Science.gov

Sample records for alleyne science theory

  1. ISS Update: ATV-3’s Science Payload

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Camille Alleyne, Assistant Program Scientist for International Space Station. They discuss the science payload that was delivered to the station and crew ...

  2. Astrophysical materials science: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashcroft, N. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of structural expansions for use in determining the equation of state of metallic hydrogen (and indeed other metals) up to the 4th order in the perturbation theory was developed. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the planetary interior of Jupiter were calculated. The nature of the interaction between molecules at short range and the importance of multicenter terms in arriving at an adequate description of the thermodynamic functions of condensed molecular hydrogen were also investigated.

  3. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  4. Theory-Guided Technology in Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2001-01-01

    Examines the history of major achievements in computer science as portrayed by winners of the prestigious Turing award and identifies a possibly unique activity called Theory-Guided Technology (TGT). Researchers develop TGT by using theoretical results to create practical technology. Discusses reasons why TGT is practical in computer science and…

  5. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  6. Theory-Guided Technology in Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    Scientists usually identify themselves as either theoreticians or experimentalists, while technology - the application of science in practice - is done by engineers. In computer science, these distinctions are often blurred. This paper examines the history of major achievements in computer science as portrayed by the winners of the prestigious Turing Award and identifies a possibly unique activity called Theory-Guided Technology (TGT). Researchers develop TGT by using theoretical results to create practical technology. The reasons why TGT is practical in computer science are discussed, as is the cool reception that TGT has been received by software engineers.

  7. Curriculum Theory and Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarry, Kevin J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses curriculum theory in the context of professional education for library and information science, and outlines steps necessary for curriculum planning: (1) diagnosis of needs; (2) formulation of objectives; (3) selection of content from the universe of knowledge; (4) selection of learning experience; (5) organization of learning materials;…

  8. Cognitive Science, Representations and Dynamical Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselager, W. F. G. (Pim); Bongers, Raoul M.; van Rooij, Iris

    In this contribution we point out that the assumption of representation in the explanations and models of cognitive science has several disadvantages. We propose that the dynamical systems theory approach, emphasizing the embodied embedded nature of cognition, might provide an important, non-representational alternative. We stress the importance of the challenge, raised by Andy Clark (Clark & Toribio, 1994; Clark, 1997), to dynamical systems theory to deal with 'representation-hungry' cognitive tasks. We indicate a possible way to answer that challenge in a empirically applicable manner. We suggest that investigations of this kind strengthen a motto that can be used as an antidote to the traditional representational cravings of cognitive science: 'Don't use representations in explanation and modeling unless it is absolutely necessary.'

  9. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate

  10. Theories of the Earth and the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James

    1991-01-01

    Describes the history of the science of geology. The author expounds upon the discovery of deep time and plate tectonics, explaining how the theory of deep time influenced the development of Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution. Describes how the history of earth science helps students understand the nature of science. (PR)

  11. Theory-Driven Science and Naive Empiricism in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that counseling psychologists' aversion to theory-driven science and their enthusiasm for naive empiricism impede scientific progress. Identifies "received view" of science as theory-driven science, points out symptoms and consequences of the failure to apply this view, and argues that greater scientific progress will result from moving…

  12. Science Education for Women: Situated Cognition, Feminist Standpoint Theory, and the Status of Women in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnick, Cassandra L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between situated cognition theory in science education, and feminist standpoint theory in philosophy of science. It shows that situated cognition is an idea borrowed from a long since discredited philosophy of science. It argues that feminist standpoint theory ought not be indulged as it is a failed challenge to…

  13. Role of theory in space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The goal of theory is to understand how the fundamental laws of physics laws of physics and chemistry give rise to the features of the universe. It is recommended that NASA establish independent theoretical research programs in planetary sciences and in astrophysics similar to the solar-system plasma-physics theory program, which is characterized by stable, long-term support for theorists in university departments, NASA centers, and other organizations engaged in research in topics relevant to present and future space-derived data. It is recommended that NASA keep these programs under review to full benefit from the resulting research and to assure opportunities for inflow of new ideas and investigators. Also, provisions should be made by NASA for the computing needs of the theorists in the programs. Finally, it is recommended that NASA involve knowledgeable theorists in mission planning activities at all levels, from the formulation of long-term scientific strategies through the planning and operation of specific missions.

  14. Science Education for Women: Situated Cognition, Feminist Standpoint Theory, and the Status of Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, Cassandra L.

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the relation between situated cognition theory in science education, and feminist standpoint theory in philosophy of science. It shows that situated cognition is an idea borrowed from a long since discredited philosophy of science. It argues that feminist standpoint theory ought not be indulged as it is a failed challenge to traditional philosophy of science. Standpoint theory diverts attention away from the abiding educational and career needs of women in science. In the interest of women in science, and in the interest of science, science educators would do best for their constituencies by a return to feminist philosophy understood as the demand for equal access and a level playing field for women in science and society.

  15. The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Cathleen

    The model developed for use with science teachers--called the Scientific Theory Profile--consists of placing three well-known philosophers of science on a grid, with the x-axis being their methods for judging theories (rational vs. natural) and the y-axis being their views on scientific theories representing the Truth versus mere models of what…

  16. Multicultural Science Education: Theory, Practice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, S. Maxwell, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As a relatively new area of investigation, the study of multicultural education as it relates to science teaching and learning has spawned numerous interpretations by researchers and authors worldwide. The contributors of this international volume--among them are science teacher educators, science teachers, scientists, researchers, program…

  17. On the Validation of Computer Science Theories,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    We address normatively the demarcation problem for Computer Science : How can Computer Science research be conducted scientifically? First we attempt...to delimit the subject matter of Computer Science , and conclude that it is not computers but programs. Since programs are not physical objects, it is

  18. Political Science--Yugoslav Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spadijer, Balsa

    1979-01-01

    Relates the advance and development of political science in Yugoslavia to the process of democratization and self-management. Maintains that political science in socialist societies should continue to be critical but should also apply principles of Marxist analysis to social phenomena. (DB)

  19. [Re]considering queer theories and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifield, Steve; Letts, Will

    2014-06-01

    We take Mattias Lundin's Inviting queer ideas into the science classroom: studying sexual education from a queer perspective as a point of departure to explore some enduring issues related to the use of queer theories to interrogate science education and its practices. We consider the uneasy, polygamous relationship between gay and lesbian studies and queer theories; the border surveillance that characterizes so much of science [education]; the alluring call of binaries and binary thinking; the `all' within the catchcry `science for all'; and the need to better engage the fullness of science and the curriculum, in addition to noting silences around diverse sexes, sexualities, and desires. We catalogue some of the challenges that persist in this work, and offer thoughts about how to work with and against them to enact a more just and compelling science education.

  20. Theory, Method and Practice of Neuroscientific Findings in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiang, Wen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of neuroscience research that is applicable for science educators. It first offers a brief analysis of empirical studies in educational neuroscience literature, followed by six science concept learning constructs based on the whole brain theory: gaining an understanding of brain function; pattern recognition and…

  1. [Re]Considering Queer Theories and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifield, Steve; Letts, Will

    2014-01-01

    We take Mattias Lundin's "Inviting queer ideas into the science classroom: studying sexual education from a queer perspective" as a point of departure to explore some enduring issues related to the use of queer theories to interrogate science education and its practices. We consider the uneasy, polygamous relationship between gay…

  2. Problems with Feminist Standpoint Theory in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Iddo

    2008-01-01

    Feminist standpoint theory has important implications for science education. The paper focuses on difficulties in standpoint theory, mostly regarding the assumptions that different social positions produce different types of knowledge, and that epistemic advantages that women might enjoy are always effective and significant. I conclude that the…

  3. High school students' implicit theories of what facilitates science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p < .05 to ascertain ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond

  4. Problems with Feminist Standpoint Theory in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Iddo

    2008-11-01

    Feminist standpoint theory has important implications for science education. The paper focuses on difficulties in standpoint theory, mostly regarding the assumptions that different social positions produce different types of knowledge, and that epistemic advantages that women might enjoy are always effective and significant. I conclude that the difficulties in standpoint theory render it too problematic to accept. Various implications for science education are indicated: we should return to the kind of science education that instructs students to examine whether arguments, experiments, etc. are successful, rather than ask who presented them; when considering researchers and students for science education programs we should examine their scholarly achievements, rather than the group to which they belong; women should not be discouraged from engaging in “mainstream” science research and education (or other spheres of knowledge considered as “men’s topics”) and men should not be discouraged from engaging in what are considered “women’s topics” in science (or outside it); we should not assume that there are different types of science for women and for men, nor different ways for women and men to study science or conduct scientific research.

  5. Density functional theory in materials science

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Hickel, Tilmann

    2013-01-01

    Materials science is a highly interdisciplinary field. It is devoted to the understanding of the relationship between (a) fundamental physical and chemical properties governing processes at the atomistic scale with (b) typically macroscopic properties required of materials in engineering applications. For many materials, this relationship is not only determined by chemical composition, but strongly governed by microstructure. The latter is a consequence of carefully selected process conditions (e.g., mechanical forming and annealing in metallurgy or epitaxial growth in semiconductor technology). A key task of computational materials science is to unravel the often hidden composition–structure–property relationships using computational techniques. The present paper does not aim to give a complete review of all aspects of materials science. Rather, we will present the key concepts underlying the computation of selected material properties and discuss the major classes of materials to which they are applied. Specifically, our focus will be on methods used to describe single or polycrystalline bulk materials of semiconductor, metal or ceramic form. PMID:24563665

  6. Theory VI. Computational Materials Sciences Network (CMSN)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z Y

    2008-06-25

    The Computational Materials Sciences Network (CMSN) is a virtual center consisting of scientists interested in working together, across organizational and disciplinary boundaries, to formulate and pursue projects that reflect challenging and relevant computational research in the materials sciences. The projects appropriate for this center involve those problems best pursued through broad cooperative efforts, rather than those key problems best tackled by single investigator groups. CMSN operates similarly to the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials, coordinated by George Samara at Sandia. As in the Synthesis and Processing Center, the intent of the modest funding for CMSN is to foster partnering and collective activities. All CMSN proposals undergo external peer review and are judged foremost on the quality and timeliness of the science and also on criteria relevant to the objective of the center, especially concerning a strategy for partnering. More details about CMSN can be found on the CMSN webpages at: http://cmpweb.ameslab.gov/ccms/CMSN-homepage.html.

  7. Theory and practice: Science for undergraduates of limited English proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Judith W.

    1993-06-01

    Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.

  8. Management applications of discontinuity theory | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    1.Human impacts on the environment are multifaceted and can occur across distinct spatiotemporal scales. Ecological responses to environmental change are therefore difficult to predict, and entail large degrees of uncertainty. Such uncertainty requires robust tools for management to sustain ecosystem goods and services and maintain resilient ecosystems. 2.We propose an approach based on discontinuity theory that accounts for patterns and processes at distinct spatial and temporal scales, an inherent property of ecological systems. Discontinuity theory has not been applied in natural resource management and could therefore improve ecosystem management because it explicitly accounts for ecological complexity. 3.Synthesis and applications. We highlight the application of discontinuity approaches for meeting management goals. Specifically, discontinuity approaches have significant potential to measure and thus understand the resilience of ecosystems, to objectively identify critical scales of space and time in ecological systems at which human impact might be most severe, to provide warning indicators of regime change, to help predict and understand biological invasions and extinctions and to focus monitoring efforts. Discontinuity theory can complement current approaches, providing a broader paradigm for ecological management and conservation This manuscript provides insight on using discontinuity approaches to aid in managing complex ecological systems. In partic

  9. Using Theory of Mind to Promote Conceptual Change in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakopoulou, Natassa; Vosniadou, Stella

    2014-07-01

    We argue that learning science requires children to move from perceptually based representations to more abstract conceptual representations and to understand that appearance may sometimes deceive us and that the same phenomenon in the world can have more than one representation when seen from different perspectives. We also argue that the beginnings of such an epistemological perspective can be found in young children's ability to think about the difference between their beliefs and the beliefs of others in the social domain, i.e., their Theory of Mind. We present the results of two empirical studies that show significant correlations between children's growing Theory of Mind, developing epistemological thinking, and science learning, and suggest that Theory of Mind tasks can be used to promote conceptual change in science.

  10. Contesting epistemic authority: Conspiracy theories on the boundaries of science.

    PubMed

    Harambam, Jaron; Aupers, Stef

    2015-05-01

    Conspiracy theories are immensely popular today, yet in the social sciences they are often dismissed as "irrational," "bad science," or "religious belief." In this study, we take a cultural sociological approach and argue that this persistent disqualification is a form of "boundary work" that obscures rather than clarifies how and why conspiracy theorists challenge the epistemic authority of science. Based on a qualitative study of the Dutch conspiracy milieu, we distinguish three critiques that are motivated by encounters with scientific experts in everyday life: the alleged dogmatism of modern science, the intimate relation of scientific knowledge production with vested interests, and the exclusion of lay knowledge by scientific experts forming a global "power elite." Given their critique that resonates with social scientific understandings of science, it is concluded that conspiracy theorists compete with (social) scientists in complex battles for epistemic authority in a broader field of knowledge contestation.

  11. Between Faith and Science: World Culture Theory and Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy; Silova, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    World culture theory seeks to explain an apparent convergence of education through a neoinstitutionalist lens, seeing global rationalization in education as driven by the logic of science and the myth of progress. While critics have challenged these assumptions by focusing on local manifestations of world-level tendencies, such critique is…

  12. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  13. Gender Theory as a Tool for Analyzing Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Kristina; Hussenius, Anita; Gustafsson, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines to what extent experienced teachers are aware of gender issues in the science classroom. It also explores how an introduction to gender theory might alter this awareness. Teachers wrote their reflections about a real classroom situation. They were then asked to analyse the same situation after having read texts that discussed…

  14. Theory and experiment in biomedical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    A physicist might regard a person as a collection of electrons and quarks, and a biologist might regard her as an assemblage of biochemical molecules. But according to some speakers at a recent Welch conference [1] biology is a branch of physics. Then biomedical research is a branch of applied physics. Even if one adopts a more modest perspective, it is still true that physics can contribute strongly to biomedical research. An example on the experimental side is the recent studies of G protein-coupled receptors (targeted by more than 50 percent of therapeutic drugs) using synchrotron radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance. On the theory side, one might classify models as microscopic (e.g., simulations of molecules, ions, or electrons), mesoscopic (e.g., simulations of pathways within a cell), or macroscopic (e.g., calculations of processes involving the whole body). We have recently introduced a new macroscopic method for estimating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions, and applied it in a simple model of the response to bariatric surgeries [2]. An amazing effect is that the most widely used bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass) usually leads to remission of type 2 diabetes in days, long before there is any significant weight loss (with further beneficial effects in the subsequent months and years). Our results confirm that this effect can be largely explained by the enhanced post-meal excretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin that increases insulin secretion from the pancreas, but also suggest that other mechanisms are likely to be involved, possibly including an additional insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells. [4pt] [1] Physical Biology, from Atoms to Medicine, edited by Ahmed H. Zewail (Imperial College Press, London, 2008).[0pt] [2] Roland E. Allen, Tyler D. Hughes, Jia Lerd Ng, Roberto D. Ortiz, Michel Abou Ghantous, Othmane Bouhali, Abdelilah Arredouani

  15. [The Pangenetic theory in the tradition of Greek medical science].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The Pangenetic theory which holds that sperm comes from all the body seems to have been one of the most remarkable doctrines in Greek biology in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, since Aristotle gives a detailed description of the theory and criticizes it severely. The main sources of information about the Pangenetic theory are several medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus. There are only some mentions of it in the extant fragments ascribed to Democritus. It would be probable, therefore, that the theory had the origin of its theoretical form in the tradition of Greek medical science, and then came to the focus of attention among the Presocratic philosophers. Some scholars, on the other hand, claim that Democritus had a decisive role in the formation and development of the theory, which was then taken over by the Hippocratic doctors in their attempt to give a systematic explanation for some of the important genetic issues, such as the inheritance of similarities from parents to their children. It must be kept in mind, however, that Hippocratic doctors thought of particular fluids or humours with their inherent powers (delta upsilon nu alpha mu epsilon iotas) as the essential constituents of human body. This fact leads us to have an idea that the doctors had a completely different view of matter from the corpuscular theory, although Lesky (1950) and Lonie (1981) assume them to have been almost dependent on the atomism of Democritus. We can conclude that the Pangenetic theory came originally from Greek medical science, and then developed into the most influential doctrine before Aristotle.

  16. Sciences and the global: on methods, questions, and theory.

    PubMed

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    This essay explores the mechanics of researching and writing globally oriented histories of science. Thinking about how to approach sources is vital, especially given how often historians of science use the excuse of a lack of sources for constraining their projects to European topics. The first section suggests a method of cross-contextualization, where scarce and unorthodox sources are read within and alongside more plentiful and traditional ones. The next section considers historiography, critiquing the continuing hold of the terms "colonial" and "national" in current work that aspires to be more global. The final section considers practice and network theory, asking whether the way we utilize these tools in fact returns us, instinctively, to European and Eurocentric ways of conceiving how science works.

  17. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  18. Mastering cognitive development theory in computer science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluga, Richard; Kay, Judy; Lister, Raymond; Simon; Kleitman, Sabina

    2013-03-01

    To design an effective computer science curriculum, educators require a systematic method of classifying the difficulty level of learning activities and assessment tasks. This is important for curriculum design and implementation and for communication between educators. Different educators must be able to use the method consistently, so that classified activities and assessments are comparable across the subjects of a degree, and, ideally, comparable across institutions. One widespread approach to supporting this is to write learning objects in terms of Bloom's Taxonomy. This, or other such classifications, is likely to be more effective if educators can use them consistently, in the way experts would use them. To this end, we present the design and evaluation of our online interactive web-based tutorial system, which can be configured and used to offer training in different classification schemes. We report on results from three evaluations. First, 17 computer science educators complete a tutorial on using Bloom's Taxonomy to classify programming examination questions. Second, 20 computer science educators complete a Neo-Piagetian tutorial. Third evaluation was a comparison of inter-rater reliability scores of computer science educators classifying programming questions using Bloom's Taxonomy, before and after taking our tutorial. Based on the results from these evaluations, we discuss the effectiveness of our tutorial system design for teaching computer science educators how to systematically and consistently classify programming examination questions. We also discuss the suitability of Bloom's Taxonomy and Neo-Piagetian theory for achieving this goal. The Bloom's and Neo-Piagetian tutorials are made available as a community resource. The contributions of this paper are the following: the tutorial system for learning classification schemes for the purpose of coding the difficulty of computing learning materials; its evaluation; new insights into the consistency

  19. Ausubel's Theory of Learning and its Application to Introductory Science Part II--Primary Science: An Ausubelian View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, J. A. G.

    1982-01-01

    In part 1 (SE 532 193) an outline of Ausubel's learning theory was given. The application of the theory to elementary school science is addressed in this part, clarifying what elementary science means and indicating how it relates to what may be expected to be already known by elementary school children. (Author/JN)

  20. An analysis of changing trends in philosophies of science on nursing theory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Silva, M C; Rothbart, D

    1984-01-01

    The effects of changing trends in philosophies of science on nursing theory development and testing are analyzed. Two philosophies of science--logical empiricism and historicism--are compared for four variables: (1) components of science, (2) conception of science, (3) assessment of scientific progress, and (4) goal of philosophy of science. These factors serve as the basis for assessing trends in the development and testing of nursing theory from 1964 to the present. The analysis shows a beginning philosophic shift within nursing theory from logical empiricism to historicism and addresses implications and recommendations for future nursing theory development and testing.

  1. Conspiracy theories as quasi-religious mentality: an integrated account from cognitive science, social representations theory, and frame theory.

    PubMed

    Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions.

  2. Conspiracy theories as quasi-religious mentality: an integrated account from cognitive science, social representations theory, and frame theory

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions. PMID:23882235

  3. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive…

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in climate change science through empirical information theory

    PubMed Central

    Majda, Andrew J.; Gershgorin, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the uncertainty for the present climate and the predictions of climate change in the suite of imperfect Atmosphere Ocean Science (AOS) computer models is a central issue in climate change science. Here, a systematic approach to these issues with firm mathematical underpinning is developed through empirical information theory. An information metric to quantify AOS model errors in the climate is proposed here which incorporates both coarse-grained mean model errors as well as covariance ratios in a transformation invariant fashion. The subtle behavior of model errors with this information metric is quantified in an instructive statistically exactly solvable test model with direct relevance to climate change science including the prototype behavior of tracer gases such as CO2. Formulas for identifying the most sensitive climate change directions using statistics of the present climate or an AOS model approximation are developed here; these formulas just involve finding the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of a quadratic form computed through suitable unperturbed climate statistics. These climate change concepts are illustrated on a statistically exactly solvable one-dimensional stochastic model with relevance for low frequency variability of the atmosphere. Viable algorithms for implementation of these concepts are discussed throughout the paper. PMID:20696940

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in climate change science through empirical information theory.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J; Gershgorin, Boris

    2010-08-24

    Quantifying the uncertainty for the present climate and the predictions of climate change in the suite of imperfect Atmosphere Ocean Science (AOS) computer models is a central issue in climate change science. Here, a systematic approach to these issues with firm mathematical underpinning is developed through empirical information theory. An information metric to quantify AOS model errors in the climate is proposed here which incorporates both coarse-grained mean model errors as well as covariance ratios in a transformation invariant fashion. The subtle behavior of model errors with this information metric is quantified in an instructive statistically exactly solvable test model with direct relevance to climate change science including the prototype behavior of tracer gases such as CO(2). Formulas for identifying the most sensitive climate change directions using statistics of the present climate or an AOS model approximation are developed here; these formulas just involve finding the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of a quadratic form computed through suitable unperturbed climate statistics. These climate change concepts are illustrated on a statistically exactly solvable one-dimensional stochastic model with relevance for low frequency variability of the atmosphere. Viable algorithms for implementation of these concepts are discussed throughout the paper.

  6. Behavioral and Social Sciences Theories and Models: Are They Used in Unintentional Injury Prevention Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifiletti, L. B.; Gielen, A. C.; Sleet, D. A.; Hopkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury…

  7. How Singapore Junior College Science Teachers Address Curriculum Reforms: A Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Patrick; Pyvis, David

    2012-01-01

    Using grounded theory research methodology, a theory was developed to explain how Singapore junior college science teachers implement educational reforms underpinning the key initiatives of the "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy. The theory suggests Singapore junior college science teachers "deal with" implementing…

  8. The Philosophic Consistency of Science Teachers' Opinions About the Structure of Scientific Laws and Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ronald

    Investigated was how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of scientific laws and theories was used as an indicator of the broad "nature of science" concept. Fifty junior high and middle school science teachers in Wisconsin were randomly chosen to respond to a Likert-type opinionaire developed by the…

  9. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  10. Analysis of the Science and Technology Preservice Teachers' Opinions on Teaching Evolution and Theory of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Töman, Ufuk; Karatas, Faik Özgür; Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate of science and technology teachers' opinions about the theory of evolution and the evolution teaching. The aim of this study, we investigate of science and technology teachers' opinions about the theory of evolution and the evolution teaching. This study is a descriptive study. Open-ended questions were used to…

  11. Implicit Theories of Ability of Grade 6 Science Students: Relation to Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Motivation and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jason A.; Pajares, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We investigated: (a) the associations of implicit theories and epistemological beliefs and their effects on the academic motivation and achievement of students in Grade 6 science and (b) the mean differences of implicit theories, epistemological beliefs, and academic motivation and achievement as a function of gender and race/ethnicity (N=508).…

  12. Transforming Undergraduate Science Teaching: Social Constructivist Perspectives. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter C., Ed.; Gilmer, Penny J., Ed.; Tobin, Kenneth, Ed.

    This book comes at a time when epistemological reform is sweeping through the global community of science education. Since the 1970s, the theories of knowing embodied in the teaching activities of school science teachers have been undergoing a major transformation toward more learner-sensitive standpoints. Undergraduate science teaching however,…

  13. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in…

  14. Friends and Foes of Theory Construction in Psychological Science: Vague Dichotomies, Unified Theories of Cognition, and the New Experimentalism.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Ferreira, Mário B

    2011-03-01

    Newell (1973) criticized the use of vague theoretical dichotomies to account for narrowly defined empirical phenomena. Many of the problems raised by Newell persist today. We argue that these problems derive not from any peculiarity of psychological science but from the hindrances inherent to empirical theory testing. To show the contemporary relevance of these problems, we present two modern illustrations of the encumbrances faced by dichotomy-based research, we review some attempts to rely on nonempirical criteria to overcome the empirical impediments in theory testing, and we bring the question of theoretical mimicry to bear on these problems. Next, we discuss an alternative to theoretical dichotomies: the Unified Theories of Cognition (Newell, 1990). Finally, we introduce the "new experimentalism" approach in philosophy of science (Mayo, 1996), which provides a new perspective on theory construction in psychological science. We conclude with suggestions on how this new perspective can be implemented.

  15. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  16. Solving Problems in Library and Information Science Using Fuzzy Set Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the use of mathematical tools in library and information science focuses on information retrieval applications of fuzzy set theory. Topics include fuzzy set theory in informetrics and bibliometrics; and the literature of fuzzy set theory. (Contains 87 references.) (LRW)

  17. World System Theory as an Integrator of the Social Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsche, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Defines and compares world system theory and dependency theory. Explains the advantages to anthropology, its students, and students from other disciplines. Defends the teaching of world system theory as an interdisciplinary course. Discusses problems with and reactions of faculty in other social sciences. (JS)

  18. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  19. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation Between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive perspective on how students manage to reconcile evolutionary theory with their religious beliefs. We underwrite the claim developed by cognitive scientists and anthropologists that religion is natural because it taps into people's intuitive understanding of the natural world which is constrained by essentialist, teleological and intentional biases. After contrasting the naturalness of religion with the unnaturalness of science, we discuss the difficulties cognitive and developmental scientists have identified in learning and accepting evolutionary theory. We indicate how religious beliefs impede students' understanding and acceptance of evolutionary theory. We explore a number of options available to students for reconciling an informed understanding of evolutionary theory with their religious beliefs. To conclude, we discuss the implications of our account for science and biology teachers.

  20. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment: MISTE science requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) is to provide a stringent test of scaling theory predictions for critical behavior near a liquid-gas critical point both in the asymptomatic and crossover regions.

