by X-ray microanalysis. The results showed that Na+ and Cl(-) entered the cytoplasm, vacuole, chloroplast and apoplast simultaneously. When STM and SSM were treated in 100 mM NaCl at atmospheric pressure (-P) and with pressure equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the NaCl (+P), the dry weights of STM (+P) and SSM (+P) plants were greater than that of STM (-P) and SSM (-P) plants, showing that the inhibitory effect of salt on plant growth was at least partially due to the osmotic effect of the NaCl. When STM and SSM were treated with NaCl and iso-osmotic polyethlene glycol, the dry weights of plants given the iso-osmotic polyethlene glycol treatment were lower for both maize lines than that of the NaCl-treated plants. Our data show that under NaCl stress, both STM and SSM seedlings simultaneously suffered from osmotic and ion stresses.

  18. Aminoguanidine alleviated MMA-induced impairment of cognitive ability in rats by downregulating oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Song, Wenqi; Tian, Ze; Wang, Peichang

    2017-02-13

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is the most common organic acidemia in childhood. Many "treated" patients continued to display various degrees of mental retardation and psychomotor delay, which could be caused by brain damage from elevated oxidative stress. Aminoguanidine (AG), a synthetic antioxidant, was tested in a MMA rat model for its potential therapeutic effects on memory impairment. The effects of AG on MMA-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar rats were evaluated with Morris Water Maze. The levels of nerve cell apoptosis and microglial activation were investigated to illustrate the mechanisms of the improvement of cognition with AG treatment in MMA rats. To further explore the mechanism of neuroprotection induced by AG, several biomarkers including free radicals and inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus were quantified. The results showed that the rats treated with AG exhibited better neurological behavior performances than MMA model rats. The AG-treated rats had a decreased level of apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons, which could be the structural basis of the observed neural behavior protection. In addition, AG treatment significantly inhibited the activation of microglia. The AG-treated rats had decreased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, malonaldehyde and iNOS activities in the hippocampus. The level of glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus of the AG-treated rats increased significantly. In conclusion, AG could alleviate the MMA-induced cognitive impairment via down-regulating of oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction and provide a basis as a therapeutic potential against MMA-induced cognitive impairment.

  19. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  20. Salt-stress induced physiological and proteomic changes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Manaa, Arafet; Ahmed, Hela Ben; Smiti, Samira; Faurobert, Mireille

    2011-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress limiting crop productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the salinity stress responses at physiological and molecular level in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. cv. Supermarmande), we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic analysis. The tomato seedlings were cultivated using a hydroponic system in the controlled environment growth chamber. The salt stress (NaCl) was applied (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and maintained for 14 days. Salt treatment induced a plant growth reduction estimated as fresh-dry weight. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) content of NaCl-treated tomato plants was significantly decreased as the salinity level increased. Proline accumulation levels in leaf and root tissues increased significantly with increasing NaCl concentration. Relative electrolyte leakage known as an indicator of membrane damage caused by salt stress was increased proportionally according to the NaCl concentrations. Roots of control and salt-stressed plants were also sampled for phenol protein extraction. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE). Several proteins showed up- and downregulation during salt stress. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and database searching of some of the identified proteins indicated that the proteins are known to be in a wide range of physiological processes, that is, energy metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging and detoxification, protein translation, processing and degradation, signal transduction, hormone and amino acid metabolism, and cell wall modifications. All proteins might work cooperatively to reestablish cellular homeostasis under salt stress, water deficiency, and ionic toxicity.

  1. [Physiological response and salt-tolerance of Gleditsia microphylla under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Hou, Yue-min; Li, Xin-yang; Chang, Yue-xia; Huang, Da-zhuang; Lu, Bing-she

    2015-11-01

    In order to exploit the salt-tolerance ability and mechanism of Gleditsia microphylla, the plant growth, cell membrane permeability, the activities of cell protective enzymes, and the distri- butions of Na+ and K+ in different tissues were investigated under various NaCl stress (0.053%, 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.45% and 0.6%) with potted two-year seedlings. The results were as follows: With the increase of NaCl concentration, the seedling growth decreased while the salt injured index in- creased, and the salt-tolerance thresholds of seedling was 0.42% NaCl. With the NaCl concentration increasing, the membrane permeability, superoxide anion radical generating rate and MDA content increased grandly, while the activities of SOD, POD and CAT demonstrated an increase-decrease curve which reached the peak at 0.3% or 0.45%. Under the high salt stress condition, the supero- xide anion could be consumed timely by increasing the activities of SOD, POD and CAT enzymes, which was useful to avoid cell injure. Under salt stress condition, the Na+ content in different tissues increased gradually, following the order of root > leaf > stem, and the K+ content and K+/Na+ in different tissues decreased, following the order of leaf > root > stem. The K+-Na+ selective transpor- tation coefficients (S(K+) · Na+) of stem and leaf tissues under the soil NaCl stress condition were both increased, following the order of leaf > stem. In conclusion, the findings suggested that the salt- adaptation mechanisms of G. microphylla were root salt-rejection by Na+ accumulation and restriction in root tissue and leaf salt-tolerance by a remarkably increased ability of K+ selective absorption and accumulation in leaf tissue.

  2. Selenium and sulfur influence ethylene formation and alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress by improving proline and glutathione production in wheat.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Nazir, Faroza; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-15

    We have studied the influence of selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) in the protection of photosynthetic capacity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) against cadmium (Cd) stress. The involvement of ethylene and its interaction with proline and antioxidant metabolism in the tolerance of plants to Cd stress was evaluated. Application of Se or S alleviated Cd-induced oxidative stress by increasing proline accumulation as a result of increased activity of glutamyl kinase (GK) and decreased activity of proline oxidase (PROX). These nutrients also induced the activity of ATP-sulfurylase and serine acetyl transferase and the content of cysteine (Cys), a precursor for the synthesis of both reduced glutathione (GSH) and ethylene. Further, application of Se and S to plants under Cd stress reduced ethylene level and increased the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), reduced oxidative stress and improved photosynthesis and growth. The involvement of ethylene in Se and S-mediated alleviation of Cd stress was substantiated with the use of ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The use of AVG reversed the effects of Se and S on ethylene, content of proline and GSH and photosynthesis. The results suggested that Se and S both reversed Cd-induced oxidative stress by regulating ethylene formation, proline and GSH metabolism. Thus, Se or S-induced regulatory interaction between ethylene and proline and GSH metabolism may be used for the reversal of Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Comparative profiles of gene expression in leaves and roots of maize seedlings under conditions of salt stress and the removal of salt stress.

    PubMed

    Qing, Dong-Jin; Lu, Hai-Feng; Li, Ning; Dong, Hai-Tao; Dong, Deng-Feng; Li, You-Zhi

    2009-04-01

    We studied the transcriptional profiles of leaves and roots of three-leaf stage seedlings of the maize inbred line YQ7-96 under conditions of salt stress (100 mM NaCl) and removal of salt stress (RSS). A total of 296 genes were regulated specifically by the stress, of which 206 were specific to leaves and 90 were specific to roots. Stress-regulated genes were classified into eight and seven expression patterns for leaves and roots, respectively. There were 60 genes which were regulated specifically by RSS, 27 of which were specific to leaves and 33 specific to roots. No genes were found to be co-regulated in tissues and to be regulated commonly by the stress and RSS. It can be concluded that (i) at the early stage of the stress, transcriptional responses are directed at water deficit in maize leaves but at both water deficit and Na+ accumulation in roots; (ii) at the later stage, the responses in leaves and roots result from dual effects of both water deficit and Na+ accumulation; (iii) the polyamine metabolic pathway is an important linker for the co-ordination between leaves and roots to accomplish the tolerance of the whole maize plant to the stress; (iv) the stress can lead to genomic restructuring and nuclear transport in maize; (v) maize leaves are distinct from roots in terms of molecular mechanisms for responses to and growth recovery from the stress; and (vi) mechanisms for the maize responses to the stress differ from those for their growth recovery during RSS.

  4. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Muhammad S.; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T.; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 106 CFU mL-1). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  5. Comparison of the bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate stress responses in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Flahaut, S; Frere, J; Boutibonnes, P; Auffray, Y

    1996-01-01

    The resistance to detergents and detergent-induced tolerance of a gastrointestinal organism, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433, were examined. The most remarkable observation was the rapid response of cells in contact with bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The killing by high concentrations of detergents was nearly instantaneous. A 5-s adaptation with moderate sublethal concentrations of bile salts or SDS (0.08 or 0.01%, respectively) was sufficient to induce significant adaptation against homologous lethal conditions (0.3% bile salts or 0.017% SDS). However, resistance to a subsequent lethal challenge progressively increased further to a maximum reached after 30 min of adaptation. Furthermore, extremely strong cross-resistances were observed with bile salts- and SDS-adapted cells. However, no relationship seems to exist between levels of tolerance and de novo-synthesized proteins, since blockage of protein synthesis during adaptation had no effect on induction of resistance to bile salts and SDS. We conclude that this induced tolerance to detergent stress is independent of protein synthesis. Nevertheless, the stress-induced protein patterns of E. faecalis ATCC 19433 showed significant modifications. The rates of synthesis of 45 and 34 proteins were enhanced after treatments with bile salts and SDS, respectively. In spite of the overlap of 12 polypeptides, the protein profiles induced by the two detergents were different, suggesting that these detergents trigger different responses in E. faecalis. Therefore, bile salts cannot be substituted for SDS in biochemical detergent shock experiments with bacteria. PMID:8779581

  6. Differential Role for Trehalose Metabolism in Salt-Stressed Maize[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Clémence; Bledsoe, Samuel W.; Griffiths, Cara A.; Kollman, Alec; Paul, Matthew J.; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lagrimini, L. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how salt impacts primary metabolic pathways of C4 plants, particularly related to kernel development and seed set. Osmotic stress was applied to maize (Zea mays) B73 by irrigation with increasing concentrations of NaCl from the initiation of floral organs until 3 d after pollination. At silking, photosynthesis was reduced to only 2% of control plants. Salt treatment was found to reduce spikelet growth, silk growth, and kernel set. Osmotic stress resulted in higher concentrations of sucrose (Suc) and hexose sugars in leaf, cob, and kernels at silking, pollination, and 3 d after pollination. Citric acid cycle intermediates were lower in salt-treated tissues, indicating that these sugars were unavailable for use in respiration. The sugar-signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate was elevated in leaf, cob, and kernels at silking as a consequence of salt treatment but decreased thereafter even as Suc levels continued to rise. Interestingly, the transcripts of trehalose pathway genes were most affected by salt treatment in leaf tissue. On the other hand, transcripts of the SUCROSE NONFERMENTING-RELATED KINASE1 (SnRK1) marker genes were most affected in reproductive tissue. Overall, both source and sink strength are reduced by salt, and the data indicate that trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 may have different roles in source and sink tissues. Kernel abortion resulting from osmotic stress is not from a lack of carbohydrate reserves but from the inability to utilize these energy reserves. PMID:26269545

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress responsive proteins in roots and leaves of rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Chang, Tao-Shan; Hsu, Yu-Kai; Wang, Arthur Z; Yen, Hung-Chen; Wu, Yung-Pei; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2014-08-01

    Growth and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are severely affected by salinity. Understanding the mechanisms that protect rice and other important cereal crops from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress-tolerant strains. In this study, rice seedlings of the same genetic species with various salt tolerances were studied. We first used 2DE to resolve the expressed proteome in rice roots and leaves and then used nanospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to identify the differentially expressed proteins in rice seedlings after salt treatment. The 2DE assays revealed that there were 104 differentially expressed protein spots in rice roots and 59 in leaves. Then, we identified 83 proteins in rice roots and 61 proteins in rice leaves by MS analysis. Functional classification analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins from roots could be classified into 18 functional categories while those from leaves could be classified into 11 functional categories. The proteins from rice seedlings that most significantly contributed to a protective effect against increased salinity were cysteine synthase, adenosine triphosphate synthase, quercetin 3-O-methyltransferase 1, and lipoxygenase 2. Further analysis demonstrated that the primary mechanisms underlying the ability of rice seedlings to tolerate salt stress were glycolysis, purine metabolism, and photosynthesis. Thus, we suggest that differentially expressed proteins may serve as marker group for the salt tolerance of rice.

  8. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    Schiop, Sorin T.; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F.; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E.; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  9. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  10. Tetraploid citrus rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than diploid.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Basel; Allario, Thierry; Dambier, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2008-09-01

    Citrus trees are subject to several abiotic constraints such as salinity. Providing new rootstocks more tolerant is thus a requirement. In this article, we investigated salt stress tolerance of three tetraploid rootstock genotypes when compared to their respective diploid rootstocks (Poncirus trifoliata, Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin). Plant growth, leaf fall and ion contents were investigated. At the end of the experiment, leaf fall was observed only for diploid Poncirus trifoliata plants as well as chlorosis symptoms for Poncirus trifoliata and Carrizo citrange diploid plants. The diploid Cleopatra mandarin plants growth rate was not affected by salt stress and has even been increased for tetraploid Cleopatra mandarin. Ion contents investigation has shown lower accumulations of chloride ions in leaves of the tetraploid plants when compared to diploid plants. Our results suggest that citrus tetraploid rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than their corresponding diploid.

  11. Effect of nitric oxide signaling in bacterial-treated soybean plant under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Kasotia, Amrita; Kumari, Sarita; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    To understand protective roles of nitric oxide against salt stress, the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside on activities of lipoxygenase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, catalase, superoxide dismutase enzymes, proline accumulation, and distribution of sodium in soybean plants under salt were determined. Application of sodium nitroprusside + bacterium enhanced plant growth-promotion characteristics, activities of different enzymes, and proline accumulation in the presence of sodium nitroprusside under salt stress. Treatment with NaCl at 200 mM and sodium nitroprusside (0.1 mM) reduced Na⁺ levels but increased K⁺ levels in leaves in comparison with the NaCl-treated plants. Correspondingly, the plants treated with exogenous sodium nitroprusside and NaCl maintained a lower ratio of [Na⁺]/[K⁺] in NaCl-stressed plants.

  12. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  13. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

  14. Increased renal oxidative stress in salt-sensitive human GRK4γ486V transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zhenyu; Asico, Laureano D; Villar, Van Anthony M; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Cuevas, Santiago; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that salt-sensitive hypertension is caused by renal oxidative stress by measuring the blood pressure and reactive oxygen species-related proteins in the kidneys of human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4γ (hGRK4γ) 486V transgenic mice and non-transgenic (Non-T) littermates on normal and high salt diets. High salt diet increased the blood pressure, associated with impaired sodium excretion, in hGRK4γ486V mice. Renal expressions of NOX isoforms were similar in both strains on normal salt diet but NOX2 was decreased by high salt diet to a greater extent in Non-T than hGRK4γ486V mice. Renal HO-2, but not HO-1, protein was greater in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice on normal salt diet and normalized by high salt diet. On normal salt diet, renal CuZnSOD and ECSOD proteins were similar but renal MnSOD was lower in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice and remained low on high salt diet. High salt diet decreased renal CuZnSOD in hGRK4γ486V but not Non-T mice and decreased renal ECSOD to a greater extent in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice. Renal SOD activity, superoxide production, and NOS3 protein were similar in two strains on normal salt diet. However, high salt diet decreased SOD activity and NOS3 protein and increased superoxide production in hGRK4γ486V mice but not in Non-T mice. High salt diet also increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine to a greater extent in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice. hGRK4γwild-type mice were normotensive and hGRK4γ142V mice were hypertensive but both were salt-resistant and in normal redox balance. Chronic tempol treatment partially prevented the salt-sensitivity of hGRK4γ486V mice. Thus, hGRK4γ486V causes salt-sensitive hypertension due, in part, to defective renal antioxidant mechanisms.

  15. Ectopic Expression of OsSta2 Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Juyoung; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress can severely reduce crop yields. To understand how rice (Oryza sativa) plants respond to this environmental challenge, we investigated the genes involved in conferring salt tolerance by screening T-DNA tagging lines and identified OsSta2-D (Oryza sativa Salt tolerance activation 2-Dominant). In that line, expression of OsSta2 was enhanced by approximately eightfold when compared with the non-transformed wild type (WT). This gene was highly expressed in the callus, roots, and panicles. To confirm its role in stress tolerance, we generated transgenic rice that over-expresses OsSta2 under a maize ubiquitin promoter. The OsSta2-Ox plants were salt-tolerant at the vegetative stage, based on our calculations of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll concentrations, and survival rates. Under normal paddy field conditions, the Ox plants were somewhat shorter than the WT control but had improved agronomic traits such as higher total grain yield. They were also more tolerant to osmotic stress and hypersensitive to abscisic acid. Based on all of these results, we suggest that OsSta2 has important roles in determining yields as well as in conferring tolerance to salt stresses. PMID:28344585

  16. Time Course Transcriptome Changes in Shewanella algae in Response to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiling; Du, Pengcheng; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Shewanella algae, which produces tetrodotoxin and exists in various seafoods, can cause human diseases, such as spondylodiscitis and bloody diarrhea. In the present study, we focused on the temporal, dynamic process in salt-stressed S. algae by monitoring the gene transcript levels at different time points after high salt exposure. Transcript changes in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, membrane transport, regulatory functions, and cellular signaling were found to be important for the high salt response in S. algae. The most common strategies used by bacteria to survive and grow in high salt environments, such as Na+ efflux, K+ uptake, glutamate transport and biosynthesis, and the accumulation of compatible solutes, were also observed in S. algae. In particular, genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and DNA repair were highly and steadily up-regulated, accompanied by rapid and instantaneous enhancement of the transcription of large- and small-ribosome subunits, which suggested that the structural changes in the cell wall and some stressful responses occurred in S. algae. Furthermore, the transcription of genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the glycolytic pathway was decreased, whereas the transcription of genes involved in anaerobic respiration was increased. These results, demonstrating the multi-pathway reactions of S. algae in response to salt stress, increase our understanding of the microbial stress response mechanisms. PMID:24789066

  17. SSR marker-assisted screening of commercial tomato genotypes under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Gharsallah, Charfeddine; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Fakhfakh, Hatem; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Gorsane, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress was applied to tomato commercial genotypes to study adverse effects on their phenotypic traits. Three were saline tolerant (San Miguel, Romelia and Llanero), two were mildly tolerant (Perfect peel HF1 and Heinz 1350) whereas the remaining were sensitive. Genotyping cultivars using 19 polymorphic SSRs out of 25 tested produced a total of 70 alleles with an average of 3.68 alleles per locus and PIC values ranging from 0.22 (SSR 26, 92, 66 and TG35) to 0.82 (SSR 356). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed two contrasting panels discriminating tolerant and sensitive groups and one panel with scattered genotypes. STRUCTURE analysis clustered genotypes within three groups in accordance with their salt stress behavior. The success of tomato salt-tolerance breeding programs can be enhanced through molecular characterization of diversity within commercial cultivars that adapt differently to stress conditions. To this end, we combined phenotypes and SSR marker-genotypes to seek sources of salt tolerance that might be tomato species-specific. We integrated and represented genotype-phenotype associations from multiple loci into a multi-layer network representation. It is a systemic view linking discriminating genotypes to salt stress phenotypes, which may guide strategies for the introgression of valuable traits in target tomato varieties to overcome salinity. PMID:28163598

  18. Salt stress induces the formation of a novel type of 'pressure wood' in two Populus species.

    PubMed

    Janz, Dennis; Lautner, Silke; Wildhagen, Henning; Behnke, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz; Fromm, Jörg; Polle, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    • Salinity causes osmotic stress and limits biomass production of plants. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying hydraulic adaptation to salinity. • Anatomical, ecophysiological and transcriptional responses to salinity were investigated in the xylem of a salt-sensitive (Populus × canescens) and a salt-tolerant species (Populus euphratica). • Moderate salt stress, which suppressed but did not abolish photosynthesis and radial growth in P. × canescens, resulted in hydraulic adaptation by increased vessel frequencies and decreased vessel lumina. Transcript abundances of a suite of genes (FLA, COB-like, BAM, XET, etc.) previously shown to be activated during tension wood formation, were collectively suppressed in developing xylem, whereas those for stress and defense-related genes increased. A subset of cell wall-related genes was also suppressed in salt-exposed P. euphratica, although this species largely excluded sodium and showed no anatomical alterations. Salt exposure influenced cell wall composition involving increases in the lignin : carbohydrate ratio in both species. • In conclusion, hydraulic stress adaptation involves cell wall modifications reciprocal to tension wood formation that result in the formation of a novel type of reaction wood in upright stems named 'pressure wood'. Our data suggest that transcriptional co-regulation of a core set of genes determines reaction wood composition.

  19. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils.

  20. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  1. Physiological analysis and transcriptome comparison of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Zhang, L D; Chen, J B; Huang, D F; Zhang, Y D

    2016-09-19

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important vegetable crop that ranks second in salt tolerance among the Cucurbitaceae. Previous studies on the two muskmelon cultivars 'Bing XueCui' (BXC) and 'Yu Lu' (YL) revealed that they had different characteristics under salt stress, but the molecular basis underlying their different physiological responses is unclear. Here, we combined a physiological study with a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to understand the molecular basis of genetic variation that responds to salt stress in the melon. BXC performed better under salt stress than YL in terms of biomass and photosynthetic characteristics, because it exhibited less reduction in transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, and stomatal conductance under 150-mM NaCl stress than YL. A transcriptome comparison of the leaves of the cultivars revealed that 1171 genes responded to salt stress in BXC while 1487 genes were identified as salt-stress-responsive in YL. A real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 12 of the responsive genes revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation with RNA sequencing data. The genes were involved in several pathways, including photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction, and their expression levels differed between the two cultivars in response to salt stress. This study provides a molecular perspective of two melon cultivars in response to salt stress, and its results could be used to investigate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in the melon.

  2. HKT transporters mediate salt stress resistance in plants: from structure and function to the field.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Shin; Horie, Tomoaki; Hauser, Felix; Deinlein, Ulrich; Schroeder, Julian I; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Plant cells are sensitive to salinity stress and do not require sodium as an essential element for their growth and development. Saline soils reduce crop yields and limit available land. Research shows that HKT transporters provide a potent mechanism for mediating salt tolerance in plants. Knowledge of the molecular ion transport and regulation mechanisms and the control of HKT gene expression are crucial for understanding the mechanisms by which HKT transporters enhance crop performance under salinity stress. This review focuses on HKT transporters in monocot plants and in Arabidopsis as a dicot plant, as a guide to efforts toward improving salt tolerance of plants for increasing the production of crops and bioenergy feedstocks.

  3. Stress memory induced transcriptional and metabolic changes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Jin, Yupei; Li, Huiying; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Preexposure to a stress could induce stable signals and reactions on plant physiology and gene expression during future encounters as a 'stress memory'. In this study, we found that two trainable genes, BPSP encoding putative brown plant hopper susceptibility protein and sucs encoding sucrose synthase displayed transcriptional memory for their considerably higher transcript levels during two or more subsequent stresses (S3, S4) relative to the initial stress (S0), and their expression returning to basal transcript levels (non-stressed) during the recovery states (R1, R2 and R3). Removing the repetitive stress/recovery exercise, activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes persisted for at least 4 days in perennial ryegrass. The pretrainable genes with stress memory effort had higher response to the subsequent elevated NaCl concentration treatment than the non-trainable plants, which was confirmed by lower electrolyte leakage and minimum H2 O2 and O2 (-) accumulation. Salt stress elevated the content of 41 metabolites in perennial ryegrass leaves, and sugars and sugar alcohol accounted for more than 74.1% of the total metabolite content. The salt stress memory was associated with higher contents of 11 sugars and 1 sugar alcohol in the pretrainable grass leaves. Similarly, six sugars showed greater content in the pretrainable grass roots. These novel phenomena associated with transcriptional memory and metabolite profiles could lead to new insights into improving plant salinity acclimation process.

  4. The Arabidopsis Gene zinc finger protein 3(ZFP3) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Osmotic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aidong; Liu, Dongdong; Hua, Changmei; Yan, An; Liu, Bohan; Wu, Minjie; Liu, Yihua; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Gan, Yinbo

    2016-01-01

    Plants are continuously challenged by various abiotic and biotic stresses. To tide over these adversities, plants evolved intricate regulatory networks to adapt these unfavorable environments. So far, many researchers have clarified the molecular and genetic pathways involved in regulation of stress responses. However, the mechanism through which these regulatory networks operate is largely unknown. In this study, we cloned a C2H2-type zinc finger protein gene ZFP3 from Arabidopsis thaliana and investigated its function in salt and osmotic stress response. Our results showed that the expression level of ZFP3 was highly suppressed by NaCl, mannitol and sucrose. Constitutive expression of ZFP3 enhanced tolerance of plants to salt and osmotic stress while the zfp3 mutant plants displays reduced tolerance in Arabidopsis. Gain- and Loss-of-function studies of ZFP3 showed that ZFP3 significantly changes proline accumulation and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, over-expression of ZFP3 induced the expressions of stress-related gene KIN1, RD22, RD29B and AtP5CS1. These results suggest that ZFP3 is involved in salt and osmotic stress response. PMID:27977750

  5. Overexpression of AtABCG36 improves drought and salt stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Young; Jin, Jun-Young; Alejandro, Santiago; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2010-06-01

    Drought and salt are major abiotic stresses that adversely affect crop productivity. Thus, identification of factors that confer resistance to these stresses would pave way to increasing agricultural productivity. When grown on soil in green house longer than 5 weeks, transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, AtABCG36/AtPDR8, produced higher shoot biomass and less chlorotic leaves than the wild-type. We investigated whether the improved growth of AtABCG36-overexpressing plants was due to their improved resistance to abiotic stresses, and found that AtABCG36-overexpressing plants were more resistant to drought and salt stress and grew to higher shoot fresh weight (FW) than the wild-type. On the contrary, T-DNA insertional knockout lines were more sensitive to drought stress than wild-type and were reduced in shoot FW. To understand the mechanism of enhanced salt and drought resistance of the AtABCG36 overexpressing plants, we measured sodium contents and found that AtABCG36 overexpressing plants were lower in sodium content than the wild-type. Our data suggest that AtABCG36 contributes to drought and salt resistance in Arabidopsis by a mechanism that includes reduction of sodium content in plants.

  6. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis.

  7. Dimethylglycine Provides Salt and Temperature Stress Protection to Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Abdallah; Hoffmann, Tamara; Smits, Sander H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycine betaine is a potent osmotic and thermal stress protectant of many microorganisms. Its synthesis from glycine results in the formation of the intermediates monomethylglycine (sarcosine) and dimethylglycine (DMG), and these compounds are also produced when it is catabolized. Bacillus subtilis does not produce sarcosine or DMG, and it cannot metabolize these compounds. Here we have studied the potential of sarcosine and DMG to protect B. subtilis against osmotic, heat, and cold stress. Sarcosine, a compatible solute that possesses considerable protein-stabilizing properties, did not serve as a stress protectant of B. subtilis. DMG, on the other hand, proved to be only moderately effective as an osmotic stress protectant, but it exhibited good heat stress-relieving and excellent cold stress-relieving properties. DMG is imported into B. subtilis cells primarily under osmotic and temperature stress conditions via OpuA, a member of the ABC family of transporters. Ligand-binding studies with the extracellular solute receptor (OpuAC) of the OpuA system showed that OpuAC possesses a moderate affinity for DMG, with a Kd value of approximate 172 μM; its Kd for glycine betaine is about 26 μM. Docking studies using the crystal structures of the OpuAC protein with the sulfur analog of DMG, dimethylsulfonioacetate, as a template suggest a model of how the DMG molecule can be stably accommodated within the aromatic cage of the OpuAC ligand-binding pocket. Collectively, our data show that the ability to acquire DMG from exogenous sources under stressful environmental conditions helps the B. subtilis cell to cope with growth-restricting osmotic and temperature challenges. PMID:24561588

  8. Proteomic study of a tolerant genotype of durum wheat under salt-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Papa, Roberto; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting crop growth and productivity. Duilio is a wheat genotype that shows tolerant behavior in both salt-stress and drought-stress conditions. Toward better understanding of the biochemical response to salinity in this genotype of durum wheat, a comparative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis based on normalized spectral abundance factors was conducted on wheat leaf samples subjected to increasing salt-stress levels (100 and 200 mmol L(-1) NaCl) with respect to untreated samples. We found significant changes in 71 proteins for the first stress level, in 83 proteins at the higher salinity level, and in 88 proteins when comparing salt-stress levels with each other. The major changes concerned the proteins involved in primary metabolism and production of energy, followed by those involved in protein metabolism and cellular defense mechanisms. Some indications of different specific physiological and defense mechanisms implicated in increasing tolerance were obtained. The enhanced salinity tolerance in Duilio appeared to be governed by a higher capacity for osmotic homeostasis, a more efficient defense, and an improvement of protection from mechanical stress by increased cell wall lignifications, allowing a better potential for growth recovery.

  9. Proteome Analysis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) under Severe Drought and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Abulnaja, Khalid O.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm cultivars differently tolerate salinity and drought stress. This study was carried out to study the response of date palm to severe salinity and drought based on leaf proteome analysis. Eighteen-month-old date palm plants were subjected to severe salt (48 g/L NaCl) and drought (82.5 g/L PEG or no irrigation) conditions for one month. Using a protein 2D electrophoresis method, 55 protein spots were analyzed using mass spectrometry. ATP synthase CF1 alpha chains were significantly upregulated under all three stress conditions. Changes in the abundance of RubisCO activase and one of the RubisCO fragments were significant in the same spots only for salt stress and drought stress with no irrigation, and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 was changed in different spots. Transketolase was significantly changed only in drought stress with PEG. The expression of salt and drought stress genes of the chosen protein spots was either overexpressed or downexpressed as revealed by the high or low protein abundance, respectively. In addition, all drought tolerance genes due to no irrigation were downregulated. In conclusion, the proteome analysis of date palm under salinity and drought conditions indicated that both salinity and drought tolerance genes were differentially expressed resulting in high or low protein abundance of the chosen protein spots as a result of exposure to drought and salinity stress condition. PMID:27840818

  10. Physcomitrella patens DNA methyltransferase 2 is required for recovery from salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Arya, Deepshikha; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kapoor, Meenu

    2016-02-01

    DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2) unlike other members of the cytosine DNA methyltransferase gene family has dual substrate specificity and it methylates cytosines in both the DNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). Its role in plants, however, has remained obscure to date. In this study, we demonstrate that DNMT2 from Physcomitrella patens accumulates in a temporal manner under salt and osmotic stress showing maximum accumulation during recovery, i.e. 24 h after plants are transferred to normal growth medium. Therefore, to study its role in stress tolerance, we generated PpDNMT2 targeted knockout plants (ppdnmt2ko). Mutant plants show increased sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress and are unable to recover even after 21 days of growth on optimal growth media. ppdnmt2ko, however, accumulate normal levels of dehydrin-like and small heat shock protein encoding transcripts under stress but show dramatic reduction in levels of tRNA(A) (sp-) (GUC) . The levels of tRNA(A) (sp-) (GUC) , in contrast, increase ~ 25-30-fold in ppdnmt2ko under non-stress conditions and > 1200-fold in wild-type plants under stress. The role of PpDNMT2 in modulating biogenesis/stability of tRNA(A) (sp-) (GUC) under salt and osmotic stress is discussed in the light of these observations.