  1. Special Theory of Relativity, Conceptual Change and History of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, Alberto; Arruda, Sergio M.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the problem students have in learning the Theory of Relativity. Points out that the results of the study are ambiguous and intriguing. Describes the publication of Lorentz's Transformation Equations, the presentation of two postulates by Einstein, and the rejection of the Electron Theory and the final acceptance of the Theory of…

  2. Connectivity Theory at Work: The Referrals between Science and Mathematics in a Science Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehmetlioglu, Deniz; Ozdem, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Researches carried out all around the world showed that students learn more effectively if they are able to make connections between subjects. This case reports based on an investigation of how mathematics concepts were connected to science concepts by a science teacher in an elementary science classroom, and on the science teacher's views about…

  3. Advanced Density Functional Theory Methods for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Steven

    In this work we chiefly deal with two broad classes of problems in computational materials science, determining the doping mechanism in a semiconductor and developing an extreme condition equation of state. While solving certain aspects of these questions is well-trodden ground, both require extending the reach of existing methods to fully answer them. Here we choose to build upon the framework of density functional theory (DFT) which provides an efficient means to investigate a system from a quantum mechanics description. Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) could be the basis for cheap and highly efficient solar cells. Its use in this regard is limited by the difficulty in n-type doping the material. In an effort to understand the mechanism behind this, the energetics and electronic structure of intrinsic point defects in zinc phosphide are studied using generalized Kohn-Sham theory and utilizing the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional for exchange and correlation. Novel 'perturbation extrapolation' is utilized to extend the use of the computationally expensive HSE functional to this large-scale defect system. According to calculations, the formation energy of charged phosphorus interstitial defects are very low in n-type Zn3P2 and act as 'electron sinks', nullifying the desired doping and lowering the fermi-level back towards the p-type regime. Going forward, this insight provides clues to fabricating useful zinc phosphide based devices. In addition, the methodology developed for this work can be applied to further doping studies in other systems. Accurate determination of high pressure and temperature equations of state is fundamental in a variety of fields. However, it is often very difficult to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures in an laboratory setting. Here we develop methods to determine a multi-phase equation of state for Ta through computation. The typical means of investigating thermodynamic properties is via 'classical' molecular

  4. Using Implicit Measures to Highlight Science Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascret, Nicolas; Roussel, Peggy; Cury, François

    2015-01-01

    Using an innovative method, a Single-Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) was created to explore the implicit theories of intelligence among science and liberal arts teachers and their relationships with their gender. The results showed that for science teachers--especially for male teachers--there was a negative implicit association between…

  5. Predictors of Science Fair Participation Using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    1996-01-01

    Uses the Theory of Planned Behavior to examine factors that predict junior high and secondary students' (n=303) attitudes toward participating in district science fair competitions, beliefs about who would approve or disapprove of participation, and perceptions of control. Results indicate that science fair entry appears to be involuntary and that…

  6. The Philosophy of Information as an Underlying and Unifying Theory of Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomic, Taeda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Philosophical analyses of theoretical principles underlying these sub-domains reveal philosophy of information as underlying meta-theory of information science. Method: Conceptual research on the knowledge sub-domains in information science and philosophy and analysis of their mutual connection. Analysis: Similarities between…

  7. The Role of Political Theory in the Teaching of Political Science in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Iniguez, Enrique

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three major problems within the field of political science in Mexico: the dearth of classes offered, lack of consensus on the content of courses, and the very limited role of political theory. Provides charts and statistics on the state of political science in the country. (RW)

  8. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views about Teaching Theories and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürbüz, Fatih; Töman, Ufuk; Aksoy, Gökhan; Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the secondary school pre-service science teachers' views about teaching theories and methods. Qualitative research method and purposeful sampling were used in the study. The participants of the study were the five students in the final year of their studies in Science Teaching Department of Bayburt Education…

  9. Arts Students and Quantum Theory in an Open University History of Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Clive

    1982-01-01

    In an open university History of Science course a unit was written to provide basic information on quantum theory for students with arts and social science background in order to enable these students to handle the Bohr-Einstein debate. An evaluation of the unit showed that it achieved its purpose. (Author/MLW)

  10. Research on Interest in Science: Theories, methods, and findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the 'Programme for International Student Assessment' (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical roots that help to understand recent discussions on interest in science education. As interest is a widely used concept with manifold facets, it is essential to discuss different ways of modelling the relationship between a person and a comprehensive object like science with all of its different aspects, including wide ranges of content as well as contexts. Models that can be used for describing the content structure of science interest and the process of interest development are presented. Based on an overview of typical methods for assessing interests, exemplary findings on students' interest in science are presented, which play an important role in the current scientific debate. Finally, challenges for future research on interest in science education are discussed.

  11. Toward Theory-Led Evaluation: The Experience of European Science, Technology, and Innovation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Davies, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the literature and practice concerned with the evaluation of science, technology, and innovation (STI) policies and the way these relate to theories of the innovation process. Referring to the experience of the European Union (EU), the authors review the attempts to ensure that the STI policy theory is informed by advances in…

  12. Curriculum Design for Junior Life Sciences Based Upon the Theories of Piaget and Skiller. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Ella Elizabeth

    Four seventh grade life science classes, given curriculum materials based upon Piagetian theories of intellectual development and Skinner's theories of secondary reinforcement, were compared with four control classes from the same school districts. Nine students from each class, who(at the pretest) were at the concrete operations stage of…

  13. Clarity in Multimedia: The Role of Interactive Media in Teaching Political Science Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The field of political science has encountered a unique obstacle in its development. Contemporary political theory has diverged in opposite paths, becoming more conceptual and abstract as well as focused and concrete. The unfortunate result of this has been a lack of clarity in communicating political theory to a new generation of political…

  14. Darwin's Theory, Mendel's Laws: Labels and the Teaching of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Explains how students' perceptions of validity is affected by the terminology used by teachers and scientists. Analyzes the use of the terms: hypothesis, theory, law, and principle in biology textbooks. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Comments Concerning "How to Choose a Theory: Science for Nonscientists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Questions as tentative and not universally acceptable some of the assumptions put forth by Romer, namely, that a scientific theory: is a deductive exercise; must accord with the facts; ought to be inflexible; is an explanation. (GH)

  16. Thinking differently about cultural diversity: Using postcolonial theory to (re)read science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-11-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading practice is privileged, and its practical application illustrated by using some of these key ideas to (re)read Gloria Snively and John Corsiglia's (2001) article Discovering indigenous science: implications for science education and their rejoinder, from the special issue of Science Education (Vol. 85, pp. 6-34) on multiculturalism and science education. While many would regard the expressed views on diversity, inclusivity, multiculturalism, and sustainability to be just and equitable, postcolonial analysis of the texts reveals subtle and lingering referents that unwittingly work against the very attitudes Snively and Corsiglia (2001) seek to promote. Such postcolonial analyses open up thinking about the material and cultural conditions in which science education is produced, circulated, interpreted, and enacted. They also privilege a unique methodology already prominent in academic inquiry that is yet to be well explored within science education. Finally, I conclude this paper with some general comments regarding postcolonialism and the science education scholarship on cultural diversity.

  17. Teaching Science Fiction Film Genre: Theory, Form, and Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    Intended to provide a paradigm for teachers planning a course in science fiction film, the instructional approach outlined in this paper examines films in relation to each other and to culture. The paper provides a course outline, a discussion of lecture topics, a suggested reading list, and a film list. The instructional approach suggested by the…

  18. Using Theory of Mind to Promote Conceptual Change in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakopoulou, Natassa; Vosniadou, Stella

    2014-01-01

    We argue that learning science requires children to move from perceptually based representations to more abstract conceptual representations and to understand that appearance may sometimes deceive us and that the same phenomenon in the world can have more than one representation when seen from different perspectives. We also argue that the…

  19. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my…

  20. Mastering Cognitive Development Theory in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluga, Richard; Kay, Judy; Lister, Raymond; Kleitman, Simon; Kleitman, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    To design an effective computer science curriculum, educators require a systematic method of classifying the difficulty level of learning activities and assessment tasks. This is important for curriculum design and implementation and for communication between educators. Different educators must be able to use the method consistently, so that…

  1. The Big Bang Theory and the Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthury, Luiz Henrique Martins; Peduzzi, Luiz O. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Modern cosmology was constituted, throughout the twentieth century to the present days, as a very productive field of research, resulting in major discoveries that attest to its explanatory power. The Big Bang Theory, the generic and popular name of the standard model of cosmology, is probably the most daring research program of physics and astronomy, trying to recreate the evolution of our observable universe. But contrary to what you might think, its conjectures are of a degree of refinement and corroborative evidence that make it our best explanation for the history of our cosmos. The Big Bang Theory is also an excellent field to discuss issues regarding the scientific activity itself. In this paper we discuss the main elements of this theory with an epistemological look, resulting in a text quite useful to work on educational activities with related goals.

  2. What Brain Sciences Reveal about Integrating Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Theory and practice are integrated in the human brain. Situation recognition and response are key to this integration. Scholars of decision making and expertise have found that people with great expertise are more adept at situational recognition and intentional about their decision-making processes. Several interdisciplinary fields of inquiry…

  3. Atoms, Molecules, and Kinetic Theory, Science (Experimental): 5317.63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffaloe, Jacquelin F.

    This course of instruction in advanced chemistry is intended for the student ready for first-year college chemistry. Presented is an in-depth review with theory and mathematics being stressed in the study of concepts involving atomic structure, bonding, states of matter, molar relationships in equations, and properties of solutions. It is…

  4. Household Refuse Analysis: Theory, Method, and Applications in Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L., Ed.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl K., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this issue explore the current parameters of household refuse analysis. An overview of garbage research studies is presented; research methodology, theories, and applications are examined. U.S. household refuse is compared to the discards of households in Mexico City. (RM)

  5. Bridging Theory: Where Cultures Meet in Self and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lene Arnett

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, I argue that Dialogical Self Theory (DST) represents a compelling answer to how to conceptualize the psychology of the self in today's world, when people increasingly are aware of more than one way to think, feel, and relate to others. DST envisions a self of plural voices. The chapters in this volume show intriguing applications…

  6. A gaze through the lens of decision theory toward knowledge translation science.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    Research findings become evidence when an individual decides that the information is relevant and useful to a particular circumstance. Prior to that point, they are unrelated facts. For research translation to occur, research evidence needs filtering, interpretation, and application by individuals to the specific situation. For this reason, decision science is complementary to knowledge translation science. Both aim to support the individual in deciding the most appropriate action in a dynamic environment where there are masses of uncensored and nonprioritized information readily available. Decision science employs research theories to study the cognitive processes underpinning the filtering and integration of current scientific information into changing contexts. Two meta-theories, coherence and correspondence theories, have been used to provide alternative views and prompt significant debate to advance the science. The aim of this article is to stimulate debate about the relationship between decision theory and knowledge translation. Discussed is the critical role of cognition in clinical decision making, with a focus on knowledge translation. A critical commentary of the knowledge utilization modeling papers is presented from a decision science perspective. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications for knowledge translation when viewed through the lens of decision science.

  7. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  8. Functionalism as a philosophical theory of the cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Polger, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    Functionalism is a philosophical theory (or family of theories) concerning the nature of mental states. According to functionalism psychological/cognitive states are essentially functional states of whole systems. Functionalism characterizes psychological states essentially according to what they do, by their relations to stimulus inputs and behavioral outputs as well as their relations to other psychological and nonpsychological internal states of a system. The central constructive relation for functionalism is the so-called realization relation. Realization is a proposal for how psychological states can be real, physical, and causally efficacious while at the same time preserving the autonomy of cognitive explanations and avoiding reduction or elimination. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:337-348. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1170 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review.

  10. An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1998-01-01

    Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  11. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    PubMed

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress.

  12. Beyond statistical inference: A decision theory for science

    PubMed Central

    KILLEEN, PETER R.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional null hypothesis significance testing does not yield the probability of the null or its alternative and, therefore, cannot logically ground scientific decisions. The decision theory proposed here calculates the expected utility of an effect on the basis of (1) the probability of replicating it and (2) a utility function on its size. It takes significance tests—which place all value on the replicability of an effect and none on its magnitude—as a special case, one in which the cost of a false positive is revealed to be an order of magnitude greater than the value of a true positive. More realistic utility functions credit both replicability and effect size, integrating them for a single index of merit. The analysis incorporates opportunity cost and is consistent with alternate measures of effect size, such as r2 and information transmission, and with Bayesian model selection criteria. An alternate formulation is functionally equivalent to the formal theory, transparent, and easy to compute. PMID:17201351

  13. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my comments selectively on Bunge's more controversial, provocative claims, not to dismiss them, but to engage with them seriously. For example, a difficulty arising from Bunge's rhetorical style and its undoubted virtues is that not all the targets of his selfconfessed "bashings" (2010, xi) are equally deserving. For example, Bunge suggests "most contemporary philosophers of mind are indifferent to psychology, or are remarkably uninformed about it". This charge cannot be sustained today in light of the work of foremost philosophers today.

  14. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2014-03-01

    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  15. Science against modernism: the relevance of the social theory of Michael Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C

    2001-03-01

    Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity.

  16. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  17. Collaboration and Team Science: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gadlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary efforts are becoming more critical for scientific discovery and translational research efforts. Highly integrated and interactive research teams share a number of features that contribute to their success in developing and sustaining their efforts over time. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with members of highly successful research teams and others that did not meet their goals or ended due to conflicts, we identified key elements that appear critical for team success and effectiveness. There is no debate that the scientific goal sits at the center of the collaborative effort. However, supporting features need to be in place to avoid the derailment of the team. Among the most important of these is trust: without trust the team dynamic runs the risk of deteriorating over time. Other critical factors of which both leaders and participants need to be aware include developing a shared vision, strategically identifying team members and purposefully building the team, promoting disagreement while containing conflict, and setting clear expectations for sharing credit and authorship. Self-awareness and strong communication skills contribute greatly to effective leadership and management strategies of scientific teams. While all successful teams share the characteristic of effectively carrying out these activities, there is no single formula for execution with every leader exemplifying different strengths and weaknesses. Successful scientific collaborations have strong leaders who are self -aware and are mindful of the many elements critical for supporting the science at the center of the effort. PMID:22525233

  18. Collaboration and team science: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L Michelle; Gadlin, Howard

    2012-06-01

    Interdisciplinary efforts are becoming more critical for scientific discovery and translational research efforts. Highly integrated and interactive research teams share a number of features that contribute to their success in developing and sustaining their efforts over time. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with members of highly successful research teams and others who did not meet their goals or ended because of conflicts, we identified key elements that are critical for team success and effectiveness. There is no debate that the scientific goal sits at the center of the collaborative effort. However, supporting features need to be in place to avoid the derailment of the team. Among the most important of these is trust: without trust, the team dynamic runs the risk of deteriorating over time. Other critical factors of which both leaders and participants need to be aware include developing a shared vision, strategically identifying team members and purposefully building the team, promoting disagreement while containing conflict, and setting clear expectations for sharing credit and authorship. Self-awareness and strong communication skills contribute greatly to effective leadership and management strategies of scientific teams. While all successful teams share the characteristic of effectively carrying out these activities, there is no single formula for execution with every leader exemplifying different strengths and weaknesses. Successful scientific collaborations have strong leaders who are self-aware and are mindful of the many elements critical for supporting the science at the center of the effort.

  19. Online interprofessional health sciences education: From theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Luke, Robert; Solomon, Patty; Baptiste, Sue; Hall, Pippa; Orchard, Carole; Rukholm, Ellen; Carter, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Online learning (e-learning) has a nascent but established history. Its application to interprofessional education (IPE), however, is relatively new. Over the past 2 decades the Internet has been used increasingly to mediate education. We have come past the point of "should we use the Internet for education" to "how should we use the Internet for education." Research has begun on the optimal development of online learning environments to support IPE. Developing online IPE should follow best practices in e-learning generally, though there are some special considerations for acknowledging the interprofessional context and clinical environments that online IPE is designed to support. The design, development, and deployment of effective online IPE must therefore pay special attention to the particular constraints of the health care worker educational matrix, both pre- and postlicensure. In this article we outline the design of online, interprofessional health sciences education. Our work has involved 4 educational and 4 clinical service institutions. We establish the context in which we situate our development activities that created learning modules designed to support IPE and its transfer into new interprofessional health care practices. We illustrate some best practices for the design of effective online IPE, and show how this design can create effective learning for IPE. Challenges exist regarding the full implementation of interprofessional clinical practice that are beginning to be met by coordinated efforts of multiple health care education silos.

  20. Climate change: Conflict of observational science, theory, and politics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhard, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Debate over whether human activity causes Earth climate change obscures the immensity of the dynamic systems that create and maintain climate on the planet. Anthropocentric debate leads people to believe that they can alter these planetary dynamic systems to prevent that they perceive as negative climate impacts on human civilization. Although politicians offer simplistic remedies, such as the Kyoto Protocol, global climate continues to change naturally. Better planning for the inevitable dislocations that have followed natural global climate changes throughout human history requires us to accept the fact that climate will change, and that human society must adapt to the changes. Over the last decade, the scientific literature reported a shift in emphasis from attempting to build theoretical models of putative human impacts on climate to understanding the planetwide dynamic processes that are the natural climate drivers. The current scientific literature is beginning to report the history of past climate change, the extent of natural climate variability, natural system drivers, and the episodicity of many climate changes. The scientific arguments have broadened from focus upon human effects on climate to include the array of natural phenomena that have driven global climate change for eons. However, significant political issues with long-term social consequences continue their advance. This paper summarizes recent scientific progress in climate science and arguments about human influence on climate. ?? 2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  2. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  3. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  4. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

  5. Understanding the Nature of Science and Scientific Progress: A Theory-Building Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuy, Maria; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Prinsen, Fleur; Resendes, Monica; Messina, Richard; Hunsburger, Winifred; Teplovs, Chris; Chow, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students' understanding of the nature of science is a "theory-building approach to teaching about inquiry." The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological…

  6. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  7. Reasoning about Race and Pedagogy in Two Preservice Science Teachers: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…

  8. A Cogenerative Inquiry Using Postcolonial Theory to Envisage Culturally Inclusive Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jennifer; Luitel, Bal Chandra; Afonso, Emilia; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2008-01-01

    This forum constitutes a cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory drawn from the review paper by Zembylas and Avraamidou. Three teacher educators from African, Asian and Caribbean countries reflect on problems confronting their professional practices and consider the prospects of creating culturally inclusive science education. We learn that…

  9. Applying Contemporary Developmental and Movement Science Theories and Evidence to Early Intervention Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Robbin; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Long, Toby M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in early childhood science, theory, and best practices for improving outcomes of children with motor delay or dysfunction and their families have evolved rapidly since EI began. Changes in daily early intervention (EI) practice have been more elusive. Closing the gap between knowledge and practice requires EI providers to piece together…

  10. Conflicting Agendas: Critical Thinking versus Science Education in the International Baccalaureate "Theory of Knowledge" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemplen, Gabor A.

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates the "Theory of Knowledge" course of the "International Baccalaureate Organization." After a short overview of the aims and objectives of the course, the assessment criteria and a popular textbook are investigated. Shortcomings concerning the treatment of the natural sciences are highlighted and the problem is generalised…

  11. Approaches to Teaching the Particulate Theory of Matter. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds Univ. (England). Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This guide…

  12. Using Valsiner's Zone Theory to Interpret Teaching Practices in Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria L.; Westbrook, Susan; Carter, Glenda

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the use of Valsiner's zone theory as a way to interpret the zones of proximal development of three secondary teachers in mathematics and science. Specifically, we used classroom discourse to identify what the participating teachers promoted (zone of promoted action) or allowed (zone of free movement) in the classroom as a way…

  13. Theory and Practice in a Science Education Course for Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacueva, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In this action research work, I analyze the theory-practice integration in teacher preparation within the context of a science and technology (S&T) education teaching methodology course aimed at future elementary teachers. The course was designed, developed and evaluated taking into account this relationship as one of its axes. The results…

  14. Expanding the Conversation: Further Explorations into Indigenous Environmental Science Education Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, "2012") as part of the forum on their article "Effective Practices for Creating…

  15. Influence of Particle Theory Conceptions on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding of Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlHarbi, Nawaf N. S.; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of diffusion, osmosis and particle theory of matter concepts among 192 pre-service science teachers in Saudi Arabia using a 17-item two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test. The data analysis showed that the pre-service teachers' understanding of osmosis and diffusion concepts was mildly correlated with…

  16. Analyzing Activities in the Course of Science Education, According to Activity Theory: The Case of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoraki, Xarikleia; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we analyze activities on the topic of sound, which are performed in the science education laboratory lessons in the third-year students of the Department of Early Childhood Education at the University of Ioannina. The analysis of the activities is based on one of the most modern learning theories of CHAT (Cultural Historical…

  17. Parallels between New Paradigms in Science and in Reading and Literary Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance

    Drawing upon research from a number of fields, this paper explores parallels between new paradigms in the sciences--particularly physics, chemistry, and biology--and new paradigms in reading and literary theory--particularly a socio- or psycholinguistic, semiotic, transactional view of reading and a transactional view of the literary experience.…

  18. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  19. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  20. Practice or Theory: Situating Science Teacher Preparation Within a Context of Ecojustice Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stacey A.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2014-08-01

    Theory is taught to preservice teachers from the moment they enter the education program until they graduate. While theory serves as the foundation in many teacher preparation courses, these future teachers must also understand the relationship it has to practice. The focus of this article is on the journey of one group of preservice secondary science teachers toward becoming practitioners with a theoretical understanding of what and how they would teach science. Ecojustice philosophy, being implemented through citizen science pedagogy, served as the framework for this method course and proved challenging for both the professor and the preservice teacher. Hermeneutic ethnography served as the guiding methodological/theoretical framework for this research and provided an opportunity for extensive data collection in an attempt to better understand how participants made sense of learning to teach within a method course focused around ecojustice philosophy. By using hermeneutic ethnography, we are encouraged to make sense of what we are seeing, while considering our own cultural experiences and abilities to interact with others taking part in these events. This research highlights the need for dialogue within science teacher preparation classrooms, addresses the challenges in teaching for practice-theory, and suggests possibilities for future considerations within science teacher preparation.

  1. Practice or Theory: Situating Science Teacher Preparation Within a Context of Ecojustice Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stacey A.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2015-06-01

    Theory is taught to preservice teachers from the moment they enter the education program until they graduate. While theory serves as the foundation in many teacher preparation courses, these future teachers must also understand the relationship it has to practice. The focus of this article is on the journey of one group of preservice secondary science teachers toward becoming practitioners with a theoretical understanding of what and how they would teach science. Ecojustice philosophy, being implemented through citizen science pedagogy, served as the framework for this method course and proved challenging for both the professor and the preservice teacher. Hermeneutic ethnography served as the guiding methodological/theoretical framework for this research and provided an opportunity for extensive data collection in an attempt to better understand how participants made sense of learning to teach within a method course focused around ecojustice philosophy. By using hermeneutic ethnography, we are encouraged to make sense of what we are seeing, while considering our own cultural experiences and abilities to interact with others taking part in these events. This research highlights the need for dialogue within science teacher preparation classrooms, addresses the challenges in teaching for practice-theory, and suggests possibilities for future considerations within science teacher preparation.

  2. Both Theory and Practice: Science Literacy Instruction and Theories of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Katherine Landau; Franks, Amanda D.; Kuo, Li-Jen; McTigue, Erin M.; Serrano, Jiniva

    2016-01-01

    Many journal articles detail recommendations to naturally integrate literacy instruction into content-area classes, particularly science, claiming that such instructional practices will support both literacy and content-knowledge acquisition. This begs the question, are the literacy strategies recommended for content-area instruction founded in…

  3. From anxiety to enthusiasm: facilitating graduate nursing students' knowledge development in science and theory.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Diana E; Bell, Sandy; Benson, Ember E; Mandzuk, Lynda L; Matias, Debra M; McIvor, Marilyn J; Robertson, Judy E; Wilkins, Krista L

    2007-02-01

    Knowledge development of theory can be challenging for graduate nursing students when they experience deficits related to theoretical foundations, evaluation, or application. This article recounts the experiences of the students and course facilitator with a graduate-level nursing science and theory course, which required critical analysis of a concept, theory critique, and poster presentation. The idea for this article was generated when the students realized the profound importance of nursing theories and their applicability to practice and research. Students' anxiety gave way to enthusiasm with the implementation of teaching and learning strategies based on adult learning theory. Knowles' four characteristics of adult learners are discussed in relation to the experiences of the students and course facilitator. These characteristics include learners' wish to be self-directed, need to bring life experiences to their learning, recognition of their social and occupational role competencies, and need to take a more immediate, problem-solving approach to their learning.

  4. CTE Teachers' Perspectives on the Process of CTE and Science Content Integration: A Grounded Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Matthew Kenneth

    The integration of career and technical education (CTE) and academic curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for CTE professionals. The research question that was used to guide the current study was: What are CTE teachers' perspectives of and experiences with the process of CTE and science content integration? And more specifically, to generate a grounded theory which explicates the process of CTE and science content integration from the perspective of CTE teachers. The CTE teachers expressed that the process of CTE and science content integration was a process of evolutionizing. From the perspective of the CTE teachers involved integrating CTE and science content resulted in their programs of study being adapted into something different than they were before the process of integration was begun. The CTE teachers revealed that the evolutions in their programs of study and themselves were associated with three other categories within the grounded theory: (a) connecting; (b) enacting; and (c) futuring. The process of CTE and science content integration represents a deep and complex episode for CTE teachers. The process of CTE and science content integration requires connecting to others, putting ideas into action, and an orienting towards the future.

  5. Before theory comes theorizing or how to make social science more interesting.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The basic argument in this article is that sociology and social science more generally are today severely hampered by the lack of attention being paid to theory. Methods--qualitative as well as quantitative methods--have proven to be very useful in practical research (as opposed to theory); and as a result they dominate modern social science. They do not, however, do the job that belongs to theory. One way to redress the current imbalance between methods and theory, it is suggested, would be to pay more attention to theorizing, that is, to the actual process that precedes the final formulation of a theory; and in this way improve theory. Students of social science are today primarily exposed to finished theories and are not aware of the process that goes into the production and design of a theory. Students need to be taught how to construct a theory in practical terms ('theorizing'); and one good way to do so is through exercises. This is the way that methods are being taught by tradition; and it helps the students to get a hands-on knowledge, as opposed to just a reading knowledge of what a theory is all about. Students more generally need to learn how to construct a theory while drawing on empirical material. The article contains a suggestion for the steps that need to be taken when you theorize. Being trained in what sociology and social science are all about--an important precondition!--students may proceed as follows. You start out by observing, in an attempt to get a good empirical grip on the topic before any theory is introduced. Once this has been done, it may be time to name the phenomenon; and either turn the name into a concept as the next step or bring in some existing concepts in an attempt to get a handle on the topic. At this stage one can also try to make use of analogies, metaphors and perhaps a typology, in an attempt to both give body to the theory and to invest it with some process. The last element in theorizing is to come up with an

  6. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  7. A substantive-level theory of highly regarded secondary biology teachers' science teaching orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia Jean

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been used as a heuristic for examining a specialized knowledge base for teaching. One proposed overarching component within the PCK model for science teaching is teaching orientations, defined as teachers' knowledge and beliefs about the purposes and goals for teaching science at a particular grade level. Nine different orientations to teaching science have been identified in the science education literature, yet there are few empirical studies specifically examining science teachers' orientations. This qualitative case study re-examines science teaching orientations using grounded theory methods. The study focused on the nature and sources of the science teaching orientations held by four highly-regarded secondary biology teachers. Data collection consisted of a card-sorting task, semi-structured interviews, and classroom observations. Inductive data analysis led to the construction of a substantive-level theory of science teaching orientations. In regard to the nature of science teaching orientations, the use of central and peripheral goals, as well as the means of achieving these goals, better represents the complex nature of science teaching orientations. Although the participants were secondary biology teachers, they held more general teaching orientations than science-specific orientations. The participants held goals in the affective domain, e.g., the development of positive attitudes toward biology, as well as general schooling goals, including preparing students for college and the development of life skills. Although each participant held science content goals, these goals were not always a central component of their teaching orientation. In addition, goals and purposes shape the means that a teacher chooses, but a limited repertoire of means can also restrict the teacher's purposes and goals. In regard to the sources of teaching orientations, participants were influenced by a multitude of factors, including prior

  8. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-09-01

    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data.