  11. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Enshun; Chen, Mingming; He, Hui; Zhan, Chengfang; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhoufei

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II). We identified 14 proteins involved in seed imbibition, in which the majority of these proteins were involved in energy supply and storage protein. The early imbibition process was mediated by protein catabolism; the most of proteins were down-regulated after 24 h imbibition. Eleven genes in salt stress treated seeds were expressed early during the seed imbibition in comparison to control seeds. By comparison, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (BPM), glutelin (GLU2.2 and GLU2.3), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase large subunit (GAS8), and cupin domain containing protein (CDP3.1 and CDP3.2) were near the regions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy, seed reserve utilization, and seed germination in Jiucaiqing. In particular, CDP3.1 was co-located in the region of qIR-3 for imbibition rate, and qGP-3 for germination percentage. The role of CDP3.1 was verified in enhancing seed germination under salt stress using T-DNA mutant. The identified proteins might be applicable for the improvement of seed germination under salt stress in rice. PMID:28105039

  12. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Enshun; Chen, Mingming; He, Hui; Zhan, Chengfang; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhoufei

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II). We identified 14 proteins involved in seed imbibition, in which the majority of these proteins were involved in energy supply and storage protein. The early imbibition process was mediated by protein catabolism; the most of proteins were down-regulated after 24 h imbibition. Eleven genes in salt stress treated seeds were expressed early during the seed imbibition in comparison to control seeds. By comparison, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (BPM), glutelin (GLU2.2 and GLU2.3), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase large subunit (GAS8), and cupin domain containing protein (CDP3.1 and CDP3.2) were near the regions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy, seed reserve utilization, and seed germination in Jiucaiqing. In particular, CDP3.1 was co-located in the region of qIR-3 for imbibition rate, and qGP-3 for germination percentage. The role of CDP3.1 was verified in enhancing seed germination under salt stress using T-DNA mutant. The identified proteins might be applicable for the improvement of seed germination under salt stress in rice.

  13. Proline accumulation and metabolism-related genes expression profiles in Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Honglei; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Proline accumulation is a common response to salt stress in many plants. Salt stress also increased proline concentration in roots, stems, and leaves of Kosteletzkya virginica seedling treated with 300 mM NaCl for 24 h and reached 3.75-, 4.76-, and 6.83-fold higher than controls. Further study on proline content in leaves under salt stress showed that proline content increased with increasing NaCl concentrations or time. The proline level peaked at 300 mM NaCl for 24 h and reached more than sixfold higher than control, but at 400 mM NaCl for 24 h proline content fell back slightly along with wilting symptom. To explore the cause behind proline accumulation, we first cloned full length genes related to proline metabolism including KvP5CS1, KvOAT, KvPDH, and KvProT from K. virginica and investigated their expression profiles. The results revealed that the expressions of KvP5CS1 and KvProT were sharply up-regulated by salt stress and the expression of KvOAT showed a slight increase with increasing salt concentrations or time, while the expression of KvPDH was not changed much and slightly decreased before 12 h and then returned to the original level. As the key enzyme genes for proline biosynthesis, the up-regulated expression of KvP5CS1 played a more important role than KvOAT for proline accumulation in leaves under salt stress. The low expression of KvPDH for proline catabolism also made a contribution to proline accumulation before 12 h. PMID:26483809

  14. Ultrastructural evidence for AMF mediated salt stress mitigation in Trigonella foenum-graecum.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Giri, Bhoopander; Kapoor, Rupam

    2013-01-01

    The study unveils that inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) prevents salt-induced ultrastructural alterations in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) plants. Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) fenugreek plants were subjected to four levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl). Salt-induced ultrastructural changes were captured using a Transmission Electron Microscope. Effects of salt on the ultrastructure of cells include shrinkage of protoplasm, widening apoplastic space between cell wall and cell membrane, disorganization of grana in chloroplast--swelling and reduction in the number of thylakoids, disintegration of chloroplast membrane, accumulation of plastoglobules, dilation of cristae and denser matrix in mitochondria, and aggregation of chromatin in nucleus. However, the extent of salt-induced ultrastructural damage was less in M plants as compared to NM plants. Lower lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in M plants also indicated less membrane damage. This reduction of ultrastructure damage is a demonstration of enhanced tolerance in M plants to salt stress. The AMF-mediated lesser damage may be due to higher osmolyte (glycinebetaine, sugars) and polyamines concentration, and more and bigger plastoglobules (higher α-tocopherol concentration) in M plants as compared to NM plants. While lower Na(+) and Cl(-) ions assures less ionic toxicity, higher osmolytes and tocopherols ensure osmotic adjustment and better capacity to scavenge free radicals generated due to salt stress, respectively.

  15. A nuclear calcium-sensing pathway is critical for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingmei; Wu, Jianmin; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    Salt stress is an important environmental factor that significantly limits crop productivity worldwide. Studies on responses of plants to salt stress in recent years have identified novel signaling pathways and have been at the forefront of plant stress biology and plant biology in general. Thus far, research on salt stress in plants has been focused on cytoplasmic signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered a nuclear calcium-sensing and signaling pathway that is critical for salt stress tolerance in the reference plant Arabidopsis. Through a forward genetic screen, we found a nuclear-localized calcium-binding protein, RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1), which is required for salt tolerance, and identified its interacting partner, RITF1, a bHLH transcription factor. We show that RSA1 and RITF1 regulate the transcription of several genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated by salt stress and that they also regulate the SOS1 gene that encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter essential for salt tolerance. Together, our results suggest the existence of a novel nuclear calcium-sensing and -signaling pathway that is important for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance.

  16. Changes in the Physiological Parameters of SbPIP1-Transformed Wheat Plants under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, G. H.; Zhang, X.; Ma, H. X.

    2015-01-01

    The SbPIP1 gene is a new member of the plasma membrane major intrinsic gene family cloned from the euhalophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. In order to understand the physiological responses in plants that are mediated by the SbPIP1 gene, SbPIP1-overexpressing wheat lines and WT plants of the wheat cv. Ningmai 13 were treated with salt stress. Several physiological parameters, such as the proline content, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the content of soluble sugars and proteins, were compared between SbPIP1-transformed lines and WT plants under normal growth or salt stress conditions. The results indicate that overexpression of the SbPIP1 gene can increase the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, decrease the MDA content, and enhance the soluble sugar biosynthesis in the early period but has no influence on the regulation of soluble protein biosynthesis in wheat. The results suggest that SbPIP1 contributes to salt tolerance by facilitating the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, increasing the antioxidant response, and increasing the biosynthesis of soluble sugar in the early period. These results indicate SbPIP1 plays an important role in the salt stress response. Overexpression of SbPIP1 might be used to improve the salt tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:26495278

  17. Quantifying velocity, strain rate and stress distribution in coalescing salt sheets for safer drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijermars, R.; van Harmelen, A.

    2015-03-01

    Reaching sub-salt hydrocarbon targets in the deeper part of the Gulf of Mexico requires drilling through a salt canopy. The suture zones in the salt canopy are potential drilling hazards due to anomalous pressure behaviour of entrapped sediments. The Pólya vector field of coalescing salt sheets inside the canopy is used to explain suture formation and distinguish between upright and inclined suture contacts. Our analytical models, based on complex potentials, provide exact solutions for multiple source flows as they compete for space when spreading into the viscous continuum of the salt canopy. The velocity gradient tensor yields the strain rate tensor, which is used to map the principal strain rate magnitude inside the canopy. Quantification of one of the principal strain rates is sufficient because the plane deformation assumption ensures the two principal strain rates are equal in magnitude (but of opposite sign); the third principal dimension can have neither strain nor deviatoric stress. Visualization of the locations where the principal stress vanishes or peaks (with highs and lows) is useful for pre-drilling plans because such peaks must be avoided and the stress-free locations provide the safer drilling sites. A case study-of the Walker Ridge region-demonstrates the practical application of our new method.

  18. Global Gene Expression of Kosteletzkya virginica Seedlings Responding to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Hongyan; Shao, Chuyang; Shao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinization is becoming a serious threat to crop yield all over the world. Nowadays, acquainting the specific molecular mechanisms underlying various abiotic stresses especially to salt stress should be of great importance. While the development of the high-throughout sequencing technology promoted the progress powerfully. The intricate perception, transduction and regulation mechanisms underlying salt stress are being illustrated more and more clearly. As a perennial halophytic plant, Kosteletzkya virginica is able to help us to understand the mechanisms more directly and effectively. We carried out the whole transcriptome analysis on young seedlings with or without salt treatment through high-throughout sequencing technology. The results revealed that the numbers of different expressed transcripts between control and different treatments are 4145 and 9134, respectively. The ORF prediction suggested that there were 94308 ORF out of the 103489 (91.10%) total transcripts. We also carried out further differential expression analysis through gene ontology (GO) classification, cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. In a word, our transcriptome study on Kosteletzkya virginica would provide direct and effective references for researches on molecular mechanisms of salt-tolerance, extending our view of salt tolerance in plant further. Above all, the related report in this paper is the first about Kosteletzkya virginica. PMID:25901608

  19. Argirein alleviates stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism in rats via normalizing testis endothelin receptor A and connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Hu, Chen; Khan, Hussein-hamed; Shi, Fang-hong; Cong, Xiao-dong; Li, Qing; Dai, Yin; Dai, De-zai

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. Methods: Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ). ISO-injected rats were treated with argirein (30 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) or testosterone replacement (0.5 mg·kg−1·d−1, sc) for 5 days, and STZ-injected rats were treated with argirein (40–120 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) or aminoguanidine (100 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 4 weeks. After the rats were euthanized, blood samples and testes were collected. Serum hormone levels were measured, and the expression of endothelin receptor A (ETA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and other proteins in testes was detected. For in vitro experiments, testis homogenate was prepared from normal male rats, and incubated with ISO (1 μmol/L) or high glucose (27 mmol/L). Results: ISO injection induced hyper-gonadotrophic hypogonadism characterized by low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels in the serum, whereas STZ injection induced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism as evidenced by low testosterone and low FSH and LH levels in the serum. In the testes of ISO- and STZ-injected rats, the expression of ETA, MMP-9, NADPH oxidase and pPKCε was significantly increased, and the expression of Cx43 was decreased. Administration of argirein attenuated both the abnormal serum hormone levels and the testis changes in ISO- and STZ-injected rats, and aminoguanidine produced similar actions in STZ-injected rats; testosterone replacement reversed the abnormal serum hormone levels, but did not affect the testis changes in ISO-injected rats. Argirein (0.3–3 μmol/L) exerted similar effects in testis homogenate incubated with ISO or high glucose in

  20. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  1. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Tisarum, Rujira; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Singh, Harminder P.; Suriyan Cha-Um; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle), a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in the northeast of Thailand for the remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200–600 mM NaCl). Seedlings of A. ampliceps (25 ± 2 cm in plant height) raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress), 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress) of salt treatment (NaCl) under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plants grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl) for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 μmol g–1 FW) and 3.2 (42.11 mg g–1 DW) folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll (TC) degradation (R2 = 0.72). Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl). However, these declined under high levels of salinity (400–600 mM NaCl), consequently resulting in a reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2 = 0.81) and plant dry weight (R2 = 0.91). The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils. PMID:26379678

  2. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Tisarum, Rujira; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Singh, Harminder P; Suriyan Cha-Um; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle), a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in the northeast of Thailand for the remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200-600 mM NaCl). Seedlings of A. ampliceps (25 ± 2 cm in plant height) raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress), 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress) of salt treatment (NaCl) under greenhouse conditions. Na(+) and Ca(2+) contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K(+) content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plants grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl) for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 μmol g(-1) FW) and 3.2 (42.11 mg g(-1) DW) folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na(+) enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll (TC) degradation (R (2) = 0.72). Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl). However, these declined under high levels of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl), consequently resulting in a reduced net photosynthetic rate (R (2) = 0.81) and plant dry weight (R (2) = 0.91). The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na(+) compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  3. Identification of novel loci for salt stress at the seed germination stage in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Guizhen; Ning, Lihua; Li, Yakai; Hu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Wei; He, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    Salt tolerance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] at the seed germination stage is a critical determinant of stable stand establishment in saline soil. This study examined one population of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F7:11) derived from a cross between Kefeng1 and Nannong1138-2 and one natural population consisting of 196 soybean landraces. A total of 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci associated with three salt tolerance indices were detected by linkage and association mapping. The SSR marker Sat_162 was found to be closely linked to the co-localized QTLs at a site 792,811 bp from the gene Glyma08g12400.1, which was verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. Five SSR markers, Satt201, BE475343, CSSR306, Satt664 and Satt567, were co-associated with two of the salt tolerance indices, and two SSR markers, Satt156 and Satt636, were co-associated with all three salt tolerance indices. Furthermore, elite alleles and their carrier materials were identified by analyzing alleles at the loci associated with these salt tolerance indices. These results may be beneficial for the future breeding of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage using marker-assisted selection and molecular pyramiding breeding. PMID:27795678

  4. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity.

  5. Genetic regulation of salt stress tolerance revealed by RNA-Seq in cotton diploid wild species, Gossypium davidsonii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Guozhong; Du, Lei; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Yang, Bing; Hu, Yan; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-02-03

    Cotton is an economically important crop throughout the world, and is a pioneer crop in salt stress tolerance research. Investigation of the genetic regulation of salinity tolerance will provide information for salt stress-resistant breeding. Here, we employed next-generation RNA-Seq technology to elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in cotton using the diploid cotton species Gossypium davidsonii which has superior stress tolerance. A total of 4744 and 5337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be involved in salt stress tolerance in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene function annotation elucidated salt overly sensitive (SOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathways. Furthermore, we found that photosynthesis pathways and metabolism play important roles in ion homeostasis and oxidation balance. Moreover, our studies revealed that alternative splicing also contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, implying its functional role in response to salinity stress. This study not only provides a valuable resource for understanding the genetic control of salt stress in cotton, but also lays a substantial foundation for the genetic improvement of crop resistance to salt stress.

  6. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  7. The role of hydrogen in hot-salt stress corrosion cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrejcin, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Additional support is presented for the previously proposed role of hydrogen as an embrittling agent in hot-salt stress corrosion cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys. The main source of hydrogen formed during the reactions of titanium alloys with hot salt was identified as water associated with the salt. Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of an intermediate (hydrogen halide) with the alloy rather than from metal-water reactions. The fracture mode of precracked tensile specimens was ductile when the specimens were tested in air, and brittle when tests were made in high-pressure hydrogen. Stressed titanium-aluminum alloys also were cracked by bombardment with hydrogen ions produced in a proton accelerator. The approximate concentrations of the hydrogen ions in the alloys were calculated.

  8. [Salt Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Defective Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupayev, Yu E; Shvidenko, A A; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant enzymes in four-week-old leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Columbia-0) and jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) mutant plants with defective jasmonate signaling were investigated under normal conditions and under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, 24 h). The wild-type plants responded to JA by an increase in the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase, while there was no change in the case of the mutant plants. In response to the salt stress of both the wild-type and mutant genotypes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were unchanged, decreased, and increased, respectively. The JA-treated wild type plants showed the highest activity of all three enzymes as compared with the mutant plants. Salinity caused a decrease in chlorophyll content in the wild-type and jin 1 plants. Preliminary JA treatment of the Col-0 plants resulted in a normal content of photosynthetic pigments after the salt stress, while the positive JA effect was insignificant in the jin 1 mutants. It was concluded that the MYC2/JIN 1 protein is involved in the JA signal transduction and plant adaptation to salt stress.

  9. Adaptive response and tolerance to sugar and salt stress in the food yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Dakal, Tikam Chand; Solieri, Lisa; Giudici, Paolo

    2014-08-18

    The osmotolerant and halotolerant food yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is known for its ability to grow and survive in the face of stress caused by high concentrations of non-ionic (sugars and polyols) and ionic (mainly Na(+) cations) solutes. This ability determines the success of fermentation on high osmolarity food matrices and leads to spoilage of high sugar and high salt foods. The knowledge about the genes, the metabolic pathways, and the regulatory circuits shaping the Z. rouxii sugar and salt-tolerance, is a prerequisite to develop effective strategies for fermentation control, optimization of food starter culture, and prevention of food spoilage. This review summarizes recent insights on the mechanisms used by Z. rouxii and other osmo and halotolerant food yeasts to endure salts and sugars stresses. Using the information gathered from S. cerevisiae as guide, we highlight how these non-conventional yeasts integrate general and osmoticum-specific adaptive responses under sugar and salts stresses, including regulation of Na(+) and K(+)-fluxes across the plasma membrane, modulation of cell wall properties, compatible osmolyte production and accumulation, and stress signalling pathways. We suggest how an integrated and system-based knowledge on these mechanisms may impact food and biotechnological industries, by improving the yeast spoilage control in food, enhancing the yeast-based bioprocess yields, and engineering the osmotolerance in other organisms.

  10. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenhai; Wang, Fuwei; Li, Shuchun; Zang, Lina; Zheng, Mi; Li, Ying; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla) ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar) show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl) stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8) and wild type (WT). In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees. PMID:27802286

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Salt Tolerance in Rice by Maintaining Na+/K+ Balance, Mineral Homeostasis and Oxidative Metabolism Under Excessive Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mostofa, Mohammad G.; Saegusa, Daisuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of rice salt stress tolerance. We showed that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS) clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, the ability to decrease the uptake of Na+ and the Na+/K+ ratio, as well as to balance mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitters like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes. PMID:26734015

  12. [Effects of partial root excision on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize under salt stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cui, Li-Na; Meng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Shi, De-Yang; Dong, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of partial root excision on the growth of two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9) throughout their growth period and the photosynthesis and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities at grain-filling stage under salt stress. Four treatments were installed, i. e., control (no salt), low salt (0.2% NaCl), moderate salt (0.4% NaCl), and high salt (0.6% NaCl). Under low salt stress, the grain yield of Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9 with partial root excision was increased by 13.1% and 31.4%, respectively, as compared with that of the cultivars with no root excision. At jointing stage, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision was restrained, the root- and shoot dry masses under the same salt stresses being lesser than those of the cultivars with no root excision, but the growth under the conditions of no salt and low salt recovered quickly. At milk-ripe stage and under no salt and low salt conditions, the root- and shoot dry masses, leaf area, total root length, total root surface area, root activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and ear leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and CAT and POD activities of the cultivars with partial root excision were significantly larger than those of the cultivars with no root excision, while the shoot diameter and ear leaf MDA content were in adverse. Moderate and high salt stresses had greater effects on the cultivars with partial root excision. The root- and shoot dry masses, root morphology, and photosynthesis indices of the cultivars with partial root excision were smaller than those of the cultivars with no root excision, so did the grain yields. Throughout the growth period of the cultivars, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision depended on the salt concentration, i. e., was promoted under no and low salt, and inhibited under moderate and high salt conditions.

  13. Atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide enhances tolerance to salt stress and improves nutritional quality in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Shao-Ting; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ran-Ran

    2015-04-15

    The increased salinity in greenhouses has become a problem of great concern. In this study, it was observed that the salt-induced oxidative damages (indicated by MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes, including POD, SOD and CAT) could be alleviated by application of NO gas. Consequently, although both photosynthesis and growth in plants were inhibited by NaCl stress, they were restored by NO gas application, and the fresh and dry biomasses of edible parts increased by 60% and 27% over NaCl stress treatment, respectively. Furthermore, gaseous NO application also significantly elevated the levels of several antioxidation-associated compounds such as proline, ascorbate, glutathione, total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (indicated by DPPH scavenging activity) in NaCl-treated plants. Keeping in mind all of the above, we concluded that atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide gas could be an effective strategy for improving both biomass production and nutrition quality in spinach under salt stress.

  14. Evaluation of Transient Pin-Stress Requirements for Spacecraft Launching in Lightning Environments. Pain Free Analysis to Alleviate Those Pin Stress Headaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Paul; Terseck, Alex; Trout, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft are generally protected from direct lightning attachment by encapsulation within the payload fairing of a launch vehicle and the ground structures that exist at the launch site. Regardless of where lightning strikes, potentially damaging indirect effects prevail from the coupling of electromagnetic fields into a loop created by outer shield of the payload umbilical. The energy coupled into individual spacecraft circuits is dependent on the umbilical current drive, the cable transfer impedance and the source/ load circuitry, and the reference potential used. Lightning induced transient susceptibility of the spacecraft avionics needs to be fully understood in order to define realistic re-test criteria in the event of a lightning occurrence during the launch campaign. Use of standards such as RTCA/DO-160 & SAE 5412 has some applicability but do not represent the indirect environment adequately. This paper evaluates the launch pad environments, the measurement data available, and computer simulations to provide pain-free analysis to alleviate the transient pin-stress headaches for spacecraft launching in Lightning environments.

  15. A cotton miRNA is involved in regulation of plant response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuai; Yang, Lu; Zeng, Hou Qing; Zhou, Zhao Sheng; Yang, Zhi Min; Li, Hua; Sun, Di; Xie, Fuliang; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    The present study functionally identified a new microRNA (microRNA ovual line 5, miRNVL5) with its target gene GhCHR from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The sequence of miRNVL5 precursor is 104 nt long, with a well developed secondary structure. GhCHR contains two DC1 and three PHD Cys/His-rich domains, suggesting that GhCHR encodes a zinc-finger domain-containing transcription factor. miRNVL5 and GhCHR express at various developmental stages of cotton. Under salt stress (50–400 mM NaCl), miRNVL5 expression was repressed, with concomitant high expression of GhCHR in cotton seedlings. Ectopic expression of GhCHR in Arabidopsis conferred salt stress tolerance by reducing Na+ accumulation in plants and improving primary root growth and biomass. Interestingly, Arabidopsis constitutively expressing miRNVL5 showed hypersensitivity to salt stress. A GhCHR orthorlous gene At2g44380 from Arabidopsis that can be cleaved by miRNVL5 was identified by degradome sequencing, but no confidential miRNVL5 homologs in Arabidopsis have been identified. Microarray analysis of miRNVL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed six downstream genes (CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ERF4, AT3G22920, and AT3G49200), which were induced by salt stress in wild-type but repressed in miRNVL5-expressing Arabidopsis. These results indicate that miRNVL5 is involved in regulation of plant response to salt stress. PMID:26813144

  16. Salt stress sensing and early signalling events in plant roots: Current knowledge and hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Sergey; Wu, Honghong; Bose, Jayakumar

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint to crop production. While the molecular identity and functional expression of Na(+) transport systems mediating Na(+) exclusion from the cytosol has been studied in detail, far less is known about the mechanisms by which plants sense high Na(+) levels in the soil and the rapid signalling events that optimise plant performance under saline conditions. This review aims to fill this gap. We first discuss the nature of putative salt stress sensors, candidates which include Na(+) transport systems, mechanosensory proteins, proteins with regulatory Na(+) binding sites, sensing mediated by cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, purine receptors, annexin and voltage gating. We suggest that several transport proteins may be clustered together to form a microdomain in a lipid raft, allowing rapid changes in the activity of an individual protein to be translated into stress-induced Ca(2+) and H2O2 signatures. The pathways of stress signalling to downstream targets are discussed, and the kinetics and specificity of salt stress signalling between glycophytes and halophytes is compared. We argue that these sensing mechanisms operate in parallel, providing plants with a robust system for decoding information about the specific nature and severity of the imposed salt stress.

  17. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  18. Over-expression of Topoisomerase II Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    John, Riffat; Ganeshan, Uma; Singh, Badri N.; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K.; Sopory, Sudhir K.; Rajam, Manchikatla V.

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerases are unique enzymes having an ability to remove or add DNA supercoils and untangle the snarled DNA. They can cut, shuffle, and religate DNA strands and remove the torsional stress during DNA replication, transcription or recombination events. In the present study, we over-expressed topoisomerase II (TopoII) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) and examined its role in growth and development as well as salt (NaCl) stress tolerance. Several putative transgenic plants were generated and the transgene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses, and RT-PCR analysis respectively. Percent seed germination, shoot growth, and chlorophyll content revealed that transgenic lines over-expressing the NtTopoIIα-1 gene exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt (150 and 200 mM NaCl) stress. Moreover, over-expression of TopoII lead to the elevation in proline and glycine betaine levels in response to both concentrations of NaCl as compared to wild-type. In response to NaCl stress, TopoII over-expressing lines showed reduced lipid peroxidation derived malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. These results suggest that TopoII plays a pivotal role in salt stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27630644

  19. Salt tolerance and stress level affect plant biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenxing; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Haishui; Tang, Jianjun; Weiner, Jacob; Chen, Xin

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown that plant biomass-density relationships are altered under extreme or stressed conditions. We do not know whether variation in biomass-density relationships is a direct result of stress tolerance or occurs via changes in plant-plant interactions. Here, we evaluated biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects in six plant species that differ in salt tolerance in a salt marsh, and conducted a literature review of biomass-density relationship under higher and lower stress levels. Our field study showed that both neighbor effects and the exponent of the biomass-density relationship (α) varied among plant species with different degrees of salt tolerance. There was a positive relationship between neighbor effects (measured as relative interaction index) and α-value among the tested species. The literature review showed that α and its variation increased under higher stress. Our results indicate that plant species with different salinity tolerance differ in the direction and strength of neighbor effects, resulting in variation in biomass-density relationships. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in biomass-density relationships among species are not due to differences in stress tolerance alone, they are mediated by changes in plant-plant interactions.

  20. Knock-out of Arabidopsis AtNHX4 gene enhances tolerance to salt stress

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hua; Gao, Xiao-Shu; Zhang, Hongxia

    2009-05-08

    AtNHX4 belongs to the monovalent cation:proton antiporter-1 (CPA1) family in Arabidopsis. Several members of this family have been shown to be critical for plant responses to abiotic stress, but little is known on the biological functions of AtNHX4. Here, we provide the evidence that AtNHX4 plays important roles in Arabidopsis responses to salt stress. Expression of AtNHX4 was responsive to salt stress and abscisic acid. Experiments with CFP-AtNHX4 fusion protein indicated that AtNHX4 is vacuolar localized. The nhx4 mutant showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress, and lower Na{sup +} content under high NaCl stress compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, heterologous expression of AtNHX4 in Escherichia coli BL21 rendered the transformants hypersensitive to NaCl. Deletion of the hydrophilic C-terminus of AtNHX4 dramatically increased the hypersensitivity of transformants, indicating that AtNHX4 may function in Na{sup +} homeostasis in plant cell, and its C-terminus plays a role in regulating the AtNHX4 activity.

  1. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-03

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L(-1) K2SiO3 · nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na(+) concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K(+)/Na(+) ratio was obtained after K2SiO3 · nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3 · nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3 · nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  2. Thermotolerance induced at a mild temperature of 40°C alleviates heat shock-induced ER stress and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia (39-45°C) has emerged as an alternate prospect for cancer therapy in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Despite promising progress in the clinic, molecular mechanisms involved in hyperthermia-induced cell death are not clear. Hyperthermia causes protein denaturation/aggregation, which results in cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Hyperthermia also induces thermotolerance, which renders cells resistant to subsequent exposure to lethal heat shock. This study investigates the role of both lethal (42-43°C) and mild (40°C) hyperthermia in regulating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The ability of mild thermotolerance induced at 40°C to alleviate either or both of these processes is also determined. Hyperthermia (42-43°C) induced ER stress, revealed by phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2α and IRE1α, cleavage of ATF6 and increased expression of BiP and sXBP1. Real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of ATF6, ATF4, BiP, sXBP1 and CHOP increased in cells exposed to hyperthermia. Moreover, hyperthermia caused disruption of calcium homeostasis and activated the calpain-calpastatin proteolytic system and ER resident caspase 4. Pre-exposure to mild hyperthermia (40°C) alleviated the induction of cytotoxicity and ER stress by hyperthermia (42-43°C) and protected cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis. ShRNA-mediated depletion of Hsp72 abrogated protective effects of mild thermotolerance (40°C) against heat-shock induced ER stress and sensitized cells to ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Our findings show that Hsp72 contributes to the protective effects of mild hyperthermia (40°C) against hyperthermia-induced ER stress and apoptosis.

  3. Overexpression of a partial fragment of the salt-responsive gene OsNUC1 enhances salt adaptation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa L.) during salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sripinyowanich, Siriporn; Chamnanmanoontham, Nontalee; Udomchalothorn, Thanikarn; Maneeprasopsuk, Somporn; Santawee, Panudda; Buaboocha, Teerapong; Qu, Li-Jia; Gu, Hongya; Chadchawan, Supachitra

    2013-12-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) nucleolin gene, OsNUC1, transcripts were expressed in rice leaves, flowers, seeds and roots but differentially expressed within and between two pairs of salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rice lines when subjected to salt stress. Salt-resistant lines exhibited higher OsNUC1 transcript expression levels than salt-sensitive lines during 0.5% (w/v) NaCl salt stress for 6d. Two sizes of OsNUC1 full-length cDNA were found in the rice genome database and northern blot analysis confirmed their existence in rice tissues. The longer transcript (OsNUC1-L) putatively encodes for a protein with a serine rich N-terminal, RNA recognition motifs in the central domain and a glycine- and arginine-rich repeat in the C-terminal domain, while the shorter one (OsNUC1-S) putatively encodes for the similar protein without the N-terminus. Without salt stress, OsNUC1-L expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Atnuc1-L1 plants displayed a substantial but incomplete revertant phenotype, whereas OsNUC1-S expression only induced a weak effect. However, under 0.5% (w/v) NaCl salt stress they displayed a higher relative growth rate, longer root length and a lower H2O2 level than the wild type plants, suggesting a higher salt resistance. Moreover, they displayed elevated AtSOS1 and AtP5CS1 transcript levels. We propose that OsNUC1-S plays an important role in salt resistance during salt stress, a new role for nucleolin in plants.