  9. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data. PMID:25276499

  10. Program theory-driven evaluation science in a youth development context.

    PubMed

    Deane, Kelsey L; Harré, Niki

    2014-08-01

    Program theory-driven evaluation science (PTDES) provides a useful framework for uncovering the mechanisms responsible for positive change resulting from participation in youth development (YD) programs. Yet it is difficult to find examples of PTDES that capture the complexity of such experiences. This article offers a much-needed example of PTDES applied to Project K, a youth development program with adventure, service-learning and mentoring components. Findings from eight program staff focus groups, 351 youth participants' comments, four key program documents, and results from six previous Project K research projects were integrated to produce a theory of change for the program. A direct logic analysis was then conducted to assess the plausibility of the proposed theory against relevant research literature. This demonstrated that Project K incorporates many of the best practice principles discussed in the literature that covers the three components of the program. The contributions of this theory-building process to organizational learning and development are discussed.

  11. Expanding the conversation: further explorations into Indigenous environmental science education theory, research, and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, 2012) as part of the forum on their article Effective Practices for Creating Transformative Informal Science Education Programs Grounded in Native Ways of Knowing. Key topics discussed include the integration of Western and Indigenous knowledge in educational programs, embodied approaches to Indigenous research, and further examples of practice from Canada and other regions of the world.

  12. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  13. A cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory to envisage culturally inclusive science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jennifer; Luitel, Bal Chandra; Afonso, Emilia; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2008-12-01

    This forum constitutes a cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory drawn from the review paper by Zembylas and Avraamidou. Three teacher educators from African, Asian and Caribbean countries reflect on problems confronting their professional practices and consider the prospects of creating culturally inclusive science education. We learn that in Mozambique, Nepal and the Caribbean scientism patrols the borders of science education serving to exclude local epistemological beliefs and discourses and negating culturally contextualized teaching and learning. Despite the diverse cultural hybridities of these countries, science education is disconnected from the daily lives of the majority of their populations, serving inequitably the academic Western-oriented aspirations of an elite group who are "living hybridity but talking scientism." The discussants explore their autobiographies to reveal core cultural values and beliefs grounded in their non-Western traditions and worldviews but which are in conflict with the Western Modern Worldview (WMW) and thus have no legitimate role in the standard school/college science classroom. They reflect on their hybrid cultural identities and reveal the interplay of multiple selves grounded in both the WMW and non-WMWs and existing in a dialectical tension of managed contradiction in a Third Space. They argue for dialectical logic to illuminate a Third Space wherein students of science education may be empowered to challenge hegemonies of cultural reproduction and examine reflexively their own identities, coming to recognize and reconcile their core cultural beliefs with those of Western modern science, thereby dissipating otherwise strongly delineated cultural borders.

  14. Canonical Duality Theory and Algorithms for Solving Some Challenging Problems in Global Optimization and Decision Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    ABSTRACT Supported by this grant, the PI and his group have successfully solved a series of challenging problems in computer science, global...Taiwan. Accomplishments/New Findings: Research and Education Activities Supported by this AFOSR grant, the PI and his students, post-doctor and co...polynomial time in the worst cases). 3) Canonical duality theory for solving chaotic dynamical systems. It was realized by the PI in his review

  15. An analysis of the demarcation problem in science and its application to therapeutic touch theory.

    PubMed

    Newbold, David; Roberts, Julia

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyses the demarcation problem from the perspective of four philosophers: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend. To Popper, pseudoscience uses induction to generate theories, and only performs experiments to seek to verify them. To Popper, falsifiability is what determines the scientific status of a theory. Taking a historical approach, Kuhn observed that scientists did not follow Popper's rule, and might ignore falsifying data, unless overwhelming. To Kuhn, puzzle-solving within a paradigm is science. Lakatos attempted to resolve this debate, by suggesting history shows that science occurs in research programmes, competing according to how progressive they are. The leading idea of a programme could evolve, driven by its heuristic to make predictions that can be supported by evidence. Feyerabend claimed that Lakatos was selective in his examples, and the whole history of science shows there is no universal rule of scientific method, and imposing one on the scientific community impedes progress. These positions are used in turn, to examine the scientific status of therapeutic touch theory. The paper concludes that imposing a single rule of method can impede progress, in the face of multiple epistemologies, and the choice of scientific approach should be a pragmatic one based on the aims of the programme.

  16. Professional Learning of K-6 Teachers in Science Through Collaborative Action Research: An Activity Theory Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodnough, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Primary/elementary teachers are uniquely positioned in terms of their need for ongoing, science-focused professional development. They are usually generalists, having limited preparation for teaching science, and often do not feel prepared or comfortable in teaching science. In this case study, CHAT or cultural-historical activity theory is used as a lens to examine primary/elementary teachers' activity system as they engaged in a teacher-driven professional development initiative. Teachers engaged in collaborative action research to change their practice, with the objective of making their science teaching more engaging and hands-on for students. A range of qualitative methods and sources such as teacher interviews and reflections, teacher-created artifacts, and researcher observational notes were adopted to gain insight into teacher learning. Outcomes report on how the teachers' activity system changed as they participated in two cycles of collaborative action research and how the contradictions that arose in their activity system became sources of professional growth. Furthermore, this research shows how the framework of activity theory may be used to garner insight into the activity and learning of teachers as both their professional activities and the context change over time.

  17. Integrating design science theory and methods to improve the development and evaluation of health communication programs.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.

  18. Fractal geometry and chaos theory: Their application in the Earth sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C. )

    1990-11-01

    Fractal geometry and chaos theory are major advances over previous methods for quantifying complex pattern encountered in nature. They provide methods for quantifying complex patterns encountered in nature. They provide methods for creating highly complex, detailed, and accurate synthetic analogs of natural systems. They redefine the way we think mathematically about the behavior of natural systems, much as the theory of relatively brought a deeper level of understanding to physics. Like other branches of mathematics, they do not necessarily provide a physical or mechanistic understanding. However, in natural systems, fractal behavior often breaks down or changes to a different fractal dimension at scales where the physical changes. Systems and processes that exhibit fractal scaling, such as earthquakes, have been shown to be self-organized critical phenomena, which means that they internally establish their own dynamically stable critical points and transfer energy on cascading fractal structures. A challenge for the future will be to develop methods to go from a fractal pattern in nature to its governing nonlinear iterated equation. The use of fractal geometry and chaos theory in the earth sciences has increased greatly in the past five years. Fractal geometry and chaos theory are redefining the way that they conceptualize, measure, and model natural systems in the earth sciences.

  19. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  20. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  1. The SMART Theory and Modeling Team: An Integrated Element of Mission Development and Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, J.; Denton, Richard E.; Drake, J.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, B.; Sibeck, D.

    2005-01-01

    When targeting physical understanding of space plasmas, our focus is gradually shifting away from discovery-type investigations to missions and studies that address our basic understanding of processes we know to be important. For these studies, theory and models provide physical predictions that need to be verified or falsified by empirical evidence. Within this paradigm, a tight integration between theory, modeling, and space flight mission design and execution is essential. NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is a pathfinder in this new era of space research. The prime objective of MMS is to understand magnetic reconnection, arguably the most fundamental of plasma processes. In particular, MMS targets the microphysical processes, which permit magnetic reconnection to operate in the collisionless plasmas that permeate space and astrophysical systems. More specifically, MMS will provide closure to such elemental questions as how particles become demagnetized in the reconnection diffusion region, which effects determine the reconnection rate, and how reconnection is coupled to environmental conditions such as magnetic shear angles. Solutions to these problems have remained elusive in past and present spacecraft missions primarily due to instrumental limitations - yet they are fundamental to the large-scale dynamics of collisionless plasmas. Owing to the lack of measurements, most of our present knowledge of these processes is based on results from modern theory and modeling studies of the reconnection process. Proper design and execution of a mission targeting magnetic reconnection should include this knowledge and have to ensure that all relevant scales and effects can be resolved by mission measurements. The SMART mission has responded to this need through a tight integration between instrument and theory and modeling teams. Input from theory and modeling is fed into all aspects of science mission design, and theory and modeling activities are tailored

  2. The SMART Theory and Modeling Team: an Integrated Element of Mission Development and Science Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Denton, R.; Drake, J.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, B.; Sibeck, D.

    2005-12-01

    When targeting physical understanding of space plasmas, our focus is gradually shifting away from discovery-type investigations to missions and studies that address our basic understanding of processes we know to be important. For these studies, theory and models provide physical predictions that need to be verified or falsified by empirical evidence. Within this paradigm, a tight integration between theory, modeling, and space flight mission design and execution is essential. NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is a pathfinder in this new era of space research. The prime objective of MMS is to understand magnetic reconnection, arguably the most fundamental of plasma processes. In particular, MMS targets the microphysical processes, which permit magnetic reconnection to operate in the collisionless plasmas that permeate space and astrophysical systems. More specifically, MMS will provide closure to such elemental questions as how particles become demagnetized in the reconnection diffusion region, which effects determine the reconnection rate, and how reconnection is coupled to environmental conditions such as magnetic shear angles. Solutions to these problems have remained elusive in past and present spacecraft missions primarily due to instrumental limitations - yet they are fundamental to the large-scale dynamics of collisionless plasmas. Owing to the lack of measurements, most of our present knowledge of these processes is based on results from modern theory and modeling studies of the reconnection process. Proper design and execution of a mission targeting magnetic reconnection should include this knowledge and have to ensure that all relevant scales and effects can be resolved by mission measurements. The SMART mission has responded to this need through a tight integration between instrument and theory and modeling teams. Input from theory and modeling is fed into all aspects of science mission design, and theory and modeling activities are tailored

  3. Perceptions of teaching and learning automata theory in a college-level computer science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, Phoebe Kay

    This dissertation identifies and describes student and instructor perceptions that contribute to effective teaching and learning of Automata Theory in a competitive college-level Computer Science program. Effective teaching is the ability to create an appropriate learning environment in order to provide effective learning. We define effective learning as the ability of a student to meet instructor set learning objectives, demonstrating this by passing the course, while reporting a good learning experience. We conducted our investigation through a detailed qualitative case study of two sections (118 students) of Automata Theory (CS 341) at The University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Lily Quilt. Because Automata Theory has a fixed curriculum in the sense that many curricula and textbooks agree on what Automata Theory contains, differences being depth and amount of material to cover in a single course, a case study would allow for generalizable findings. Automata Theory is especially problematic in a Computer Science curriculum since students are not experienced in abstract thinking before taking this course, fail to understand the relevance of the theory, and prefer classes with more concrete activities such as programming. This creates a special challenge for any instructor of Automata Theory as motivation becomes critical for student learning. Through the use of student surveys, instructor interviews, classroom observation, material and course grade analysis we sought to understand what students perceived, what instructors expected of students, and how those perceptions played out in the classroom in terms of structure and instruction. Our goal was to create suggestions that would lead to a better designed course and thus a higher student success rate in Automata Theory. We created a unique theoretical basis, pedagogical positivism, on which to study college-level courses. Pedagogical positivism states that through examining instructor and student perceptions

  4. A Biological Basis for Generative Learning in Technology-and-Science Part I: A Theory of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaverien, Lynette; Cosgrove, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Describes a theory of learning in which the brain is seen as a Darwinian machine. Argues that the generative heuristic underlying Darwinism offers considerable value for technology and science education. Contains 33 references. (Author/WRM)

  5. Science, School Science, and School: Looking at Science Learning in Classrooms from the Perspective of Basil Bernstein's Theory of the Structure of Pedagogic Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ralph Ian

    This analytic paper asks one question: How does Basil Bernstein's concept of the structure of pedagogic discourse (SPD) contribute to our understanding of the role of teacher-student interactions in science learning in the classroom? Applying Bernstein's theory of the SPD to an analysis of current research in science education explores the structure of Bernstein's theory as a tool for understanding the challenges and questions related to current concerns about classroom science learning. This analysis applies Bernstein's theory of the SPD as a heuristic through a secondary reading of selected research from the past fifteen years and prompts further consideration of Bernstein's ideas. This leads to a reevaluation of the categories of regulative discourse (RD) and instructional discourse (ID) as structures that frame learning environments and the dynamics of student-teacher interactions, which determine learning outcomes. The SPD becomes a simple but flexible heuristic, offering a useful deconstruction of teaching and learning dynamics in three different classroom environments. Understanding the framing interactions of RD and ID provides perspectives on the balance of agency and expectation, suggesting some causal explanations for the student learning outcomes described by the authors. On one hand, forms of open inquiry and student-driven instruction may lack the structure to ensure the appropriation of desired forms of scientific thinking. On the other hand, well-designed pathways towards the understanding of fundamental concepts in science may lack the forms of more open-ended inquiry that develop transferable understanding. Important ideas emerge about the complex dynamics of learning communities, the materials of learning, and the dynamic role of the teacher as facilitator and expert. Simultaneously, the SPD as a flexible heuristic proves ambiguous, prompting a reevaluation of Bernstein's organization of RD and ID. The hierarchical structure of pedagogic

  6. Nuclear theory and science of the facility for rare isotope beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.; Carlson, J.; Dean, D. J.; Fuller, G. M.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Li, Bao-An; Nazarewicz, W.; Nunes, F. M.; Ormand, W. E.; Reddy, S.; Sherrill, B. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a world-leading laboratory for the study of nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics. Experiments with intense beams of rare isotopes produced at FRIB will guide us toward a comprehensive description of nuclei, elucidate the origin of the elements in the cosmos, help provide an understanding of matter in neutron stars and establish the scientific foundation for innovative applications of nuclear science to society. FRIB will be essential for gaining access to key regions of the nuclear chart, where the measured nuclear properties will challenge established concepts, and highlight shortcomings and needed modifications to current theory. Conversely, nuclear theory will play a critical role in providing the intellectual framework for the science at FRIB, and will provide invaluable guidance to FRIB's experimental programs. This review overviews the broad scope of the FRIB theory effort, which reaches beyond the traditional fields of nuclear structure and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, to explore exciting interdisciplinary boundaries with other areas.

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Styles on Naïve Impetus Theory Application Degrees of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataloglu, Erdat; Ates, Salih

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between pre-service science teachers' Field Dependent or Field Independent (FD/FI) cognitive styles and the application of degrees of naive impetus theory. The sample consisted of 122 pre-service science teachers (97 females and 25 males) who were enrolled in the…

  8. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university…

  9. In-depth study of Marxist population theory, promote China's population science.

    PubMed

    Liu, J

    1983-01-01

    The 3rd National Population Science Seminar, held in Beijng from Feb. 21-27, 1981, brought together over 270 Chinese population researchers and professionals, as well as social science and family planning workers. Participants presented over 220 papers and reports, which showed a higher level of scholarship than previous seminar papers. Chen Dau, the head of the Planning Bureau of the Chinese Academy for Social Sciences, gave the opening address and explained the seminar's 2 tasks: 1) to exchange academic ideas and 2) to found the Population Association of China (PAC), and suggested 3 topics for theoretical discussion: 1) Marxist theory on the 2 kinds of production, 2) the differences between China's population control and old and NeoMalthusianism, and 3) the 1 child policy. Xu Dixin, the vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, spoke on socialist population laws, planned population control, and potential problems with the 1 child family policy. 8 special groups at the seminar discussed 1) Marxist theory on the 2 types of production, 2) Marx and Malthus on population, 3) China's population control policy, 4) population studies, 5) China's population problems, 6) problems with population control in rural areas, 7) urban population issues, and 8) the population problems of minority nationalities. Participants founded the PAC on the last day of the seminar. Vice-premier Cheu Muhua also addressed the seminar on the tremendous success the family planning program has had in the last 2 years and the difficulty of the task of controlling China's population growth. Population research must explain China's population laws so that growth can be controlled.

  10. Overview of Theory and Simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2006-07-03

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  11. Overview of Theory and Simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion ScienceVirtual National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2006-07-09

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  12. ["Out of interest in reasonable conditions... " Relevance and constitutive elements of a critical theory in nursing science].

    PubMed

    Friesacher, Heiner

    2011-12-01

    Nursing practice needs a theoretical foundation. As in any other discipline, theories form the core of nursing science. They contribute to the definition of nursing and to the evolution of professional domains. Depending on their level of abstraction and their range ("grand theories") they can guide actions, have an orientating, but also a critical function. Furthermore, theories serve to legitimate and justify nursing in the public. This is especially important, if politics and society have high expectations in the nursing profession. The current concept of a critical theory of nursing science has a critical focus on repressions and deficits in nursing practice, but also is aimed at achieving reasonable nursing practice. This theory is emancipatorical and normative as well. It is following Foucault's analysis of power and explicating the "Frankfurt School of Critical Theory" as a critique of the conditions of working, understanding, recognising, self, time and nature.

  13. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Hélio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula—and specially, in the curricula of science teachers—is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John Dalton’s atomic theory. Based on the case study, several questions that are worth discussing in educational contexts are pointed out. It is argued that the kind of history of science that was made in the first decades of the twentieth century (encyclopaedic, continuist, essentially anachronistic) is not appropriate for the development of the competences that are expected from the students of sciences in the present. Science teaching for current days will benefit from the approach that may be termed the “new historiography of science”.

  14. "The casual cruelty of our prejudices": on Walter Lippmann's theory of stereotype and its "obliteration" in psychology and social science.

    PubMed

    Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history.

  15. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  16. Interactional nursing--a practice-theory in the dynamic field between the natural, human and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Scheel, Merry Elisabeth; Pedersen, Birthe D; Rosenkrands, Vibeke

    2008-12-01

    Nursing is often described from the point of view of either the natural or the human sciences. In contrast to this, the value foundation in Interactional nursing practice is understood from the point of view of the natural sciences as well as that of the human and social sciences. This article presents many-faceted practice-theory of nursing, which is situated in the dynamic field between these three sciences. The focus of the theory is on interaction and practice resulting in a caring practice. Here practice is based on Taylor's and MacIntyre's interpretation of this concept. Action in nursing is based on Habermas' three varied modes of action seen in the light of an understanding of the world as a system world and a life world. Nursing as an interactional practice-theory is presented with examples of interpretative nursing science, seen in the ethical action-oriented, socio-cultural framework of Taylor and Habermas. It is concluded that phenomenologic and socio-cultural research into caring practice as well as an in-depth, comprehensive interpretation of nursing practice are both highly suited to forming the fundamental theoretical framework in nursing, here seen as an interpretative nursing science. Finally, a comparison is drawn between Interactional nursing practice and Benner's theory of nursing practice.

  17. A case study of primary teachers' personal theories and understandings of standards-based science education reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieseman, Katherine Claire

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand

  18. Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: a model.

    PubMed

    Janecka, Ivo P

    2007-06-05

    Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing.A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education).

  19. Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: A model

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, Ivo P.

    2007-01-01

    Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing. A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education). PMID:17589568

  20. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  1. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  2. Zombie science: a sinister consequence of evaluating scientific theories purely on the basis of enlightened self-interest.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-09-01

    Although the classical ideal is that scientific theories are evaluated by a careful teasing-out of their internal logic and external implications, and checking whether these deductions and predictions are in-line-with old and new observations; the fact that so many vague, dumb or incoherent scientific theories are apparently believed by so many scientists for so many years is suggestive that this ideal does not necessarily reflect real world practice. In the real world it looks more like most scientists are quite willing to pursue wrong ideas for so long as they are rewarded with a better chance of achieving more grants, publications and status. The classic account has it that bogus theories should readily be demolished by sceptical (or jealous) competitor scientists. However, in practice even the most conclusive 'hatchet jobs' may fail to kill, or even weaken, phoney hypotheses when they are backed-up with sufficient economic muscle in the form of lavish and sustained funding. And when a branch of science based on phoney theories serves a useful but non-scientific purpose, it may be kept-going indefinitely by continuous transfusions of cash from those whose interests it serves. If this happens, real science expires and a 'zombie science' evolves. Zombie science is science that is dead but will not lie down. It keeps twitching and lumbering around so that (from a distance, and with your eyes half-closed) zombie science looks much like the real thing. But in fact the zombie has no life of its own; it is animated and moved only by the incessant pumping of funds. If zombie science is not scientifically-useable--what is its function? In a nutshell, zombie science is supported because it is useful propaganda to be deployed in arenas such as political rhetoric, public administration, management, public relations, marketing and the mass media generally. It persuades, it constructs taboos, it buttresses some kind of rhetorical attempt to shape mass opinion. Indeed, zombie

  3. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  4. Enhancing Validity When Researching the "Other": Insights from Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Social Science Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social science research practice and discusses their relevance for enhancing validity when researching the "other." Aspects such as: a relational way of thinking about concepts, epistemology and methodology; the rigorous construction of the object of research; and…

  5. Computer Simulations of Quantum Theory of Hydrogen Atom for Natural Science Education Students in a Virtual Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2012-01-01

    The present article is primarily targeted for the advanced college/university undergraduate students of chemistry/physics education, computational physics/chemistry, and computer science. The most recent software system such as MS Visual Studio .NET version 2010 is employed to perform computer simulations for modeling Bohr's quantum theory of…

  6. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in Establishment Clause Jurisprudence in the US Federal Courts and Implications for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory underpinning…

  7. The Effects of Implementation of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on Grade-7 Students' Attitudes toward and Perceptions of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Ebenezer, Jazlin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of implementation of student-centered activities based on multiple intelligences (MI) theory on grade-7 students' attitudes toward and perceptions of science. While the experimental group consisting of 25 students was taught a unit on the atom and atomic properties using strategies based on…

  8. Mexican American Middle School Students' Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Rachel L.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Worthington, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether sociocontextual and sociocognitive variables explained the math/science goals of 409 Mexican American youth using a modified version of R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett's (1994) social cognitive career theory. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the hypothesized model explained a significant…

  9. The re-emergence of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science and the testing of theories of scientific change.

    PubMed

    Laudan, Larry; Laudan, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    A basic premise of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science is that theories of scientific change have to be based on empirical evidence derived from carefully constructed historical case studies. This paper analyses one such systematic attempt to test philosophical claims, describing its historical context, rationale, execution, and limited impact.

  10. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  11. (Post) Modern Science (Education): Propositions and Alternative Paths. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, John A., Ed.; Morris, Marla, Ed.; Appelbaum, Peter, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers new perspectives for science educators, curriculum theorists, and cultural critics on science education, French post-structural thought, and the science debates. This book contains chapters on the work of Bruno Latour, Michael Serres, and Jean Baudrillard plus chapters on postmodern approaches to science education…

  12. Science Education as/for Sociopolitical Action. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael, Ed.; Desautels, Jacques, Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers that focuses on science education in and through environmental activism, the shift from teaching science, technology, and society (STS) to enacting science at the grassroots level, and science education as (subversive) epistemological praxis. There are 12 papers organized in three clusters. Papers include: (1)…

  13. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  14. The ELPA library: scalable parallel eigenvalue solutions for electronic structure theory and computational science.

    PubMed

    Marek, A; Blum, V; Johanni, R; Havu, V; Lang, B; Auckenthaler, T; Heinecke, A; Bungartz, H-J; Lederer, H

    2014-05-28

    Obtaining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large matrices is a key problem in electronic structure theory and many other areas of computational science. The computational effort formally scales as O(N(3)) with the size of the investigated problem, N (e.g. the electron count in electronic structure theory), and thus often defines the system size limit that practical calculations cannot overcome. In many cases, more than just a small fraction of the possible eigenvalue/eigenvector pairs is needed, so that iterative solution strategies that focus only on a few eigenvalues become ineffective. Likewise, it is not always desirable or practical to circumvent the eigenvalue solution entirely. We here review some current developments regarding dense eigenvalue solvers and then focus on the Eigenvalue soLvers for Petascale Applications (ELPA) library, which facilitates the efficient algebraic solution of symmetric and Hermitian eigenvalue problems for dense matrices that have real-valued and complex-valued matrix entries, respectively, on parallel computer platforms. ELPA addresses standard as well as generalized eigenvalue problems, relying on the well documented matrix layout of the Scalable Linear Algebra PACKage (ScaLAPACK) library but replacing all actual parallel solution steps with subroutines of its own. For these steps, ELPA significantly outperforms the corresponding ScaLAPACK routines and proprietary libraries that implement the ScaLAPACK interface (e.g. Intel's MKL). The most time-critical step is the reduction of the matrix to tridiagonal form and the corresponding backtransformation of the eigenvectors. ELPA offers both a one-step tridiagonalization (successive Householder transformations) and a two-step transformation that is more efficient especially towards larger matrices and larger numbers of CPU cores. ELPA is based on the MPI standard, with an early hybrid MPI-OpenMPI implementation available as well. Scalability beyond 10,000 CPU cores for problem

  15. The Implications of Piaget's Theory for the Teaching of Science in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Briefly reviews Piagetian theory of cognitive development and discusses how this theory supports such instructional strategies as individualized activities, inquiry learning, and problem solving. (MLH)

  16. Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its orientation toward locating items along an underlying dimension and toward estimating precision of measurement for persons with different levels of that same construct. It also offers a didactic example of how the approach can be used to refine conceptualization and operationalization of constructs in the family sciences, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 2,732). Three basic models are considered: (a) the Rasch and (b) two-parameter logistic models for dichotomous items and (c) the Rating Scale Model for multicategory items. Throughout, the author highlights the potential for researchers to elevate measurement to a level on par with theorizing and testing about relationships among constructs. PMID:25663714

  17. Are the Performance Based Logistics Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life-Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of Performance Based Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Based Logistics Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life-Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of Performance Based...Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life-Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of Performance Based Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Are the PBL Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life Cycle Affordability? 328Defense ARJ, October 2013, Vol. 20 No. 3 : 325–348 Defense

  18. Enhancing Teachers' Awareness About Relations Between Science and Religion. The Debate Between Steady State and Big Bang Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdonas, Alexandre; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2015-11-01

    Educators advocate that science education can help the development of more responsible worldviews when students learn not only scientific concepts, but also about science, or "nature of science". Cosmology can help the formation of worldviews because this topic is embedded in socio-cultural and religious issues. Indeed, during the Cold War period, the cosmological controversy between Big Bang and Steady State theory was tied up with political and religious arguments. The present paper discusses a didactic sequence developed for and applied in a pre-service science teacher-training course on history of science. After studying the historical case, pre-service science teachers discussed how to deal with possible conflicts between scientific views and students' personal worldviews related to religion. The course focused on the study of primary and secondary sources about cosmology and religion written by cosmologists such as Georges Lemaître, Fred Hoyle and the Pope Pius XII. We used didactic strategies such as short seminars given by groups of pre-service teachers, videos, computer simulations, role-play, debates and preparation of written essays. Along the course, most pre-service teachers emphasized differences between science and religion and pointed out that they do not feel prepared to conduct classroom discussions about this topic. Discussing the relations between science and religion using the history of cosmology turned into an effective way to teach not only science concepts but also to stimulate reflections about nature of science. This topic may contribute to increasing students' critical stance on controversial issues, without the need to explicitly defend certain positions, or disapprove students' cultural traditions. Moreover, pre-service teachers practiced didactic strategies to deal with this kind of unusual content.

  19. History in Science Education, with Cautionary Tales about the Agreement of Measurement and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Mentions a few signs of the value of history for science education. Discusses some of the wider benefits that might ensue from bringing history into science. Provides examples from the fields of physics and chemistry. (DDR)

  20. [Social Sciences and Humanities in Health in ABRASCO: the construction of social theory in health.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Spadacio, Cristiane; Barboza, Renato; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Viana, Sabrina Daniela Lopes; Rocha, Ane Talita

    2014-11-01

    The development of recent social thinking in health in Brazil is associated with the establishment of the Public Health field and the Brazilian Association of Graduate Studies in Public Health (ABRASCO). The area of Social Sciences in Health was created together with the founding of ABRASCO. This article presents the main aspects related to the establishment and institutionalization of Social Sciences in Health in ABRASCO, based on interviews with its presidents and the coordinators of the Social Sciences Committees from 1995 to 2011. The interviews allowed capturing and analyzing the context in which this field was established and its relevance and history in Public Health as a whole, grouped in five analytical categories: (1) the development of Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health; (2) interdisciplinarity in Public Health; (3) the contribution of Social Sciences to Public Health; (4) Social Sciences in Health and the "traditional" Social Sciences; and (5) challenges for Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health.

  1. Community Connections for Science Education, Volume II: History and Theory You Can Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis, Ed.

    Science beyond the schoolhouse is the subject of this close-up look at informal science--education in non-traditional settings, including Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, zoos, aquariums, and public television. More than a dozen writers draw on personal experiences to tell why they became informal science educators and how they use the history and…

  2. The Metaphorical Use of Theories and Models in Supervision: Building a Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that knowledge generation and model building in supervision and teaching are mistakenly patterned after the physical sciences instead of the cultural sciences. Also, this mimicry is too simplistic by physical sciences standards. Metaphorical models of research and practice would enhance educators' understanding of reality. Includes 31…

  3. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Theory? Speaking the Language of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2014-01-01

    Language is the way students and teachers communicate in the science classroom, but language of science is not always the language children and adults use in their everyday life. As Michaels, Shouse, and Schweingruber put it, "In science, words are often given specific meanings that may be different from or more precise than their everyday…

  4. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory

    PubMed Central

    Spouge, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  5. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Susanta; Spouge, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  6. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts and implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory underpinning the adjudication of establishment clause cases on the US Supreme Court has undergone a shift from one that emphasizes separation of church and state to one that favours integration of religion in the public sphere. This development poses significant challenges to science educators who are charged with the task of teaching in accordance with state science standards that emphasize topics that are considered controversial (e.g. evolution and global climate change) by many in the faith-based community. These findings constitute a basis for forecasting future actions in US courts regarding the role of government in establishing religious practices in the public sphere-particularly where such actions intersect with the roles of teachers in the nation's public K-12 science classrooms. Finally, we argue that scientists and science educators must adopt an assertive stance in defining science in curricular frameworks, providing something for the courts to draw upon in future decisions.

  7. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  8. Black holes: theory and observations (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 December 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-07-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Black holes: theory and observations," was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 23 December 2015. The papers collected in this issue were written based on talks given at the session: (1) I D Novikov (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Moscow; The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen; National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Black holes, wormholes, and time machines"; (2) A M Cherepashchuk (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow) "Observing stellar-mass and supermassive black holes"; (3) N S Kardashev (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Moscow) "Millimetron space project: a tool for researching black holes and wormholes." Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 1, 2 are published below. • Observing stellar mass and supermassive black holes, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 7, Pages 702-712 • Black holes, wormholes, and time machines, I D Novikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 7, Pages 713-715

  9. Mapping of the Academic Production at Science and Mathematics Education Postgraduate about the Theory of Social Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, José Isnaldo de Lima; Curi, Edda; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2016-12-01

    The theory of social representations, appeared in 1961, arrived in Brazil in 1982, and since then has advanced significantly, been used in various areas of knowledge, assumed a significant role also in education. Thus, the aim of this article is to make a mapping of theses and dissertations in post-graduation programs, whose basic area is the Teaching of Science and Mathematics, and used as the theoretical foundation the theory of social representations, highlighted the social groups that are subject of this research. This is a documentary research, and lifting to the "state of knowledge" of two theses and 36 dissertations, defended in ten of the 37 existing programs in the basic area of Science and Mathematics Teaching, with the delimitation of academic masters and doctorates. The data collection was executed on December 2014 and was placed in the virtual libraries of these masters and doctoral programs, these elements were analysed according to some categories established after reading the summaries of the work, and the results showed that the theory of social representations has been used as a theoretical framework in various research groups, established in postgraduate programs in this area, for almost the entire Brazil. As for the subjects involved in this research, three groups were detected, which are: Middle school and high school students, teachers who are in full swing, spread from the early years to higher education, and undergraduates in Science and Mathematics.

  10. Interpretation of Research Findings in Terms of Ausubel's Theory and Implications for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews educational research in terms of Ausubelian learning theory and finds that the data reported can be interpreted as consistent with these theories, although many studies cited were inadequate for critical testing of the theories. Cites 10 studies concerning amount of instructional structure, 21 comparing group and individualized…

  11. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to Design and Evaluate an Educational Game in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarou, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) at the initial stages of the design process of an educational game, by exploring how the theory can be used as a framework for producing not only usable but also useful computer tools. The research also aimed to investigate how the theory could…

  12. [The teaching of social sciences in health: between practice and theory].

    PubMed

    Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2014-04-01

    The models of teaching social sciences and clinical practice are insufficient for the needs of practical-reflective teaching of social sciences applied to health. The scope of this article is to reflect on the challenges and perspectives of social science education for health professionals. In the 1950s the important movement bringing together social sciences and the field of health began, however weak credentials still prevail. This is due to the low professional status of social scientists in health and the ill-defined position of the social sciences professionals in the health field. It is also due to the scant importance attributed by students to the social sciences, the small number of professionals and the colonization of the social sciences by the biomedical culture in the health field. Thus, the professionals of social sciences applied to health are also faced with the need to build an identity, even after six decades of their presence in the field of health. This is because their ambivalent status has established them as a partial, incomplete and virtual presence, requiring a complex survival strategy in the nebulous area between social sciences and health.

  13. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  14. Students' Arguments on the Science and Religion Issue: The Example of Evolutionary Theory and Genesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basel, Nicolai; Harms, Ute; Prechtl, Helmut; Weiß, Thomas; Rothgangel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Treating creationism as a controversial topic within the science and religion issue in the science classroom has been widely discussed in the recent literature. Some researchers have proposed that this topic is best addressed by focusing on sociocognitive conflict. To prepare new learning opportunities for this approach, it is necessary to know…

  15. Crossing Borders in Literacy and Science Instruction: Perspectives on Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, E. Wendy

    2004-01-01

    This collection brings together the best minds in education to explore the literacy-science connection and to reduce the lack of understanding between the science and humanities communities. The articles cover a range of topics and perspectives, from quasitheoretical pieces and literature reviews to case studies and evaluations of particular…

  16. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  17. Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Leo

    1973-01-01

    Briefly describes two antagonistic learning theories: the Association Theory proposed by Skinner and the Field or Cognitive Theory supported by Piaget. Suggests the need for consistency in theoretical approach in the teaching of science at the college level. (JR)

  18. [Theories of evolution shaping Victorian anthropology. The science-politics of the X-Club, 1860-1872].

    PubMed

    Gondermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role that a group of evolutionists, the X-Club, played in the epistemic and institutional transformation of Victorian anthropology in the 1860s. It analyses how anthropology has been brought into line with the theory of evolution, which gained currency at the same time. The X-Club was a highly influential pressure group in the Victorian scientific community. It campaigned for the theory of evolution in several fields of the natural sciences and had a considerable influence on the modernization of the sciences. Yet, this club also intervened in the anthropological discourse of these years. The X-Club's meddling with anthropology led to the latter's evolutionary turn. The introduction of an evolutionary agenda into Victorian anthropology depended not only on the X-Club's theoretical contributions but also on the structural reformation of the discipline. Its campaigns also aimed at marginalizing the proponents of pre-evolutionary anthropology in its institutions and led to the foundation of a new organization in anthropology: The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Thus, evolutionary anthropology emerged in the 1860s also as the result of science-politicking rather than just from the transmission of evolutionary concepts through discourse.

  19. Utilizing History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) to Teach Physics: The Case of Electromagnetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Wei-Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Here the paper provides a historical and philosophical analysis of the development of electromagnetic theory in physics teaching for the benefit of scientific literacy. The analysis is described by the paradigms offered by Kuhn. A number of scientists' work in electromagnetic theory which is embedded in the tension between engaging in…

  20. Practice or Theory: Situating Science Teacher Preparation within a Context of Ecojustice Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Stacey A.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Theory is taught to preservice teachers from the moment they enter the education program until they graduate. While theory serves as the foundation in many teacher preparation courses, these future teachers must also understand the relationship it has to practice. The focus of this article is on the journey of one group of preservice secondary…

  1. The Marriage of Science and Spirit: Dynamic Systems Theory and the Development of Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupit, C. Glenn

    2007-01-01

    The adherence of traditional developmental theories to a linear paradigm is incompatible with the nature of "spirit". Dynamic Systems Theory (DST), a recent contributor to understanding child development, offers an alternative which avoids these paradigmatic limitations. Concepts of agency, "top-down" causality, emergence and…

  2. A Rational Reconstruction of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that was designed to develop a framework for examining the way in which chemistry textbooks describe the kinetic theory and related issues. The framework was developed by a rational reconstruction of the kinetic molecular theory of gases based on historians and philosophers of science. (Contains 102 references.)(Author/LRW)

  3. Multi-Touch Tablets, E-Books, and an Emerging Multi-Coding/Multi-Sensory Theory for Reading Science E-Textbooks: Considering the Struggling Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Paige, David D.; Rasinski, Timothy V.; Slough, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Pavio's Dual-Coding Theory (1991) and Mayer's Multimedia Principal (2000) form the foundation for proposing a multi-coding theory centered around Multi-Touch Tablets and the newest generation of e-textbooks to scaffold struggling readers in reading and learning from science textbooks. Using E. O. Wilson's "Life on Earth: An Introduction"…

  4. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  5. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    Recent advances in the neurosciences have begun to elucidate how some fundamental mechanisms of nervous system activity can explain human information processing and the acquisition of knowledge. Some of these findings are consistent with a cognitive view of constructivist models of learning and provide additional theoretical support for constructivist applications to science education reform. Current thought at the interface between neurocognitive research and constructivist philosophy is summarized here and discussed in a context of implications for scientific epistemology and conceptual change processes in science education.

  6. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marc S; Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G; Lakind, Davielle

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children's mental health in response to a long-standing call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an overemphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children's healthy development and for utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation's mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies.

  7. Implicit Theories of Creativity in Computer Science in the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Chaoying; Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    To study implicit concepts of creativity in computer science in the United States and mainland China, we first asked 308 Chinese computer scientists for adjectives that would describe a creative computer scientist. Computer scientists and non-computer scientists from China (N = 1069) and the United States (N = 971) then rated how well those…

  8. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  9. Learning Achievement Packages in Sciences-Biology: Cell Theory, Mitosis, Magnification, Wounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Juan D.

    This publication presents four science curriculum units designed to meet the learning problems of students with special language handicaps. The materials are written in both English and Spanish, and deal with topics in biology suitable for students in grades 7 through 11. All four units were classroom tested during 1970-1972 in the Calexico…

  10. Using Critical Race Theory to Analyze Science Teachers Culturally Responsive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-01-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its…

  11. The Tentativeness of Scientific Theories: Conceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Jasmine; Abdullah, Nabilah; Lim, Beh Kian

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of sound understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) in promoting scientific literacy among individuals has heightened the need to probe NOS conceptions among various groups. However, the nature of quantitative studies in gauging NOS understanding has left the understanding on few NOS aspects insufficiently informed. This paper aimed…

  12. Genetics Content in Introductory Biology Courses for Non-Science Majors: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hott, Adam M.; Huether, Carl A.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Christianson, Carol; Fowler, Robert; Bender, Harvey; Jenkins, John; Wysocki, Annette; Markle, Glenn; Karp, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Presents the recommendations of the Human Genetic Education Subcommittee of the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) on the development of introductory biology courses for non-science majors addressing the list of concepts including evolution, transmission, gene expression, gene regulation, and genetics and society. Used an online survey to…

  13. The Difficult Relationship between Theory and Practice in an In-Service Course for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ana Rivero; Ariza, Rafael Porlan

    2004-01-01

    We compare the content that was expected with what actually was put into practice in a course of ongoing education of secondary education (12-16 year olds) science teachers, and describe the most relevant problems that arose. We believe that the educational content--its nature, how it is organized and presented to the teacher participants, and so…

  14. Workshop on Cognitive Science from Cellular Mechanisms to Computational Theories (CS-2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    California,3620 McClintock Ave,Los Angeles 90089-1061,USA,LA,90089-1061 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Dr. Barbara A. Dosher (Professor, Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine) spoke on “Mechanisms and Modes of

  15. Cultural Studies of Science Education: Sociocultural Theory--Its Use and Interpretation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joanna; McDonald, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    In response to Stetsenko's [2008, "Cultural Studies of Science Education," 3] call for a more unified approach in sociocultural perspectives, this paper traces the origins of the use of sociocultural ideas in New Zealand from the 1970s to the present. Of those New Zealanders working from a sociocultural perspective who responded to our…

  16. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture.

  17. The Concept of Energy in Psychological Theory. Cognitive Science Program, Technical Report No. 86-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

    This paper describes a basic framework for integration of computational and energetic concepts in psychological theory. The framework is adapted from a general effort to understand the neural systems underlying cognition. The element of the cognitive system that provides the best basis for attempting to relate energetic and computational ideas is…

  18. The Science of Multiple Intelligences Theory: A Response to Lynn Waterhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard; Moran, Seana

    2006-01-01

    For a scholar, a fate worse than being criticized is being ignored. Waterhouse (2006) has done Howard Gardner the courtesy of reading much of the primary and secondary literature on multiple intelligences (MI) theory. Although the authors disagree with several of her interpretations and conclusions, we appreciate her efforts as well as the…

  19. Talking Science in an ESL Pre-K: Theory-Building with Realia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, Tim; Gainer, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    What is realia and theory-building? Tim Kinard and Jesse Gainer explain that when students explore using "realia," they are not just being exposed to abstract concepts or text on a page, they are using "real-life" objects to build understandings of the natural world while they builds vocabulary about it. Handling and discussing…

  20. A Sense of History: History of Science and the Teaching of Introductory Quantum Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Helge

    1992-01-01

    Based on the example of the history of the photoelectric effect as a case in teaching introductory quantum theory, it is argued that the dilemma between "historical truth" and "didactic usefulness" may be circumvented by focusing on a few, carefully selected case studies. The early introduction of the light-quantum is…

  1. Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemeyer, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…

  2. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South.

  3. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory

    PubMed Central

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p < 10−4), and that the outdoor-teaching has generally been perceived as more practical than teaching at the normal school context (p < 10−4), irrespective of gender or school culture. We are going to provide in-depth analyses of all quantitative findings with our qualitative data and thus explain the findings logically, with respect to the direction of the statistical interpretation, and substantially, with respect to the meaning of the discoveries. We conclude that outdoor programming appears to be a suitable tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  4. Making sense of shared sense-making in an inquiry-based science classroom: Toward a sociocultural theory of mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladewski, Barbara G.

    Despite considerable exploration of inquiry and reflection in the literatures of science education and teacher education/teacher professional development over the past century, few theoretical or analytical tools exist to characterize these processes within a naturalistic classroom context. In addition, little is known regarding possible developmental trajectories for inquiry or reflection---for teachers or students---as these processes develop within a classroom context over time. In the dissertation, I use a sociocultural lens to explore these issues with an eye to the ways in which teachers and students develop shared sense-making, rather than from the more traditional perspective of individual teacher activity or student learning. The study includes both theoretical and empirical components. Theoretically, I explore the elaborations of sociocultural theory needed to characterize teacher-student shared sense-making as it develops within a classroom context, and, in particular, the role of inquiry and reflection in that sense-making. I develop a sociocultural model of shared sense-making that attempts to represent the dialectic between the individual and the social, through an elaboration of existing sociocultural and psychological constructs, including Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and theory of mind. Using this model as an interpretive framework, I develop a case study that explores teacher-student shared sense-making within a middle-school science classroom across a year of scaffolded introduction to inquiry-based science instruction. The empirical study serves not only as a test case for the theoretical model, but also informs our understanding regarding possible developmental trajectories and important mechanisms supporting and constraining shared sense-making within inquiry-based science classrooms. Theoretical and empirical findings provide support for the idea that perspectival shifts---that is, shifts of point-of-view that alter relationships

  5. [Medical science and the human image--on the theory of medical tasks].

    PubMed

    Jenny, S

    1993-06-22

    Our science-determined medicine interprets the non-individual partial aspects of disease that are approachable by causal analytical thought; therefore, it becomes only then an art of healing when it is complemented by medical craftsmanship and philosophic reflection. Naturopathy perceives the individual as an open self-regulatory system whose innumerable mechanisms and strategies for maintenance of integrity have to be supported. In medical practise both concepts have always to be available concomitantly and and in equal rights, not only for repair of lesions but also for real healing.

  6. Developing a theory of clinical instructor identity using the experiences of medical laboratory science practitioners.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated medical laboratory science clinical instructors' beliefs about teaching and how they viewed themselves as teachers. The first phase of the study included an integrative literature review, which suggested that the development of teacher identity in school-based educators, and to a lesser extent higher education faculty, is dependent on four dimensions: personal factors, training factors, contextual factors, and reflective practice. The second phase of this study began qualitative inquiry into the ways that these participants described their teaching and professional identity. Interviews were conducted with medical laboratory science clinical instructors in order to gain an understanding of their perceptions of themselves as teachers. The data collected in this study indicate that this group of clinical instructors saw themselves as teachers who were responsible for providing students with technical skills needed to become competent practitioners and the theoretical foundation necessary to pass the national certification exam. The study participants also saw themselves as mentors who were responsible for passing along professional knowledge to the next generation of laboratory practitioners. During data analysis three themes emerged that represent aspects of teacher identity in clinical instructors: belief in one's teaching ability, desire to expand one's professional responsibilities, and reflection on one's teaching. The findings from this study may provide a foundation for future research designed to measure teacher identity in clinical instructors.

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Applications: An Inquiry into Atmospheric Science Teaching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebber, Paul J.

    2005-04-01

    Difficulties associated with the teaching of complex subjects such as the atmospheric sciences create obstacles to learning and lead to relatively high rates of student attrition. An exploration of the role of mismatches between student learning styles and that implicit in curricular design was conducted at the University of Wisconsin—Mil-waukee (UWM), with the objective of identifying methods for improving student learning and retention.Open-ended interviews were used to elicit the opinions of past and present students and faculty. These data are analyzed to meet the study objectives. Key findings include the following: attrition rates in the program are high, but consistent with published rates across the United States in engineering; the predominant learning styles of students and faculty diverge substantially; curricular design is consistent with faculty rather than student learning styles; among students, undergraduates show the largest negative responses to existing modes of operation and the most interest in change; faculty also show considerable discomfort with existing modes and substantial support for change, although their rationale for this support may differ from that of students; support for a radical reorganization of the curriculum toward a case-study-driven learning process is weak, particularly among undergraduates; increased emphasis of physical examples and case studies within the existing curricular framework is supported, both for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. Methods for addressing these limitations within atmospheric science curricula are presented.


  8. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G.; Lakind, Davielle

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children’s mental health in response to a longstanding call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools, and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an over-emphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children’s healthy development, and utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation’s mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies. PMID:26155972

  9. In-class examinations in college-level science: New theory, new practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Sheila; Raphael, Jacqueline B.

    1996-12-01

    Every faculty member knows that exams drive student behavior. Testing and grading are part of every course, but generally of lesser importance to faculty members than course content itself. Recently, instructional methods and pedagogy. But as issues of grade inflation, student attrition, accountability, and authentic assessment grow in importance, we see some interesting innovations in testing methods and some interesting innovations. The authors are publishing a collection of some of these as described in their own words, by faculty themselves. Two questions underlie the study: 1) why is it so difficult to change tests and testing traditions in college-level science and 2) will the enormous efforts underway to reform pedagogy and curriculum in these disciplines have any lasting effect if testing does not have a prominent place on the reform agenda?

  10. Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control. PMID:20966210

  11. Intentions of science teachers to use investigative teaching methods: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawley, Frank E., III

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of the theory of planned behavior for predicting the behavioral intentions of teachers enrolled in the Institute in Physical Science, an EESA, Title II program funded by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. In particular, the study investigated three determinants of teachers' behavioral intentions (BI) set forth in the theory of planned behavior, namely, attitude toward the behavior (AB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The behavior of interest in this study was the intention of teachers in grades 5/6 or 9/10 who were enrolled in the Institute to use 50% of the activities and investigations completed in the program with students they would teach during the next school year. Data were collected from 50 elementary and secondary teachers. Simple and hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the relative contributions of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (and their interactions) to the prediction of behavioral intention. Results of this study indicated that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control made significant contributions to the prediction of behavioral intention. Examination of the data blocked on external variables revealed attitude toward the behavior to be the single most important predictor of behavioral intention. Intent to perform the behavior appears to be totally under the control of most teachers, with little need for social support and with ample resources and sufficient opportunities available to perform the behavior.

  12. Guanxi, social capital theory and beyond: toward a globalized social science.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoying

    2013-06-01

    Western theoretical traditions can benefit from systematic engagement with non-Western concepts: This is shown through an analysis of the Chinese concept guanxi. After considering the general nature of guanxi, including its possible association with corrupt practices and its particular cultural characteristics, the paper goes on to identify the elements of its general form which have universal representation. The possibility of conceiving guanxi as a variant form of social capital is explored. This shows the way in which both the expressive and instrumentalized forms of guanxi indicate otherwise neglected aspects of social and economic relationships not always recognized and addressed by analogous terms current in social theory but which are none the less important for its advancement.

  13. Systems Science, Catastrophe Theory, and Sub-regional Climate Change: 5 Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickrey, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have performed 5 studies utilizing catastrophe theory to analyze several anthropogenic and broader biological factors in order to ascertain current and future climate changes for sub-regions generally characterized by the following: Appalachian Tennessee; South Southeastern Alaska; Sierra Nevada California; Ohio River Basin; North Central Illinois. Research to date has demonstrated a direct correlation to IPCC and external data sources; an ability to refine feedback predictions; and accuracy through modeling past-to-present structures. Further verification of process is being pursued. Should the data continue to register as verifiable, the finery will enable accurate analysis of current and future climate conditions in various sub-regions, with the model being replicable and distributable globally through web mechanisms for localized use. Analysis may then be employed as a driver for sub-regional mitigation and adaptation policy-making and programs.

  14. Change Theory for Accounting System Reform in Health Sector: A Case Study of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Mozhgan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Change theories provide an opportunity for organizational managers to plan, monitor and evaluate changes using a framework which enable them, among others, to show a fast response to environmental fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin’s change theory or not. Methods: This study which adopted a mixed methodology approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, was conducted in 2012. In the first phase of the study, 41 participants using purposive sampling and in the second phase, 32 affiliated units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) were selected as the study sample. Also, in phase one, we used face-to-face in-depth interviews (6 participants) and the quote method (35 participants) for data collection. We used a thematic framework analysis for analyzing data. In phase two, a questionnaire with a ten-point Likert scale was designed and then, data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, principal component and factorial analyses. Results: The results of phase one yielded a model consisting of four categories of superstructure, apparent infrastructure, hidden infrastructure and common factors. By linking all factors, totally, 12 components based on the quantitative results showed that the state of all components were not satisfactory at KUMS (5.06±2.16). Leadership and management; and technology components played the lowest and the greatest roles in implementing the accrual accounting system respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the unfreezing stage did not occur well and the components were immature, mainly because the emphasis was placed on superstructure components rather than the components of hidden infrastructure. The study suggests that a road map should be developed in the financial system based on Kurt Lewin’s change theory and the

  15. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  16. Theory, Modeling, Software and Hardware Development for Analytical and Computational Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Gerald W.; Clemons, Curtis B.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this Cooperative Agreement between the Computational Materials Laboratory (CML) of the Processing Science and Technology Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics at The University of Akron was in the areas of system development of the CML workstation environment, modeling of microgravity and earth-based material processing systems, and joint activities in laboratory projects. These efforts complement each other as the majority of the modeling work involves numerical computations to support laboratory investigations. Coordination and interaction between the modelers, system analysts, and laboratory personnel are essential toward providing the most effective simulations and communication of the simulation results. Toward these means, The University of Akron personnel involved in the agreement worked at the Applied Mathematics Research Laboratory (AMRL) in the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics while maintaining a close relationship with the personnel of the Computational Materials Laboratory at GRC. Network communication between both sites has been established. A summary of the projects we undertook during the time period 9/1/03 - 6/30/04 is included.

  17. Inverse theory resolution analysis in planning radio science gravity investigations of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganse, A.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of an icy satellite's interior relates fundamentally to its composition, thermal structure, formation and evolution history, and prospects for supporting life. Gravity measurements via radio Doppler information during spacecraft flybys constitute an important tool to infer gross interior structure. Liquid water and ice layers have previously been inferred for the interiors of Jupiter's icy satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto on the basis of magnetic field measurements by the Galileo probe. On Europa and Callisto induced magnetic field signatures measured by the Galileo probe provided strong evidence for an ionic aqueous ocean. Among the chief goals of the proposed Europa Clipper mission in returning to Europa is characterizing the structure of the moon's icy shell. A geophysical inverse theory resolution analysis can be calculated at the pre-measurement mission planning stage, contributing planning considerations from the point of view of the search for mass anomalies in the ice shell (meteorites or diapiric upwellings) or near the H2O/rock interface (seamounts). The analysis allows us to assess the location-varying resolution of an icy moon's interior density anomaly distribution that can be estimated from radio Doppler measurements. It considers the tradeoff between the resolution of the estimated density anomaly distribution and its estimation uncertainty, and investigates issues in distinguishing between ocean anomalies (e.g., seamounts) and mass anomalies within or near the surface of the ice layer. We apply the resolution analysis to proposed Europa Clipper trajectories and past Galileo spacecraft trajectories about Europa and Ganymede.

  18. The genetics of loneliness: linking evolutionary theory to genome-wide genetics, epigenetics, and social science.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Luc; van Roekel, Eeske; Verhagen, Maaike; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Maes, Marlies; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-03-01

    As a complex trait, loneliness is likely to be influenced by the interplay of numerous genetic and environmental factors. Studies in behavioral genetics indicate that loneliness has a sizable degree of heritability. Candidate-gene and gene-expression studies have pointed to several genes related to neurotransmitters and the immune system. The notion that these genes are related to loneliness is compatible with the basic tenets of the evolutionary theory of loneliness. Research on gene-environment interactions indicates that social-environmental factors (e.g., low social support) may have a more pronounced effect and lead to higher levels of loneliness if individuals carry the sensitive variant of these candidate genes. Currently, there is no extant research on loneliness based on genome-wide association studies, gene-environment-interaction studies, or studies in epigenetics. Such studies would allow researchers to identify networks of genes that contribute to loneliness. The contribution of genetics to loneliness research will become stronger when genome-wide genetics and epigenetics are integrated and used along with well-established methods in psychology to analyze the complex process of gene-environment interplay.

  19. Androgens and Androgen Derivatives: Science, Myths, and Theories: Explored From a Special Operations Perspective.

    PubMed

    Givens, Melissa L; Deuster, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Androgen use outside of legitimate medical therapy is a perceived concern that is drawing attention across military and specifically Special Operations Forces (SOF) communities. For leadership and the medical community to properly address the issue and relate to those individuals who are using or considering use, it will be crucial to understand the scope of the problem. Limited data suggest that the prevalence of androgen use may be increasing, and inferences made from the scientific literature suggest that SOF may be a population of concern. While risks of androgen use are well known, there are little data specific to military performance that can be applied to a rigorous risk:benefit analysis, allowing myths and poorly supported theories to perpetuate within the community. Further efforts to define the potential benefits balanced against the short- and long-term risks should be undertaken. Providers within the SOF community should arm themselves with information to engage androgen users and leadership in meaningful discussion regarding androgen use.