  4. Symbiotic Performance of Diverse Frankia Strains on Salt-Stressed Casuarina glauca and Casuarina equisetifolia Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Mariama; Gray, Krystelle; Diagne, Nathalie; Oshone, Rediet; Fardoux, Joel; Gherbi, Hassen; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.; Sy, Mame O.; Champion, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations between Casuarina trees and the actinobacteria Frankia are widely used in agroforestry in particular for salinized land reclamation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of salinity on the establishment of the actinorhizal symbiosis between C. glauca and two contrasting Frankia strains (salt sensitive; CcI3 vs. salt tolerant; CeD) and the role of these isolates in the salt tolerance of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia plants. We show that the number of root nodules decreased with increasing salinity levels in both plants inoculated with CcI3 and CeD. Nodule formation did not occur in seedlings inoculated with CcI3 and CeD, at NaCl concentrations above 100 and 200 mM, respectively. Salinity also affected the early deformation of plant root hairs and reduced their number and size. In addition, expression of symbiotic marker Cg12 gene, which codes for a subtilase, was reduced at 50 mM NaCl. These data suggest that the reduction of nodulation in C. glauca under salt stress is in part due to inhibition of early mechanisms of infection. We also show that prior inoculation of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia with Frankia strains CcI3 and CeD significantly improved plant height, dry biomass, chlorophyll and proline contents at all levels of salinity tested, depending on the Casuarina-Frankia association. There was no correlation between in vitro salt tolerance of Frankia strains and efficiency in planta under salt-stressed conditions. Our results strongly indicate that increased N nutrition, photosynthesis potential and proline accumulation are important factors responsible for salt tolerance of nodulated C. glauca and C. equisetifolia. PMID:27630656

  5. Overexpression of PeHA1 enhances hydrogen peroxide signaling in salt-stressed Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijuan; Wang, Yang; Sun, Jian; Ding, Mingquan; Deng, Shurong; Hou, Peichen; Ma, Xujun; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Feifei; Sa, Gang; Tan, Yeqing; Lang, Tao; Li, Jinke; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase plays a crucial role in controlling K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress. Our previous microarray analysis indicated that Populus euphratica retained a higher abundance of PM H(+)-ATPase transcript versus a salt-sensitive poplar. To clarify the roles of the PM H(+)-ATPase in salt sensing and adaptation, we isolated the PM H(+)-ATPase gene PeHA1 from P. euphratica and introduced it into Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to wild-type, PeHA1-transgenic Arabidopsis had a greater germination rate, root length, and biomass under NaCl stress (50-150 mM). Ectopic expression of PeHA1 remarkably enhanced the capacity to control the homeostasis of ions and reactive oxygen species in salinized Arabidopsis. Flux data from salinized roots showed that transgenic plants exhibited a more pronounced Na(+)/H(+) antiport and less reduction of K(+) influx versus wild-type. Enhanced PM ATP hydrolytic activity, proton pumping, and Na(+)/H(+) antiport in PeHA1-transgenic plants, were consistent to those observed in vivo, i.e., H(+) extrusion, external acidification, and Na(+) efflux. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were typically higher in transgenic seedlings irrespective of salt concentration. In transgenic Arabidopsis roots, H2O2 production was higher under control conditions and increased more rapidly than wild-type when plants were subjected to NaCl treatment. Interestingly, transgenic plants were unable to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis when salt-induced H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These observations suggest that PeHA1 accelerates salt tolerance partially through rapid H2O2 production upon salt treatment, which triggers adjustments in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

  6. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding for Ascorbate Peroxidase and Responsive to Salt Stress in Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dunajska-Ordak, Kamila; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    BvpAPX is a full-length cDNA-encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase isolated from leaves of salt-stressed beet (Beta vulgaris) plants. A high level of identity has been reported between the deduced amino acid sequence of BvpAPX and other known ascorbate peroxidases. The genomic sequence of BvpAPX revealed a gene composed of 5 exons and 4 introns. Several sequence motifs revealed in the 5'UTR region of the gene confer to BvpAPX a putative responsiveness to various abiotic stresses. We determined the effect of salt stress on BvpAPX expression in leaves of the cultivated beet varieties, Huzar and Janosik, and their wild salt-tolerant relative B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants were subjected to salt stress during a 32-day culture period (long-term salt treatment). An alternative salinization protocol consisted of an 18-h incubation of detached beet leaves in media supplemented with toxic salt concentrations (short-term salt treatment). RT-Q-PCR analysis revealed that BvpAPX expression markedly increased in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas BvpAPX transcript levels remained unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment. In addition, several leaf redox system parameters, such as ascorbate peroxidase activity or ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration, were determined in the leaves of beet plants subjected to salt stress conditions.

  7. Changes in Transcript Related to Osmosis and Intracellular Ion Homeostasis in Paulownia tomentosa under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoqiang; Wang, Limin; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Li, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important economic and greening tree species that is cultivated widely, including salt environment. Our previous studies indicated its autotetraploid induced by colchicine showed better stress tolerance, but the underlying molecular mechanism related to ploidy and salt stress is still unclear. To investigate this issue, physiological measurements and transcriptome profiling of diploid and autotetraploid plants untreated and treated with NaCl were performed. Through the comparisons among four accessions, for one thing, we found different physiological changes between diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa; for another, and we detected many differentially expressed unigenes involved in salt stress response. These differentially expressed unigenes were assigned to several metabolic pathways, including “plant hormone signal transduction,” “RNA transporter,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” and “plant-pathogen interaction,” which constructed the complex regulatory network to maintain osmotic and intracellular ion homeostasis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression patterns of 20 unigenes. The results establish the foundation for the genetic basis of salt tolerance in P. tomentosa, which in turn accelerates Paulownia breeding and expands available arable land. PMID:27066034

  8. Hot Salt Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Ti-6242S Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustode, Mangesh D.; Raja, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    The hot salt stress corrosion cracking behavior of Ti-6A1-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti-6242S) alloy was studied in the temperature range from 523.15 K to 673.15 K (250 °C to 400 °C). The alloy showed marginal susceptibility at 573.15 K (300 °C), and the extent susceptibility found to increase significantly at higher test temperatures. The specimens did not fail in long-term (1000 hours) hot salt constant load exposure tests carried out at 623.15 K and 673.15 K (350 °C and 400 °C), even at the stress levels more than the 80 pct of their ultimate tensile strength. However, the salt exposure in both stressed and unstressed conditions found to significantly impair the room-temperature ductility. The study shows that pitting and formation of slip step were the precursor events for SCC initiation; and the cracks were found to grow in transgranular manner in the primary- α phase and discontinuous-faceted manner in the transformed β colony. Furthermore, the XRD analysis of hot salt-exposed specimens revealed the presence of titanium hydride phase, which could be responsible for the embrittlement.

  9. Changes in Transcript Related to Osmosis and Intracellular Ion Homeostasis in Paulownia tomentosa under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoqiang; Wang, Limin; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Li, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important economic and greening tree species that is cultivated widely, including salt environment. Our previous studies indicated its autotetraploid induced by colchicine showed better stress tolerance, but the underlying molecular mechanism related to ploidy and salt stress is still unclear. To investigate this issue, physiological measurements and transcriptome profiling of diploid and autotetraploid plants untreated and treated with NaCl were performed. Through the comparisons among four accessions, for one thing, we found different physiological changes between diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa; for another, and we detected many differentially expressed unigenes involved in salt stress response. These differentially expressed unigenes were assigned to several metabolic pathways, including "plant hormone signal transduction," "RNA transporter," "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," and "plant-pathogen interaction," which constructed the complex regulatory network to maintain osmotic and intracellular ion homeostasis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression patterns of 20 unigenes. The results establish the foundation for the genetic basis of salt tolerance in P. tomentosa, which in turn accelerates Paulownia breeding and expands available arable land.

  10. Salt-stress induced modulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis during de-etiolation of rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Turan, Satpal; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2015-03-01

    Chlorophyll biosynthesis in plants is subjected to modulation by various environmental factors. To understand the modulation of the chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis during greening process by salt, 100-200 mM NaCl was applied to the roots of etiolated rice seedlings 12 h prior to the transfer to light. Application of 200 mM NaCl to rice seedlings that were grown in light for further 72 h resulted in reduced dry matter production (-58%) and Chl accumulation (-66%). Ionic imbalance due to salinity stress resulted in additional downregulation (41-45%) of seedling dry weight, Chl and carotenoid contents over and above that of similar osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol. Downregulation of Chl biosynthesis may be attributed to decreased activities of Chl biosynthetic pathway enzymes, i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase (EC-2.4.1.24), porphobilinogen deaminase (EC-4.3.1.8), coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (EC-1.3.3.3), protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (EC-1.3.3.4), Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase (EC-6.6.1.1) and protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC-1.3.33.1). Reduced enzymatic activities were due to downregulation of their protein abundance and/or gene expression in salt-stressed seedlings. The extent of downregulation of ALA biosynthesis nearly matched with that of protochlorophyllide and Chl to prevent the accumulation of highly photosensitive photodynamic tetrapyrroles that generates singlet oxygen under stress conditions. Although, ALA synthesis decreased, the gene/protein expression of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (EC-1.2.1.70) increased suggesting it may play a role in acclimation to salt stress. The similar downregulation of both early and late Chl biosynthesis intermediates in salt-stressed seedlings suggests a regulatory network of genes involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis.

  11. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  12. Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates stress-related behaviors in mouse models for neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impacts of rTMS/DMS on the brain are not yet fully understood. Results Here we studied the effects of deep-brain magnetic stimulation to brain on the molecular and cellular level. We examined the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal synaptic plasticity of rodent under stress conditions with deep-brain magnetic stimulation treatment. We found that DMS promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis significantly and facilitates the development of adult new-born neurons. Remarkably, DMS exerts anti-depression effects in the learned helplessness mouse model and rescues hippocampal long-term plasticity impaired by restraint stress in rats. Moreover, DMS alleviates the stress response in a mouse model for Rett syndrome and prolongs the life span of these animals dramatically. Conclusions Deep-brain magnetic stimulation greatly facilitates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maturation, also alleviates depression and stress-related responses in animal models. PMID:24512669

  13. Vegetative and reproductive growth of salt-stressed chickpea are carbon-limited: sucrose infusion at the reproductive stage improves salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hammad A; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-05-02

    Reproductive processes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are particularly sensitive to salinity. We tested whether limited photoassimilate availability contributes to reproductive failure in salt-stressed chickpea. Rupali, a salt-sensitive genotype, was grown in aerated nutrient solution, either with non-saline (control) or 30mM NaCl treatment. At flowering, stems were either infused with sucrose solution (0.44M), water only or maintained without any infusion, for 75 d. The sucrose and water infusion treatments of non-saline plants had no effect on growth or yield, but photosynthesis declined in response to sucrose infusion. Salt stress reduced photosynthesis, decreased tissue sugars by 22-47%, and vegetative and reproductive growth were severely impaired. Sucrose infusion of salt-treated plants increased total sugars in stems, leaves and developing pods, to levels similar to those of non-saline plants. In salt-stressed plants, sucrose infusion increased dry mass (2.6-fold), pod numbers (3.8-fold), seed numbers (6.5-fold) and seed yield (10.4-fold), yet vegetative growth and reproductive failure were not rescued completely by sucrose infusion. Sucrose infusion partly rescued reproductive failure in chickpea by increasing vegetative growth enabling more flower production and by providing sucrose for pod and seed growth. We conclude that insufficient assimilate availability limits yield in salt-stressed chickpea.

  14. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression.

  15. Physico-chemical changes in karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seedlings responding to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Galal, Abdelnasser

    2017-03-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors affecting series of morphological, physiological, metabolic and molecular changes in plant growth. The effect of different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM) of NaCl on the vegetative growth and some physiological parameters of karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa) seedling were investigated. NaCl affected the germination rate, delayed emergence and retarded vegetative growth of seedlings. The length of seedling as well as the leaf area was significantly reduced. The fresh weight remained lower in NaCl treated seedlings compared to control. NaCl at 100 and 150 mM concentrations had significant effect on the dry matter contents of the treated seedlings. The chloroplast pigments in the treated seedlings were affected, suggesting that the NaCl had a significant effect on the chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that the salt treatments induced an increase in proline concentration of the seedlings. The osmotic potential (ψs) of NaCl treated seedlings decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Salt treatments resulted in dramatic quantitative reduction in the total sterol percent compared with control ones. Salt stress resulted in increase and decrease of Na(+) and K(+) ions, respectively. NaCl salinity increased lipid peroxidation. SDS-PAGE was used to evaluate protein pattern after applying salt stress. High molecular weight proteins were intensified, while low molecular weight proteins were faint. NaCl at 100 and 150 mM concentration distinguished with new protein bands. Salt stress induced a new peroxidase bands and increased the band intensity, indicating the protective role of peroxidase enzyme.

  16. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. PMID:25124288

  17. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Diploid and Tetraploid Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Subjected to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mingyue; Liu, Likun; Meng, Fanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is adaptable to salt stress. Here, we compared morphological, physiological, ultrastructural, and proteomic traits of leaves in tetraploid black locust and its diploid relatives under salt stress. The results showed that diploid (2×) plants suffered from greater negative effects than those of tetraploid (4×) plants. After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme activities decreased in 2× compared to those in 4×. In addition, salt stress resulted in distorted chloroplasts, swollen thylakoid membranes, accumulation of plastoglobules, and increased starch grains in 2× compared to those in 4×. However, 4× developed diverse responses under salt stress. A comparative proteomic analysis revealed that 41 and 37 proteins were differentially expressed in 2× and 4×, respectively. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, metabolism, transcription/translation, and transportation. Distinct patterns of protein changes between 2× and 4× were analyzed. Collectively, our results suggest that the plants showed significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy level of the plant. The 4× possessed a better salt protection mechanism than that of 2×, suggesting salt tolerance in the polyploid plant. PMID:24129170

  18. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in response to salt stress in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Ananthi; Puranik, Swati; Rai, Neeraj Kumar; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Lata, Charu; Prasad, Manoj

    2008-11-01

    Plant growth and productivity are affected by various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, salinity, etc. The mechanism of salt tolerance is one of the most important subjects in plant science as salt stress decreases worldwide agricultural production. In our present study we used cDNA-AFLP technique to compare gene expression profiles of a salt tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) in response to salt stress to identify early responsive differentially expressed transcripts accumulated upon salt stress and validate the obtained result through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profile was compared between a salt tolerant (Prasad) and susceptible variety (Lepakshi) of foxtail millet in both control condition (L0 and P0) and after 1 h (L1 and P1) of salt stress. We identified 90 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) that are differentially expressed, out of which 86 TDFs were classified on the basis of their either complete presence or absence (qualitative variants) and 4 on differential expression pattern levels (quantitative variants) in the two varieties. Finally, we identified 27 non-redundant differentially expressed cDNAs that are unique to salt tolerant variety which represent different groups of genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, seed development and storage, etc. The expression patterns of seven out of nine such genes showed a significant increase of differential expression in tolerant variety after 1 h of salt stress in comparison to salt-sensitive variety as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The direct and indirect relationship of identified TDFs with salinity tolerance mechanism is discussed.

  19. Stress Tolerance Profiling of a Collection of Extant Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties and Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Abiotic Stress Tolerance Genes.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Kazumasa; Toda, Yosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Kozawa, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Hakata, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Environmental stress tolerance is an important trait for crop improvement. In recent decades, numerous genes that confer tolerance to abiotic stress such as salinity were reported. However, the levels of salt tolerance differ greatly depending on growth conditions, and mechanisms underlying the complicated nature of stress tolerance are far from being fully understood. In this study, we investigated the profiles of stress tolerance of nine salt-tolerant rice varieties and transgenic rice lines carrying constitutively expressed genes that are potentially involved in salt tolerance, by evaluating their growth and viability under salt, heat, ionic and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Profiling of the extant varieties and selected chromosome segment substitution lines showed that salt tolerance in a greenhouse condition was more tightly correlated with ionic stress tolerance than osmotic stresses. In Nona Bokra, one of the most salt-tolerant varieties, the contribution of the previously identified sodium transporter HKT1;5 to salt tolerance was fairly limited. In addition, Nona Bokra exhibited high tolerance to all the stresses imposed. More surprisingly, comparative evaluation of 74 stress tolerance genes revealed that the most striking effect to enhance salt tolerance was conferred by overexpressing CYP94C2b, which promotes deactivation of jasmonate. In contrast, genes encoding ABA signaling factors conferred multiple stress tolerance. Genes conferring tolerance to both heat and hyperosmotic stresses were preferentially linked to functional categories related to heat shock proteins, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) signaling. These comparative profiling data provide a new basis for understanding the ability of plants to grow under harsh environmental conditions.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes shows temperature-dependent and -independent responses to salt stress, including responses that induce cross-protection against other stresses.

    PubMed

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Bowen, Barbara; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-04-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes experiences osmotic stress in many habitats, including foods and the gastrointestinal tract of the host. During transmission, L. monocytogenes is likely to experience osmotic stress at different temperatures and may adapt to osmotic stress in a temperature-dependent manner. To understand the impact of temperature on the responses this pathogen uses to adapt to osmotic stress, we assessed genome-wide changes in the L. monocytogenes H7858 transcriptome during short-term and long-term adaptation to salt stress at 7°C and 37°C. At both temperatures, the short-term response to salt stress included increased transcript levels of sigB and SigB-regulated genes, as well as mrpABCDEFG, encoding a sodium/proton antiporter. This antiporter was found to play a role in adaptation to salt stress at both temperatures; ΔmrpABCDEFG had a significantly longer lag phase than the parent strain in BHI plus 6% NaCl at 7°C and 37°C. The short-term adaptation to salt stress at 7°C included increased transcript levels of two genes encoding carboxypeptidases that modify peptidoglycan. These carboxypeptidases play a role in the short-term adaptation to salt stress only at 7°C, where the deletion mutants had significantly different lag phases than the parent strain. Changes in the transcriptome at both temperatures suggested that exposure to salt stress could provide cross-protection to other stresses, including peroxide stress. Short-term exposure to salt stress significantly increased H(2)O(2) resistance at both temperatures. These results provide information for the development of knowledge-based intervention methods against this pathogen, as well as provide insight into potential mechanisms of cross-protection.