  20. Understanding Design Research-Practice Partnerships in Context and Time: Why Learning Sciences Scholars Should Learn from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Approaches to Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, D. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Several points of contrast are highlighted between design-based research (DBR) as often practiced within the learning sciences and design partnerships inspired by cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). It is argued that learning scientists can improve their work by learning from CHAT-inspired DBR in 4 particular ways: (a) by recognizing the…

  1. Autonomy and Self-Determination Theory in Different Contexts: A Comparison of Middle School Science Teachers' Motivation and Instruction in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and…

  2. Integrating Scientific Methods and Knowledge into the Teaching of Newton's Theory of Gravitation: An Instructional Sequence for Teachers' and Students' Nature of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The availability of teaching units on the nature of science (NOS) can reinforce classroom instruction in the subject, taking into account the related deficiencies in textbook material and teacher training. We give a sequence of teaching units in which the teaching of Newton's gravitational theory is used as a basis for reflecting on the…

  3. FY2014 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Theory & Simulation Performance Target, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Guoyong; Budny, Robert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Poli, Francesca; Chen, Yang; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong; Spong, Don; Bass, Eric; Waltz, Ron

    2014-10-14

    We report here the work done for the FY14 OFES Theory Performance Target as given below: "Understanding alpha particle confinement in ITER, the world's first burning plasma experiment, is a key priority for the fusion program. In FY 2014, determine linear instability trends and thresholds of energetic particle-driven shear Alfven eigenmodes in ITER for a range of parameters and profiles using a set of complementary simulation models (gyrokinetic, hybrid, and gyrofluid). Carry out initial nonlinear simulations to assess the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport". In the past year (FY14), a systematic study of the alpha-driven Alfven modes in ITER has been carried out jointly by researchers from six institutions involving seven codes including the transport simulation code TRANSP (R. Budny and F. Poli, PPPL), three gyrokinetic codes: GEM (Y. Chen, Univ. of Colorado), GTC (J. McClenaghan, Z. Lin, UCI), and GYRO (E. Bass, R. Waltz, UCSD/GA), the hybrid code M3D-K (G.Y. Fu, PPPL), the gyro-fluid code TAEFL (D. Spong, ORNL), and the linear kinetic stability code NOVA-K (N. Gorelenkov, PPPL). A range of ITER parameters and profiles are specified by TRANSP simulation of a hybrid scenario case and a steady-state scenario case. Based on the specified ITER equilibria linear stability calculations are done to determine the stability boundary of alpha-driven high-n TAEs using the five initial value codes (GEM, GTC, GYRO, M3D-K, and TAEFL) and the kinetic stability code (NOVA-K). Both the effects of alpha particles and beam ions have been considered. Finally, the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport have been explored using GEM and M3D-K.

  4. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-03-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  5. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Helio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula--and specially, in the curricula of science teachers--is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John…

  6. The HIV prevention cascade: integrating theories of epidemiological, behavioural, and social science into programme design and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hallett, Timothy B; Johnson, Saul; Kapiga, Saidi; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Dallabetta, Gina; Garnett, Geoff P

    2016-07-01

    Theories of epidemiology, health behaviour, and social science have changed the understanding of HIV prevention in the past three decades. The HIV prevention cascade is emerging as a new approach to guide the design and monitoring of HIV prevention programmes in a way that integrates these multiple perspectives. This approach recognises that translating the efficacy of direct mechanisms that mediate HIV prevention (including prevention products, procedures, and risk-reduction behaviours) into population-level effects requires interventions that increase coverage. An HIV prevention cascade approach suggests that high coverage can be achieved by targeting three key components: demand-side interventions that improve risk perception and awareness and acceptability of prevention approaches; supply-side interventions that make prevention products and procedures more accessible and available; and adherence interventions that support ongoing adoption of prevention behaviours, including those that do and do not involve prevention products. Programmes need to develop delivery platforms that ensure these interventions reach target populations, to shape the policy environment so that it facilitates implementation at scale with high quality and intensity, and to monitor the programme with indicators along the cascade.

  7. A cultural historical activity theory perspective to understand preservice science teachers' reflections on and tensions during a microteaching experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher education program. During this secondary science teaching methods course, every pair of preservice teachers engaged in 20 minute microteaching activity with 3-5 middle school students. The microteaching was videotaped, and the teachers subsequently provided voice-over reflections on a second audio track. Transcriptions of the microteaching events were analyzed through the formation of event maps showing the phases of activity and the organizational sequence of actions. Event maps were used to investigate the focus of preservice teachers' reflections. The results showed that while learning from their microteaching, preservice teachers focused primarily on the mediating artifacts and gave least attention to the larger teaching community surrounding these activities. Use of CHAT helped to identify challenges in different elements of the microteaching activity. The study contributes to how reflective practice can be enhanced through attention to the social and cultural dimensions of the teaching.

  8. Integrating Scientific Methods and Knowledge into the Teaching of Newton's Theory of Gravitation: An Instructional Sequence for Teachers' and Students' Nature of Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develaki, Maria

    2012-06-01

    The availability of teaching units on the nature of science (NOS) can reinforce classroom instruction in the subject, taking into account the related deficiencies in textbook material and teacher training. We give a sequence of teaching units in which the teaching of Newton's gravitational theory is used as a basis for reflecting on the fundamental factors that enter into the cognitive and evaluative processes of science, such as creativity, empirical data, theorising, substantiating and modelling tactics. Distinguishing phases in the evolution of a theory (initial conception and formation, testing, scope and limits of the theory) helps show how the importance of these factors varies from phase to phase, while they continue to interact throughout the whole process. Our concept of how to teach NOS is based on the introduction of such special units, containing direct instruction in NOS elements incorporated into curricular science content, thus giving an initial theoretical basis with which epistemological points of other course material can be correlated during the usual classroom teaching of the subject throughout the school year. The sequence is presented in the form of teaching units that can also be used in teachers' NOS education, extended in this case by more explicit instruction in basic philosophical views of the nature of science and how they relate to and impact on teaching.

  9. Determinants of middle school students' intention to enroll in a high school science course: An application of the theory of reasoned action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawley, Frank E., III; Coe, Annette S.

    The determinants of intentions to enroll in a high school science course were investigated, using the theory of reasoned action, among earth science students enrolled in a middle school located in a middle-income, suburban community in central Texas. The sample consisted of 5 of 14 eighth-grade earth science classes, randomly selected for this study. Classes contained Caucasian and minority students, male and female, of differing science abilities who were grouped according to general academic abilities - basic, average, and gifted and talented. The prediction of behavioral intention of sample participants was tested using four external variables, attitude, and subjective norm (Direct-Full Effects Model), attitude and subjective norm alone (Direct-Reduced Effects Model), and disaggregated data on attitude and subjective norm (Indirect Effects Model). Results of the study revealed attitude and subjective norm to be the sole predictors of behavioral intention for the aggregated data, but to be differentially effective for groups formed on the basis of sex, ethnicity, general ability, and science ability. Evidence is presented to show that the relative contributions of attitude and subjective norm to the prediction of behavioral intention varies among students depending upon their sex, ethnicity, general ability, and science ability. Results of the study are discussed in terms of increasing the enrollment of all students in elective science courses.

  10. The determinants of female junior high school students' intentions to enroll in elective physical science courses in high school: Testing the applicability of the theory of reasoned action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Data were collected from female junior high school students (N=94) to identify the determinants of their intentions to enroll in at least one elective physical science course (e.g., physical science, chemistry physics) in high school. The model used in the study was Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action. According to the model it is supposed that the intention to perform a certain behavior is a function of the weighted attitude toward performing the behavior and the weighted subjective norm. The effects of external variables (e.g., science grades, academic ability) on females' intentions to enroll in at least one elective physical science course in high school are mediated by the model's theoretical constructs. The findings provide support for several hypotheses derived from the model. The females' intentions to enroll in at least one elective physical science course in high school were found to be a function of both attitude toward performing the behavior and subjective norm. Attitude toward performing the behavior and subjective norm, in combination, were found to predict behavioral intention with a high degree of accuracy. Attitude toward performing the behavior was also found to carry more weight than subjective norm in the multiple regression on behavioral intention. In contrast, academic ability, science grades, and attitude toward science failed to predict behavioral intentions, just as they were unrelated to the females' attitudes toward performing the behavior and subjective norms.

  11. Predicting and Understanding Korean High School Students' Science Track Choice: Testing the Theory of Reasoned Action by Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myeong, Jeon-ok; Crawley, Frank E.

    The purpose of a study was to provide some practical and theoretical suggestions to science educators in the United States and Korea who are struggling to attract more students to study science and pursue science-related careers. Two research questions were addressed: (1) What are the determinants of Korean high-school students' track choice…

  12. Astrophysical materials science: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashcroft, N. W.

    1978-01-01

    Research papers of the discoveries and work carried out over the past six or so years are presented. Hydrogen and helium constitute by far the most abundant of the elements and it is no accident that the research has focussed heavily on these elements in their condensed forms, both as pure substances and in mixtures. The research has combined the fundamental with the pragmatic.

  13. The place of practical wisdom in science education: what can be learned from Aristotelian ethics and a virtue-based theory of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salloum, Sara

    2016-04-01

    This conceptual paper aims to characterize science teachers' practical knowledge utilizing a virtue-based theory of knowledge and the Aristotelian notion of phronesis/practical wisdom. The article argues that a greater understanding of the concept of phronesis and its relevance to science education would enrich our understandings of teacher knowledge, its development, and consequently models of teacher education. Views of teacher knowledge presented in this paper are informed by philosophical literature that questions normative views of knowledge and argues for a virtue-based epistemology rather than a belief-based one. The paper first outlines general features of phronesis/practical wisdom. Later, a virtue-based view of knowledge is described. A virtue-based view binds knowledge with moral concepts and suggests that knowledge development is motivated by intellectual virtues such as intellectual sobriety, perseverance, fairness, and humility. A virtue-based theory of knowledge gives prominence to the virtue of phronesis/practical wisdom, whose primary function is to mediate among virtues and theoretical knowledge into a line of action that serves human goods. The role of phronesis and its relevance to teaching science are explained accordingly. I also discuss differences among various characterizations of practical knowledge in science education and a virtue-based characterization. Finally, implications and further questions for teacher education are presented.

  14. Theorizing Information for Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether information science has a theory of information. Highlights include guides to information and its theory; constructivism; information outside information science; process theories; cognitive views of information; measuring information; meaning; and misinformation. (Contains 89 references.) (LRW)

  15. To curve or not to curve? The effect of college science grading policies on implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structures, and self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, James M.

    There is currently a shortage of students graduating with STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) degrees, particularly women and students of color. Approximately half of students who begin a STEM major eventually switch out. Many switchers cite the competitiveness, grading curves, and weed-out culture of introductory STEM classes as reasons for the switch. Variables known to influence resilience include a student's implicit theory of intelligence and achievement goal orientation. Incremental theory (belief that intelligence is malleable) and mastery goals (pursuit of increased competence) are more adaptive in challenging classroom contexts. This dissertation investigates the role that college science grading policies and messages about the importance of effort play in shaping both implicit theories and achievement goal orientation. College students (N = 425) were randomly assigned to read one of three grading scenarios: (1) a "mastery" scenario, which used criterion-referenced grading, permitted tests to be retaken, and included a strong effort message; (2) a "norm" scenario, which used norm-referenced grading (grading on the curve); or (3) an "effort" scenario, which combined a strong effort message with the norm-referenced policies. The dependent variables included implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy. A different sample of students (N = 15) were randomly assigned a scenario to read, asked to verbalize their thoughts, and responded to questions in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that students reading the mastery scenario were more likely to endorse an incremental theory of intelligence, perceived greater mastery goal structure, and had higher self-efficacy. The effort message had no effect on self-efficacy, implicit theory, and most of the goal structure measures. The interviews revealed that it was the retake policy in the mastery scenario and the competitive atmosphere in the norm

  16. The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This

  17. Conference on Operator Theory, Wavelet Theory and Control Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    Bourbaki 662 (1985-1986). [9] Meyer, Y., Ondelettes et operateurs I, Hermann editeurs des sciences et des arts, 1990. [10] Natanson, I. P., Theory of...OPERATOR THEORY , WAVELET THEORY & CONTROL THEORY (U)F 6. AUTHOR(S) 2304/ES Professor Xingde Dai F49620-93-1-0180 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...1STRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED UTL 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The conference on Interaction Between Operator Theory , Wavelet Theory and Control Theory

  18. Atheoretical Nature of the National Science Education Standards: There's More Theory Than We Think--A Response to Thomas Shiland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to address concerns Shiland raised in a prior article published in Science Education 1998, 82(5), 615-617 regarding the National Science Education Standards (NSES). Discusses the failures of NSES and the consequences related to the cognitive abilities of teachers and students. (Contains 20 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Educacion en Ciencia, Tecnologia y Sociedad: Teoria y Practica (Education in Science, Technology, and Society: Theory and Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena Borrero, Margarita, Ed.

    This volume compiles Spanish translations of seven articles on different aspects of Science, Technology and Society Education. The papers, originally written in English, were used during the first in-service training seminar for high school science teachers, which took place in Mayaguez under (Puerto Rico) joint sponsorship of the National…

  20. Linguistics from the Perspective of the Theory of Models in Empirical Sciences: From Formal to Corpus Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinska, Teresa; Zielinska, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine language from the perspective of models of empirical sciences, which discipline studies the relationship between reality, models, and formalisms. Such a perspective allows one to notice that linguistics approached within the classical framework share a number of problems with other experimental sciences studied initially…

  1. Determinants of Physical Science Teachers' Intentions to Use Investigative Teaching Methods: A Test of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Frank E.

    Teachers participating in this study were enrolled in one of two courses developed for high school teachers of physical science. The courses were offered as part of the Summer Institute in Science, an Education for Economic Security Act Title II program funded by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Behavioral intention, attitude toward…

  2. "Information at Their Hands": Applying Sociocultural Theory to an Analysis of the Pedagogical Moves of Pre-Service Science Teachers during a Science Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards (NSES) state that students must "experience scientific inquiry directly to gain a deep understanding of its characteristics" (Olson & Loucks-Horsley, 2000, p. 14). The standards also emphasize the use of technology to help students collect, organize, analyze, interpret and present data in ways…

  3. Scuba Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an integrated unit on scuba science. Studies oxygen in kinetic theory, Boyle's law, Charles's law, Dalton's law, human circulatory and respiratory systems, and diving dangers such as decompression sickness. (YDS)

  4. Increasing Bellevue School District's elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science: Using ideas from contemporary learning theory to inform professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Tracy Anne

    This Capstone project examined how leaders in the Bellevue School District can increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science through the use of professional learning activities that are grounded in ideas from human learning theory. A framework for professional development was constructed and from that framework, a set of professional learning activities were developed as a means to support teacher learning while project participants piloted new curriculum called the Isopod Habitat Challenge. Teachers in the project increased their understanding of the learning theory principles of preconceptions and metacognition. Teachers did not increase their understanding of the principle of learning with understanding, although they did articulate the significance of engaging children in student-led inquiry cycles. Data from the curriculum revision and professional development project coupled with ideas from learning theory, cognition and policy implementation, and learning community literatures suggest Bellevue's leaders can encourage peer-to-peer interaction, link professional development to teachers' daily practice, and capitalize on technology as ways to increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science. These lessons also have significance for supporting teacher learning and efficacy in other subject areas and at other levels in the system.

  5. Thought Experiments in the Theory of Relativity and in Quantum Mechanics: Their Presence in Textbooks and in Popular Science Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2007-01-01

    This work investigates the presence of Thought Experiments (TEs) which refer to the theory of relativity and to quantum mechanics in physics textbooks and in books popularizing physics theories. A further point of investigation is whether TEs--as presented in popular physics books--can be used as an introduction to familiarize secondary school…

  6. A Theory of Instruction: Using the Learning Cycle To Teach Science Concepts and Thinking Skills. NARST Monograph, Number One, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; And Others

    This monograph describes the origins of the learning cycle, related research, and how future research might be conducted to further the understanding of theories of instruction. A wide range of information is synthesized, producing a coherent framework for better understanding the theory of the learning cycle. The monograph identifies various…

  7. Personalizing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielowich, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers are aware of many social issues that intersect with science. These socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are "open-ended problems without clear-cut solutions [that] can be informed by scientific principles, theories, and data, but…cannot be fully determined by [them]" (Sadler 2011, p. 4). This article describes the SSI lessons…

  8. Foundations of an Afrocentric Social Science: Implications for Curriculum-Building, Theory, and Research In Black Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmes, Clovis E.

    1981-01-01

    Considers Black Studies as a vital social science, and recommends Afrocentrism as the guiding principle for Black Studies. Identifies the mission of Afrocentrism discipline as a solution to the cultural problems of the African diaspora. (DA)

  9. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science. Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2015-03-12

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems.

  10. The ABCs of an evolutionary education science: The academic, behavioral, and cultural implications of an evolutionary approach to education theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Rick, Jr.

    Calls for improving research-informed policy in education are everywhere. Yet, while there is an increasing trend towards science-based practice, there remains little agreement over which of the sciences to consult and how to organize a collective effort between them. What Education lacks is a general theoretical framework through which policies can be constructed, implemented, and assessed. This dissertation submits that evolutionary theory can provide a suitable framework for coordinating educational policies and practice, and can provide the entire field of education with a clearer sense of how to better manage the learning environment. This dissertation explores two broad paths that outline the conceptual foundations for an Evolutionary Education Science: "Teaching Evolution" and "Using Evolution to Teach." Chapter 1 introduces both of these themes. After describing why evolutionary science is best suited for organizing education research and practice, Chapter 1 proceeds to "teach" an overview of the "evolutionary toolkit"---the mechanisms and principles that underlie the modern evolutionary perspective. The chapter then employs the "toolkit" in examining education from an evolutionary perspective, outlining the evolutionary precepts that can guide theorizing and research in education, describing how educators can "use evolution to teach.". Chapters 2-4 expand on this second theme. Chapters 2 and 3 describe an education program for at-risk 9th and 10th grade students, the Regents Academy, designed entirely with evolutionary principles in mind. The program was rigorously assessed in a randomized control design and has demonstrated success at improving students' academic performance (Chapter 2) and social & behavioral development (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 examines current teaching strategies that underlie effective curriculum-instruction-assessment practices and proposes a framework for organizing successful, evidence-based strategies for neural

  11. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  12. Exploring high school students' use of theory and evidence in an everyday context: the role of scientific thinking in environmental science decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was used to assess the participants' conceptual knowledge. The reasoning mode was assessed using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results showed that, although some weak to moderate associations were found between conceptual organization in memory and reasoning modes, the students' ability to incorporate theory and evidence was in general inadequate. It was also found that students' reasoning modes were consistent with their epistemological perspectives. Moreover, male and female students appear to have different reasoning approaches.

  13. Theory building and modeling in a sinking and floating unit: a case study of third and fourth grade students' developing epistemologies of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990) and employs discourse analytic methods in order to examine epistemological development in the dynamic swirl of talk, text and other representations, and social interaction in the classroom. In order to examine students' epistemological development, we draw on the work of Driver et al. (1996) who found that students' use of "theory" falls into three general categories: (1) a descriptive state, or phenomenon-based reasoning, where ideas are not different from experiments, (2) relation-based reasoning, where students come to believe that one can find ultimate proof for particular theories, and (3) model-based reasoning, where students recognize that theories might need to be changed in light of new evidence. Through following students across the unit and examining changes in student participation within discussions and analyzing the quality and content of these discussions, we argue that they are developing a powerful epistemology of science that is more commensurate with the work of actual scientists.

  14. Teaching Planetary Sciences with the Master in Space Science and Technology at Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU: Theory and Practice works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.

    2012-10-01

    The Master in Space Science and Technology is a postgraduate course at the Universidad del País Vasco in Spain (http://www.ehu.es/aula-espazio/master.html). It has two elective itineraries on space studies: scientific and technological. The scientific branch is intended for students aiming to access the PhD doctorate program in different areas of space science, among them the research of the solar system bodies. The theoretical foundations for the solar system studies are basically treated in four related matters: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics of the Solar System, Planetary Atmospheres, and Image Processing and Data Analysis. The practical part is developed on the one hand by analyzing planetary images obtained by different spacecrafts from public archives (e. g. PDS), and on the other hand from observations obtained by the students employing the 50 cm aperture telescope and other smaller telescopes from the Aula EspaZio Gela Observatory at the Engineering Faculty. We present the scheme of the practice works realized at the telescope to get images of the planets in different wavelengths pursuing to study the following aspects of Planetary Atmospheres: (1) Data acquisition; (2) Measurements of cloud motions to derive winds; (3) Measurement of the upper cloud reflectivity at the different wavelengths and position in the disk to retrieve the upper cloud properties and vertical structure. The theoretical foundations accompanying these practices are then introduced: atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, and the radiative transfer problem. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Departamento de Promoción Económica of Diputación Foral Bizkaia through a grant to Aula EspaZio Gela at E.T.S. Ingeniería (Bilbao, Spain).

  15. The Big Bang Theory--Coping with Multi-Religious Beliefs in the Super-Diverse Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2013-01-01

    Large urban schools have to cope with a "super-diverse" population with a multireligious background in their classrooms. The job of the science teacher within this environment requires an ultra-sensitive pedagogical approach, and a deeper understanding of students' backgrounds and of scientific epistemology. Teachers must create a safe…

  16. Psychological Science and Religious Education in a Devout University: The Case of Pain Overlap Theory and the Talmud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnall, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Educators employed in devoutly religious institutions often teach students who view even their secular higher education through a uniquely religious lens. Based on his own experiences teaching psychological science at a Jewish university, the author suggests enhancing student interest and enthusiasm by wedding secular curricula with religious…

  17. Teaching Science in Diverse Settings: Marginalized Discourses and Classroom Practice. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Angela Calabrese, Ed.; Osborne, Margery D., Ed.

    The essays in this book draw from current debates concerning schooling and the need for liberatory education; the social construction of science and identity; and systems of race, class, and gender oppression and domination. These works aim to pose such questions as: (1) How can we shape practice and curriculum to address the needs of diverse…

  18. "I feel smart": The dynamic interaction between three learning theories, reading skills and conceptual understandings in an eighth-grade science action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, Kim Renee

    The long-term goal of this study was to increase the researcher's knowledge in curriculum content, curriculum design, and implementation, as well as teaching methodologies in the content areas for urban African American middle school students. The purpose of this specific study was to develop, implement and evaluate a reading in the content areas science curriculum designed to increase conceptual abilities, reading skills, and individual learning for eighth grade-students in urban schools. The research question that drove the goal and purpose of this study was as follows: How does the theory and practice of accelerated learning, multiple intelligences, and brain-based learning integrated with specific components of reading in the content area impact urban, middle school African American students' conceptual understanding of eighth-grade science? The student participants in this study were 16 African American students in the eighth grade who had below-grade reading achievement (third-grade level on district standardized tests), who were overage for middle school, yet still in the eighth grade, and who had failed the district's eighth grade science curriculum. This was an action-oriented research study that utilized a mixed methodology of qualitative and quantitative data collection. The quantitative data collection consisted of pre and post tests, surveys with yes/no responses, and graphs. The qualitative data collection consisted of surveys with written responses, and a focus group. The major finding from this study was that the dynamic interaction of the theories (accelerated learning, multiple intelligences, and brain-based learning integrated with specific components of reading in the content area) put into practice through the Michigan Framework Curriculum had a significant impact on student learning as evidenced by the MAT-7 standardized test scores. Qualitative findings indicated that this dynamic interaction of theories put into practice worked to create a

  19. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    PubMed

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: The Illustrated Wavelet Transform Handbook: Introductory Theory and Applications in Science, Engineering, Medicine and Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, J.; Kingsbury, N. G.

    2004-02-01

    This book provides an overview of the theory and practice of continuous and discrete wavelet transforms. Divided into seven chapters, the first three chapters of the book are introductory, describing the various forms of the wavelet transform and their computation, while the remaining chapters are devoted to applications in fluids, engineering, medicine and miscellaneous areas. Each chapter is well introduced, with suitable examples to demonstrate key concepts. Illustrations are included where appropriate, thus adding a visual dimension to the text. A noteworthy feature is the inclusion, at the end of each chapter, of a list of further resources from the academic literature which the interested reader can consult. The first chapter is purely an introduction to the text. The treatment of wavelet transforms begins in the second chapter, with the definition of what a wavelet is. The chapter continues by defining the continuous wavelet transform and its inverse and a description of how it may be used to interrogate signals. The continuous wavelet transform is then compared to the short-time Fourier transform. Energy and power spectra with respect to scale are also discussed and linked to their frequency counterparts. Towards the end of the chapter, the two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is introduced. Examples of how the continuous wavelet transform is computed using the Mexican hat and Morlet wavelets are provided throughout. The third chapter introduces the discrete wavelet transform, with its distinction from the discretized continuous wavelet transform having been made clear at the end of the second chapter. In the first half of the chapter, the logarithmic discretization of the wavelet function is described, leading to a discussion of dyadic grid scaling, frames, orthogonal and orthonormal bases, scaling functions and multiresolution representation. The fast wavelet transform is introduced and its computation is illustrated with an example using the Haar

  1. Applying robust control theory to solve problems in bio-medical sciences: study of an apoptotic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, M.; Becerra, V. M.; Hadjiloucas, S.

    2014-03-01

    Biological models of an apoptotic process are studied using models describing a system of differential equations derived from reaction kinetics information. The mathematical model is re-formulated in a state-space robust control theory framework where parametric and dynamic uncertainty can be modelled to account for variations naturally occurring in biological processes. We propose to handle the nonlinearities using neural networks.

  2. Learning about a Fish from an ANT: Actor Network Theory and Science Education in the Postgenomic Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by…

  3. Network science and the human brain: Using graph theory to understand the brain and one of its hubs, the amygdala, in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mears, David; Pollard, Harvey B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 15 years, the emerging field of network science has revealed the key features of brain networks, which include small-world topology, the presence of highly connected hubs, and hierarchical modularity. The value of network studies of the brain is underscored by the range of network alterations that have been identified in neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and many others. Here we briefly summarize the concepts of graph theory that are used to quantify network properties and describe common experimental approaches for analysis of brain networks of structural and functional connectivity. These range from tract tracing to functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, electroencephalography, and magnetoencephalography. We then summarize the major findings from the application of graph theory to nervous systems ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to more complex primate brains, including man. Focusing, then, on studies involving the amygdala, a brain region that has attracted intense interest as a center for emotional processing, fear, and motivation, we discuss the features of the amygdala in brain networks for fear conditioning and emotional perception. Finally, to highlight the utility of graph theory for studying dysfunction of the amygdala in mental illness, we review data with regard to changes in the hub properties of the amygdala in brain networks of patients with depression. We suggest that network studies of the human brain may serve to focus attention on regions and connections that act as principal drivers and controllers of brain function in health and disease.

  4. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  5. Graph Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2005-12-27

    Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

  6. Revolutionary Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  7. Revolutionary Science.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  8. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  9. What is science?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrake, D.L.; Elfner, L.E.; Hummon, W.; Janson, R.W.; Free, M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2000 The Ohio Academy of Science published its definition of "Science." Response to this definition led the Academy to produce a position paper entitled What is Science? The Academy officially adopted the position paper version of What is Science?, http: //www.ohiosci.org/ Whatisscience.pdf, at the April 2004 Ohio Academy of Science Annual Meeting. Response to this fact sheet demonstrated a need to further expand this document. Thus, this expanded version builds on the April 2004 position paper, What is Science? This paper clarifies what is science, the scientific method, a scientific hypothesis, a scientific theory, the importance of science, and what is not science.

  10. Report from the Committee of Visitors on its Review of the Processes and Procedures used to Manage the Theory and Computations Program, Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-03-01

    A Committee of Visitors (COV) was formed to review the procedures used by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences to manage its Theory and Computations program. The COV was pleased to conclude that the research portfolio supported by the OFES Theory and Computations Program was of very high quality. The Program supports research programs at universities, research industries, and national laboratories that are well regarded internationally and address questions of high relevance to the DOE. A major change in the management of the Theory and Computations program over the past few years has been the introduction of a system of comparative peer review to guide the OFES Theory Team in selecting proposals for funding. The COV was impressed with the success of OFES in its implementation of comparative peer review and with the quality of the reviewers chosen by the OFES Theory Team. The COV concluded that the competitive peer review process has improved steadily over the three years that it has been in effect and that it has improved both the fairness and accountability of the proposal review process. While the COV commends OFES in its implementation of comparative review, the COV offers the following recommendations in the hope that they will further improve the comparative peer review process: The OFES should improve the consistency of peer reviews. We recommend adoption of a “results-oriented” scoring system in their guidelines to referees (see Appendix II), a greater use of review panels, and a standard format for proposals; The OFES should further improve the procedures and documentation for proposal handling. We recommend that the “folders” documenting funding decisions contain all the input from all of the reviewers, that OFES document their rationale for funding decisions which are at variance with the recommendation of the peer reviewers, and that OFES provide a Summary Sheet within each folder; The OFES should better communicate the procedures used to

  11. Earth Science, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin D.; Enochs, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that the teaching of earth science is largely neglected in the elementary science curriculum. Provides examples of how more instruction in the earth sciences at all levels can enhance decision-making skills. Discusses the relationship between various learning theories and certain instructional strategies in earth science. (TW)

  12. The Science of Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Lynn Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the changing nature of mathematics. Describes how computers, applications, and cross-fertilization have produced new methods, theories, and models in the mathematical sciences transforming it into a powerful collection of tools for science. (RT)

  13. National Academy of Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Roth applied economic theories to the kidney donor dilemma to save lives and cut medical costs. Read ... Forum Climate Choices Koshland Science Museum Exhibitions and Cultural Programs Distinctive Voices Lecture Series Science & Entertainment Exchange ...

  14. Science Education Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the nature of science; (2) Ausubel's learning theory and its application to introductory science; and (3) mathematics and physics instruction. Outlines a checklist approach to Certificate of Extended Education (CSE) practical assessment in biology. (JN)

  15. Predicting and understanding Korean high school students' science-track choice: Testing the theory of reasoned action by structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myeong, Jeon-Ok; Crawley, Frank E.

    The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) was used to predict and understand Korean high school students' track choice for college entrance. First-year high school students (N = 665) from four representative regions of Korea participated in the study. The survey instruments were questionnaires developed according to the guidelines of the TRA. The target behavior of interest in this study was Korean students' choice of the science track when they completed the track application forms during the first year of high school. Predictors included TRA model and external variables. Multiple regression and the structural equation modeling with LISREL (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1986) were used to analyze the data. The TRA was found to be applicable for understanding and predicting track choice, with minor modifications. Subjective norm was found to exert a direct influence on personal beliefs and the target behavior.

  16. Predicting who will major in a science discipline: Expectancy-value theory as part of an ecological model for studying academic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullins, Ellen S.; Hernandez, Delia; Fuller, Carol; Shiro Tashiro, Jay

    Research on factors that shape recruitment and retention in undergraduate science majors currently is highly fragmented and in need of an integrative research framework. Such a framework should incorporate analyses of the various levels of organization that characterize academic communities (i.e., the broad institutional level, the departmental level, and the student level), and should also provide ways to study the interactions occurring within and between these structural levels. We propose that academic communities are analogous to ecosystems, and that the research paradigms of modern community ecology can provide the necessary framework, as well as new and innovative approaches to a very complex area. This article also presents the results of a pilot study that demonstrates the promise of this approach at the student level. We administered a questionnaire based on expectancy-value theory to undergraduates enrolled in introductory biology courses. Itself an integrative approach, expectancy-value theory views achievement-related behavior as a joint function of the person's expectancy of success in the behavior and the subjective value placed on such success. Our results indicated: (a) significant gender differences in the underlying factor structures of expectations and values related to the discipline of biology, (b) expectancy-value factors significantly distinguished biology majors from nonmajors, and (c) expectancy-value factors significantly predicted students' intent to enroll in future biology courses. We explore the expectancy-value framework as an operationally integrative framework in our ecological model for studying academic communities, especially in the context of assessing the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the sciences. Future research directions as well as practical implications are also discussed.

  17. Dynamical Systems Theory in Quantitative Psychology and Cognitive Science: A Fair Discrimination between Deterministic and Statistical Counterparts is Required.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Adam; Ausloos, Marcel; Casey, Tahlia

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems.' It also considers whether the exponential (Malthus-type) or the algebraic (Pareto-type) statistical distribution ought to be effectively considered in practical interpretations. The role of repetitive specific behaviors by patients seeking treatment is examined within the NDS frame. The significance of these behaviors, involving a certain memory effect seems crucial in determining a patient's progression or regression. With this perspective, it is discussed how a sensitively applied hazardous or triggering factor can be helpful for well-controlled psychological strategic treatments; those attributable to obsessive-compulsive disorders or self-injurious behaviors are recalled in particular. There are both inherent criticality- and complexity-exploiting (reduced-variance based) relations between a therapist and a patient that can be intrinsically included in NDS theory.

  18. Autonomy and self-determination theory in different contexts: A comparison of middle school science teachers' motivation and instruction in China and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and qualitative data collected through open-ended interview questions. The online survey consisted of four assessments related to teachers' self-determination, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' self-determination, and level of autonomy support for students and allowed for the testing of the structural model developed by Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, and Legault (2002). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses for the combined teacher sample (n=201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n=107) and U.S. (n=94) teachers, based on the factors resulting from EFA, revealed significant differences in teachers' self-determination and perceptions of constraints at work. No significant differences were found for teachers' perceptions of students' self-determination or level of autonomy support for students. Multiple regression was used to predict teachers' autonomy support for students. For the Chinese teachers, perceptions of constraints at work, teachers' self-determination, and teachers' perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the U.S. teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of the Chinese and U.S. science teachers (n=19) were interviewed about their perceived levels of autonomy support, constraints at work, and their students' self determination. The analyses of the interviews showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of instruction they provided to students

  19. [Optimization theory and practical application of membrane science technology based on resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua-Xu; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Li-Wei; Li, Bo; Lu, Jin; Tang, Yu-Ping; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue is an inevitable choice to form new industries characterized of modem, environmental protection and intensive in the Chinese medicine industry. Based on the analysis of source and the main chemical composition of the herb residue, and for the advantages of membrane science and technology used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially membrane separation technology used in improvement technical reserves of traditional extraction and separation process in the pharmaceutical industry, it is proposed that membrane science and technology is one of the most important choices in technological design of traditional Chinese medicine resource industrialization. Traditional Chinese medicine residue is a very complex material system in composition and character, and scientific and effective "separation" process is the key areas of technology to re-use it. Integrated process can improve the productivity of the target product, enhance the purity of the product in the separation process, and solve many tasks which conventional separation is difficult to achieve. As integrated separation technology has the advantages of simplified process and reduced consumption, which are in line with the trend of the modern pharmaceutical industry, the membrane separation technology can provide a broad platform for integrated process, and membrane separation technology with its integrated technology have broad application prospects in achieving resource and industrialization process of traditional Chinese medicine residue. We discuss the principles, methods and applications practice of effective component resources in herb residue using membrane separation and integrated technology, describe the extraction, separation, concentration and purification application of membrane technology in traditional Chinese medicine residue, and systematically discourse suitability and feasibility of membrane technology in the process of traditional Chinese

  20. Medicine's perception of reality - a split picture: critical reflections on apparent anomalies within the biomedical theory of science.

    PubMed

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Ekeland, Tor-Johan; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene; Schei, Edvin; Ulvestad, Elling; Vetlesen, Arne Johan

    2016-08-01

    Escalating costs, increasing multi-morbidity, medically unexplained health problems, complex risk, poly-pharmacy and antibiotic resistance can be regarded as artefacts of the traditional knowledge production in Western medicine, arising from its particular worldview. Our paper presents a historically grounded critical analysis of this view. The materialistic shift of Enlightenment philosophy, separating subjectivity from bodily matter, became normative for modern medicine and yielded astonishing results. The traditional dichotomies of mind/body and subjective/objective are, however, incompatible with modern biological theory. Medical knowledge ignores central tenets of human existence, notably the physiological impact of subjective experience, relationships, history and sociocultural contexts. Biomedicine will not succeed in resolving today's poorly understood health problems by doing 'more of the same'. We must acknowledge that health, sickness and bodily functioning are interwoven with human meaning-production, fundamentally personal and biographical. This implies that the biomedical framework, although having engendered 'success stories' like the era of antibiotics, needs to be radically revised.

  1. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives

    PubMed Central

    Malwela, Thivhulawi; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives. Setting The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini. Methods A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method. Result One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards. Conclusion Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical. PMID:27380847

  2. Expectation minimum-a new principle of inverse problem theory in the photothermal sciences: theoretical characterization of expectation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Joan F.

    1997-02-01

    The expectation minimum (EM) principle is a new method of inverse problem theory that can be used to obtain stable solutions to first-kind Fredholm integrals. The EM principle uses the addition of noise to a basis of model vectors that are related to the experimental data by a multilinear discrete model. The experimental data are projected onto this randomized basis set and solution vectors for individual data projections are recovered by any one of a number of standard algorithms. The solutions are averaged arithmetically to obtain a stable estimate of the minimum error solution by expectation. It is shown from theory that the presence of noise in the model basis provides a method of regularization of the problem. Examples applicable to the problem of source localization in inverse heat conduction are examined. When factorization methods are used to recover the solution vectors corresponding to each data projection, the solutions recovered by the EM principle are shown to quantitatively converge to the zero-order uniform Tikhonov regularized solutions. When a stepwise projection method is used in lieu of factorizations, the recovered solutions agree nearly quantitatively with the solutions recovered using the autocorrelation method of linear filtering derived via a modified form of the Yule-Walker equations. The resolution and robustness of the EM solutions in this second case are greatly superior to those obtained by the autocorrelation method. The ultimate accuracy and resolution of the EM solutions in this latter case is limited by the noise in the model basis. Through appropriate sampling methods, the noise in the model basis may be set as low as three orders of magnitude below the noise on the experimental data. This gives an enormous improvement in performance over the previous methods of solution using regularization.

  3. Determining quality in doctoral programming: A grounded theory study of biological sciences, English studies, and special education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fansler, A. Gigi

    This study uses the grounded theory approach to identify how 12 faculty members at Illinois State University define the key determinants of a quality doctoral program. Two sets of interviews were conducted, lasting from 45 to 90 minutes. The first round of interviews was guided by the following open-ended questions: (1) How do you define a quality doctoral program? (2) What has led you to define quality in that way? and (3) What events or actions have you experienced that have been evidence of "quality?" While these three served as the primary questions, many follow-up questions and prompts were used throughout the entire interview process. A subsequent interview was conducted with the participants in order to explore the 12 emergent categories. The theory was generated using the transcriptions from both rounds of interviews and a conceptual map that was revised throughout the process. The researcher used open-coding, axial coding, and selective coding throughout the study until saturation of the data was achieved, and relationships among the categories were formed. The following nine factors of the model emerged from the data: (a) professional mentorship; (b) faculty productivity; (c) program accountability and/or evaluation; (d) students who publish; (e) solid educational experience; (f) quality of students; (g) student placement; (h) experience as a faculty member; (i) experiences as a doctoral student. The first seven describe how the 12 faculty members defined a quality doctoral program. The last two address the factors that led the participants to define quality in the way they did. This study provides leaders of higher education institutions a glimpse of one stakeholder group's perceptions of what constitutes a quality doctoral program. Such information can be used as a starting point for assessing quality of doctoral programs in an era of accountability.

  4. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music.

  5. Computational science and re-discovery: open-source implementation of ellipsoidal harmonics for problems in potential theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    We present two open-source (BSD) implementations of ellipsoidal harmonic expansions for solving problems of potential theory using separation of variables. Ellipsoidal harmonics are used surprisingly infrequently, considering their substantial value for problems ranging in scale from molecules to the entire solar system. In this paper, we suggest two possible reasons for the paucity relative to spherical harmonics. The first is essentially historical—ellipsoidal harmonics developed during the late 19th century and early 20th, when it was found that only the lowest-order harmonics are expressible in closed form. Each higher-order term requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem, and tedious manual computation seems to have discouraged applications and theoretical studies. The second explanation is practical: even with modern computers and accurate eigenvalue algorithms, expansions in ellipsoidal harmonics are significantly more challenging to compute than those in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. The present implementations reduce the 'barrier to entry' by providing an easy and free way for the community to begin using ellipsoidal harmonics in actual research. We demonstrate our implementation using the specific and physiologically crucial problem of how charged proteins interact with their environment, and ask: what other analytical tools await re-discovery in an era of inexpensive computation?

  6. Lower-Secondary Introductory Chemistry Course: A Novel Approach Based on Science-Education Theories, with Emphasis on the Macroscopic Approach, and the Delayed Meaningful Teaching of the Concepts of Molecule and Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Kolioulis, Dimitrios; Pappa, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    We present a programme for a novel introductory lower-secondary chemistry course (seventh or eighth grade) that aims at the application of theories of science education, and in particular of conceptual/meaningful learning and of teaching methodology that encourages active and inquiry forms of learning The approach is rigorous with careful use of…

  7. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  8. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Kyle John; Nasr, Ziad Ghantous

    2016-11-01

    Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges) analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25) of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25) of students stated that the mixed

  9. Theory Survey or Survey Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

  10. Science, Religion, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Warren A.

    1999-01-01

    Liberal theologians and some scientists subscribe to integrationist theories of science and religion. Late 20th-century developments in quantum mechanics, cosmology, chaos theory, and ecology have rendered nature more mysterious and open to religious interpretation than to deterministic approaches. Students should learn how science connects to…

  11. Lessons to be learned from a contentious challenge to mainstream radiobiological science (the linear no-threshold theory of genetic mutations).

    PubMed

    Beyea, Jan

    2017-04-01

    There are both statistically valid and invalid reasons why scientists with differing default hypotheses can disagree in high-profile situations. Examples can be found in recent correspondence in this journal, which may offer lessons for resolving challenges to mainstream science, particularly when adherents of a minority view attempt to elevate the status of outlier studies and/or claim that self-interest explains the acceptance of the dominant theory. Edward J. Calabrese and I have been debating the historical origins of the linear no-threshold theory (LNT) of carcinogenesis and its use in the regulation of ionizing radiation. Professor Calabrese, a supporter of hormesis, has charged a committee of scientists with misconduct in their preparation of a 1956 report on the genetic effects of atomic radiation. Specifically he argues that the report mischaracterized the LNT research record and suppressed calculations of some committee members. After reviewing the available scientific literature, I found that the contemporaneous evidence overwhelmingly favored a (genetics) LNT and that no calculations were suppressed. Calabrese's claims about the scientific record do not hold up primarily because of lack of attention to statistical analysis. Ironically, outlier studies were more likely to favor supra-linearity, not sub-linearity. Finally, the claim of investigator bias, which underlies Calabrese's accusations about key studies, is based on misreading of text. Attention to ethics charges, early on, may help seed a counter narrative explaining the community's adoption of a default hypothesis and may help focus attention on valid evidence and any real weaknesses in the dominant paradigm.

  12. Science Courses for Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alice Bourke

    1980-01-01

    Described is a science education program at Loyola University, Chicago designed for nonscience majors. Discussed are rationale for course offerings and course content. Emphasized is the need to reveal the nature of science and methods by which information is gained and theories formulated, rather than science content alone. (CS)

  13. Is Military Science Scientific?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    84 Commentary / Is Military Science “Scientific”? JFQ 75, 4th Quarter 2014 Is Military Science “Scientific”? By Glenn Voelz T he term military ...definition. This vague categorization is somewhat reflective of the term’s diminished status from its 19th-century usage when Military Science was... military theory. A second factor, rapid industrialization, firmly established science and technology as the central pillars of American military power and

  14. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  15. [How to do Things with Metaphors: Reflections on the Role of Metaphors and Metaphor Theory for the History of Science Using the Example of Shock Metaphors in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Koch, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, metaphors have attracted a great deal of interest within the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. The article takes the growing interest in epistemic metaphors as the starting point of a discussion of two conflicting motives prevalent in theories of metaphor and metaphoricity: On the one hand, metaphors are associated with the indeterminacy of scientific discovery and the emergence of new epistemic objects; and on the other hand, metaphors are said to provide a filter of possible meanings and vantage-points. It is argued that an approach, which aims to do justice to both tendencies, cannot exclusively rely on linguistic models but must expand its scope of inquiry to include the practical trajectories of a metaphor’s usage as well as the problematizations to which they respond, since both engender metaphorical meaning, albeit at the cost of semantic precision. The exemplary case discussed in the article, the psychologization of nervous shock in nineteenth century medical discourse, demonstrates that the incremental process of shock’s shifting semantics would be inadequately characterized as a metaphorical transfer. Instead, it is shown how the actualization of earlier meanings, in particular of shock as a state of altered consciousness, in novel professional and cultural contexts acted as a catalyst for the psychologization of shock and related nascent concepts such as psychic trauma. As a possible, and methodologically fruitful way of overcoming the one-sidedness of linguistic notions of metaphor, a combination of Jìrgen Link’s concept of inter-discourse with a philosophical metaphorology (Blumenberg) is discussed in the final section of the paper.

  16. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  17. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  18. Science and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  19. Beyond Nature of Science: The Case for Reconceptualising "Science" for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that contemporary accounts of nature of science (NoS) are limited in their depiction of "science" and that new perspectives are needed to broaden their characterisation and appeal for science education. In particular, I refer to the role of interdisciplinary characterisations of science in informing the theory and…

  20. ["The hard core". Science between politics and philosophy by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and in the finalization theory].

    PubMed

    Krohn, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In the Starnberg Max-Planck Institute one of the working groups was concerned with science as the formative condition--or "hard core"--of societal modernity, and with science as potential resource for solving social problems and addressing future goals. More precisely, the group intended to differentiate between phases in which scientific disciplines predominantly care for their own paradigmatic completion and those allowing their theoretical potential resonate with external needs. The conceptual model was coined "finalization in science". It soon provoked a heated controversy on the dangers of social control of science. The paper analyses Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's views on the relation between philosophy and policy of science including his interpretation of Thomas Kuhn and reconstructs the impact of his ideas on the finalization model. It finally reflects on the relationship between science development and change of consciousness in the context of scientific responsibility for (the use of) research outcomes.

  1. Using Rasch Theory to Guide the Practice of Survey Development and Survey Data Analysis in Science Education and to Inform Science Reform Efforts: An Exemplar Utilizing STEBI Self-Efficacy Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Staver, John

    2011-01-01

    Over many decades, science education researchers have developed, validated, and used a wide range of attitudinal instruments. Data from such instruments have been analyzed, results have been published, and public policies have been influenced. Unfortunately, most science education instruments are not developed using a guiding theoretical…

  2. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  3. How Cosmology Became a Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the origin of the science of cosmology and the competing theories to explain the beginning of the universe. The big bang theory for the creation of the universe is contrasted with the steady state theory. The author details discoveries that led to the demise of the steady state theory. (PR)

  4. Making Science Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    Presents a viewpoint concerning the impact of recent scientific advances on society. Discusses biological discoveries, space exploration, computer technology, development of new astronomical theories, the behavioral sciences, and basic research. Challenges to keeping science current with technological advancement are also discussed. (DS)

  5. Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighninger, Robert D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Looks at the historical origins of science, and notes that the most obvious difference between artistic and scientific communities is the higher press for orthodoxy among the latter. If there is no one all-embracing science, we may use museums devoted to scientific theory building and we might redesign our museums of art more along ethnographic…

  6. Physics and proof theory

    PubMed Central

    Paleo, Bruno Woltzenlogel

    2012-01-01

    Axiomatization of Physics (and science in general) has many drawbacks that are correctly criticized by opposing philosophical views of science. This paper shows that, by giving formal proofs a more prominent role in the formalization, many of the drawbacks can be solved and many of the opposing views are naturally conciliated. Moreover, this approach allows, by means of proof theory, to open new conceptual bridges between the disciplines of Physics and Computer Science. PMID:24976655

  7. Should Science Educators Deal with the Science/Religion Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    I begin by examining the natures of science and religion before looking at the ways in which they relate to one another. I then look at a number of case studies that centre on the relationships between science and religion, including attempts to find mechanisms for divine action in quantum theory and chaos theory, creationism, genetic engineering…

  8. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  9. Organization Theory as Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Thomas B.

    The theory that organizations are ideological inventions of the human mind is discussed. Organizational science is described as an ideology which is based upon social concepts and experiences. The main justification for organizational theory is that it attempts to answer why we behave as we do in social organizations. Ways in which ideas and…

  10. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  11. New Pathways in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddington, Arthur

    2012-10-01

    Preface; 1. Science and experience; 2. Dramatis personae; 3. The end of the world; 4. The decline of determinism; 5. Indeterminacy and quantum theory; 6. Probability; 7. The constitution of the stars; 8. Subatomic energy; 9. Cosmic clouds and nebulae; 10. The expanding universe; 11. The constants of nature; 12. The theory of groups; 13. Criticisms and controversies; 14. Epilogue; Index.

  12. Analysing Exemplary Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve, Ed.; Bencze, Larry, Ed.; Pedretti, Erminia, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    How might exemplary practice be represented by teachers' narratives? How might such representations be analyzed? How might theory and practice be related? "Analyzing Exemplary Science Teaching" is a text that seeks to combine educational theory and practice through analysis of a series of teachers' descriptions of "exemplary"…

  13. Science Journalism: Using Science Literacy to Teach Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Lochner, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    Science has many stories to tell. A carefully crafted series of stories can create a rich experience based in science literacy to teach fundamental science concepts. In particular, framing the stories as historic news articles illustrates the process of science and opens up opportunities for multidisciplinary lessons. NASA's Cosmic Times materials illustrate how we applied this model to tell the story of our understanding of the expanding universe over the past century. Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials and classroom activities for grades 7-12. The series includes six posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time during the past 100 years with articles describing the discoveries. The articles trace astronomer's efforts to determine the size of the universe, the nature of supernovae, and the nature of the expansion of the universe. Each poster is accompanied by inquiry-based lessons that teach the science, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. In addition, these lessons include cross-curricular activities exploring the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. These materials serve as a springboard for a discussion on using science literacy and storytelling with other science topics, ranging from our modern understanding of the planets and planet formation to the development of the theory of evolution.

  14. Introductory Science Skills. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.

    This book is designed to help students understand the nature of scientific inquiry by involving them in doing science rather than merely reading about it. The content of the text emphasizes science process skills, mathematical skills, and the use of theories and models that are fundamental for learning the various science disciplines. The…

  15. An Evaluation of the Teaching Activities Implemented in the Elementary Science and Technology Courses in Terms of Multiple Intelligence Theory: A Sample from Adana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iflazoglu Saban, Ayten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent class activities at the Elementary Science and Technology course address intelligence areas. The research was both a quantitative and a qualitative study. The sample of the study consisted of 102 4th grade elementary teachers, 97 5th grade elementary teachers, and 55 6th, 7th, and 8th grade…

  16. Science and Science Fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Robert

    2006-03-29

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  17. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  18. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  19. When a Whole Practice Model Is the Intervention: Developing Fidelity Evaluation Components Using Program Theory-Driven Science for an Integrative Medicine Primary Care Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Sally E.; Herman, Patricia M.; Sechrest, Lee; Abraham, Ivo; Logue, Melanie D.; Grizzle, Amy L.; Rehfeld, Rick A.; Urbine, Terry J.; Crocker, Robert L.; Maizes, Victoria H.

    2013-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a clinical paradigm of whole person healthcare that combines appropriate conventional and complementary medicine (CM) treatments. Studies of integrative healthcare systems and theory-driven evaluations of IM practice models need to be undertaken. Two health services research methods can strengthen the validity of IM healthcare studies, practice theory, and fidelity evaluation. The University of Arizona Integrative Health Center (UAIHC) is a membership-supported integrative primary care clinic in Phoenix, AZ. A comparative effectiveness evaluation is being conducted to assess its clinical and cost outcomes. A process evaluation of the clinic's practice theory components assesses model fidelity for four purposes: (1) as a measure of intervention integrity to determine whether the practice model was delivered as intended; (2) to describe an integrative primary care clinic model as it is being developed and refined; (3) as potential covariates in the outcomes analyses, to assist in interpretation of findings, and for external validity and replication; and (4) to provide feedback for needed corrections and improvements of clinic operations over time. This paper provides a rationale for the use of practice theory and fidelity evaluation in studies of integrative practices and describes the approach and protocol used in fidelity evaluation of the UAIHC. PMID:24371464

  20. Applied group theory applications in the engineering (physical, chemical, and medical), biological, social, and behavioral sciences and in the fine arts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A generalized applied group theory is developed, and it is shown that phenomena from a number of diverse disciplines may be included under the umbrella of a single theoretical formulation based upon the concept of a group consistent with the usual definition of this term.

  1. Designing Multimedia Learning Application with Learning Theories: A Case Study on a Computer Science Subject with 2-D and 3-D Animated Versions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rias, Riaza Mohd; Zaman, Halimah Badioze

    2011-01-01

    Higher learning based instruction may be primarily concerned in most cases with the content of their academic lessons, and not very much with their instructional delivery. However, the effective application of learning theories and technology in higher education has an impact on student performance. With the rapid progress in the computer and…

  2. Die Religiose Konstante. Uber den padagogischen Umgang mit naturwissenshcaftlichen Hypothesen (The Religious Constant--The Interpretation of Hypotheses of the Natural Sciences in Educational Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Shows how evolution-theoretical behavioral research may serve to influence the theory production of pedagogics. Questions which truths and securities are required by educational practice and which consequences can be drawn for the level of theoretical cognition of the respective discipline. An analysis of the relation between religion in its…

  3. When a whole practice model is the intervention: developing fidelity evaluation components using program theory-driven science for an integrative medicine primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Sally E; Herman, Patricia M; Sechrest, Lee; Abraham, Ivo; Logue, Melanie D; Grizzle, Amy L; Rehfeld, Rick A; Urbine, Terry J; Horwitz, Randy; Crocker, Robert L; Maizes, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a clinical paradigm of whole person healthcare that combines appropriate conventional and complementary medicine (CM) treatments. Studies of integrative healthcare systems and theory-driven evaluations of IM practice models need to be undertaken. Two health services research methods can strengthen the validity of IM healthcare studies, practice theory, and fidelity evaluation. The University of Arizona Integrative Health Center (UAIHC) is a membership-supported integrative primary care clinic in Phoenix, AZ. A comparative effectiveness evaluation is being conducted to assess its clinical and cost outcomes. A process evaluation of the clinic's practice theory components assesses model fidelity for four purposes: (1) as a measure of intervention integrity to determine whether the practice model was delivered as intended; (2) to describe an integrative primary care clinic model as it is being developed and refined; (3) as potential covariates in the outcomes analyses, to assist in interpretation of findings, and for external validity and replication; and (4) to provide feedback for needed corrections and improvements of clinic operations over time. This paper provides a rationale for the use of practice theory and fidelity evaluation in studies of integrative practices and describes the approach and protocol used in fidelity evaluation of the UAIHC.

  4. The impact of the beat generation and popular culture on the development of Martha Rogers's Theory of the Science of Unitary Beings.