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of salt-stress induced RCI2-like genes from Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Long, Ruicai; Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhenyi; Li, Mingna; Cong, Lili; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress is one of the most significant adverse abiotic factors, causing crop failure worldwide. So far, a number of salt stress-induced genes, and genes improving salt tolerance have been characterized in a range of plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a salt stress-induced Medicago sativa (alfalfa) gene (MsRCI2A), which showed a high similarity to the yeast plasma membrane protein 3 gene (PMP3) and Arabidopsis RCI2A. The sequence comparisons revealed that five genes of MtRCI2(A-E) showed a high similarity to MsRCI2A in the Medicago truncatula genome. MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-E) encode small, highly hydrophobic proteins containing two putative transmembrane domains, predominantly localized in the plasma membrane. The transcript analysis results suggest that MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-D) genes are highly induced by salt stress. The expression of MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-C) in yeast mutants lacking the PMP3 gene can functionally complement the salt sensitivity phenotype resulting from PMP3 deletion. Overexpression of MsRCI2A in Arabidopsis plants showed improved salt tolerance suggesting the important role of MsRCI2A in salt stress tolerance in alfalfa.

  2. Alleviation of adverse effects of drought stress on growth and some potential physiological attributes in maize (Zea mays L.) by seed electromagnetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Javed, Namra; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Al-Qurainy, Fahad

    2011-01-01

    Effects of varying preseed magnetic treatments on growth, chlorophyll pigments, photosynthesis, water relation attributes, fluorescence and levels of osmoprotectants in maize plants were tested under normal and drought stress conditions. Seeds of two maize cultivars were treated with different (T0 [0 mT], T1 [100 mT for 5 min], T2 [100 mT for 10 min], T3 [150 mT for 5 min] and T4 [150 mT for 10 min]) electromagnetic treatments. Drought stress considerably suppressed growth, chlorophyll a and b pigments, leaf water potential, photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and substomatal CO(2) concentration (C(i)), while it increased leaf glycinebetaine and proline accumulation in both maize cultivars. However, pretreated seeds with different magnetic treatments significantly alleviated the drought-induced adverse effects on growth by improving chlorophyll a, A, E, g(s), C(i) and photochemical quenching and nonphotochemical quenching, while it had no significant effect on other attributes. However, different magnetic treatments negatively affected the g(s) and C(i) particularly in cv. Agaiti-2002 under drought stress conditions. Of all magnetic treatments, 100 and 150 mT for 10 min were most effective in alleviating the drought-induced adverse effects. Overall, preseed electromagnetic treatments could be used to minimize the drought-induced adverse effects on different crop plants.

  3. Increase of homologous recombination frequency in vascular tissue of Arabidopsis plants exposed to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Hudson, Darryl; Bhomkar, Prasanna; Kathiria, Palak; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2006-06-01

    Here we analyzed the influence of salt stress on plant genome stability. Homologous recombination events were detected in transgenic Arabidopsis plants that carried in their genome a beta-glucuronidase recombination marker. Recombination events were scored as blue sectors using a stereo microscope. Exposure to 50 mM salt resulted in a 3.0-fold increase in recombination frequency. To analyze the organ and tissue specificity of recombination events, we examined cross-sections of leaves, stems and roots. We found that nearly 30% of recombination events in plants grown under normal conditions and nearly 50% of events in plants grown on salt were undetected by the conventional method. Most of the recombination events represented a cluster/group of cells (12 on average), although events with single cells were also detected. Recombination events were very frequent in leaf mesophyll cells. On average, individual recombination events located on leaves contained more cells than events located on roots or stems. Analysis of recombination events in cross-sectioned tissue of salt-treated plants revealed a shift in the distribution of recombination events towards the vascular tissue. We discuss the significance of the finding for plant stress physiology.

  4. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition.

  5. Effect of salt stress on glycine betaine biosynthesis and catabolism by Medicago sativa bacteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Fougere, F.; Poggi, M.-C.; Le Rudulier, D. )

    1990-05-01

    Previous works have shown that glycine betaine (GB) and choline (Cho) are actively taken up by Medicago sativa bacteroids isolated from 4-week-old nodules. Here, we have investigated the effects of NaCl on the fte of Cho and GB. Bacteroids were incubated in low- or high-salt-medium (0.4 M NaCl) and supplemented with {sup 14}C 1,2-Cho or {sup 14}C 1,2-GB. After 3 hours, radioactivity was measured in CO{sub 2} released, in ethanol-soluble and insoluble fractions. In absence of salt, a low proportion of the labelling was found in soluble fraction: 47 and 19% after Cho or GB supply, respectively. On the contrary, in high-salt-medium, the soluble fraction still contained 85% of the radioactivity with GB corresponding to 92-98%. Both enzymes involved in GB biosynthesis from Cho were studied. Choline oxidase activity was enhanced by 59%, while betainal dehydrogenase activity remained unchanged after bacteroid incubation in high-salt-medium. Thus, GB accumulation in salt-stressed bacteroids would be likely a consequence of a decrease of its catabolism rather than an increase of its biosynthesis.

  6. Molecular adaptation and salt stress response of Halobacterium salinarum cells revealed by neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vauclare, Pierre; Marty, Vincent; Fabiani, Elisa; Martinez, Nicolas; Jasnin, Marion; Gabel, Frank; Peters, Judith; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Franzetti, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Halobacterium salinarum is an extreme halophile archaeon with an absolute requirement for a multimolar salt environment. It accumulates molar concentrations of KCl in the cytosol to counterbalance the external osmotic pressure imposed by the molar NaCl. As a consequence, cytosolic proteins are permanently exposed to low water activity and highly ionic conditions. In non-adapted systems, such conditions would promote protein aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation. In contrast, in vitro studies showed that proteins from extreme halophilic cells are themselves obligate halophiles. In this paper, adaptation via dynamics to low-salt stress in H. salinarum cells was measured by neutron scattering experiments coupled with microbiological characterization. The molecular dynamic properties of a proteome represent a good indicator for environmental adaptation and the neutron/microbiology approach has been shown to be well tailored to characterize these modifications. In their natural setting, halophilic organisms often have to face important variations in environmental salt concentration. The results showed deleterious effects already occur in the H. salinarum proteome, even when the external salt concentration is still relatively high, suggesting the onset of survival mechanisms quite early when the environmental salt concentration decreases.

  7. Salt stress alters the cell wall polysaccharides and anatomy of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) leaf cells.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Tiago Benedito; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; de Lourdes Lúcio Ferrarese, Maria; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo; Donatti, Lucélia; Boeger, Maria Regina Torres; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2014-11-04

    Coffea arabica is the most important agricultural commodity in the world, and salinity is a major threat to its sustainable irrigation. Coffee leaf polysaccharides from plants subjected to salt stress were extracted and the leaves visualized through optical and electron microscopy. Alterations were detected in the monosaccharide composition of the pectin and hemicelluloses, with increases in uronic acid in all fractions. Changes in the polysaccharides were confirmed by HPSEC and FTIR. Moreover, the monolignol content was increased in the final residue, which suggests increased lignin content. The cytoplasm was altered, and the chloroplasts appeared irregular in shape. The arrangement of the stroma lamellae was disordered, and no starch granules were present. It was concluded that leaves of C. arabica under salt stress showed alterations in cell wall polysaccharides, increased monolignol content and structural damage to the cells of the mesophyll.

  8. Salt stress and senescence: identification of cross-talk regulatory components.

    PubMed

    Allu, Annapurna Devi; Soja, Aleksandra Maria; Wu, Anhui; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Balazadeh, Salma

    2014-07-01

    Leaf senescence is an active process with a pivotal impact on plant productivity. It results from extensive signalling cross-talk coordinating environmental factors with intrinsic age-related mechanisms. Although many studies have shown that leaf senescence is affected by a range of external parameters, knowledge about the regulatory systems that govern the interplay between developmental programmes and environmental stress is still vague. Salinity is one of the most important environmental stresses that promote leaf senescence and thus affect crop yield. Improving salt tolerance by avoiding or delaying senescence under stress will therefore play an important role in maintaining high agricultural productivity. Experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) functions as a common signalling molecule in both developmental and salt-induced leaf senescence. In this study, microarray-based gene expression profiling on Arabidopsis thaliana plants subjected to long-term salinity stress to induce leaf senescence was performed, together with co-expression network analysis for H2O2-responsive genes that are mutually up-regulated by salt induced- and developmental leaf senescence. Promoter analysis of tightly co-expressed genes led to the identification of seven cis-regulatory motifs, three of which were known previously, namely CACGTGT and AAGTCAA, which are associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive genes, and CCGCGT, described as a stress-responsive regulatory motif, while the others, namely ACGCGGT, AGCMGNC, GMCACGT, and TCSTYGACG were not characterized previously. These motifs are proposed to be novel elements involved in the H2O2-mediated control of gene expression during salinity stress-triggered and developmental senescence, acting through upstream transcription factors that bind to these sites.

  9. Coordinated gene regulation in the initial phase of salt stress adaptation.

    PubMed

    Vanacloig-Pedros, Elena; Bets-Plasencia, Carolina; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2015-04-17

    Stress triggers complex transcriptional responses, which include both gene activation and repression. We used time-resolved reporter assays in living yeast cells to gain insights into the coordination of positive and negative control of gene expression upon salt stress. We found that the repression of "housekeeping" genes coincides with the transient activation of defense genes and that the timing of this expression pattern depends on the severity of the stress. Moreover, we identified mutants that caused an alteration in the kinetics of this transcriptional control. Loss of function of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (vma1) or a defect in the biosynthesis of the osmolyte glycerol (gpd1) caused a prolonged repression of housekeeping genes and a delay in gene activation at inducible loci. Both mutants have a defect in the relocation of RNA polymerase II complexes at stress defense genes. Accordingly salt-activated transcription is delayed and less efficient upon partially respiratory growth conditions in which glycerol production is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the loss of Hog1 MAP kinase function aggravates the loss of RNA polymerase II from housekeeping loci, which apparently do not accumulate at inducible genes. Additionally the Def1 RNA polymerase II degradation factor, but not a high pool of nuclear polymerase II complexes, is needed for efficient stress-induced gene activation. The data presented here indicate that the finely tuned transcriptional control upon salt stress is dependent on physiological functions of the cell, such as the intracellular ion balance, the protective accumulation of osmolyte molecules, and the RNA polymerase II turnover.

  10. An electrochemical model for hot-salt stress-corrosion of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkle, M.

    1972-01-01

    An electrochemical model of hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking of titanium alloys is proposed based on an oxygen-concentration cell. Hydrogen embrittlement is proposed as the direct cause of cracking, the hydrogen being generated as the results of the hydrolysis of complex halides formed at the shielded anode of the electrochemical cell. The model found to be consistent with the diverse observations made both in this study and by many investigators in this field.

  11. The coordinated regulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Hordeum brevisubulatum responding to time of salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Xia, Zeng-Run; Wu, Guo-Qiang; Yuan, Hui-Jun; Wang, Xin-Rui; Li, Jin-Hua; Tian, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; He, Jiong-Jie; Kumar, Tanweer; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jin-Lin

    2016-11-01

    Hordeum brevisubulatum, called as wild barley, is a useful monocotyledonous halophyte for soil improvement in northern China. Although previously studied, its main salt tolerance mechanism remained controversial. The current work showed that shoot Na(+) concentration was increased rapidly with stress time and significantly higher than in wheat during 0-168h of 100mM NaCl treatment. Similar results were also found under 25 and 50mM NaCl treatments. Even K(+) was increased from 0.01 to 50mM in the cultural solution, no significant effect was found on tissue Na(+) concentrations. Interestingly, shoot growth was improved, and stronger root activity was maintained in H. brevisubulatum compared with wheat after 7days treatment of 100mM NaCl. To investigate the long-term stress impact on tissue Na(+), 100mM NaCl was prolonged to 60 days. The maximum values of Na(+) concentrations were observed at 7th in shoot and 14th day in roots, respectively, and then decreased gradually. Micro-electrode ion flux estimation was used and it was found that increasing Na(+) efflux while maintaining K(+) influx were the major strategies to reduce the Na(+) concentration during long-term salt stress. Moreover, leaf Na(+) secretions showed little contribution to the tissue Na(+) decrease. Thereby, the physiological mechanism for H. brevisubulatum to survive from long-term salt stress was proposed that rapid Na(+) accumulation occurred in the shoot to respond the initial salt shock, then Na(+) efflux was triggered and K(+) influx was activated to maintain a stable K(+)/Na(+) ratio in tissues.

  12. Sphaerophysa kotschyana, an endemic species from Central Anatolia: antioxidant system responses under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Yildiztugay, Evren; Ozfidan-Konakci, Ceyda; Kucukoduk, Mustafa

    2013-09-01

    Sphaerophysa kotschyana is a Turkish endemic and endangered plant that grows near Salt Lake, in Konya, Turkey. However, little is known about the ability of this plant to generate/remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) or its adaptive biochemical responses to saline environments. After exposure of S. kotschyana to 0, 150, and 300 mM NaCl for 7 and 14 days, we investigated (1) the activities and isozyme compositions of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR); (2) the oxidative stress parameters NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), total ascorbate (tAsA) content, and total glutathione content (tGlut); and (3) ROS levels for superoxide anion radical (O 2 (·-) ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (OH·), and histochemical staining of O 2 (·-) and H2O2. H2O2 content increased after 14 days of salt stress, which was consistent with the results from histochemical staining and NOX activity measurements. In contrast, oxidative stress induced by 150 mM NaCl was more efficiently prevented, as indicated by low malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and especially at 7 days, by increased levels of SOD, POX, APX, and GR. However, at 300 mM NaCl, decreased levels of protective enzymes such as SOD, CAT, POX, and GR, particularly with long-term stress (14 days), resulted in limited ROS scavenging activity and increased MDA levels. Moreover, at 300 mM NaCl, the high H2O2 content caused oxidative damage rather than inducing protective responses against H2O2. These results suggest that S. kotschyana is potentially tolerant to salt-induced damage only at low salt concentrations.

  13. Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 μg·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous.

  14. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level.

  15. Microbial cooperation in the rhizosphere improves liquorice growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Li, Li; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-10-26

    Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the most widely used plants in food production, and it can also be used as an herbal medicine or for reclamation of salt-affected soils. Under salt stress, inhibition of plant growth, nutrient acquisition and symbiotic interactions between the medicinal legume liquorice and rhizobia have been observed. We recently evaluated the interactions between rhizobia and root-colonizing Pseudomonas in liquorice grown in potting soil and observed increased plant biomass, nodule numbers and nitrogen content after combined inoculation compared to plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium alone. Several beneficial effects of microbes on plants have been reported; studies examining the interactions between symbiotic bacteria and root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains under natural saline soil conditions are important, especially in areas where a hindrance of nutrients and niches in the rhizosphere are high. Here, we summarize our recent observations regarding the combined application of rhizobia and Pseudomonas on the growth and nutrient uptake of liquorice as well as the salt stress tolerance mechanisms of liquorice by a mutualistic interaction with microbes. Our observations indicate that microbes living in the rhizosphere of liquorice can form a mutualistic association and coordinate their involvement in plant adaptations to stress tolerance. These results support the development of combined inoculants for improving plant growth and the symbiotic performance of legumes under hostile conditions.