    PubMed

    Biley, F

    1999-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Greenwich Village, and New York City in general, were places that were participating in great change. Beat Generation writers, pop artists and contemporary musicians were redefining their crafts. In the midst of all this lived Martha Rogers, who was redefining her craft, nursing. In this paper the author argues, in what could be defined as a beginning and informal hermeneutic analysis, that in order to fully understand the Science of Unitary Human Beings it is necessary to understand the social context in which the theoretical framework was developed. Implications arising from the insights that emerge from this brief exploration of the social context in which the Science of Unitary Human Beings developed, which concentrates on the writing of the Beat Generation, are discussed.

  5. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  6. Testing times: regularities in the historical sciences.

    PubMed

    Jeffares, Ben

    2008-12-01

    The historical sciences, such as geology, evolutionary biology, and archaeology, appear to have no means to test hypotheses. However, on closer examination, reasoning in the historical sciences relies upon regularities, regularities that can be tested. I outline the role of regularities in the historical sciences, and in the process, blur the distinction between the historical sciences and the experimental sciences: all sciences deploy theories about the world in their investigations.

  7. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

    ScienceCinema

    Christen, Hans; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Jesse, Stephen; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Norred, Liz; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Berlijn, Tom

    2016-07-12

    The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) integrates nanoscale science with neutron science; synthesis science; and theory, modeling, and simulation. Operating as a national user facility, the CNMS supports a multidisciplinary environment for research to understand nanoscale materials and phenomena.

  8. The Invisible Substrate of Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J.

    1999-01-01

    Articulates key elements in the "invisible substrate" of information science. Emphasizes information science's role as a meta-science--conducting research and developing theory around documentary products of other disciplines and activities. Suggests that mental activities of information science center around "representation" and "organization" of…

  9. Science Fairs in Elementary School. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Andrea K.

    This digest presents a summary discussion of the value of holding science fairs in the elementary school context. Reasons for conducting science fairs for elementary students are discussed in terms of several learning theories. Developmentally appropriate types of elementary science projects are suggested. Goals for elementary school science fairs…

  10. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Hans; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Jesse, Stephen; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Norred, Liz; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Berlijn, Tom

    2016-03-11

    The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) integrates nanoscale science with neutron science; synthesis science; and theory, modeling, and simulation. Operating as a national user facility, the CNMS supports a multidisciplinary environment for research to understand nanoscale materials and phenomena.

  11. Science Fiction: A Collection of Critical Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mark, Ed.

    The articles collected in this volume focus on the literary genre science fiction. Part one, "Backgrounds," includes "Starting Points" (Kingsley Amis), "Science Fiction and Literature" (Robert Conquest), and "The Roots of Science Fiction" (Robert Scholes). Part two, "Theory," contains "On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre" (Darko Suvin),…

  12. Searching for Meaning in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkheimer, Glenn D.; McLeod, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how science programs K-16 should be developed to meet the modern objectives of science education and restore its true meaning. The theories of Phenix and Ausubel are included in this discussion. (HM)

  13. Normal Science in a Multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Sean

    2016-06-01

    A number of theories in contemporary physics and cosmology place an emphasis on features that are hard, and arguably impossible, to test. These include the cosmological multiverse as well as some approaches to quantum gravity. Worries have been raised that these models attempt to sidestep the purportedly crucial principle of falsifiability. Proponents of these theories sometimes suggest that we are seeing a new approach to science, while opponents fear that we are abandoning science altogether. I will argue that in fact these theories are straightforwardly scientific and can be evaluated in absolutely conventional ways, based on empiricism, abduction (inference to the best explanation), and Bayesian reasoning. The integrity of science remains intact.

  14. Quantum Social Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

  15. Web life: Just A Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.

  16. Turning a problem into an opportunity using the Fox Network's ``Conspiracy Theory: Did we land on the moon?" as a tool to improve student thinking on science and pseudoscience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, G. E.

    2002-05-01

    Some television networks have displayed a propensity for producing specials of a pseudoscientific nature. The Fox Network has especially demonstrated this propensity. Its most notorious cases were ``Alien Autopsy" in the mid-90s and last Winter's ``Conspiracy Theory: Did we land on the moon?" Both have had effective critical responses from scientists and those responses are readily accessible on the Internet. But their existence is emblematic of the larger societal problem of large numbers of citizens not being able to discriminate between science and pseudoscience. Many educators hesitate to include critical examinations of pseudosciences because 1) They themselves are not well versed in these areas, and 2) they prefer to avoid possible controversy and upset with their credulous students. Fox Network's ``Conspiracy Theory: Did we land on the moon?" offers educators a rich example of televised pseudoscience that 1) can be rebutted in ways readily understandable by nonscience students and 2) will not result in throngs of offended students as this is not a particularly popular pseudoscience and few students will have an emotional investment in it. This oral presentation will cover the benefits of using this particular television program to demonstrate scientific critical examination of claims, raise their general level of informed skepticism, and make clear how susceptible people --they, themselves-- can be to pseudoscientific claims when one is not familiar with the relevant science. A computer-slide presentation of this critique is available to those interested. In addition, informal surveys were taken of two lab classes in which the program and critique were shown. Students' opinions of the moon-landings-were-a-hoax claim were taken before and after seeing the program and after the critique.

  17. GSFC Heliophysics Science Division 2009 Science Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.; Saba, Julia L. R.; Strong, Yvonne M.

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to record and communicate to our colleagues, stakeholders, and the public at large about heliophysics scientific and flight program achievements and milestones for 2009, for which NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Heliophysics Science Division (HSD) made important contributions. HSD comprises approximately 299 scientists, technologists, and administrative personnel dedicated to the goal of advancing our knowledge and understanding of the Sun and the wide variety of domains that its variability influences. Our activities include: Leading science investigations involving flight hardware, theory, and data analysis and modeling that will answer the strategic questions posed in the Heliophysics Roadmap; Leading the development of new solar and space physics mission concepts and support their implementation as Project Scientists; Providing access to measurements from the Heliophysics Great Observatory through our Science Information Systems; and Communicating science results to the public and inspiring the next generation of scientists and explorers.

  18. GSFC Heliophysics Science Division 2008 Science Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly R.; Strong, Keith T.; Saba, Julia L. R.; Firestone, Elaine R.

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to record and communicate to our colleagues, stakeholders, and the public at large about heliophysics scientific and flight program achievements and milestones for 2008, for which NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Heliophysics Science Division (HSD) made important contributions. HSD comprises approximately 261 scientists, technologists, and administrative personnel dedicated to the goal of advancing our knowledge and understanding of the Sun and the wide variety of domains that its variability influences. Our activities include Lead science investigations involving flight hardware, theory, and data analysis and modeling that will answer the strategic questions posed in the Heliophysics Roadmap; Lead the development of new solar and space physics mission concepts and support their implementation as Project Scientists; Provide access to measurements from the Heliophysics Great Observatory through our Science Information Systems, and Communicate science results to the public and inspire the next generation of scientists and explorers.

  19. From Theory to Practice: Utilizing Competency-based Milestones to Assess Professional Growth and Development in the Foundational Science Blocks of a Pre-Clerkship Medical School Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pettepher, Cathleen C; Lomis, Kimberly D; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Physicians-in-training require skills and attitudes beyond medical knowledge in order to mature into successful clinicians. However, because assessments in pre-clerkship curricula historically have focused almost exclusively on medical knowledge, faculty contributions to early student development often have been limited. To address this challenge and enhance student progress, we re-designed our pre-clerkship curriculum to include settings in which diverse facets of student performance could be observed and fostered. Concurrently, we transitioned to an assessment strategy focused on competency-based milestones. The implementation of this strategy has allowed pre-clerkship science faculty to provide early-stage students with rich holistic feedback designed to stimulate their professional growth.

  20. Fusion Energy Science Joint Facilities and Theory Research Target 2011: Final Report for the Period October 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Groebner, R. J.; Chang, C. S.; Diamond, P. H.; Hughes, J. W.; Maingi, R.; Snyder, P. B.; Xu, X. Q.

    2011-10-01

    Briefly stated, the goal of this combined experiment/theory milestone was to improve our knowledge of the physics processes that control the H-mode pedestal by applying models of these mechanisms to experimental data. A concerted and coordinated effort of experimental, theory and modeling activities has examined several physics mechanisms of interest, and has met the goals of the milestone. A few noteworthy results will be noted here. The activity has applied peeling-ballooning theory to all three machines, and increased confidence that the theory predicts the ultimate limits to pedestal height in an ELMing plasma. The activity has expanded the range of conditions for testing of the EPED model, and increased confidence in the ability of the model to compute the pedestal pressure height in medium aspect ratio tokamaks. Kinetic neoclassical models have been used to verify that an important analytic model for the pedestal bootstrap current has good accuracy in many regimes of interest but needs correction at high collisionality. A benchmarking effort between electromagnetic gyrokinetic codes has provided increased understanding of how to use these codes in the pedestal, and has laid the groundwork for using these codes to study linear stability of gyrokinetic modes in and on top of the pedestal. Comparisons of data and models have led to successful simulations of a quasi-coherent mode in C-Mod and to the tentative identification of a high frequency mode in DIII-D. A kinetic neoclassical model qualitatively agrees with some features of pedestal density profiles. A paleoclassical transport model quantitatively predicts some features of the electron temperature profiles in NSTX and DIII-D. The milestone activity also laid the groundwork for future advancements in understanding and predicting the pedestal. All three machines obtained a wealth of pedestal data under a wide variety of operating conditions. Some of these data have been analyzed already, and the analysis and

  1. Random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, Alan; Rao, N. Raj

    Random matrix theory is now a big subject with applications in many disciplines of science, engineering and finance. This article is a survey specifically oriented towards the needs and interests of a numerical analyst. This survey includes some original material not found anywhere else. We include the important mathematics which is a very modern development, as well as the computational software that is transforming the theory into useful practice.

  2. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  3. Under the Skin: Using Theories From Biology and the Social Sciences to Explore the Mechanisms Behind the Black–White Health Gap

    PubMed Central

    Darity, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Equity and social well-being considerations make Black–White health disparities an area of important concern. Although previous research suggests that discrimination- and poverty-related stressors play a role in African American health outcomes, the mechanisms are unclear. Allostatic load is a concept that can be employed to demonstrate how environmental stressors, including psychosocial ones, may lead to a cumulative physiological toll on the body. We discuss both the usefulness of this framework for understanding how discrimination can lead to worse health among African Americans, and the challenges for conceptualizing biological risk with existing data and methods. We also contrast allostatic load with theories of historical trauma such as posttraumatic slavery syndrome. Finally, we offer our suggestions for future interdisciplinary research on health disparities. PMID:20147678

  4. A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, R. Todd

    2007-12-01

    Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships

  5. Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of Gagne's conception of science processes. Results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. Implications for science education are considered. (Author/JN)

  6. Ancient communion: Guidance from the ancestors. An Indian grandmother and granddaughter sharing stories on Native spirituality and Western science: Toward a theory of wholeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell-Fire Moon, Tandie Vera

    This study seeks to address the causes and potential solutions to the divisiveness and human destructiveness to humanity and the environment now reflected on a planetary scale. The research question is: How can Native American values enhance western thinking for the purpose of greater individual and planetary health? Fundamental research has been to develop the concept of `Integrity' as a model to explore various western concepts and Native knowledge as inter-facing systems. The model's formula integrates three major scientific theories-Relativity and Quantum Physics and Chaos, as a demonstration of the product of doing integrative thinking and research. Applying knowledge of Lakota Visionary Black Elk and other indigenous world views, this has evolved into a Unified Perceptual Field-``Toward a Theory of Wholeness.'' Study's goal is to utilize knowledge gained from this process to create greater positive choice in our fives, by designing systems that are highest functioning-creating greatest fulfillment, health and wholeness in the individual and the society. Methods of looking at data and wisdom in this study are the intuitive and analytical methodologies as defined in the Integrity Model. Part I, Visions and Stories from the DREAMTIME, reflects these knowledge quests. Within Part II, Native BASKETWEAVER Weaving New Realities, the thesis statement contains three major validations to emerge from this study: (1)The exploration inward reveals the deepest core of the material universe as the foundational, most subtle, powerful, infinitesimal quantum level of creation that we experience as our spiritual nature. (2)Trauma of physical impact by action, thought or word at early stages of human development disfigures the natural pattern of harmony, which is set into the biology/physiology-magnified and amplified in adult life, and mirrored out into space/time. (3)Early disturbance of one's perceptual intention (will/desire) weakens or breaks the natural underlying energy

  7. The Nature of Science as Viewed by Science Teachers in Najran District, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Abdulsalam Dale Amer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views of Saudi Science Teachers in Najran district about the nature of science (NOS). A questionnaire of fourteen items was developed and administered to a sample of 83 science teachers. The questionnaire covers five aspects of the nature of science which are: scientific theories and models; role of scientists;…

  8. Science Anxiety and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffrey V.; Greenburg, Sharon L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses origins and nature of science anxiety and describes the Science Anxiety Clinic, outlining techniques used at the clinic. Techniques include science skills training and psychological interventions. Comments on the connection between science anxiety and cognitive processes in science learning. (Author/JN)

  9. Science Education Assessment Instruments: Problems in Assessing Student Attitude in Science Education: A Partial Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynowsky, Bernie A.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies some of the problems of attitude assessment in science education. Describes the development of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale (ATSSS) and gives an overview of the Ajzen and Fishbein attitude theories. Provides five sample items. (YP)

  10. A summary of research on the NASA-Global Atmospheric Sampling Program performed by the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center. [ozone transport theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, P. D.; Pratt, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The annual variations of ozone near the tropopause are derived from aircraft exhibit year-to-year differences which are not explicitly accounted for by the simple, classical ozone transport theory. Phenomena such as tropopause lifting, interannual variations in the rates of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange and meridional mixing, contribute differently to the distribution of ozone in this altitude region. Ozone encounter climatologies have been represented by global maps which show the probabilities of exceeding ambient ozone levels of 200, 300, and 400 ppbV along flight routes during the year. Continuous ozone records obtained from the GASP system revealed the presence of gravity waves whose wavelength is of the order 20 km. The GASP data cannot, however, be utilized for the evaluation of horizontal fluxes of such quantities as ozone, sensible heat, and zonal momentum; the data are too sparsely and irregularly distributed for the computation of stable correlations. Multiple species data from the unique circumglobal flight of a Pan American airliner on 28-30 October 1977 are discussed with particular regard to the apparent interhemispheric differences in tropospheric species concentrations, variation between the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres, to possible covariations between species, and to potential source regions for various constituents.

  11. What Is Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Harte, Victoria; Sambrook, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to examine the meaning and value of the notion of theory as a basis for other papers in the special issue which examine facets of theorising HRD. Design/methodology/approach: A small scale and targeted literature review was conducted which focused on writings in the philosophy and sociology of science in order to…

  12. On Military Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sciences and philosophies are based on dubious premises or are in fact pseudosciences. Modern military theory was heavily influenced by empiricism and...determinism. Empiricism is described as a logical process based on pursuing knowledge through observation and experiments. One can make sensible

  13. Postmodern Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explains the idea of a neopragmatic postmodernist test theory and offers some thoughts about what changing notions concerning the nature of and meanings assigned to knowledge imply for educational assessment, present and future. Purpose: Advances in the learning sciences--particularly situative and sociocognitive…

  14. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Maldacena, Juan

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  15. Identification of the Discrepancies between Pharmacist and Patient Perception of the Pharmacist's Role as an Advisor on Drug Therapy Based on Social Science Theory.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shinji; Senoo, Kazuhiko; Negishi, Akio; Akimoto, Hayato; Ohara, Kousuke; Inoue, Naoko; Ohshima, Shigeru; Kutsuma, Nobuaki; Juni, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Article 25-2 of the Japanese Pharmacists' Act was revised in June 2014, establishing the position of pharmacists as "advisors on the use of pharmaceuticals." Prior to the Act's revision, we investigated the perceptions of patients and pharmacists about pharmacists' roles using a social science methodology. We also examined current opinions and necessary factors for the future growth and development of pharmacists. This questionnaire survey was conducted using an internet method. Patients and pharmacists answered 12 questions. Responses from 529 patients and 338 pharmacists were analyzed. For all items, pharmacists' awareness of their roles exceeded patients' awareness of the roles. In this study, the difference between pharmacist and patient awareness was larger than in similar research conducted in the United States. The greatest difference was observed in three items: "Understanding the effects of the drugs the patients are taking" (rate of high ratings: pharmacists 80.2%, patients 37.8%), "Understanding the health changes caused by the drugs dispensed to the patients" (pharmacists 80.2%, patients 28.4%), and "Consciously protecting patients from the adverse effects of drugs" (pharmacists 82.8%, patients 42.2%), indicating role discrepancy. Partition analysis indicated the three factors for a pharmacist to be regarded as a drug therapy or medication specialist: "The patient regards the pharmacist as his/her family or regular pharmacist," "The pharmacist is making it easy for a patient to talk with him/her" and "The pharmacist is aware of a patient's use of products other than prescribed drugs, such as over the counter (OTC) medications or health foods and nutritional supplements." Future efforts are necessary to resolve role discrepancy and implement ongoing monitoring.

  16. Disco Dancing and Kinetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an example of an innovative science activity used in a science methods course for future elementary teachers at a small university in northeastern Turkey. The activity aims to help prospective elementary teachers understand kinetic-molecular theory in a simple way and to expose these preservice teachers to an innovative…

  17. Students' Conceptions Regarding Scientific Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Karen R.; Dickerson, Daniel L.

    This paper documents a pilot study designed to explore the ideas of high school students regarding the nature and role of theories, an aspect of the nature of science (NOS) that continues to be problematic for students, teachers, and the general public. Although there is a much greater emphasis on the nature of science in standards documents,…

  18. Persistent Possible Science Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Leila A.; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines literature on the development of self-knowledge for possible selves--how an individual thinks about oneself and one's potential future selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986). Future science selves research, a recent offshoot of possible selves theories, centers on the development and loss of future possible scientific selves and…

  19. Science and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author defines his concept of science and the practice of nutrition. Discusses the problems of nutritional educators and those of the consumer. Describes how the scientific method should provide a sound basis for nutritional education and discusses its appropriateness in evaluating diet and disease theories. (SMB)

  20. Computer Science: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    Over 6,300 doctoral dissertation titles relevant to the study of computer and information sciences are cited in this publication. Titles cover the full range of computer and information sciences activities including: (1) automatic theory; (2) modeling; (3) operations research; (4) programming; (5) hardware design; (6) logic elements; and (7) data…

  1. Twelve Issues for Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    Cognitive science is a science of intelligence, of knowledge and its uses. Research is psychological theory follows four major themes: Perception, Attention, Memory, and Performance. Only when the range of cognitive mechanisms and functions is known, can possible theoretical approaches characterizing human thought and cognition be distinguished.…

  2. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  3. Soapy Science. Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

  4. In Defense of Theory.

    PubMed

    Jackendoff, Ray

    2017-03-01

    Formal theories of mental representation have receded from the importance they had in the early days of cognitive science. I argue that such theories are crucial in any mental domain, not just for their own sake, but to guide experimental inquiry, as well as to integrate the domain into the mind as a whole. To illustrate the criteria of adequacy for theories of mental representation, I compare two theoretical approaches to language: classical generative grammar (Chomsky, 1965, 1981, 1995) and the parallel architecture (Jackendoff, 1997, 2002). The grounds for comparison include (a) the internal coherence of the theory across phonology, syntax, and semantics; (b) the relation of language to other mental faculties; (c) the relationship between grammar and lexicon; (d) relevance to theories of language processing; and (e) the possibility of languages with little or no syntax.

  5. Evolution and literary theory.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J

    1995-06-01

    Presupposing that all knowledge is the study of a unitary order of nature, the author maintains that the study of literature should be included within the larger field of evolutionary theory. He outlines four elementary concepts in evolutionary theory, and he argues that these concepts should regulate our understanding of literature. On the basis of these concepts, he repudiates the antirealist and irrationalist views that, under the aegis of "poststructuralism," have dominated academic literary studies for the past two decades. He examines the linkage between poststructuralism and standard social science, and he speculates about the ideological and disciplinary motives that have hitherto impeded evolutionary study in both the social sciences and the humanities. Finally, he distinguishes literature from science and argues that literary criticism integrates elements of both.

  6. Let the social sciences evolve.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Waring, Timothy M

    2014-08-01

    We agree that evolutionary perspectives may help us organize many divergent realms of the science of human behavior. Nevertheless, an imperative to unite all social science under an evolutionary framework risks turning off researchers who have their own theoretical perspectives that can be informed by evolutionary theory without being exclusively defined by it. We propose a few considerations for scholars interested in joining the evolutionary and social sciences.

  7. Social Dynamics of Science

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data. PMID:23323212

  8. Reflections on History, Education, and Social Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    Historians need social theories to conduct their research whether they are acknowledged or not. Positivist social theories underpinned the professionalization of the writing of history as well as the establishment of the social sciences as "disciplines," in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. August Comte's "science of society" and…

  9. Toward a Unified Theory of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Paivio, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Despite nearly 40 years of scientific theorizing about reading, the field remains fragmented with little progress toward unification. In this article, we (a) emphasize the privileged position of unified theories in all science, (b) compare the growth of theory in cognitive science and reading, (c) identify the phenomenal domain of a unified…

  10. Geographical Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)

  11. Constructivism and Science Education: A Further Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the philosophical underpinnings of the theory, outlines the impact of the doctrine on contemporary science education, and details the relativist and subjectivist interpretation of Thomas Kuhn's work found in constructivist writings. Indicates the problems that constructivist theory places in the way of teaching the content of science.…

  12. Science Learning Pathways for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Rochel; Brenneman, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    Preschool Pathways to Science (PrePS[C]) is a science and math program for pre-K children that has been developed by a team of developmental psychologists in full collaboration with preschool directors, teachers and other staff. The PrePS[C] approach is rooted in domain-specific theories of development, theories that assume that different areas of…

  13. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  14. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  15. Science Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

  16. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  17. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  18. Abusing Science. The Case against Creationism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitcher, Philip

    Presented in this book is the case against creationist pseudo-science. One theme emphasized throughout the book, written for those with or without science backgrounds, is that although the creationist campaign is an assault on evolutionary theory, it constitutes an attack on all sciences. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to evolutionary…

  19. Voodoo Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Robert

    2011-03-01

    A remarkable scientific result that appears to violate natural law may portend a revolutionary advance in human knowledge. It is, however, more likely an experimental screw up. Error is normal; it can be reduced by repeating measurements and better design of controls, but the success and credibility of science is anchored in a culture of openness. Ideas and observations are freely exposed to independent testing and evaluation by others. What emerges is the book of nature. On its pages we find, if not a simple world, at least an orderly world, in which everything from the birth of stars to falling in love is governed by the same natural laws. These laws cannot be circumvented by any amount of piety or cleverness, they can be understood - with the possible exception of String Theory. For those who elect to work outside the scientific community, errors may go unrecognized. We will examine examples of this, including claims of perpetual motion and cancer caused by cell-phone radiation.

  20. Topographic Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla; Gesch, Dean; Stoker, Jason M.; Queija, Vivian R.; Worstell, Bruce; Tyler, Dean J.; Danielson, Jeff; Bliss, Norman; Greenlee, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Topographic Science is to establish partnerships and conduct research and applications that facilitate the development and use of integrated national and global topographic datasets. Topographic Science includes a wide range of research and applications that result in improved seamless topographic datasets, advanced elevation technology, data integration and terrain visualization, new and improved elevation derivatives, and development of Web-based tools. In cooperation with our partners, Topographic Science is developing integrated-science applications for mapping, national natural resource initiatives, hazards, and global change science. http://topotools.cr.usgs.gov/.

  1. Educational Theory and the Social Vision of the Scottish Enlightenment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Ryan Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Scottish Enlightenment is celebrated for its many contributions to the natural sciences, the social sciences and the moral sciences. But for all this attention, one aspect of the Scottish Enlightenment has been almost entirely neglected: its educational theory. This paper aims to illuminate the relationship between the educational theory of…

  2. A pragmatic conception of science: Implications for science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessoms, Deidre Bates

    In this dissertation, I examine various philosophical conceptions of the nature of science---its goals, methods and products---and link those views to how science is taught. While the review begins in the 1600s, the focus is primarily on logical positivism. The logical positivist view of science prevailed for much of the twentieth century and has greatly influenced how science is taught. The review section culminates with current conceptions of science from the fields of philosophy, sociology, feminist studies and radical studies of science. These various conceptions of the nature of science are linked to how science is currently taught, at the K--12 level and at the university. In particular, the logical positivist conception has influenced the teaching of science by emphasizing the products of science (factual knowledge and theories) over the processes of science (the social methods of knowledge production). As a result of viewing science as the logical positivists did, teachers primarily focus on science as unchanging factual knowledge, at the expense of examining the social and cultural aspects of scientific practices. I develop a pragmatic conception of the method of science as reflective thinking that we effectively use in our everyday lives. Linking that conception with the aims that John Dewey outlined for schools in a democratic society points the way towards certain goals and methods for teaching science. Therefore, I explore the type of science teaching that might result when viewing science as a pragmatic activity conducted in a democracy. Teaching of this sort would involve students in working together on shared problems that arise in the context of daily life. For science students at the university, this would include participating in and critiquing scientific research in active research laboratories. Implementing this view of science teaching might result in modifications in the practices and goals of science. Lastly, the experiences of a group of

  3. Theoretical computer science and the natural sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Bruno

    2005-12-01

    I present some fundamental theorems in computer science and illustrate their relevance in Biology and Physics. I do not assume prerequisites in mathematics or computer science beyond the set N of natural numbers, functions from N to N, the use of some notational conveniences to describe functions, and at some point, a minimal amount of linear algebra and logic. I start with Cantor's transcendental proof by diagonalization of the non enumerability of the collection of functions from natural numbers to the natural numbers. I explain why this proof is not entirely convincing and show how, by restricting the notion of function in terms of discrete well defined processes, we are led to the non algorithmic enumerability of the computable functions, but also-through Church's thesis-to the algorithmic enumerability of partial computable functions. Such a notion of function constitutes, with respect to our purpose, a crucial generalization of that concept. This will make easy to justify deep and astonishing (counter-intuitive) incompleteness results about computers and similar machines. The modified Cantor diagonalization will provide a theory of concrete self-reference and I illustrate it by pointing toward an elementary theory of self-reproduction-in the Amoeba's way-and cellular self-regeneration-in the flatworm Planaria's way. To make it easier, I introduce a very simple and powerful formal system known as the Schoenfinkel-Curry combinators. I will use the combinators to illustrate in a more concrete way the notion introduced above. The combinators, thanks to their low-level fine grained design, will also make it possible to make a rough but hopefully illuminating description of the main lessons gained by the careful observation of nature, and to describe some new relations, which should exist between computer science, the science of life and the science of inert matter, once some philosophical, if not theological, hypotheses are made in the cognitive sciences. In the

  4. Behavioral science space contributions.

    PubMed

    Harris, P R

    1989-07-01

    In anticipation of longer missions on the space stations, Mir and Freedom, as well as a potential return to the Moon and the exploration of Mars, human survival and the quality of life aloft will be increasingly dependent upon research in the behavioral and biological sciences. This article reviews the possible contributions to space habitation of the behavioral sciences--especially anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Before space settlements become a reality, the author makes a case for the broadening of the engineering approach to human factor studies, and consideration of the integrative living systems theory in space planning and management.

  5. Can economics be a physical science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Duncan K.

    2016-12-01

    Economics and other social sciences stem from the same methodological scientific revolution that gave birth to the natural sciences. The natural and social sciences share a commitment to the dialectical process of theory formation on the basis of empirical findings and theory revision to incorporate empirical anomalies. Claims that the subject matter of social and natural sciences differ qualitatively in terms of mathematical formalism, statistical modeling, or reductionism are unconvincing. The notion of a "value-free" character to natural sciences fails historical and critical tests. Natural and social sciences share an ideological component in their representation of the relation between the subject and the external natural and social world. Natural sciences arise from the struggles of human beings with nature in the process of social reproduction, while social sciences arise from the struggles of human beings with each other and with the class divisions social reproduction imposes.

  6. Simple Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    This brief article presents some quick and easy science experiments for those dreary winter days when classrooms need a pick-me-up. These seemingly easy science experiments will make a lasting impact on students.

  7. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 29 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include botany, genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, entomology, molecular structure, spreadsheets, chemistry, mechanics, astronomy, relativity, aeronautics, instrumentation, electrostatics, quantum mechanics, and laboratory interfacing. (CW)

  8. Science Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Sherril L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a two-day forensic science course that is offered to eighth grade students enrolled in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Magnet Schools. Provides sample student activity sheets for the course. (Author/RT)

  9. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  10. An Abductive Theory of Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad theory of scientific method is sketched that has particular relevance for the behavioral sciences. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods that are used in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is…

  11. Exposing Students to the Idea that Theories Can Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoellwarth, Chance; Moelter, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific method is arguably the most reliable way to understand the physical world, yet this aspect of science is rarely addressed in introductory science courses. Students typically learn about the theory in its final, refined form, and seldom experience the experiment-to-theory cycle that goes into producing the theory. One exception to…

  12. Thomas S. Kuhn: Revolutionary Theorist of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Kuhn's theory, that science is heavily influenced by non-rational procedures, and that new theories are viewed as being more complex than those they usurp but do not stand any closer to the truth, is outlined. Included are implications of this theory and criticisms of it. (AJ)

  13. NCT and Culture-Conscious Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing-Wilson, Deborah; Pelaprat, Etienne; Rosero, Ivan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer; Packer, Martin; Cole, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The authors share the belief that there is great potential for developmental science in bringing the ideas of Niche Construction Theory (NCT), as developed in evolutionary biology, into conversation with Vygotskian-inspired theories such as cultural-historical and activity theories, distributed cognition, and embodied cognition, although from…

  14. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  15. Science First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jan Adkins

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's efforts to put science first in the classroom. Discusses changing the place of science on the schedule and presents an activity to engage student interest. Concludes that a difference in teacher attitude towards science motivates students to learn. (NB)

  16. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  17. Science Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.; Biehle, James T.; Motz, LaMoine L.; West, Sandra S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Research Council's "National Science Education Standards" call for science education to be "developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives, emphasize student understanding through inquiry, and be connected with other school subjects." This description captures the three major trends in science education…

  18. Sublime Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girod, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of the shortcomings in most efforts to integrate art and science is that many people have a shallow understanding of art, which inevitably leads to shallow connections between art and science. Coloring drawings of planets, building sculptures of volcanoes, and decorating scientific diagrams are fine activities, but they do not link science and…

  19. Sound Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  20. Constructivism in Science and Science Education: A Philosophical Critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, Robert

    This paper argues that constructivist science education works with an unsatisfactory account of knowledge which affects both its account of the nature of science and of science education. The paper begins with a brief survey of realism and anti-realism in science and the varieties of constructivism that can be found. In the second section the important conception of knowledge and teaching that Plato develops in the Meno is contrasted with constructivism. The section ends with an account of the contribution that Vico (as understood by constructivists), Kant and Piaget have made to constructivist doctrines. Section three is devoted to a critique of the theory of knowledge and the anti-realism of von Glaserfeld. The final section considers the connection, or lack of it, between the constructivist view of science and knowledge and the teaching of science.

  1. Modern Science and the Book of Genesis. An NSTA Science Compact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, James W.

    Based on the premise that knowledge of evolutionary theory is essential for understanding the natural world, this document was designed to assist science teachers and others as they consider the issues that influence the teaching of evolution. The position is taken that there is no conflict between data and sound theories based on science and…

  2. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  3. Communicating Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halversen, C.; Strang, C.; Penry, D.

    2004-12-01

    NSF's emphasis on educational outreach and the "broader impact" of research has led to a number of programs designed to help scientists share their knowledge and skills in K-12 classrooms. Communicating Ocean Sciences (COS) is a new course being developed as one of the initiatives of the California Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE). Goals of COS are (1) to promote collaborations between scientists and science educators that help scientists do effective educational outreach, (2) to increase the amount of ocean sciences taught in K-12 classrooms, (3) to provide diverse college role models for K-12 students, especially under-represented students, and 4) to ensure that future scientists are prepared to be effective teachers and to address the broader impacts of their research programs. COS is designed to be co-taught by a research scientist and a science educator or master teacher. The target students for the course are science majors interested in obtaining teaching experience. The course is intended to be offered as part of undergraduate and graduate science programs (at UC Berkeley COS is co-listed by the Departments of Integrative Biology and Earth and Planetary Science). Undergraduate and graduate students are introduced to inquiry-based science teaching and learning theory through activities that focus on ocean sciences content. Pairs of students then apply what they learn by teaching six ocean sciences lessons in K-12 classrooms. Five of the lessons are derived from existing ocean sciences curriculum materials (e.g. MARE curriculum developed by Lawrence Hall of Science). One lesson is developed by the students themselves using the principles and approaches learned in the course. Graduate students receive additional curriculum development and teaching experience to prepare them for likely future roles in university education. COS is in its trial test phase. It was taught for the first time this past spring at UC Berkeley and will be taught at

  4. Useful theories make predictions.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Stephen and Van Orden (this issue) propose that there is a complex system approach to cognitive science, and collectively the authors of the papers presented in this issue believe that this approach provides the means to drive a revolution in the science of the mind. Unfortunately, however illuminating, this explanation is absent and hyperbole is all too extensive. In contrast, I argue (1) that dynamic systems theory is not new to cognitive science and does not provide a basis for a revolution, (2) it is not necessary to reject cognitive science in order to explain the constraints imposed by the body and the environment, (3) it is not necessary, as Silberstein and Chemero (this issue) appear to do, to reject cognitive science in order to explain consciousness, and (4) our understanding of pragmatics is not advanced by Gibbs and Van Orden's (this issue) "self-organized criticality".? Any debate about the future of cognitive science could usefully focus on predictive adequacy. Unfortunately, this is not the approach taken by the authors of this issue.

  5. Abductory Inference, Communication Theory, and Subjective Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Irvin

    1990-01-01

    Distinguishes Q methodology from conventional hypothetico-deductive methodologies and from conventional communication approaches. Illustrates epistemological principles through a single-case study of cultural narcissism examined in terms of responses to pictures appearing in "Time" magazine. (RS)

  6. Coupled-Cluster Theory for Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.

    2003-10-01

    I discuss an initial implementation of the coupled-cluster method for nuclear structure calculations and apply our method to 4He. In this procedings I will discuss the effect of center-of-mass removal on our results.

  7. Vernacular American Theories of Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that some scientific concepts evolve and are perpetuated, even if they are not completely accurate. Uses the example of groundwater, citing numerous ways that various people understand it and, in many cases, form misconceptions. (TW)

  8. Science Teaching in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  9. Science Squared: Teaching Science Visually.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Olga; Savage, Karen; Judice, Michelle

    This paper describes a collection of novel ideas for bulletin board displays that would be useful in supplementing science classroom instruction. Information on women and minorities in science; science concepts in everyday activities such as nutrition, baseball, and ice cream-making; and various holidays and celebratory events is included. Each…

  10. Reel Science: An Ethnographic Study of Girls' Science Identity Development in and through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation study contributes to the research on filmmaking and identity development by exploring the ways that film production provided unique opportunities for a team of four girls to engage in science, to develop identities in science, and to see and understand science differently. Using social practice, identity, and feminist theory and…

  11. Critical Science: What It Could Offer All Family and Consumer Sciences Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincenti, Virginia; Smith, Frances

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of critical science (a practical application of critical theory), a review of the discipline of family and consumer sciences, and examples of what integration of critical science into the discipline would mean for professional practice in any specialization. When addressing practical perennial problems, a critical…

  12. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  13. Science Education and Human Rights: Explorations into Critical Social Consciousness and Postmodern Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd E.; Eichinger, John

    1999-01-01

    Human-rights education can be realized in the science classroom. Taught from a critical postmodern perspective, science can serve the interest of social justice while embracing a teaching dialectic fostering critical social consciousness. First, science educators must examine scientific theory's role in promoting both human welfare and injustice.…

  14. Learning Science: Some Insights from Cognitive Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, P. S. C.

    Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.

  15. The Ascent of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Brian L.

    2000-04-01

    From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science.In the approachable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; his book aptly locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--or else perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now", The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

  16. Constructing a philosophy of science of cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, William

    2009-07-01

    Philosophy of science is positioned to make distinctive contributions to cognitive science by providing perspective on its conceptual foundations and by advancing normative recommendations. The philosophy of science I embrace is naturalistic in that it is grounded in the study of actual science. Focusing on explanation, I describe the recent development of a mechanistic philosophy of science from which I draw three normative consequences for cognitive science. First, insofar as cognitive mechanisms are information-processing mechanisms, cognitive science needs an account of how the representations invoked in cognitive mechanisms carry information about contents, and I suggest that control theory offers the needed perspective on the relation of representations to contents. Second, I argue that cognitive science requires, but is still in search of, a catalog of cognitive operations that researchers can draw upon in explaining cognitive mechanisms. Last, I provide a new perspective on the relation of cognitive science to brain sciences, one which embraces both reductive research on neural components that figure in cognitive mechanisms and a concern with recomposing higher-level mechanisms from their components and situating them in their environments.

  17. The universality of Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John R

    2010-01-01

    The universality of Rogers' science is discussed within the context of science and religion with an emphasis on an alive universe. Barrett's power theory is presented as an exemplar of the universality of Rogers' science. The implications of an alive universe are discussed. Rogers and Barrett are recognized for their contributions to nursing science and the sacred alive universe.

  18. Paradigms, Citations, and Maps of Science: A Personal History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses mapping science and Kuhn's theories of paradigms and scientific development. Highlights include cocitation clustering; bibliometric definition of a paradigm; specialty dynamics; pathways through science; a new Web tool called Essential Science Indicators (ESI) for studying the structure of science; and microrevolutions. (Author/LRW)

  19. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  20. Reviews Book: Marie Curie: A Biography Book: Fast Car Physics Book: Beautiful Invisible Equipment: Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Book: Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You Book: Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book: Seven Wonders of the Universe Book: Special Relativity Equipment: LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition Places to Visit: Edison and Ford Winter Estates Places to Visit: The Computer History Museum Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Fun fly stick introduces electrostatics to youngsters Special Relativity Text makes a useful addition to the study of relativity as an undergraduate LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition LabVIEW sets industry standard for gathering and analysing data, signal processing, instrumentation design and control, and automation and robotics Edison and Ford Winter Estates Thomas Edison's home is open to the public The Computer History Museum Take a walk through technology history at this computer museum WORTH A LOOK Fast Car Physics Book races through physics Beautiful Invisible The main subject of this book is theoretical physics Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You A guide to physics on the large and small scale Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book explores the mathematics behind chaotic behaviour Seven Wonders of the Universe A textual trip through the wonderful universe HANDLE WITH CARE Marie Curie: A Biography Book fails to capture Curie's science WEB WATCH Web clips to liven up science lessons

  1. Piaget and After: The Case of Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Joan

    1995-01-01

    Considers the contribution psychology has made to understanding the way children learn science. Reviews the work of Piaget and the subsequent application of his theories to understanding science teaching and learning. Contains 150 references. (DDR)

  2. Packaging Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…

  3. Better Red than Dead--Putting an End to the Social Irrelevance of Postwar Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper asks what is necessary in a theory of science adequate to the task of empowering philosophers of science to participate in public debate about science in a social context. It is argued that an adequate theory of science must be capable of theorizing the role of values and motives in science and that it must take seriously the…

  4. Knot theory in modern chemistry.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kate E; Miller, Mark A; Steed, Jonathan W; Sutcliffe, Paul M

    2016-11-21

    Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences. We then survey the broad range of applications of the theory to contemporary research in the field.

  5. Deconstructing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  6. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  7. Theories and theorizers: a contextual approach to theories of cognition.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Cornejo, Carlos; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2011-06-01

    An undisputable characteristic of cognitive science is its enormous diversity of theories. Not surprisingly, these often belong to different paradigms that focus on different processes and levels of analysis. A related problem is that researchers of cognition frequently seem to ascribe to incompatible approaches to research, creating a Tower of Babel of cognitive knowledge. This text presents a pragmatic model of meta-theoretical analysis, a theory conceived of to examine other theories, which allows cognitive theories to be described, integrated and compared. After a brief introduction to meta-theoretical analysis in cognitive science, the dynamic and structural components of a theory are described. The analysis of conceptual mappings between components and explanation strategies is also described, as well as the processes of intra-theory generalization and inter-theory comparison. The various components of the meta-theoretical model are presented with examples of different cognitive theories, mainly focusing on two current approaches to research: The dynamical approach to cognition and the computer metaphor of mind. Finally, two potential counter arguments to the model are presented and discussed.

  8. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains 31 activities and experiments from the biological and physical sciences. Addresses such areas as reproduction, biotechnology, ecology, proteins, nitrates, aerosols, metal crystallinity, circuit boards, and photoswitching. (ML)

  9. Probability Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, E. T.; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2003-04-01

    Foreword; Preface; Part I. Principles and Elementary Applications: 1. Plausible reasoning; 2. The quantitative rules; 3. Elementary sampling theory; 4. Elementary hypothesis testing; 5. Queer uses for probability theory; 6. Elementary parameter estimation; 7. The central, Gaussian or normal distribution; 8. Sufficiency, ancillarity, and all that; 9. Repetitive experiments, probability and frequency; 10. Physics of 'random experiments'; Part II. Advanced Applications: 11. Discrete prior probabilities, the entropy principle; 12. Ignorance priors and transformation groups; 13. Decision theory: historical background; 14. Simple applications of decision theory; 15. Paradoxes of probability theory; 16. Orthodox methods: historical background; 17. Principles and pathology of orthodox statistics; 18. The Ap distribution and rule of succession; 19. Physical measurements; 20. Model comparison; 21. Outliers and robustness; 22. Introduction to communication theory; References; Appendix A. Other approaches to probability theory; Appendix B. Mathematical formalities and style; Appendix C. Convolutions and cumulants.

  10. Understanding high school students' science internship: At the intersection of secondary school science and university science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    In this dissertation I explore the nature of an internship for high school students in a university science laboratory and the issues that arise from it. The investigation of science internships is relatively new to science education; therefore, this exploration is urgently needed. Twenty-one participants were involved in the internship experience, including 13 students, one teacher, two research scientists, and five technicians. Data sources include observations, field notes, and videotapes. Drawing on four coherent and complementary research tools---cultural-historical activity theory, discourse analysis, conversation analysis, and phenomenography, I articulate a variety of phenomena from multiple perspectives. The phenomena identified in the dissertation include (a) the discursive resources deployed by a teacher for interesting and inviting students to participate in science; (b) the discursive resources high school students used for articulating their interests in science-related careers; (c) the natural pedagogical conversations for accomplishing the work of teaching and learning during the internship; (d) the theoretical concepts mobilized for describing the unfolding of science expertise in the internship; (e) participants' ways of experiencing the science internship; and (f) students' understandings of scientific practice after participating in the internship. The study identifies many useful resources for understanding the nature of the science internship and provides a foundation for future research. The findings reported here will also serve others as a springboard for establishing partnerships between high schools and science communities and improving teaching and learning in science education.

  11. An Alternative to Piagetian Psychology for Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1977-01-01

    Advocates the educational theories of David Ausubel as a basis on which to build science and mathematics curricula and instructional procedures. Offers interpretations of Piaget's conservation tasks in Ausubelian theory. (CP)

  12. The Rod Contraction-Clock Retardation Ether Theory and the Special Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlichson, Herman

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical rod contraction-block retardation (RC-CR) ether theory to illustrate its relationship to the special theory of relativity and the possibility of experimental differences between them. Indicates that the RC-CR theory is worthy of the attention of both physicists and science philosophers. (CC)

  13. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence: Influences from Different Disciplines and Scientific Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Anna-Carin; Beach, Dennis; Korp, Helena; Erlandson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 226 Swedish high school teachers from various knowledge domains completed self-report measures of intelligence regarding implicit theories and scientific theories of intelligence. A mixed ANOVA showed that teachers from language, social science and practical disciplines had a significant preference for an incremental theory of…

  14. Toward a theory of Steganography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Toward a theory of Steganography Nicholas J. Hopper CMU-CS-04-157 July 2004 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...DATE JUL 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward a theory of Steganography 5a. CONTRACT...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Keywords: Steganography , Cryptography, Provable Security

  15. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  16. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  17. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn.

  18. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science literacy is imperative for well informed civic and personal decision making, yet only a quarter of American adults are proficient enough in science to understand science stories reported in the popular press. Hands-on research increases confidence in and understanding of science. When guiding students in designing and conducting science fair projects, mentors can foster science literacy by helping students focus on three goals: (1) articulating hypotheses or questions, (2) designing feasible projects, and (3) learning to make and interpret graphs. These objectives introduce students to the methodological nature of scientific research and give them the tools to interpret scientific facts and data in order to make informed decisions for themselves and society.

  19. Globalisation and science education: Rethinking science education reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lyn

    2005-05-01

    Like Lemke (J Res Sci Teach 38:296-316, 2001), I believe that science education has not looked enough at the impact of the changing theoretical and global landscape by which it is produced and shaped. Lemke makes a sound argument for science education to look beyond its own discourses toward those like cultural studies and politics, and to which I would add globalisation theory and relevant educational studies. Hence, in this study I draw together a range of investigations to argue that globalisation is indeed implicated in the discourses of science education, even if it remains underacknowledged and undertheorized. Establishing this relationship is important because it provides different frames of reference from which to investigate many of science education's current concerns, including those new forces that now have a direct impact on science classrooms. For example, one important question to investigate is the degree to which current science education improvement discourses are the consequences of quality research into science teaching and learning, or represent national and local responses to global economic restructuring and the imperatives of the supranational institutions that are largely beyond the control of science education. Developing globalisation as a theoretical construct to help formulate new questions and methods to examine these questions can provide science education with opportunities to expand the conceptual and analytical frameworks of much of its present and future scholarship.

  20. Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings: Beyond the Frontier of Science.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John R

    2016-01-01

    Rogers' development of her science is discussed along with purpose and meaning of changes that she made over a period of years. Explication of her science and her characteristics highlight how she went beyond the frontier of science. A new theory derived from her science shows the significance of the unity of pandimensional awareness and integral presence. Speculation is made of the universe energyspirit as a uniton.

  1. The science in social science

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, H. Russell

    2012-01-01

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222

  2. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2016-09-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  3. The sciences of science communication.

    PubMed

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  4. The sciences of science communication

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication” brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs. PMID:23942125

  5. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  6. Science Alive!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally-Foos, Kay

    2005-01-01

    At the authors' school, as in many places, she struggles with making science a meaningful part of her students' lives. The teachers are working under state mandates to prepare students for reading and mathematics tests in third, fourth, and fifth grades. Often, this relegates science and social studies to a distant back burner. In an effort to…

  7. Talking Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwartz, Yael; Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Sutherland, LeeAnn; Merrit, Joi; Krajcik, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Science is a social process--one that involves particular ways of talking, reasoning, observing, analyzing, and writing, which often have meaning only when shared within the scientific community. Discussions are one of the best ways to help students learn to "talk science" and construct understanding in a social context. Since inquiry is an…

  8. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  9. Deconstructing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  10. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  11. Shrinking Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goates, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity based on shrinkable thermoplastics in which students explore the percentage of shrinkage of a plastic ruler when it is heated. Includes science content knowledge behind the shrink, national science education standards related to this activity, and a complete guide. (KHR)

  12. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, A. J. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents 31 science activities for use with high school or college science classes. Topics included are: chromatography, ecology, invertebrates, enzymes, genetics, botany, creep, crystals, diffusion, computer interfaces, acid rain, teaching techniques, chemical reactions, waves, electric fields, rainbows, electricity, magnetic fields, and a Pitot…

  13. Soundsational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

  14. Why Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Science Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents people from many walks of life, including some well-known names, who share their views about science. Adam Hart-Davis, who studied chemistry at university and is now an author, photographer, historian and broadcaster, explains why science cannot start too soon. Lis Nairn, Manager, Stratigraphy, with Fugro Robertson Ltd (Oil…

  15. Measuring the Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory in Texas 2-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jack; Scott, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory is the central unifying theory of the life sciences. However, acceptance and understanding of the theory have been found to be lacking in the general public, high school, and university populations. Prior research has linked low acceptance of the theory to a poor knowledge base in evolution, to the nature of science, and to…

  16. Insight, Knowledge, Science, and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, David

    1981-01-01

    In the field of science, the meaning of insight can be understood by looking at theories which deal with universal laws that have fundamental significance for the totality of matter, independently of conditions of time and space. (JN)

  17. The Screaming Boredom of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krips, H.

    1977-01-01

    Advocates changing the role of secondary school science from one of theory verification and problem solving to the formulation and acceptance of hypotheses for observed phenomena. Provides an example of the procedure using Hooke's Law. (CP)

  18. Science teaching in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  19. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Confabulation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  1. Science Indicators and Science Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses science/society interface and difficulties involved in developing realistic science indicators. Topics include: intrinsic vs. extrinsic indicators; four problems society faces as a result of technological activities (toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, auto safety, cancer); research and development (R&D) priorities; international…

  2. Science Policy: Pangs of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1978-01-01

    Presented is the prepared text of a public lecture given by the president of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Handler attempts to articulate the state of science today. He deals with such issues as nuclear power and genetic engineering. (MDR)

  3. Teaching Science. Ripping into Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how one activity can lead students to investigate and understand science concepts. Example provided involves ripping of a newspaper and the resultant discussions on saws, fabric, meat, and newsprint. Suggests that this activity can be a bridge to study in language arts, career education, graphic arts, mathematics, science, and…

  4. Science Instructors' Views of Science and Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how college science faculty who teach introductory level undergraduate science courses including the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, and earth science, understand and define science and nature of science (NOS). Participants were seventeen science instructors from five different institutions in the…

  5. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  6. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-09-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  7. Introducing Group Theory through Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    The central ideas of postcalculus mathematics courses offered in college are difficult to introduce in middle and secondary schools, especially through the engineering and sciences examples traditionally used in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry textbooks. However, certain concepts in music theory can be used to expose students to interesting…

  8. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  9. Relating theories via renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2013-02-01

    The renormalization method is specifically aimed at connecting theories describing physical processes at different length scales and thereby connecting different theories in the physical sciences. The renormalization method used today is the outgrowth of 150 years of scientific study of thermal physics and phase transitions. Different phases of matter show qualitatively different behaviors separated by abrupt phase transitions. These qualitative differences seem to be present in experimentally observed condensed-matter systems. However, the "extended singularity theorem" in statistical mechanics shows that sharp changes can only occur in infinitely large systems. Abrupt changes from one phase to another are signaled by fluctuations that show correlation over infinitely long distances, and are measured by correlation functions that show algebraic decay as well as various kinds of singularities and infinities in thermodynamic derivatives and in measured system parameters. Renormalization methods were first developed in field theory to get around difficulties caused by apparent divergences at both small and large scales. However, no renormalization gives a fully satisfactory formulation of field theory. The renormalization (semi-)group theory of phase transitions was put together by Kenneth G. Wilson in 1971 based upon ideas of scaling and universality developed earlier in the context of phase transitions and of couplings dependent upon spatial scale coming from field theory. Correlations among regions with fluctuations in their order underlie renormalization ideas. Wilson's theory is the first approach to phase transitions to agree with the extended singularity theorem. Some of the history of the study of these correlations and singularities is recounted, along with the history of renormalization and related concepts of scaling and universality. Applications, particularly to condensed-matter physics and particle physics, are summarized. This note is partially a

  10. Areal Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtright, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    New features are described for models with multi-particle area-dependent potentials, in any number of dimensions. The corresponding many-body field theories are investigated for classical configurations. Some explicit solutions are given, and some conjectures are made about chaos in such field theories.

  11. Role of Behavior Theory in Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.

    1992-01-01

    Defines behavioral medicine as multidisciplinary field that combines research methods from behavioral and biomedical sciences. Examines the role of behavior theory in behavioral medicine. Uses new advances in basic research on learning to illustrate that findings from behavioral science have implications for the field of contemporary behavioral…

  12. Social Science and Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Robert R.

    With the growth of the social sciences, there has been increasing interest in use of their products to shed light on, and solve, some of the pressing social problems of our society. This monograph, the first in a series of studies on social change, reports on an analysis of applications of social change theory and research to programs of…

  13. Humanism and science: a reaction.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    Authors in this section have noted that humanism is intrinsic to psychotherapy, although disagreements remain. One of the disagreements is about the role of science in humanism. In this reaction, I contend that humanism, as discussed in these articles, is a legitimate theory to be subjected to scientific scrutiny.

  14. Improving the Teaching of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This document summarizes sound ideas for teaching science, including developing thematic units of study; integrating subject matter; conducting embedded, ongoing assessments; using student input constructively; and grounding instruction in reliable learning theories. Four philosophies of education are mentioned to help in designing a science…

  15. Primary Science Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pook, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Consider the extent to which primary science teaching has evolved since it became a core subject in England with the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988, and the pace at which theory-driven classroom practice has advanced. It is no wonder that, given the recent economic restructuring and boom in technological development in China,…

  16. The Learning Cycle and College Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Allard, David W.

    Originally developed in an elementary science program called the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, the learning cycle (LC) teaching approach involves students in an active learning process modeled on four elements of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development: physical experience, referring to the biological growth of the central nervous…

  17. Engaging with the Art & Science of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    How can statistics clearly be mathematical and yet distinct from mathematics? The answer lies in the reality that statistics is both an art and a science, and both aspects are important for teaching and learning statistics. Statistics is a mathematical science in that it applies mathematical theories and techniques. Mathematics provides the…

  18. Spotting Junk Science A Classroom Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Brian

    2006-12-01

    This presentation is on an exercise in teaching non-science students to spot junk science and to be better consumers of scientific information. It is based upon critical analysis of the website advocating the theory of the solid surface of the sun. I will present examples of student work and solicit comments on how to improve the exercise.

  19. COMPUTER SCIENCE DEVELOPMENTS RELEVANT TO PSYCHOLOGY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    on-line control of experiments by man-machine interaction. The developments in computer science which make these applications possible are discussed...in some detail. In addition, there are conceptual developments in computer science , particularly in the study of artificial intelligence, which may provide leads in the development of psychological theory. (Author)

  20. Reel Science: An Ethnographic Study of Girls' Science Identity Development In and Through Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffee, Rachel L.

    This dissertation study contributes to the research on filmmaking and identity development by exploring the ways that film production provided unique opportunities for a team of four girls to engage in science, to develop identities in science, and to see and understand science differently. Using social practice, identity, and feminist theory and New Literacies Studies as a theoretical lens and grounded theory and multimodality as analytic frameworks, I present findings that suggest that girls in this study authored identities and communicated and represented science in and through film in ways that drew on their social, cultural, and embodied resources and the material resources of the after-school science club. Findings from this study highlight the affordances of filmmaking as a venue for engaging in the disciplinary practices of science and for accessing and authoring identities in science.