  16. Rapid Response of the Yeast Plasma Membrane Proteome to Salt Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Szopinska, Aleksandra; Degand, Hervé; Hochstenbach, Jean-François; Nader, Joseph; Morsomme, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cell from the external environment and plays an important role in the stress response of the cell. In this study, we compared plasma membrane proteome modifications of yeast cells exposed to mild (0.4 m NaCl) or high (1 m NaCl) salt stress for 10, 30, or 90 min. Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated, purified, and subjected to iTRAQ labeling for quantitative analysis. In total, 88–109 plasma membrane proteins were identified and quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed significant changes in the abundance of several plasma membrane proteins. Mild salt stress caused an increase in abundance of 12 plasma membrane proteins, including known salt-responsive proteins, as well as new targets. Interestingly, 20 plasma membrane proteins, including the P-type H+-ATPase Pma1, ABC transporters, glucose and amino acid transporters, t-SNAREs, and proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis showed a significant and rapid decrease in abundance in response to both 0.4 m and 1 m NaCl. We propose that rapid protein internalization occurs as a response to hyper-osmotic and/or ionic shock, which might affect plasma membrane morphology and ionic homeostasis. This rapid response might help the cell to survive until the transcriptional response takes place. PMID:21825281

  17. Relative susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-0.2Si(679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo(6242), Ti-6Al-4V(64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co(643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V(811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3A1(13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si(5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat and processing variations. Residual compressive stresses and cyclic exposures also reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Simulated turbine-engine compressor environmental variables such as air velocity, pressure, dewpoint, salt concentration, and salt deposition temperature have only minor effects. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the existence of a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  18. Short-term effects of salt stress on antioxidant systems and leaf water relations of pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José A; Almansa, Maria S

    2002-06-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants the effect of short-term salt stress and recovery on growth, water relations and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes was studied. Leaf growth was interrupted by salt addition. However, during recovery, growth was restored, although there was a delay in returning to control levels. Salt stress brought about a decrease in osmotic potential and in stomatal conductance, but at 48 h and 24 h post-stress, respectively, both parameters recovered control values. In pea leaves, a linear increase in the Na+ concentration was observed in salt treated plants. In the recovered plants, a slight reduction in the Na+ concentration was observed, probably due to a dilution effect since the plant growth was restored and the total Na+ content was maintined in leaves after the stress period. A significant increase of SOD activity occurred after 48 h of stress and after 8 h of the recovery period (53% and 42%, respectively), and it reached control values at 24 h post-stress. APX activity did not change during the stress period, and after only 8 h post-stress it was increased by 48% with respect to control leaves. GR showed a 71% increase after 24 h of salt stress and also a significant increase was observed in the recovered plants. A strong increase of TBARS was observed after 8 h of stress (180% increase), but then a rapid decrease was observed during the stress period. Surprisingly, TBARS again increased at 8 h post-stress (78% increase), suggesting that plants could perceive the elimination of NaCl from the hydroponic cultures as another stress during the first hours of recovery. These results suggest that short-term NaCl stress produces reversible effects on growth, leaf water relations and on SOD and APX activities. This work also suggests that both during the first hours of imposition of stress and during the first hours of recovery an oxidative stress was produced.

  19. Potassium Retention under Salt Stress Is Associated with Natural Variation in Salinity Tolerance among Arabidopsis Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanling; Kong, Xiangpei; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Yongxiu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses during their life cycle such as salt, drought and cold. Natural variation mediated plant growth adaptation has been employed as an effective approach in response to the diverse environmental cues such as salt stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In the present study, a collection of 82 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (ecotypes) was screened with a view to identify variation for salinity tolerance. Seven accessions showed a higher level of tolerance than Col-0. The young seedlings of the tolerant accessions demonstrated a higher K+ content and a lower Na+/K+ ratio when exposed to salinity stress, but its Na+ content was the same as that of Col-0. The K+ transporter genes AtHAK5, AtCHX17 and AtKUP1 were up-regulated significantly in almost all the tolerant accessions, even in the absence of salinity stress. There was little genetic variation or positive transcriptional variation between the selections and Col-0 with respect to Na+-related transporter genes, as AtSOS genes, AtNHX1 and AtHKT1;1. In addition, under salinity stress, these selections accumulated higher compatible solutes and lower reactive oxygen species than did Col-0. Taken together, our results showed that natural variation in salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis seems to have been achieved by the strong capacity of K+ retention. PMID:25993093

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Differential Root Proteins in Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula in Response to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ruicai; Li, Mingna; Zhang, Tiejun; Kang, Junmei; Sun, Yan; Cong, Lili; Gao, Yanli; Liu, Fengqi; Yang, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress is an important abiotic stress that causes decreased crop yields. Root growth and plant activities are affected by salt stress through the actions of specific genes that help roots adapt to adverse environmental conditions. For a more comprehensive understanding of proteins affected by salinity, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome-level changes associated with salt stress response in Medicago sativa cv. Zhongmu-1 and Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 roots. Our physiological and phenotypic observations indicated that Zhongmu-1 was more salt tolerant than Jemalong A17. We identified 93 and 30 proteins whose abundance was significantly affected by salt stress in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the differentially accumulated proteins resulted in the identification of 60 and 26 proteins in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. Function analyses indicated molecule binding and catalytic activity were the two primary functional categories. These proteins have known functions in various molecular processes, including defense against oxidative stress, metabolism, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and processing, and signal transduction. The transcript levels of four identified proteins were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that some of the identified proteins may play key roles in salt stress tolerance. PMID:27066057

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Differential Root Proteins in Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula in Response to Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Long, Ruicai; Li, Mingna; Zhang, Tiejun; Kang, Junmei; Sun, Yan; Cong, Lili; Gao, Yanli; Liu, Fengqi; Yang, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress is an important abiotic stress that causes decreased crop yields. Root growth and plant activities are affected by salt stress through the actions of specific genes that help roots adapt to adverse environmental conditions. For a more comprehensive understanding of proteins affected by salinity, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome-level changes associated with salt stress response in Medicago sativa cv. Zhongmu-1 and Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 roots. Our physiological and phenotypic observations indicated that Zhongmu-1 was more salt tolerant than Jemalong A17. We identified 93 and 30 proteins whose abundance was significantly affected by salt stress in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the differentially accumulated proteins resulted in the identification of 60 and 26 proteins in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. Function analyses indicated molecule binding and catalytic activity were the two primary functional categories. These proteins have known functions in various molecular processes, including defense against oxidative stress, metabolism, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and processing, and signal transduction. The transcript levels of four identified proteins were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that some of the identified proteins may play key roles in salt stress tolerance.

  2. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-13

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na(+) were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato.

  3. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na+ were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato. PMID:28084460

  4. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis modulates antioxidant response in salt-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum plants.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Glomus intraradices colonization on the activity of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, and carotenoids) in roots and leaves of fenugreek plants subjected to varying degrees of salinity (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) at two time intervals (1 and 14 days after saline treatment, DAT). The antioxidative capacity was correlated with oxidative damage in the same tissue. Under salt stress, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration increased with increasing severity and duration of salt stress (DoS). However, the extent of oxidative damage in mycorrhizal plants was less compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. The study reveals that mycorrhiza-mediated attenuation of oxidative stress in fenugreek plants is due to enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and higher concentrations of antioxidant molecules. However, the significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on individual antioxidant molecules and enzymes varied with plant tissue, salinity level, and DoS. The significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on antioxidative enzymes was more evident at 1DAT in both leaves and roots, while the concentrations of antioxidant molecules were significantly influenced at 14DAT. It is proposed that AM symbiosis can improve antioxidative defense systems of plants through higher SOD activity in M plants, facilitating rapid dismutation of O2 (-) to H2O2, and subsequent prevention of H2O2 build-up by higher activities of CAT, APX, and PX. The potential of G. intraradices to ameliorate oxidative stress generated in fenugreek plants by salinity was more evident at higher intensities of salt stress.

  6. Nitrogen Nutrition Improves the Potential of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Alleviate the Effects of Drought Stress during Vegetative Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Cui, Yakun; Liu, Yang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the potential to alleviate drought stress in crops by maintaining metabolic activities even at low tissue water potential. This study was aimed to understand the potential of N to minimize the effects of drought stress applied/occur during tillering (Feekes stage 2) and jointing (Feekes stage 6) growth stages of wheat by observing the regulations and limitations of physiological activities, crop growth rate during drought periods as well as final grain yields at maturity. In present study, pot cultured plants of a wheat cultivar Yangmai-16 were exposed to three water levels [severe stress at 35–40% field capacity (FC), moderate stress at 55–60% FC and well-watered at 75–80% FC] under two N rates (0.24 g and 0.16 g/kg soil). The results showed that the plants under severe drought stress accompanied by low N exhibited highly downregulated photosynthesis, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence during the drought stress periods, and showed an accelerated grain filling rate with shortened grain filling duration (GFD) at post-anthesis, and reduced grain yields. Severe drought-stressed plants especially at jointing, exhibited lower Chl and Rubisco contents, lower efficiency of photosystem II and greater grain yield reductions. In contrast, drought-stressed plants under higher N showed tolerance to drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential, Chl and Rubisco content; lower lipid peroxidation associated with higher superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities during drought periods. The plants under higher N showed delayed senescence, increased GFD and lower grain yield reductions. The results of the study suggested that higher N nutrition contributed to drought tolerance in wheat by maintaining higher photosynthetic activities and antioxidative defense system during vegetative growth periods. PMID:27446197

  7. Nitrogen Nutrition Improves the Potential of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Alleviate the Effects of Drought Stress during Vegetative Growth Periods.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Cui, Yakun; Liu, Yang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the potential to alleviate drought stress in crops by maintaining metabolic activities even at low tissue water potential. This study was aimed to understand the potential of N to minimize the effects of drought stress applied/occur during tillering (Feekes stage 2) and jointing (Feekes stage 6) growth stages of wheat by observing the regulations and limitations of physiological activities, crop growth rate during drought periods as well as final grain yields at maturity. In present study, pot cultured plants of a wheat cultivar Yangmai-16 were exposed to three water levels [severe stress at 35-40% field capacity (FC), moderate stress at 55-60% FC and well-watered at 75-80% FC] under two N rates (0.24 g and 0.16 g/kg soil). The results showed that the plants under severe drought stress accompanied by low N exhibited highly downregulated photosynthesis, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence during the drought stress periods, and showed an accelerated grain filling rate with shortened grain filling duration (GFD) at post-anthesis, and reduced grain yields. Severe drought-stressed plants especially at jointing, exhibited lower Chl and Rubisco contents, lower efficiency of photosystem II and greater grain yield reductions. In contrast, drought-stressed plants under higher N showed tolerance to drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential, Chl and Rubisco content; lower lipid peroxidation associated with higher superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities during drought periods. The plants under higher N showed delayed senescence, increased GFD and lower grain yield reductions. The results of the study suggested that higher N nutrition contributed to drought tolerance in wheat by maintaining higher photosynthetic activities and antioxidative defense system during vegetative growth periods.

  8. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225 mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225 mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  10. A different role for hydrogen peroxide and the antioxidative system under short and long salt stress in Brassica oleracea roots.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mercedes; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Olmos, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Salinity affects normal growth and development of plants depending on their capacity to overcome the induced stress. The present study was focused on the response and regulation of the antioxidant defence system in Brassica oleracea roots under short and long salt treatments. The function and the implications of hydrogen peroxide as a stressor or as a signalling molecule were also studied. Two different zones were analysed--the elongation and differentiation zone and the fully differentiated root zone--in order to broaden the knowledge of the different effects of salt stress in root. In general, an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed in both zones at the highest (80 mM NaCl) concentration. A higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed in the stele of salt-treated roots. At the subcellular level, mitochondria accumulated hydrogen peroxide in salt-treated roots. The results confirm a drastic decrease in the antioxidant enzymes catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases under short salt treatments. However, catalase and peroxidase activities were recovered under long salt stress treatments. The two antioxidant molecules analysed, ascorbate and glutathione, showed a different trend during salt treatments. Ascorbate was progressively accumulated and its redox state maintained, but glutathione was highly accumulated at 24 h of salt treatment, but then its concentration and redox state progressively decreased. Concomitantly, the antioxidant enzymes involved in ascorbate and glutathione regeneration were modified under salt stress treatments. In conclusion, the increase in ascorbate levels and the maintenance of the redox state seem to be critical for root growth and development under salt stress.

  11. Abscisic acid in salt stress predisposition to phytophthora root and crown rot in tomato and chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Dileo, Matthew V; Pye, Matthew F; Roubtsova, Tatiana V; Duniway, John M; Macdonald, James D; Rizzo, David M; Bostock, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment with complex signaling networks, often under control of phytohormones that generate positive and negative crosstalk among downstream effectors of the response. Accordingly, brief dehydration stresses such as salinity and water deficit, which induce a rapid and transient systemic increase in levels of abscisic acid (ABA), can influence disease response pathways. ABA has been associated with susceptibility of plants to bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes but relatively little attention has been directed at its role in abiotic stress predisposition to root pathogens. This study examines the impact of brief salinity stress on infection of tomato and chrysanthemum roots by Phytophthora spp. Roots of plants in hydroponic culture exposed to a brief episode of salt (sodium chloride) stress prior to or after inoculation were severely diseased relative to nonstressed plants. Tomato roots remained in a predisposed state up to 24 h following removal from the stress. An increase in root ABA levels in tomato preceded or temporally paralleled the onset of stress-induced susceptibility, with levels declining in roots prior to recovery from the predisposed state. Exogenous ABA could substitute for salt stress and significantly enhanced pathogen colonization and disease development. ABA-deficient tomato mutants lacked the predisposition response, which could be restored by complementation of the mutant with exogenous ABA. In contrast, ethylene, which exacerbates disease symptoms in some host-parasite interactions, did not appear to contribute to the predisposition response. Thus, several lines of evidence support ABA as a critical and dominant factor in the salinity-induced predisposition to Phytophthora spp. infection.

  12. Proteome analysis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) elucidates constitutive adaptation during the first phase of salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Asif, Abdul R; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2011-04-15

    Salinity is one of the major stress factors responsible for growth reduction of most of the higher plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on protein pattern in shoots and roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was examined. Sugar beet plants were grown in hydroponics under control and 125 mM salt treatments. A significant growth reduction of shoots and roots was observed. The changes in protein expression, caused by salinity, were monitored using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. Most of the detected proteins in sugar beet showed stability under salt stress. The statistical analysis of detected proteins showed that the expression of only six proteins from shoots and three proteins from roots were significantly altered. At this stage, the significantly changed protein expressions we detected could not be attributed to sugar beet adaptation under salt stress. However, unchanged membrane bound proteins under salt stress did reveal the constitutive adaptation of sugar beet to salt stress at the plasma membrane level.

  13. G6PDH activity highlights the operation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI in Physcomitrella patens during salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Huan, Li; Wang, Guangce

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic performances and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in Physcomitrella patens changed greatly during salt stress and recovery. In P. patens, the cyclic electron flow around photosystem (PS) I was much more tolerant to high salt stress than PSII. After high salt stress, the PSII activity recovered much more slowly than that of PSI, which was rapidly restored to pretreatment levels even as PSII was almost inactivate. This result suggested that after salt stress the recovery of the cyclic electron flow around PSI was independent of PSII activity. In addition, G6PDH activity and NADPH content increased under high salt stress. When G6PDH activity was inhibited by glucosamine (Glucm, a G6PDH inhibitor), the cyclic electron flow around PSI and the NADPH content decreased significantly. Additionally, after recovery in liquid medium containing Glucm, the PSI activity was much lower than in liquid medium without Glucm. These results suggested the PSI activity was affected significantly by G6PDH activity and the NADPH content. Based on the above results, we propose that G6PDH in P. patens has a close relationship with the photosynthetic process, possibly providing NADPH for the operation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI during salt stress and promoting the restoration of PSI. PMID:26887288

  14. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Wencai; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Hangbo; Wang, Lin; Jiao, Zhen

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. • The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. • Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. • Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. • Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  15. Impact of exogenous ascorbic acid on biochemical activities of rice callus treated with salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Isahak, Anizan; Mohamad, Azhar; Ashraf, Mehdi Farshad; Doni, Febri; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    The application of in vitro systems can lead to new methods of crop amelioration. This method has been widely utilized for breeding tenacities, particularly for stress tolerance selection. Salinity causes oxidative stress in callus by enhancing the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), resulting in an efficient antioxidant system. The exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important requirement for tolerance. The present study aimed to examine in vitro selection strategy for callus induction in rice mature embryo culture on MS culture medium and to produce salt-tolerant callus under sodium chloride (NaCl) and AsA conditions in callus rice variety, MR269. This study also highlights changes in the activities of proline and antioxidants peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of callus under NaCl stress to understand their possible role in salt tolerance. However, various levels of exogenously applied AsA under saline conditions improved callus, and the antioxidant enzyme activities of AsA are related to resistance to oxidative stress. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that AsA-dependent antioxidant enzymes play a significant role in the salinity tolerance of callus rice.

  16. Chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and gas exchange changes assessed by spectroradiometry in Fragaria chiloensis under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Garriga, Miguel; Retamales, Jorge B; Romero-Bravo, Sebastián; Caligari, Peter D S; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2014-05-01

    Chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents provide a valuable indicator of the status of a plant's physiology, but to be more widely utilized it needs to be assessed easily and non-destructively. This is particularly evident in terms of assessing and exploiting germplasm for plant-breeding programs. We report, for the first time, experiments with Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. and the estimation of the effects of response to salinity stress (0, 30, and 60 mmol NaCl/L) in terms of these pigments content and gas exchange. It is shown that both pigments (which interestingly, themselves show a high correlation) give a good indication of stress response. Both pigments can be accurately predicted using spectral reflectance indices (SRI); however, the accuracy of the predictions was slightly improved using multilinear regression analysis models and genetic algorithm analysis. Specifically for chlorophyll content, unlike other species, the use of published SRI gave better indications of stress response than Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The effect of salt on gas exchange is only evident at the highest concentration and some SRI gave better prediction performance than the known Photochemical Reflectance Index. This information will therefore be useful for identifying tolerant genotypes to salt stress for incorporation in breeding programs.

  17. Postnatal Treadmill Exercise Alleviates Prenatal Stress-Induced Anxiety in Offspring Rats by Enhancing Cell Proliferation Through 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders in offspring later in life. The effects of treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal cell proliferation were investigated using rats exposed to prenatal stress. Methods: Exposure of pregnant rats to a hunting dog in an enclosed room was used to induce stress. Anxiety-like behaviors of offspring were evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of 5-bromo-2ʹ- deoxyuridine and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors (5-HT1A) in the dorsal raphe was conducted. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) levels in the hippocampus were evaluated by western blot analysis. Results: Offspring of maternal rats exposed to stress during pregnancy showed anxiety-like behaviors. Offspring also showed reduced expression of BDNF, TrkB, and DCX in the dentate gyrus, decreased cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and reduced 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe. Postnatal treadmill exercise by offspring, but not maternal exercise during pregnancy, enhanced cell proliferation and expression of these proteins. Conclusions: Postnatal treadmill exercise ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors in offspring of stressed pregnant rats, and the alleviating effect of exercise on these behaviors is hypothesized to result from enhancement of cell proliferation through 5-HT1A activation in offspring rats. PMID:27230461

  18. Quercetin alleviates cell apoptosis and inflammation via the ER stress pathway in vascular endothelial cells cultured in high concentrations of glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaxia; Bao, Lei; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Glucosamine is a possible cause of vascular endothelial injury in the initial stages of atherosclerosis, through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulting in fatty streaks in the vascular wall. Quercetin is an anti‑diabetic and cardiovascular protective agent that has previously been demonstrated to reduce ER stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The present study aimed to investigate whether quercetin prevents glucosamine‑induced apoptosis and inflammation via ER stress pathway in HUVECs. The effect of quercetin on cell viability, apoptosis, and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and ER stress markers was investigated in glucosamine‑supplemented HUVECs. Quercetin was demonstrated to protect against glucosamine‑induced apoptosis, improved cell viability, and inhibited expression of pro‑inflammatory factors and endothelin‑1. Quercetin treatment also reduced the expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein 78, phosphorylated protein kinase‑like ER kinase, phosphorylated c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and C/EBP homologous protein. In conclusion, quercetin may have auxiliary therapeutic potential against glucosamine‑induced cell apoptosis and inflammation, which may be partially due to alleviation of ER stress.

  19. Effect of salt stress on morpho-physiology, vegetative growth and yield of rice.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Ali, E; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Selamat, Ahmed; Karim, S M Rezaul

    2014-03-01

    Selection of salt tolerant rice varieties has a huge impact on global food supply chain. Five Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, MR33, MR52, MR211, MR219 and MR232 were tested in pot experiment under different salinity levels for their response in term of vegetative growth, physiological activities, development of yield components and grain yield. Rice varieties, BRRI dhan29 and IR20 were used as a salt-sensitive control and Pokkali was used as a salt-tolerant control. Three different salinity levels viz. 4, 8, and 12 dS m(-1) were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications under glass house conditions. Two Malaysia varieties, MR211 and MR232 performed better in terms of vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area plant(-1), number of tillers plant(-1), dry matter accumulation plant(-1)), photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, yield components, grain yield and injury symptoms. While, MR33, MR52 and MR219 verities were able to withstand salinity stress over salt-sensitive control, BRRI dhan29 and IR20.

  20. Beneficial effects of exogenous selenium in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (5, 10, or 20 μM) on the resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Polan F1 seedlings to salt stress (50 mM NaCl). Plant growth was negatively affected by excessive salinity and dry mass production as well as photosynthetic pigments accumulation severely decreased. Se treatments at 5 and 10 μM significantly improved the growth rate and increased the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents in cucumber leaves subjected to salt stress. Moreover, it is concluded that Se enhanced the salt tolerance of seedlings by protecting the cell membrane against lipid peroxidation. The growth-promoting effect of low Se concentrations (5 and 10 μM) under saline conditions could be due to the antioxidative activity of Se, increase in proline accumulation and/or decrease in content of chloride ions in the shoots tissues. Thus, optimal Se supplementation presents a promising potential for use in conditions of relatively high levels of NaCl in the medium.

  1. Dynamic metabonomic responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingtao; Zhang, Yong; Du, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shiyun; Tang, Huiru

    2011-04-01

    Metabolic responses are important for plant adaptation to osmotic stresses. To understand the dosage and duration dependence of salinity effects on plant metabolisms, we analyzed the metabonome of tobacco plants and its dynamic responses to salt treatments using NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that the tobacco metabonome was dominated by 40 metabolites including organic acids/bases, amino acids, carbohydrates and choline, pyrimidine, and purine metabolites. A dynamic trajectory was clearly observable for the tobacco metabonomic responses to the dosage of salinity. Short-term low-dose salt stress (50 mM NaCl, 1 day) caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with depletion of pyrimidine and purine metabolites. Prolonged salinity with high-dose salt (500 mM NaCl) induced progressive accumulation of osmolytes, such as proline and myo-inositol, and changes in GABA shunt. Such treatments also promoted the shikimate-mediated secondary metabolisms with enhanced biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Therefore, salinity caused systems alterations in widespread metabolic networks involving transamination, TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, glutamate-mediated proline biosynthesis, shikimate-mediated secondary metabolisms, and the metabolisms of choline, pyrimidine, and purine. These findings provided new insights for the tobacco metabolic adaptation to salinity and demonstrated the NMR-based metabonomics as a powerful approach for understanding the osmotic effects on plant biochemistry.

  2. Inhibition of photosystems I and II activities in salt stress-exposed Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).

    PubMed

    Zaghdoudi, Maha; Msilini, Najoua; Govindachary, Sridharan; Lachaâl, Mokhtar; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Carpentier, Robert

    2011-10-05

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seedlings were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations in the growth medium to examine the effect of salt stress on the electron transport reactions of photosynthesis. Activities of both photosystem II (PSII), measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosystem I (PSI), measured by P700 photooxidation, were decreased by salt stress. The inhibition proceeded in a two step manner. At the lower salt concentrations used and shorter exposition periods, electron transfer between the quinone acceptors of PSII, Q(A) and Q(B), was strongly retarded as shown by an increased amplitude of the OJ phase of the OJIP chlorophyll fluorescence induction traces and slowed chlorophyll fluorescence relaxation kinetics following a single turn-over flash. The above indicated a disturbance of the Q(B) binding site likely associated with the first step of photoinhibition. In the second step, strong photoinhibition was observed as manifested by increased F(0) values, declined F(v)/F(0) and loss of photoactive P700.

  3. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium on the germinating soybean response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongqi; Yang, Runqiang; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2015-01-15

    Calcium enhances salt stress tolerance of soybeans. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of calcium's involvement in resistance to salt stress is unclear. A comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate protein profiles in germinating soybeans under NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-LaCl3 treatments. A total of 80 proteins affected by calcium in 4-day-old germinating soybean cotyledons and 71 in embryos were confidently identified. The clustering analysis showed proteins were subdivided into 5 and 6 clusters in cotyledon and embryo, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in signal transduction and energy pathways, in transportation, and in protein biosynthesis were largely enriched while those involved in proteolysis were decreased. Abundance of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and three antioxidant enzymes were visibly increased by calcium. Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and polyamines was also detected after application of exogenous calcium. This was consistent with proteomic results, which showed that proteins involved in the glutamate and methionine metabolism were mediated by calcium. Calcium could increase the salt stress tolerance of germinating soybeans via enriching signal transduction, energy pathway and transportation, promoting protein biosynthesis, inhibiting proteolysis, redistributing storage proteins, regulating protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, enriching antioxidant enzymes and activating their activities, accumulating secondary metabolites and osmolytes, and other adaptive responses. Biological significance Soybean (Glycine max L.), as a traditional edible legume, is being targeted for designing functional foods. During soybean germination under stressful conditions especially salt stress, newly discovered functional components such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are rapidly accumulated. However, soybean plants are relatively salt-sensitive and the growth, development and biomass of germinating soybeans are significantly

  4. Characterization of the salt stress vulnerability of three invasive freshwater plant species using a metabolic profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Thouvenot, Lise; Deleu, Carole; Berardocco, Solenne; Haury, Jacques; Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    The effects of salt stress on freshwater plants has been little studied up to now, despite the fact that they are expected to present different levels of salt sensitivity or salt resistance depending on the species. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of NaCl at two concentrations on three invasive freshwater species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Ludwigia grandiflora, by examining morphological and physiological parameters and using metabolic profiling. The growth rate (biomass and stem length) was reduced for all species, whatever the salt treatment, but the response to salt differed between the three species, depending on the NaCl concentration. For E. canadensis, the physiological traits and metabolic profiles were only slightly modified in response to salt, whereas M. aquaticum and L. grandiflora showed great changes. In both of these species, root number, photosynthetic pigment content, amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism were affected by the salt treatments. Moreover, we are the first to report the salt-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in both species. Indeed, in response to NaCl, L. grandiflora mainly accumulated sucrose. The response of M. aquaticum was more complex, because it accumulated not only sucrose and myo-inositol whatever the level of salt stress, but also amino acids such as proline and GABA, but only at high NaCl concentrations. These responses are the metabolic responses typically found in terrestrial plants.

  5. Melatonin delays leaf senescence and enhances salt stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chengzhen; Zheng, Guangyong; Li, Wenzhen; Wang, Yiqin; Hu, Bin; Wang, Hongru; Wu, Hongkai; Qian, Yangwen; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Tan, Dun-Xian; Chen, Shou-Yi; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin, an antioxidant in both animals and plants, has been reported to have beneficial effects on the aging process. It was also suggested to play a role in extending longevity and enhancing abiotic stress resistance in plant. In this study, we demonstrate that melatonin acts as a potent agent to delay leaf senescence and cell death in rice. Treatments with melatonin significantly reduced chlorophyll degradation, suppressed the transcripts of senescence-associated genes, delayed the leaf senescence, and enhanced salt stress tolerance. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA sequencing reveals that melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger, and its exogenous application results in enhanced antioxidant protection. Leaf cell death in noe1, a mutant with over-produced H2O2, can be relieved by exogenous application of melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays the leaf senescence and cell death and also enhances abiotic stress tolerance via directly or indirectly counteracting the cellular accumulation of H2O2.

  6. Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy. PMID:23267362

  7. The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jiang, Caifu

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance.

  8. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  9. Halopriming mediated salt and iso-osmotic PEG stress tolerance and, gene expression profiling in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Bhargava, Sujata; Suprasanna, Penna

    2012-10-01

    Seed priming is a well known pre-germination strategy that improves seed performance. However, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated stress tolerance are little understood. Here, we report results of the study on growth, physiological characteristics and expression of stress responsive genes in salt primed sugarcane cv. Co 86032 plants in response to salt (NaCl, 150 mM) or iso-osmotic (-0.7 MPa) polyethylene glycol-PEG 8000 (20 % w/v) stress exposure for 15 days. Variable growth, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant capacity was revealed among the primed and non-primed plants. The primed plants showed better tolerance to the salt or PEG stress, as revealed by better growth and lower membrane damage, through better antioxidant capacity as compared to the respective non-primed controls. Further, steady state transcript expression analysis revealed up regulation of sodium proton antiporter (NHX) while, down regulation of sucrose transporter (SUT1), delta ( 1 )-pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) in primed plants on exposure to the stress as compared to the non-primed plants. Transcript abundance of catalase (CAT2) decreased by about 25 % in leaves of non-primed stressed plants, however, the expression was maintained in leaves of the stressed primed plants to that of non-stressed controls. Thus, the results indicated priming mediated salt and PEG stress tolerance through altered gene expression leading to improved antioxidant capacity in sugarcane.

  10. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity by silicon is related to elevated photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes; suppressed cadmium uptake and oxidative stress in cotton.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Ali, Shafaqat; Hameed, Amjad; Ishaque, Wajid; Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Zafar

    2013-10-01

    Biotic systems face immense environmental hazards such as accumulation of heavy metals, particularly in agricultural ecosystems that might cause deterioration of yield and quality of crops. In this study, we evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating the heavy metal (Cd) stress tolerance in cotton by analyzing the induced Physio-chemical changes. Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture with three different Cd levels (0, 1 and 5μM) along with two Si treatment levels (0 and 1mM). The data showed that Cd alone reduced the plant growth as well as the efficiency of antioxidant activity as compared to control plants. Plant growth, gas exchange characteristics (net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water use efficiency) chlorophyll contents, and carotenoids as well as the performance of antioxidant enzymes were improved by the exogenous application of Si. The adverse effects of Cd on plant growth were alleviated by the exogenous application of Si. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of Cd on cotton plants and markedly enhanced the growth, biomass and photosynthetic parameters while decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and electrolytic leakage (EL). The antioxidant enzyme activities in cotton leaves and roots increased significantly, when Si was added to control as well as Cd stressed plants. In conclusion, Si improved the growth and photosynthesis attributes of cotton plants by mitigating the adverse effects of Cd stress through reduced EL, MDA and H2O2 contents and improved activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Analysis of carotenogenic genes promoters and WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress in Dunaliella bardawil

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil is a highly salt-tolerant organism, capable of accumulating glycerol, glycine betaine and β-carotene under salt stress, and has been considered as an excellent model organism to investigate the molecular mechanisms of salt stress responses. In this study, several carotenogenic genes (DbCRTISO, DbZISO, DbLycE and DbChyB), DbBADH genes involved in glycine betaine synthesis and genes encoding probable WRKY transcription factors from D. bardawil were isolated, and promoters of DbCRTISO and DbChyB were cloned. The promoters of DbPSY, DbLycB, DbGGPS, DbCRTISO and DbChyB contained the salt-regulated element (SRE), GT1GMSCAM4, while the DbGGPS promoter has another SRE, DRECRTCOREAT. All promoters of the carotenogenic genes had light-regulated elements and W-box cis-acting elements. Most WRKY transcription factors can bind to the W-box, and play roles in abiotic stress. qRT-PCR analysis showed that salt stress up-regulated both carotenogenic genes and WRKY transcription factors. In contrast, the transcription levels of DbBADH showed minor changes. In D. bardawil, it appears that carotenoid over-accumulation allows for the long-term adaptation to salt stress, while the rapid modulation of glycine betaine biosynthesis provides an initial response. PMID:28128303

  12. SCF E3 ligase